Inbox and environment news: Issue 579
April 16 - 22 2023: Issue 579
Protect Mona Vale's Bongin Bongin Bay - Establish An Aquatic Reserve
Autumn: Gum Blossom - Fungi Time
'Nature Prescriptions' Can Improve Physical And Mental Health: Study
Environmental Impact Reports Hugely Underestimate Consequences For Wildlife
Research shows that environmental impact reports hugely underestimate the consequences of new developments for wildlife. This is because they don't take into account how birds and other animals move around between different sites. The research shows how a planned airport development in Portugal could affect more than 10 times the number of Black-tailed Godwits estimated in a previous Environmental Impact Assessment. The team have been studying these Godwits across Europe for over 30 years but they say that any species that moves around is likely to be under-represented by such reports.
Environmental Impact Assessments may hugely underestimate the effect that new developments have on wildlife, according to new research from the University of East Anglia.
This is because they don't take into account how birds and other animals move around between different sites.
A study published today, April 6th 2023, shows how a new airport development planned in Portugal could affect more than 10 times the number of Black-tailed Godwits estimated in a previous Environmental Impact Assessment.
The research team have been studying these Godwits across Europe for over 30 years but they say that any species that moves around is likely to be under-represented by such reports.
Here in the UK, the environmental impact of a planned tidal barrage across the Wash estuary could similarly be much worse than predicted for wild birds and England's largest common seal colony.
Prof Jenny Gill from UEA's School of Biological Sciences said: "Environmental Impact Assessments are carried out when developments are planned for sites where wildlife is protected.
"But the methods used to produce these reports seldom consider how species move around between different sites. This can drastically underestimate the number of animals impacted and this is particularly relevant for species that are very mobile, like birds."
Josh Nightingale, a PhD researcher in UEA's School of Biological Sciences and from the University of Aveiro in Portugal, said: "We studied the Tagus Estuary in Portugal, an enormous coastal wetland where a new airport is currently planned and has already been issued an environmental license.
"This area is Portugal's most important wetland for waterbirds, and contains areas legally protected for conservation.
"But it faces the threat of having a new international airport operating at its heart, with low-altitude flightpaths overlapping the protected area.
"Black-tailed Godwits are one of several wading birds that we see in large numbers on the Tagus.
"The new airport's Environmental Impact Assessment estimated that under six per cent of the Godwit population will be affected by the plans.
"However, by tracking movements of individual Godwits to and from the affected area, we found that the more than 68 per cent of Godwits in the Tagus estuary would in fact be exposed to disturbance from aeroplanes."
The research team have been studying individual Black-tailed Godwits for three decades, by fitting them with uniquely identifiable combinations of coloured leg-rings.
With the help of a network of birdwatchers across Europe, they have recorded the whereabouts of individual Godwits throughout the birds' lives.
"Many of these Godwits spend the winter on the Tagus Estuary," said Dr José Alves, a researcher at the University of Aveiro and visiting academic at UEA's School of Biological Sciences.
"So we used local sightings of colour-ringed birds to calculate how many of them use sites that are projected to be affected by airplanes. We were then able to predict the airport's impact on future Godwit movements across the whole estuary.
"This method of calculating the footprint of environmental impact could be applied to assess many other proposed developments in the UK, particularly those affecting waterbirds and coastal habitats where tracking data is available.
"Eight environmental NGOs together with Client Earth have already taken the Portuguese government to court to contest the approval of this airport development. We hope our findings will help strengthen the case by showing the magnitude of the impacts, which substantially surpass those quantified in the developer's Environmental Impact Assessment," he added.
Conservation beyond Boundaries: Using animal movement networks in Protected Area assessment' Is published in the journal Animal Conservation.
Nightingale, Josh, Gill, Jennifer A., Þórisson, Böðvar, Potts, Peter M., Gunnarsson, Tomas and Alves, Jose. Conservation beyond Boundaries: Using animal movement networks in Protected Area assessment. Animal Conservation (in press), 2023 DOI: 10.1111/acv.12868
Black-tailed Godwit. Photo: Andreas Trepte
The Black-tailed Godwit is a migratory wading bird that breeds in Mongolia and Eastern Siberia and flies to Australia for the southern Summer. In NSW, it is most frequently recorded at Kooragang Island (Hunter River estuary), with occasional records elsewhere along the coast, including the Sydney basin, and inland. Records in western NSW indicate that a regular inland passage is used by the species, as it may occur around any of the large lakes in the western areas during Summer, when the muddy shores are exposed. The species has been recorded within the Murray-Darling Basin, on the western slopes of the Northern Tablelands and in the far north-western corner of the state.
The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a large, long-legged, long-billed shorebird first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It is a member of the godwit genus, Limosa. There are four subspecies, all with orange head, neck and chest in breeding plumage and dull grey-brown winter coloration, and distinctive black and white wingbar at all times.
A large sandpiper reaching 44 cm long, with a wingspan of 63 - 75 cm. It has a distinctive long, straight bill that is pink with a black tip. The wing has a white wing-bar across the dark flight feathers, and white underwing coverts. There is a sharp demarcation between the white rump and the black tail. Legs are greenish-black, long and trailing. The non-breeding plumage, observed in Australia, is greyish-brown above and white below, and a grey breast. There is a broad white stripe on the underwing. The iris is brown. Most readily mistaken for the similar and more common Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica. Distinguishing features of the Black-tailed Godwit include the black tail in flight; longer, more pink, non-upturned bill; and non-streaked breast. Grey to rufous-chestnut coloured breeding plumage may be visible in some Australian birds just after arrival in spring, or prior to departure in autumn, and in some over-wintering birds.
It is listed as Vulnerable in NSW and Threatened throughout the world. It comes to Australia to feed and rest prior to the northern breeding season.
Activities to assist this species
- Raise visitor awareness about the presence of this and other threatened shorebird species; provide information on how visitors' actions will affect the species' survival.
- Searches for the species should be conducted in suitable habitat in proposed development areas in appropriate time of the year.
- Manage estuaries and inland waterbodies and the surrounding landscape, to ensure the natural hydrological regimes are maintained.
- Protect and maintain known or potential habitats; implement protection zones around known habitat sites and recent records.
- Assess the importance of sites to the species' survival; include the linkages the site provides for the species between ecological resources across the landscape.
Scientists Show How We Can Anticipate Rather Than React To Extinction In Mammals
April 10, 2023
Most conservation efforts are reactive. Typically, a species must reach threatened status before action is taken to prevent extinction, such as establishing protected areas. A new study published in the journal Current Biology on April 10 shows that we can use existing conservation data to predict which currently unthreatened species could become threatened and take proactive action to prevent their decline before it is too late.
"Conservation funding is really limited," says lead author Marcel Cardillo of Australian National University. "Ideally, what we need is some way of anticipating species that may not be threatened at the moment but have a high chance of becoming threatened in the future. Prevention is better than cure."
To predict "over-the-horizon" extinction risk, Cardillo and colleagues looked at three aspects of global change -- climate change, human population growth, and the rate of change in land use -- together with intrinsic biological features that could make some species more vulnerable. The team predicts that up to 20% of land mammals will have a combination of two or more of these risk factors by the year 2100.
"Globally, the percentage of terrestrial mammal species that our models predict will have at least one of the four future risk factors by 2100 ranges from 40% under a middle-of-the-road emissions scenario with broad species dispersal to 58% under a fossil-fueled development scenario with no dispersal," say the authors.
"There's a congruence of multiple future risk factors in Sub-Saharan African and southeastern Australia: climate change (which is expected to be particularly severe in Africa), human population growth, and changes in land use," says Cardillo. "And there are a lot of large mammal species that are likely to be more sensitive to these things. It's pretty much the perfect storm."
Larger mammals in particular, like elephants, rhinos, giraffes, and kangaroos, are often more susceptible to population decline since their reproductive patterns influence how quickly their populations can bounce back from disturbances. Compared to smaller mammals, such as rodents, which reproduce quickly and in larger numbers, bigger mammals, such as elephants, have long gestational periods and produce fewer offspring at a time.
"Traditionally, conservation has relied heavily on declaring protected areas," says Cardillo. "The basic idea is that you remove or mitigate what is causing the species to become threatened."
"But increasingly, it's being recognized that that's very much a Western view of conservation because it dictates separating people from nature," says Cardillo. "It's a sort of view of nature where humans don't play a role, and that's something that doesn't sit well with a lot of cultures in many parts of the world."
In preventing animal extinction, the researchers say we must also be aware of how conservation impacts Indigenous communities. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to many Indigenous populations, and Western ideas of conservation, although well-intended, may have negative impacts.
Australia has already begun tackling this issue by establishing Indigenous Protected Areas (IPAs), which are owned by Indigenous peoples and operate with the help of rangers from local communities. In these regions, humans and animals can coexist, as established through collaboration between governments and private landowners outside of these protected areas.
"There's an important part to play for broad-scale modeling studies because they can provide a broad framework and context for planning," says Cardillo. "But science is only a very small part of the mix. We hope our model acts as a catalyst for bringing about some kind of change in the outlook for conservation."
Marcel Cardillo, Alexander Skeels, Russell Dinnage. Priorities for conserving the world’s terrestrial mammals based on over-the-horizon extinction risk. Current Biology, 2023; 33 (7): 1381 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2023.02.063
Swamp Wallaby At Palm Beach
Northern Beaches Clean Up Crew: Avalon Beach April 30
Come and join us for our family friendly April clean up, close to Avalon Surf Lifesaving Club (558 Barrenjoey road, Avalon) on the 30th at 10am.
We have gloves, bags, and buckets, and grabbers. We're trying to remove as much plastic and rubbish as possible before it enters the ocean. Some of us can focus on the bush area and sandy/rocky areas, and others can walk along the beach and even clean up in the water (at own risk). We will clean up until around 11.20, and after that, we will sort and count the rubbish so we can contribute to research by entering it into a marine debris database. The sorting and counting is normally finished around noon, and we'll often go for lunch together at our own expense. We understand if you cannot stay for this part, but are grateful if you can. We appreciate any help we can get, no matter how small or big.
No booking required - just show up on the day. We're a friendly group of people, and everyone is welcome to this family friendly event. It's a nice community - make some new friends and do a good deed for the planet at the same time. For everyone to feel welcome, please leave political and religious messages at home - this includes t-shirts with political campaign messages. There is a council carpark, but it is often busy on Sundays, so check streets close by as well if it's full or please consider using public transport.
Message us on our social media or send us an email if you are lost. All welcome - the more the merrier. Please invite your friends too!
Permaculture Northern Beaches - Upcoming Events
- Learn about Permaculture design
- Caring for and raising chickens
- Native bees and bee hotels
- Living Skills - soap making
- AND Live Music!
Report Fox Sightings
Weed Of The Season: Cassia - Please Pull Out And Save Our Bush
New Marine Wildlife Rescue Group On The Central Coast
A new wildlife group was launched on the Central Coast on Saturday, December 10, 2022.
Marine Wildlife Rescue Central Coast (MWRCC) had its official launch at The Entrance Boat Shed at 10am.
The group comprises current and former members of ASTR, ORRCA, Sea Shepherd, Greenpeace, WIRES and Wildlife ARC, as well as vets, academics, and people from all walks of life.
Well known marine wildlife advocate and activist Cathy Gilmore is spearheading the organisation.
“We believe that it is time the Central Coast looked after its own marine wildlife, and not be under the control or directed by groups that aren’t based locally,” Gilmore said.
“We have the local knowledge and are set up to respond and help injured animals more quickly.
“This also means that donations and money fundraised will go directly into helping our local marine creatures, and not get tied up elsewhere in the state.”
The organisation plans to have rehabilitation facilities and rescue kits placed in strategic locations around the region.
MWRCC will also be in touch with Indigenous groups to learn the traditional importance of the local marine environment and its inhabitants.
“We want to work with these groups and share knowledge between us,” Gilmore said.
“This is an opportunity to help save and protect our local marine wildlife, so if you have passion and commitment, then you are more than welcome to join us.”
Marine Wildlife Rescue Central Coast has a Facebook page where you may contact members. Visit: https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100076317431064
- Ph: 0478 439 965
- Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Instagram: marinewildliferescuecc
Watch Out - Shorebirds About
Possums In Your Roof?: Do The Right Thing
Aviaries + Possum Release Sites Needed
Bushcare In Pittwater
Where we work Which day What time
Angophora Reserve 3rd Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Dunes 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Golf Course 2nd Wednesday 3 - 5:30pm
Careel Creek 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Toongari Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon (8 - 11am in summer)
Bangalley Headland 2nd Sunday 9 to 12noon
Winnererremy Bay 4th Sunday 9 to 12noon
North Bilgola Beach 3rd Monday 9 - 12noon
Algona Reserve 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Plateau Park 1st Friday 8:30 - 11:30am
Browns Bay Reserve 1st Tuesday 9 - 12noon
McCarrs Creek Reserve Contact Bushcare Officer To be confirmed
Old Wharf Reserve 3rd Saturday 8 - 11am
Kundibah Reserve 4th Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Mona Vale Beach Basin 1st Saturday 8 - 11am
Mona Vale Dunes 2nd Saturday +3rd Thursday 8:30 - 11:30am
Bungan Beach 4th Sunday 9 - 12noon
Crescent Reserve 3rd Sunday 9 - 12noon
North Newport Beach 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Porter Reserve 2nd Saturday 8 - 11am
Irrawong Reserve 2nd Saturday 2 - 5pm
North Palm Beach Dunes 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Catherine Park 2nd Sunday 10 - 12:30pm
Elizabeth Park 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Pathilda Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Warriewood Wetlands 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Norma Park 1st Friday 9 - 12noon
Coopers Point, Elvina Bay 2nd Sunday 10 - 1pm
Rocky Point, Elvina Bay 1st Monday 9 - 12noon
Friends Of Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment Activities
Gardens And Environment Groups And Organisations In Pittwater
Ice Sheets Can Collapse Faster Than Previously Thought Possible
Ice sheets can retreat up to 600 metres a day during periods of climate warming, 20 times faster than the highest rate of retreat previously measured.
An international team of researchers, led by Dr Christine Batchelor of Newcastle University, UK, used high-resolution imagery of the seafloor to reveal just how quickly a former ice sheet that extended from Norway retreated at the end of the last Ice Age, about 20,000 years ago.
The team, which also included researchers from the universities of Cambridge and Loughborough in the UK and the Geological Survey of Norway, mapped more than 7,600 small-scale landforms called 'corrugation ridges' across the seafloor. The ridges are less than 2.5 m high and are spaced between about 25 and 300 metres apart.
These landforms are understood to have formed when the ice sheet's retreating margin moved up and down with the tides, pushing seafloor sediments into a ridge every low tide. Given that two ridges would have been produced each day (under two tidal cycles per day), the researchers were able to calculate how quickly the ice sheet retreated.
Their results, reported in the journal Nature, show the former ice sheet underwent pulses of rapid retreat at a speed of 50 to 600 metres per day.
This is much faster than any ice sheet retreat rate that has been observed from satellites or inferred from similar landforms in Antarctica.
"Our research provides a warning from the past about the speeds that ice sheets are physically capable of retreating at," said Dr Batchelor. "Our results show that pulses of rapid retreat can be far quicker than anything we've seen so far."
Information about how ice sheets behaved during past periods of climate warming is important to inform computer simulations that predict future ice-sheet and sea-level change.
"This study shows the value of acquiring high-resolution imagery about the glaciated landscapes that are preserved on the seafloor," said study co-author Dr. Dag Ottesen from the Geological Survey of Norway, who is involved in the MAREANO seafloor mapping programme that collected the data.
The new research suggests that periods of such rapid ice-sheet retreat may only last for short periods of time (days to months).
"This shows how rates of ice-sheet retreat averaged over several years or longer can conceal shorter episodes of more rapid retreat," said study co-author Professor Julian Dowdeswell of the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge. "It is important that computer simulations are able to reproduce this 'pulsed' ice-sheet behaviour."
The seafloor landforms also shed light into the mechanism by which such rapid retreat can occur. Dr Batchelor and colleagues noted that the former ice sheet had retreated fastest across the flattest parts of its bed.
"An ice margin can unground from the seafloor and retreat near-instantly when it becomes buoyant," explained co-author Dr Frazer Christie, also of the Scott Polar Research Institute. "This style of retreat only occurs across relatively flat beds, where less melting is required to thin the overlying ice to the point where it starts to float."
The researchers conclude that pulses of similarly rapid retreat could soon be observed in parts of Antarctica. This includes at West Antarctica's vast Thwaites Glacier, which is the subject of considerable international research due to its potential susceptibility to unstable retreat. The authors of this new study suggest that Thwaites Glacier could undergo a pulse of rapid retreat because it has recently retreated close to a flat area of its bed.
"Our findings suggest that present-day rates of melting are sufficient to cause short pulses of rapid retreat across flat-bedded areas of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, including at Thwaites," said Dr. Batchelor. "Satellites may well detect this style of ice-sheet retreat in the near-future, especially if we continue our current trend of climate warming."
Other co-authors are Dr. Aleksandr Montelli and Evelyn Dowdeswell at the Scott Polar Research Institute of the University of Cambridge, Dr. Jeffrey Evans at Loughborough University, and Dr. Lilja Bjarnadóttir at the Geological Survey of Norway. The study was supported by the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences at Newcastle University, Peterhouse College at the University of Cambridge, the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, and the Geological Survey of Norway.
Christine L. Batchelor, Frazer D. W. Christie, Dag Ottesen, Aleksandr Montelli, Jeffrey Evans, Evelyn K. Dowdeswell, Lilja R. Bjarnadóttir, Julian A. Dowdeswell. Rapid, buoyancy-driven ice-sheet retreat of hundreds of metres per day. Nature, 2023; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-05876-1
The Fimbul Ice Shelf in East Antarctica. Christine Batchelor, Author provided
At The End Of The Dry Season: CO2 Pulses Over Australia
End-of-dry-season CO2 pulses recur each year in the atmosphere above the Australian continent, a discovery made by an international research team led by environmental physicist Prof. Dr André Butz of Heidelberg University. To investigate the carbon fluxes over Australia, the researchers studied atmospheric CO2 measurements. Their analyses show that CO2 emissions spike when heavy rain falls on dried-out soil, thus activating microorganisms in that soil. The findings suggest that dry regions have a greater influence on the variations in the global carbon cycle than previously thought.
The Australian continent is dominated by dry ecosystems and widely varying precipitation patterns. Generally, at the end of the dry season -- when the first rains begin to fall -- CO2 emissions over Australia rise sharply. "This effect is well-known at the local level, but it was never observed at the continental level," states Eva-Marie Metz, a doctoral candidate in Prof. Butz's working group at the Institute of Environmental Physics at Heidelberg University. Data on the atmospheric CO2 concentrations obtained from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) were analysed. Using the satellite data from 2009 to 2018, the scientists found that the seasonal pattern of CO2 concentrations over Australia was much more dynamic than previously assumed.
Until now, the lack of measurement data on ground hampered uncovering the mechanisms that cause these variations. The research team fed the GOSAT satellite data into an atmospheric inversion model, which is used to estimate the CO2 flux at the ground level. It became clear that there must be an undiscovered mechanism of CO2 release in Australian terrestrial ecosystems, according to Dr Sanam Vardag, whose group also conducts research at the Institute of Environmental Physics of Heidelberg University.
Further studies showed that the concentrations of CO2 always rise when dry soils are rewetted by heavy rainfall. This causes the so-called "Birch Effect," reports Dr Vardag. Soil microbes that are inactive when dry are reactivated by the moisture and multiply, causing the soil to "breathe" and release CO2. Plant photosynthesis does not begin until later, so carbon dioxide is not bound at the end of the dry season, thus causing the seasonally rapid rise in CO2 that the international team of researchers was able to discern on the continental level.
Their investigations have provided an explanation on how the variations in the carbon fluxes from land to atmosphere occur. According to Prof. Butz, these results are significant because they suggest that dry regions -- such as are dominant in Australia -- have a greater influence on the variations of the global carbon cycle than previously believed.
"Our findings, the first on a continental scale, can be used for climate modelling and thus contribute to a better understanding of the global climate-carbon feedbacks," explains the Heidelberg researcher.
The research results were published in the journal "Science." In addition to the environmental physicists from Heidelberg, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry in Jena and from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg as well as from Australia, Canada, China, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the USA participated in the research. Funding was provided by the German Research Foundation, among others.
Eva-Marie Metz, Sanam N. Vardag, Sourish Basu, Martin Jung, Bernhard Ahrens, Tarek El-Madany, Stephen Sitch, Vivek K. Arora, Peter R. Briggs, Pierre Friedlingstein, Daniel S. Goll, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Benjamin Poulter, Roland Séférian, Hanqin Tian, Andrew Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, Nicholas M. Deutscher, David W. T. Griffith, André Butz. Soil respiration–driven CO 2 pulses dominate Australia’s flux variability. Science, 2023; 379 (6639): 1332 DOI: 10.1126/science.add7833
Pittwater Reserves: Histories + Notes + Pictorial Walks
A History Of The Campaign For Preservation Of The Warriewood Escarpment by David Palmer OAM and Angus Gordon OAM
A Stroll Through Warriewood Wetlands by Joe Mills February 2023
A Walk Around The Cromer Side Of Narrabeen Lake by Joe Mills
America Bay Track Walk - photos by Joe Mills
An Aquatic June: North Narrabeen - Turimetta - Collaroy photos by Joe Mills
Angophora Reserve Angophora Reserve Flowers Grand Old Tree Of Angophora Reserve Falls Back To The Earth - History page
Annie Wyatt Reserve - A Pictorial
Avalon's Village Green: Avalon Park Becomes Dunbar Park - Some History + Toongari Reserve and Catalpa Reserve
Bairne Walking Track Ku-Ring-Gai Chase NP by Kevin Murray
Bangalley Headland Bangalley Mid Winter
Banksias of Pittwater
Barrenjoey Boathouse In Governor Phillip Park Part Of Our Community For 75 Years: Photos From The Collection Of Russell Walton, Son Of Victor Walton
Barrenjoey Headland: Spring flowers
Barrenjoey Headland after fire
Botham Beach by Barbara Davies
Bungan Beach Bush Care
Careel Bay Saltmarsh plants
Careel Bay Birds
Careel Bay Clean Up day
Careel Bay Playing Fields History and Current
Careel Creek - If you rebuild it they will come
Centre trail in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
Chiltern Track- Ingleside by Marita Macrae
Clareville/Long Beach Reserve + some History
Coastal Stability Series: Cabbage Tree Bay To Barrenjoey To Observation Point by John Illingsworth, Pittwater Pathways, and Dr. Peter Mitchell OAM
Cowan Track by Kevin Murray
Curl Curl To Freshwater Walk: October 2021 by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Currawong and Palm Beach Views - Winter 2018
Currawong-Mackerel-The Basin A Stroll In Early November 2021 - photos by Selena Griffith
Currawong State Park Currawong Beach + Currawong Creek
Deep Creek To Warriewood Walk photos by Joe Mills
Drone Gives A New View On Coastal Stability; Bungan: Bungan Headland To Newport Beach + Bilgola: North Newport Beach To Avalon + Bangalley: Avalon Headland To Palm Beach
Duck Holes: McCarrs Creek by Joe Mills
Dunbar Park - Some History + Toongari Reserve and Catalpa Reserve
Dundundra Falls Reserve: August 2020 photos by Selena Griffith - Listed in 1935
Elsie Track, Scotland Island
Elvina Track in Late Winter 2019 by Penny Gleen
Elvina Bay Walking Track: Spring 2020 photos by Joe Mills
Elvina Bay-Lovett Bay Loop Spring 2020 by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Fern Creek - Ingleside Escarpment To Warriewood Walk + Some History photos by Joe Mills
Iluka Park, Woorak Park, Pittwater Park, Sand Point Reserve, Snapperman Beach Reserve - Palm Beach: Some History
Ingleside Wildflowers August 2013
Irrawong - Ingleside Escarpment Trail Walk Spring 2020 photos by Joe Mills
Irrawong - Mullet Creek Restoration
Katandra Bushland Sanctuary - Ingleside
Lucinda Park, Palm Beach: Some History + 2022 Pictures
McCarr's Creek to Church Point to Bayview Waterfront Path
Mona Vale Beach - A Stroll Along, Spring 2021 by Kevin Murray
Mona Vale Headland, Basin and Beach Restoration
Mona Vale Woolworths Front Entrance Gets Garden Upgrade: A Few Notes On The Site's History
Mount Murray Anderson Walking Track by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment: Past Notes Present Photos by Margaret Woods
Narrabeen Lagoon State Park
Narrabeen Lagoon State Park Expansion
Narrabeen Rockshelf Aquatic Reserve
Nerang Track, Terrey Hills by Bea Pierce
Newport Bushlink - the Crown of the Hill Linked Reserves
Newport Community Garden - Woolcott Reserve
Newport to Bilgola Bushlink 'From The Crown To The Sea' Paths: Founded In 1956 - A Tip and Quarry Becomes Green Space For People and Wildlife
Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves: A Headland Garden
Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty
Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern, Wilshire Parks, McKay Reserve: From Beach to Estuary
Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks
Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer
Pittwater spring: waterbirds return to Wetlands
Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur
Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek
Resolute Track at West Head by Kevin Murray
Resolute Track Stroll by Joe Mills
Riddle Reserve, Bayview
Salvation Loop Trail, Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park- Spring 2020 - by Selena Griffith
Seagull Pair At Turimetta Beach: Spring Is In The Air!
Stapleton Park Reserve In Spring 2020: An Urban Ark Of Plants Found Nowhere Else
Stony Range Regional Botanical Garden: Some History On How A Reserve Became An Australian Plant Park
The Chiltern Track
The Resolute Beach Loop Track At West Head In Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park by Kevin Murray
Topham Track Ku-Ring-Gai Chase NP, August 2022 by Joe Mills and Kevin Murray
Towlers Bay Walking Track by Joe Mills
Trafalgar Square, Newport: A 'Commons' Park Dedicated By Private Landholders - The Green Heart Of This Community
Tranquil Turimetta Beach, April 2022 by Joe Mills
Turimetta Beach Reserve by Joe Mills, Bea Pierce and Lesley
Turimetta Beach Reserve: Old & New Images (by Kevin Murray) + Some History
Warriewood Wetlands - Creeks Deteriorating: How To Report Construction Site Breaches, Weed Infestations + The Long Campaign To Save The Warriewood Wetlands & Ingleside Escarpment March 2023
Warriewood Wetlands and Irrawong Reserve
Whale Beach Ocean Reserve: 'The Strand' - Some History On Another Great Protected Pittwater Reserve
Wilshire Park Palm Beach: Some History + Photos From May 2022
Winji Jimmi - Water Maze
Australian Predators of the Sky by Penny Olsen - published by National Library of Australia
Australian Raven Australian Wood Duck Family at Newport
A Week In Pittwater Issue 128 A Week In Pittwater - June 2014 Issue 168
Baby Birds Spring 2015 - Rainbow Lorikeets in our Yard - for Children Baby Birds by Lynleigh Greig, Southern Cross Wildlife Care - what do if being chased by a nesting magpie or if you find a baby bird on the ground
Baby Kookaburras in our Backyard: Aussie Bird Count 2016 - October
Balloons Are The Number 1 Marine Debris Risk Of Mortality For Our Seabirds - Feb 2019 Study
Bangalley Mid-Winter Barrenjoey Birds Bird Antics This Week: December 2016
Bird of the Month February 2019 by Michael Mannington
Birdland Above the Estuary - October 2012 Birds At Our Window Birds at our Window - Winter 2014 Birdland June 2016
Birdsong Is a Lovesong at This time of The Year - Brown Falcon, Little Wattle Bird, Australian Pied cormorant, Mangrove or Striated Heron, Great Egret, Grey Butcherbird, White-faced Heron
Bird Songs – poems about our birds by youngsters from yesterdays - for children Bird Week 2015: 19-25 October
Bird Songs For Spring 2016 For Children by Joanne Seve
Birds at Careel Creek this Week - November 2017: includes Bird Count 2017 for Local Birds - BirdLife Australia by postcode
Black Cockatoo photographed in the Narrabeen Catchment Reserves this week by Margaret G Woods - July 2019
Black-Necked Stork, Mycteria Australis, Now Endangered In NSW, Once Visited Pittwater: Breeding Pair shot in 1855
Black Swans on Narrabeen Lagoon - April 2013 Black Swans Pictorial
Endangered Little Tern Fishing at Mona Vale Beach
‘Feather Map of Australia’: Citizen scientists can support the future of Australia's wetland birds: for Birdwatchers, school students and everyone who loves our estuarine and lagoon and wetland birds
Fledgling Common Koel Adopted by Red Wattlebird -Summer Bird fest 2013 Flegdlings of Summer - January 2012
Flocks of Colour by Penny Olsen - beautiful new Bird Book Celebrates the 'Land of the Parrots'
Friendly Goose at Palm Beach Wharf - Pittwater's Own Mother Goose
Front Page Issue 177 Front Page Issue 185 Front Page Issue 193 - Discarded Fishing Tackle killing shorebirds Front Page Issue 203 - Juvenile Brush Turkey Front Page Issue 208 - Lyrebird by Marita Macrae Front Page Issue 219 Superb Fairy Wren Female Front Page Issue 234: National Bird Week October 19-25 and the 2015 the Aussie Back Yard Bird Count: Australia's First Bird Counts - a 115 Year Legacy - with a small insight into our first zoos Front Page Issue 236: Bird Week 2015 Front Page Issue 244: watebirds Front Page Issue 260: White-face Heron at Careel Creek Front Page Issue 283: Pittwater + more birds for Bird Week/Aussie Bird Count Front Page Issue 284: Pittwater + more birds for Bird Week/Aussie Bird Count Front Page Issue 285: Bird Week 2016 Front Page Issue 331: Spring Visitor Birds Return
G . E. Archer Russell (1881-1960) and His Passion For Avifauna From Narrabeen To Newport
Glossy Black-Cockatoo Returns To Pittwater by Paul Wheeler Glossy Cockatoos - 6 spotted at Careel Bay February 2018
Grey Butcher Birds of Pittwater
Harry Wolstenholme (June 21, 1868 - October 14, 1930) Ornithologist Of Palm Beach, Bird Man Of Wahroonga
INGLESIDE LAND RELEASE ON AGAIN BUT MANY CHALLENGES AHEAD by David Palmer
Issue 60 May 2012 Birdland - Smiles- Beamings -Early -Winter - Blooms
Jayden Walsh’s Northern Beaches Big Year - courtesy Pittwater Natural Heritage Association
John Gould's Extinct and Endangered Mammals of Australia by Dr. Fred Ford - Between 1850 and 1950 as many mammals disappeared from the Australian continent as had disappeared from the rest of the world between 1600 and 2000! Zoologist Fred Ford provides fascinating, and often poignant, stories of European attitudes and behaviour towards Australia's native fauna and connects these to the animal's fate today in this beautiful new book - our interview with the author
July 2012 Pittwater Environment Snippets; Birds, Sea and Flowerings
Juvenile Sea Eagle at Church Point - for children
King Parrots in Our Front Yard
Kookaburra Turf Kookaburra Fledglings Summer 2013 Kookaburra Nesting Season by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra Nest – Babies at 1.5 and 2.5 weeks old by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra Nest – Babies at 3 and 4 weeks old by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra Nest – Babies at 5 weeks old by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra and Pittwater Fledglings February 2020 to April 2020
Lion Island's Little Penguins (Fairy Penguins) Get Fireproof Homes - thanks to NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Fix it Sisters Shed
Lyre Bird Sings in Local National Park - Flock of Black Cockatoos spotted - June 2019
Magpie's Melodic Melodies - For Children (includes 'The Magpie's Song' by F S Williamson)
Masked Lapwing (Plover) - Reflected
May 2012 Birdland Smiles Beamings Early Winter Blooms
Musk Lorikeets In Pittwater: Pittwater Spotted Gum Flower Feast - May 2020
Nankeen Kestrel Feasting at Newport: May 2016
National Bird Week 2014 - Get Involved in the Aussie Backyard Bird Count: National Bird Week 2014 will take place between Monday 20 October and Sunday 26 October, 2014. BirdLife Australia and the Birds in Backyards team have come together to launch this year’s national Bird Week event the Aussie Backyard Bird Count! This is one the whole family can do together and become citizen scientists...
National Bird Week October 19-25 and the 2015 the Aussie Back Yard Bird Count: Australia's First Bird Counts - a 115 Year Legacy - with a small insight into our first zoos
Native Duck Hunting Season Opens in Tasmania and Victoria March 2018: hundreds of thousands of endangered birds being killed - 'legally'!
Nature 2015 Review Earth Air Water Stone
New Family of Barking Owls Seen in Bayview - Church Point by Pittwater Council
Noisy Visitors by Marita Macrae of PNHA
Odes to Australia's Fairy-wrens by Douglas Brooke Wheelton Sladen and Constance Le Plastrier 1884 and 1926
Oystercatcher and Dollarbird Families - Summer visitors
Painted Button-Quail Rescued By Locals - Elanora-Ingleside escarpment-Warriewood wetlands birds
Palm Beach Protection Group Launch, Supporters Invited: Saturday Feb.16th - Residents Are Saying 'NO' To Off-Leash Dogs In Station Beach Eco-System - reports over 50 dogs a day on Station Beach throughout December-January (a No Dogs Beach) small children being jumped on, Native birds chased, dog faeces being left, families with toddlers leaving beach to get away from uncontrolled dogs and 'Failure of Process' in council 'consultation' open to February 28th
Pardalote, Scrub Wren and a Thornbill of Pittwater
Pecking Order by Robyn McWilliam
Pelican Lamps at Narrabeen Pelican Dreamsong - A Legend of the Great Flood - dreamtime legend for children
Pittwater Becalmed Pittwater Birds in Careel Creek Spring 2018 Pittwater Waterbirds Spring 2011 Pittwater Waterbirds - A Celebration for World Oceans Day 2015
Pittwater's Little Penguin Colony: The Saving of the Fairies of Lion Island Commenced 65 Years Ago this Year - 2019
Pittwater's Mother Nature for Mother's Day 2019
Pittwater's Waterhens: Some Notes - Narrabeen Creek Bird Gathering: Curious Juvenile Swamp Hen On Warriewood Boardwalk + Dusky Moorhens + Buff Banded Rails In Careel Creek
Plastic in 99 percent of seabirds by 2050 by CSIRO
Plover Appreciation Day September 16th 2015
Powerful and Precious by Lynleigh Grieg
Red Wattlebird Song - November 2012
Restoring The Diamond: every single drop. A Reason to Keep Dogs and Cats in at Night.
Sea Birds off the Pittwater Coast: Albatross, Gannet, Skau + Australian Poets 1849, 1898 and 1930, 1932
Sea Eagle Juvenile at Church Point
Seen but Not Heard: Lilian Medland's Birds - Christobel Mattingley - one of Australia's premier Ornithological illustrators was a Queenscliff lady - 53 of her previously unpublished works have now been made available through the auspices of the National Library of Australia in a beautiful new book
7 Little Ducklings: Just Keep Paddling - Australian Wood Duck family take over local pool by Peta Wise
Shag on a North Avalon Rock - Seabirds for World Oceans Day 2012
Short-tailed Shearwaters Spring Migration 2013
South-West North-East Issue 176 Pictorial
Spring 2012 - Birds are Splashing - Bees are Buzzing
Spring Becomes Summer 2014- Royal Spoonbill Pair at Careel Creek
Spring Notes 2018 - Royal Spoonbill in Careel Creek
Station Beach Off Leash Dog Area Proposal Ignores Current Uses Of Area, Environment, Long-Term Fauna Residents, Lack Of Safe Parking and Clearly Stated Intentions Of Proponents have your say until February 28, 2019
Summer 2013 BirdFest - Brown Thornbill Summer 2013 BirdFest- Canoodlers and getting Wet to Cool off Summer 2013 Bird Fest - Little Black Cormorant Summer 2013 BirdFest - Magpie Lark
New Shorebirds WingThing For Youngsters Available To Download
A Shorebirds WingThing educational brochure for kids (A5) helps children learn about shorebirds, their life and journey. The 2021 revised brochure version was published in February 2021 and is available now. You can download a file copy here.
If you would like a free print copy of this brochure, please send a self-addressed envelope with A$1.10 postage (or larger if you would like it unfolded) affixed to: BirdLife Australia, Shorebird WingThing Request, 2-05Shorebird WingThing/60 Leicester St, Carlton VIC 3053.
Shorebird Identification Booklet
The Migratory Shorebird Program has just released the third edition of its hugely popular Shorebird Identification Booklet. The team has thoroughly revised and updated this pocket-sized companion for all shorebird counters and interested birders, with lots of useful information on our most common shorebirds, key identification features, sighting distribution maps and short articles on some of BirdLife’s shorebird activities.
The booklet can be downloaded here in PDF file format: http://www.birdlife.org.au/documents/Shorebird_ID_Booklet_V3.pdf
Paper copies can be ordered as well, see http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/counter-resources for details.
Download BirdLife Australia's children’s education kit to help them learn more about our wading birdlife
Shorebirds are a group of wading birds that can be found feeding on swamps, tidal mudflats, estuaries, beaches and open country. For many people, shorebirds are just those brown birds feeding a long way out on the mud but they are actually a remarkably diverse collection of birds including stilts, sandpipers, snipe, curlews, godwits, plovers and oystercatchers. Each species is superbly adapted to suit its preferred habitat. The Red-necked Stint is as small as a sparrow, with relatively short legs and bill that it pecks food from the surface of the mud with, whereas the Eastern Curlew is over two feet long with a exceptionally long legs and a massively curved beak that it thrusts deep down into the mud to pull out crabs, worms and other creatures hidden below the surface.
Some shorebirds are fairly drab in plumage, especially when they are visiting Australia in their non-breeding season, but when they migrate to their Arctic nesting grounds, they develop a vibrant flush of bright colours to attract a mate. We have 37 types of shorebirds that annually migrate to Australia on some of the most lengthy and arduous journeys in the animal kingdom, but there are also 18 shorebirds that call Australia home all year round.
What all our shorebirds have in common—be they large or small, seasoned traveller or homebody, brightly coloured or in muted tones—is that each species needs adequate safe areas where they can successfully feed and breed.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is managed and supported by BirdLife Australia.
This project is supported by Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority and Hunter Local Land Services through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program. Funding from Helen Macpherson Smith Trust and Port Phillip Bay Fund is acknowledged.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is made possible with the help of over 1,600 volunteers working in coastal and inland habitats all over Australia.
The National Shorebird Monitoring program (started as the Shorebirds 2020 project initiated to re-invigorate monitoring around Australia) is raising awareness of how incredible shorebirds are, and actively engaging the community to participate in gathering information needed to conserve shorebirds.
In the short term, the destruction of tidal ecosystems will need to be stopped, and our program is designed to strengthen the case for protecting these important habitats.
In the long term, there will be a need to mitigate against the likely effects of climate change on a species that travels across the entire range of latitudes where impacts are likely.
The identification and protection of critical areas for shorebirds will need to continue in order to guard against the potential threats associated with habitats in close proximity to nearly half the human population.
Here in Australia, the place where these birds grow up and spend most of their lives, continued monitoring is necessary to inform the best management practice to maintain shorebird populations.
BirdLife Australia believe that we can help secure a brighter future for these remarkable birds by educating stakeholders, gathering information on how and why shorebird populations are changing, and working to grow the community of people who care about shorebirds.
To find out more visit: http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/shorebirds-2020-program
Aussie Bread Tags Collection Points
History Of The Suspension Bridge / Northbridge Tramline Of The Sydney Tramway System
Youth Week 2023
School Holidays Movie: Genius
Scouts Are Out & About
Over the past few months, all age groups in Scouting across Sydney North Region have been doing everything from canoe trips, hikes, and abseiling, to craft and community cleanups.
There's no better time to get into Scouting, with sections for ages 5-25, plus lots of satisfying leadership opportunities for adults.
Young people can have a four-week trial period, and Active Kids vouchers can be used towards membership fees.
Scouts are everywhere! Connect with your local Scout Group via sydneynorthscouts.com
Narrabeen Lakes Sailing Club
Northern Composure Band Competition 2023
Due to the pandemic, Council have had the 20th anniversary on hold but pleased to say that the competition is open and running again.
Northern Composure is the largest and longest-running youth band competition in the area and offers musicians local exposure as well as invaluable stage experience. Bands compete in heats, semi finals and the grand final for a total prize pool of over $15,000.
Over the past 20 years we have had many success stories and now is your chance to join bands such as:
- Ocean Alley
- Lime Cordiale
- Dear Seattle
- What So Not
- The Rions
- Winston Surfshirt
And even a Triple J announcer plus a wide range of industry professionals
About the Competition
In 2023, the comp looks a little different.
All bands are invited to enter our heats which will be exclusively run online and voted on by your peers and community by registering below and uploading a video of one song of your choice. (if you are doing a cover, please make sure to credit the original band) We are counting on you to spread the word and get your friends, family, teachers voting for you!
The top 8-12 bands will move on through to our live semi finals with a winner from each moving on to the grand final held during National Youth Week. Not only that but we have raised the age range from 19 to 21 for all those musicians who may have missed out over the past two years.
- Voting open for heats: Mon 13 Feb – Sun 26 Feb
- Band Briefing: Mon 6 March, Dee Why PCYC
- Semi 1: Sat 18 March Mona Vale Memorial Hall
- Semi 2: Sat 25 March, YOYOs, Frenchs Forest
- Grand Final: Fri 28 April, Dee Why PCYC
For more information contact Youth Development at email@example.com or call 8495 5104
Stay in the loop and follow Northern Composure Unplugged on KALOF Facebook.
School Leavers Support
- Download or explore the SLIK here to help guide Your Career.
- School Leavers Information Kit (PDF 5.2MB).
- School Leavers Information Kit (DOCX 0.9MB).
- The SLIK has also been translated into additional languages.
- Download our information booklets if you are rural, regional and remote, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, or living with disability.
- Support for Regional, Rural and Remote School Leavers (PDF 2MB).
- Support for Regional, Rural and Remote School Leavers (DOCX 0.9MB).
- Support for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander School Leavers (PDF 2MB).
- Support for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander School Leavers (DOCX 1.1MB).
- Support for School Leavers with Disability (PDF 2MB).
- Support for School Leavers with Disability (DOCX 0.9MB).
- Download the Parents and Guardian’s Guide for School Leavers, which summarises the resources and information available to help you explore all the education, training, and work options available to your young person.
School Leavers Information Service
- navigate the School Leavers Information Kit (SLIK),
- access and use the Your Career website and tools; and
- find relevant support services if needed.
Word Of The Week: Suffrage
1. the right to vote in political elections. (in the Book of Common Prayer) the intercessory petitions pronounced by a priest in the Litany. Archaic; intercessory prayers, especially those for the dead.
From: derives from the Latin word “suffragium,” meaning the right or privilege to vote. From late Middle English (in the sense ‘intercessory prayers’, also ‘assistance’): from Latin suffragium, reinforced by French suffrage.
The basic qualifications for suffrage are similar everywhere, although there are minor variations from country to country. Usually only the adult citizens of a country are eligible to vote there, the minimum age varying from 18 to 25 years. Most governments insist also on the voter’s affiliation to a certain locality or constituency.
Before the evolution of universal suffrage, most countries required special qualifications of their voters. In 18th and 19th century Britain, for instance, there was a property or income qualification, the argument being that only those who had a stake in the country should be allowed a voice in its public affairs - so even adult men who did not own property or have an income above a certain amount could not vote. At one time, only landed property or those who were rich and men qualified for suffrage. Many newly independent countries of Asia and Africa, during the transition from colony to self-government, had a literacy qualification for the suffrage. Some countries limited it to certain racial or ethnic groups. For example, South Africa, at one time, and the Old South of the United States did not permit their Black populations to vote.
Compare suffragette - A suffragette was a member of an activist women's organisation in the early 20th century who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for the right to vote in public elections in the United Kingdom. The term refers in particular to members of the British Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), a women-only movement founded in 1903 by Emmeline Pankhurst, which engaged in direct action and civil disobedience. In 1906, a reporter writing in the Daily Mail coined the term suffragette for the WSPU, derived from suffragistα (any person advocating for voting rights), in order to belittle the women advocating women's suffrage. The militants embraced the new name, even adopting it for use as the title of the newspaper published by the WSPU.
Women had won the right to vote in several countries by the end of the 19th century; in 1893, New Zealand became the first self-governing country to grant the vote to all women over the age of 21.
The Women's Franchise Act 1902 (NSW) gave women the right to vote, and by s4 provided that nothing in that Act should be taken to "enable or qualify a woman to be nominated as a candidate at any election or to be elected as a member" of the Legislative Assembly.
Due to the Legal Practitioners Act 1898 (NSW) which established a Board comprising the judges of the Supreme Court, the Attorney General and two barristers to approve "properly qualified persons" for admission as barristers, under which qualified women were not a "person" for the purposes of the that Act, women, although qualified, could not practice law or be admitted to the bar. The Acts Interpretation Act 1897 (NSW) provided that "[w]ords importing the masculine gender shall include females" but it was soon apparent that legislation was necessary to remove the disqualification to women's admission to the bar .
See: The NSW Women's Legal Status Bill 1918: How The 'Petticoat Interference In Government' Came Of Age - A 100 Years Celebration Of Women Alike Our Own Maybanke Selfe-Wolstenholme-Anderson
Maybanke - From November 4th, 1893 Article.
When by 1903 women in Britain had not been enfranchised, Pankhurst decided that women had to "do the work ourselves"; the WSPU motto became "deeds, not words". The suffragettes heckled politicians, tried to storm parliament, were attacked and sexually assaulted during battles with the police, chained themselves to railings, smashed windows, carried out a nationwide bombing and arson campaign, and faced anger and ridicule in the media. When imprisoned they went on hunger strike, not eating for days or even a week, to which the government responded by force-feeding them. The first suffragette to be force fed was Evaline Hilda Burkitt.
In 1903, the Australian suffragist Vida Goldstein adopted the WSPU colours for her campaign for the Senate in 1910 but got them slightly wrong since she thought that they were purple, green and lavender. Goldstein had visited England in 1911 at the behest of the WSPU. Her speeches around the country drew huge crowds and her tour was touted as "the biggest thing that has happened in the women movement for sometime in England". The correct colours were used for her campaign for Kooyong in 1913 and also for the flag of the Women's Peace Army, which she established during World War I to oppose conscription.
Colours of the suffragette movement. Purple represents loyalty and dignity, white for purity, and green for hope.
During International Women's Year in 1975 the BBC series about the suffragettes, Shoulder to Shoulder, was screened across Australia and Elizabeth Reid, Women's Adviser to Prime Minister Gough Whitlam directed that the WSPU colours be used for the International Women's Year symbol. They were also used for a first-day cover and postage stamp released by Australia Post in March 1975. The colours have since been adopted by government bodies such as the National Women's Advisory Council and organisations such as Women's Electoral Lobby and other women's services such as domestic violence refuges and are much in evidence each year on International Women's day.
The death of one suffragette, Emily Davison, when she ran in front of the king's horse at the 1913 Epsom Derby, made headlines around the world. The WSPU campaign had varying levels of support from within the suffragette movement; breakaway groups formed, and within the WSPU itself not all members supported the direct action.
The suffragette campaign in Britain was suspended when World War I broke out in 1914. After the war, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave the vote to all British men, finally, and women over the age of 30 who met certain property qualifications. Ten years later, women gained electoral equality with men when the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act 1928 gave all women the right to vote at age 21.
Australia was far more advanced in allowing all men the right to vote:
In 1856, under a new Constitution, the New South Wales Parliament became bicameral with a fully elected Legislative Assembly and a fully appointed Legislative Council with a Government taking over most of the legislative powers of the Governor. On 22 May 1856, the newly constituted New South Wales Parliament opened and sat for the first time. The right to vote for Legislative Assembly was extended to all adult males in 1858. However, women still could not - nor could they own property in their own right or seek divorce.
When the colonial constitutions of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania were framed in the 1850s, voting rights were granted to all male British subjects over the age of 21, which included Aboriginal men. Western Australia and Queensland specifically barred indigenous people from voting. However, few Aborigines were aware of their rights and hence very few participated in elections.
All women in South Australia were granted the right to vote in South Australian elections in 1894, followed by women in Western Australia in 1899.
In 1901, the six Australian colonies united to form the federal Commonwealth of Australia. The first election for the Commonwealth Parliament in 1901 was based on the electoral laws at that time of the six colonies, so that those who had the right to vote and to stand for Parliament at state level had the same rights for the 1901 Australian federal election. Only in South Australia (since 1895) and Western Australia (since 1899) did women have a vote. Tasmania retained a small property qualification for voting, but in the other states all male British subjects over 21 could vote. Only in South Australia (which included the Northern Territory) and Tasmania were indigenous Australians entitled to vote. In some areas of South Australia the Aboriginal vote may have influenced the poll outcome. Western Australia and Queensland specifically barred indigenous people from voting.
In 1902, the Commonwealth Parliament passed the Commonwealth Franchise Act 1902, which established a uniform franchise law for the federal Parliament. The Act declared that all British subjects over the age of 21 years who had been living in Australia for at least 6 months were entitled to a vote, whether male or female, and whether married or single. Besides granting Australian women the right to vote at a national level, it also allowed them to stand for election to federal Parliament.
This meant that Australia was the second country, after New Zealand, to grant women's suffrage at a national level, and the first country to allow women to stand for Parliament. However, the Act also disqualified Indigenous people from Australia, Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands, with the exception of Māori, from voting, even though they were British subjects and otherwise entitled to a vote. By this provision, Indian people, for example, were disqualified to vote. The only exception was in relation to those who were entitled under Section 41 of the Australian Constitution to a vote. Section 41 states that any individual who has gained a right to vote at a state level, must also have the right to vote in federal elections. The then Solicitor-General, Robert Garran, interpreted the provision to mean that Commonwealth voting rights were granted by section 41 only to people who were already State voters in 1902. The effect was not to enable those who subsequently acquired the right to vote at a State level, but who were expressly excluded from the franchise by the 1902 Act, such as Indigenous Australians, to also vote at the federal level. Also, those otherwise entitled voters who are subject to a crime which carries a penalty of over one year in prison are disqualified to vote. There was also no representation for any of the territories of Australia.
In the meantime, State franchise laws continued in force until each one chose to amend them.
In 1897, in South Australia, Catherine Helen Spence was the first woman to stand as a political candidate. The restrictions on voting by indigenous Australians were relaxed after World War II, and removed by the Commonwealth Electoral Act in 1962. Senator Neville Bonner became the first Aboriginal Australian to sit in the federal Parliament in 1971. Julia Gillard became the first female Prime Minister of Australia in 2010.
For indiegenous people the situation became murkier when the Commonwealth Franchise Act was passed in 1902. The Act gave women a vote in federal elections but Aboriginal people and people from Asia, Africa or the Pacific Islands (except for Māori) were excluded unless entitled under Section 41 of the Australian Constitution. Section 41 states that any individual who has gained a right to vote at a state level, must also have the right to vote in federal elections. The Solicitor-General, Sir Robert Garran, interpreted it to mean that Commonwealth rights were granted only to people who were already State voters in 1902. What transpired was a situation where Aboriginals who had already enrolled to vote were able to continue to do so, whereas those who had not were denied the right. This interpretation was challenged in Victoria in 1924 by an Indian migrant, where the magistrate ruled that Section 2 meant that people who acquired State votes at any date were entitled to a Commonwealth vote. The Commonwealth government in 1925 changed the law to give natives of British India living in Australia the vote (there were only about 100 in Australia at the time), but continued to deny other non-white applicants.
Campaigns for indigenous civil rights in Australia gathered momentum from the 1930s. In 1938, with the participation of leading indigenous activists like Douglas Nicholls, the Australian Aborigines' League organised the "Day of Mourning", which marked in protest the 150th anniversary of the arrival of the First Fleet to the Australian continent and launched its campaign for full civil rights for all Aboriginal Australians. In the 1940s, the conditions of life for Aboriginals could be very poor. A permit system restricted movement and work opportunities for many Aboriginal people. In the 1950s, the government pursued a policy of "assimilation" which sought to achieve full civil rights for Aboriginal but also wanted them to adopt the mode of life of other Australians (which very often was assumed to require suppression of cultural identity).
In 1949, the right to vote in federal elections was extended to all Indigenous people who had served in the armed forces, or were enrolled to vote in state elections (Queensland and Western Australia still excluded indigenous people from the vote). Remaining federal restrictions were abolished in 1962, though enrolment was voluntary.
In the 1960s, reflecting the strong civil rights movements in the United States and South Africa, many changes in Aboriginals’ rights and treatment followed, including removal of restrictions on voting rights. The Menzies Government Commonwealth Electoral Act of 1962 confirmed the Commonwealth vote for all Aboriginals. Western Australia gave them State votes in the same year, and Queensland followed in 1965.
The 1967 referendum was held and electors overwhelmingly approved the amendment of the Constitution to remove discriminatory references and giving the national parliament the power to legislate specifically for Indigenous Australians. Contrary to frequently repeated mythology, this referendum did not cover citizenship for Indigenous people, nor did it give them the vote: they already had both. However, transferring this power away from the State parliaments did bring an end to the system of Indigenous Australian reserves which existed in each state, which allowed Indigenous people to move more freely, and exercise many of their citizenship rights for the first time.
The first MP for Mackellar, Bill Wentworth, who lived at Newport and married a Mona Vale girl, was also Minister in Charge of Aboriginal Affairs, the first Minister to hold this office, and who ensured the success of the 1967 Referendum - he had already spent decades campaigning for the rights of this land's first custodians.
More in: The Baird Family Of Mona Vale - The Wentworths Of Newport
(1950). Portrait of William Charles Wentworth, Liberal member for Mackellar, New South Wales, June 1950 Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-138002864
Book Of The Month - April 2023: Poor Man's Orange by Ruth Park
Poor Man's Orange is a novel by New Zealand born Australian author Ruth Park. Published in 1949, the book is the sequel to The Harp in the South (1948) and continues the story of the Darcy family, living in the Surry Hills area of Sydney.
The title Poor Man's Orange refers to having to make do with second best.
The story has its beginnings in the awkward courtship of dreamily innocent Margaret Kilker and unwilling hero Hugh Darcy in the dusty country towns of rural Australia. After their marriage, the couple moves to Sydney and raises a family amid the brothels, grog shops and run-down boarding houses of inner-city Surry Hills, where money is scarce and life is not easy. Here their daughter Roie grows up all too quickly, while younger daughter Dolour tries to make sense of a world in which loss and love go hand in hand. Filled with beautifully drawn characters that will make you laugh as much as cry, Ruth Park's Australian classics take you from the barren landscapes of the outback to the colourful slums of Sydney with convincing depth, careful detail and great heart.
Continuing the history of the Irish Darcys begun in Missus and continued in The Harp in the South, this third instalment of a trilogy reacquaints readers with the vicissitudes of slum life in a Sydney suburb. An unforgettable family and a cast of unforgettable characters enliven a story that is sometimes tragic but often humorous in a time of poverty and destitution, hope and promise.
Covid Cases Increasing In Aged Care Homes
- reimburse providers for leave paid to directly permanent or casual aged care workers
- cover employees who cannot work due to Covid-19 and have no other leave entitlements.
Go-It-Alone Pharmacists’ Prescribing Not The Answer To GP Shortages: AMA
StewartBrown Aged Care Financial Performance Survey (December 2022)
AMA (NSW) Urges Newly Elected Labor Government To Step Up To Healthcare Challenges
Australia Post Keeps The Torch Burning For Legacy
Expanded Access To Subsidised Oral Antiviral Paxlovid And Other COVID-19 Supports
Don’t Lock Vulnerable Older Australians Out Of Banking: COTA
Priority Groups Urged To Book In For Free Influenza Vaccine
- Stay up to date with your recommended flu and COVID-19 vaccinations
- Stay home if you have cold or flu symptoms and get tested
- Wear a mask in crowded, indoor places
- Get together outdoors or in large, well-ventilated spaces with open doors and windows
- Wash or sanitise your hands often
- Talk with your doctor now if you are at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 or flu to make a plan about what to do if you get sick, including what test to take, and discussing if you are eligible for antiviral medicines
- Don’t visit people who are at higher risk of severe illness if you have cold or flu symptoms or have tested positive to COVID-19 or flu.
- Take a rapid antigen test to test for COVID-19 before visiting vulnerable loved ones.
Flu Season 2023: What You Need To Know
- Bed rest.
- Drinking plenty of fluids.
- Over-the-counter medication, taken only as directed to help relieve symptoms.
Australia Post At The Crossroads
'Nature Prescriptions' Can Improve Physical And Mental Health: Study
Fasting Diet Reduces Risk Markers Of Type 2 Diabetes
Predatory Dinosaurs Such As T. Rex Sported Lizard-Like Lips
New Findings That Map The Universe's Cosmic Growth Support Einstein's Theory Of Gravity
This Elephant's Self-Taught Banana Peeling Offers Glimpse Of Elephants' Broader Abilities
A Miniature Heart In A Petri Dish: Organoid Emulates Development Of The Human Heart
- Anna B. Meier, Dorota Zawada, Maria Teresa De Angelis, Laura D. Martens, Gianluca Santamaria, Sophie Zengerle, Monika Nowak-Imialek, Jessica Kornherr, Fangfang Zhang, Qinghai Tian, Cordula M. Wolf, Christian Kupatt, Makoto Sahara, Peter Lipp, Fabian J. Theis, Julien Gagneur, Alexander Goedel, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Tatjana Dorn, Alessandra Moretti. Epicardioid single-cell genomics uncovers principles of human epicardium biology in heart development and disease. Nature Biotechnology, 2023; DOI: 10.1038/s41587-023-01718-7
- Dorota Zawada, Jessica Kornherr, Anna B. Meier, Gianluca Santamaria, Tatjana Dorn, Monika Nowak-Imialek, Daniel Ortmann, Fangfang Zhang, Mark Lachmann, Martina Dreßen, Mariaestela Ortiz, Victoria L. Mascetti, Stephen C. Harmer, Muriel Nobles, Andrew Tinker, Maria Teresa De Angelis, Roger A. Pedersen, Phillip Grote, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Alessandra Moretti, Alexander Goedel. Retinoic acid signaling modulation guides in vitro specification of human heart field-specific progenitor pools. Nature Communications, 2023; 14 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-36764-x
Resistance-Fighting Antimalarial Drug Candidate Enters The Clinic
- New antimalaria drug candidate discovered by WEHI and MSD researchers has entered into a first-in-human clinical trial.
- Pre-clinical studies have shown the candidate can inhibit growth of the malaria parasite and prevent transmission through the mosquito, reducing spread of the disease.
- Given the increasing incidence of resistance to current antimalarial drugs, new treatment options are badly needed to alleviate the global burden of disease.
Iron Link Offers New Treatment Hope For Incurable Blood Cancer
- Researchers discover new way to potentially treat polycythemia vera (PV), a rare form of blood cancer characterised by too many red blood cells.
- Study found raising hepcidin, a hormone that regulates how your body uses iron, reduces the production of red blood cells and complications from the disease in pre-clinical models.
- Recruitment for clinical trials based on this landmark research has begun, investigating the effect of a drug that has the potential to control iron regulation in patients with PV.
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