September 27 - October 10, 2020: Issue 468


Stapleton Reserve In Spring 2020: An Urban Ark Of Plants Found Nowhere Else 
Photos By A J Guesdon

Pittwater is very fortunate to have the privilege of being a place of urban reserves that are virtual 'Arks' of plants species that do not exist anywhere else. Apart from being places the human population may run to for moments of peace, they are home to all the animals that live there - the bandicoots, possums, birds and other species that are part of this place. 

On Saturday September 19th a few hours with Marita Macrae OAM (The Queen's Birthday 2004 Honours List; ''For service to the environment through a number of organisations, particularly the Pittwater Natural Heritage Association and the Avalon Preservation Trust.'') brings home why it is so important that we all look after these places and how rich the biodiversity in these reserves is - you may think you're just looking at some trees, ferns and grasses - but this place is far richer than that. A field survey of the Park was undertaken in May and June 1994 and a Plant Species List and Fauna Species List for Stapleton Park was compiled, showing almost 200 plant species particular to this unique Park and a long list of resident animals and birds that live here or frequent Stapleton as annual migratory birds. Butterflies recorded from South Corner of Stapleton Reserve by Bart Hacobian in 1993 and 1994 showed at least six species present as well. The extensive list of plants found in this Park runs below - and this is just one place, one Park, and one example.

When you get to visit a reserve with someone who knows the plant species, and what they do, who knows the different calls the many birds make, a whole world opens for you and what was prior to then 'a bunch of trees, ferns and grasses' is revealed as so much more, so much so that it is worth putting a few insights here for you all of this wonderland we are all carers or, to use an old word, Keepers of. 

The Pittwater Natural Heritage Association offer regular Plant and Bird Walks during each year, all free. If you 'like' or follow their Facebook page, or become a member, you will know when one is coming up and enjoy finding out more about what's in our area. Visit:

Marita Macrae in Stapleton Park

Stapleton Park occupies an area of just over 8 hectares in the suburb of Avalon Beach. The Park straddles an east-west ridge extending down steep north and south facing slopes on either side of the ridge. There are some parts of  the Park with moderate slopes, notably the ridge south of Riviera Avenue. Riviera Avenue bisects the park along the ridgeline. The north-east corner of the Park borders the junction of Kevin and Park Avenues. The southern boundary runs above residences which front Burrendong Place and Nandina Terrace.

Stapleton Park was occupied by aboriginal people of the Guringai group. Aboriginal people lived in the area for several thousand years prior to 1788. There are a number of Aboriginal shelter sites in the vicinity of the Park which have associated middens or artwork. This includes an art site close to the northern edge of the Park - underlying thousands of years of this being a sacred place and healing space.

The Park was part of an area of 1 200 hectares granted to Rev J.J Therry in 1833. The area including the Park remained largely undeveloped over the years and has been known locally as 'The Sanctuary'. Early in the 1900's the area was known as ''Crowley's Hill'' after Jeremiah Crowley (see Pittwater Roads II: Where The Streets Have Your Name - Clareville and Pittwater Roads II: Where The Streets Have Your Name - Avalon Beach) and prior to that the Collins family on the North Avalon - Careel Bay flats this place was named 'Mount St Mary' while that opposite, as what we today call 'Bangalley Head' was named 'Mount St Joseph' - the Catholic influence of Reverend Therry and the Collins family showing in these early names for these geographical features. 

Fortunately this area remained a rough bush block so that its biodiversity remains and allows you to 'step back in time' to the landscape that existed prior to urbanisation. There is no evidence that it was used for grazing as so much of the surrounding area was with successive dairies dating back to the Collins, however some timber extraction may have taken place in its more accessible areas. The Park reserves much of the area of least capability for urban development, and includes one of few ridge crests protected within an urban bushland park in the Pittwater area.

The Park's most recent name arises from the real estate developer, 'Stapleton and Company', and Jack Thomas Stapleton. The Park consists of several parcels of land. Portions 13, 14 & 15 in DP 404581, Riviera Avenue, and Lots 44 and 46 in DP 21259, Park Avenue, were acquired from the County of Cumberland in 1957 and 1958 for the purposes of dedication as a reserve for public recreation. Further residential subdivision of the area around Stapleton Park which took place in 1964 and 1965 resulted in the addition of Lot 45 in DP 21259, Park Avenue, and Lot 18 in DP 231634, Burrendong Place. These were open space contributions of the respective subdivisions. 

Riviera Estate Item c027560031h - 1957, courtesy State Library of NSW - from Avalon Subdivisions folder.

J. T. Stapleton, ABHS photo - courtesy ABHS and Stapleton family.

Elevation within Stapleton Park ranges from 30 to 115 metres above sea level. Typical slopes in the Park are about 25%, with flatter areas on the northern spur where slope averages about 15%. The ridge crest along Riviera Avenue is the only flat part of the Park with slopes of less than 10%. The ridge crest geology is Hawkesbury sandstone of medium to coarse grained quartz sandstone, with very minor shale and laminite lenses. A short distance downslope the Narrabeen shales and sandstones of the Newport Formation outcrop. These sediments underlie most of the Park. Soils on Hawkesbury sandstone geology are generally, shallow, stony, highly permeable and of low fertility. Soils on Narrabeen shales are fine-grained, of moderate fertility and classed as part of the Watagan soil landscape. 

A survey of the Park by the National Trust (1988) found that three different plant communities occur in the Park. These are Spotted Gum (Eucalyptus maculata) / Grey Ironbark (E. paniculata) Open-forest; Smoothbarked Apple (Angophora costata) / Sydney Peppermint (E. piperita) Open-forest / Woodland and Rainforest elements. The latter community described by the National Trust reflected a characteristic of the understorey strata, rather than the dominant species in the canopy. 

The understorey plant community in areas of Spotted Gum Forest with south-facing aspects and sheltered gullies with deeper soils the understorey is characterised by medium to high densities of rainforest associated shrubs and trees. The most common tall shrub or small tree is Forest Oak (Allocasuarina torulosa). Rainforest elements include the small trees; Wilkiea (Wilkiea huegeliana), Murrogun (Cryptocarya microneura), Lilly Pilly (Acmena smithii), Australian Ebony (Diospyros australis), Brush Muttonwood (Rapanea howittiana), Cheese Tree (Glochidion ferdinandii) and Cabbage Tree Palm (Livistona australis), and the shrubs Bolworra (Eupomatia laurina), Blueberry Ash (Elaeocarpus reticulatus), Muttonwood (Rapanea variabilis) and Tree Heath (Trochocarpa laurina).

The ground layer is dominated by ferns such as False Bracken Fern (Calochlaena dubia) and Rasp Fern (Doodia aspera). Vines are also common, including Slender Grape Vine (Cayratia clematidea), Water Vine (Cissus antarctica) and Native Grape (Cissus hypoglauca). 

On a drier north facing slope, the understorey has a more grassy appearance, with a shrub layer of low to medium density. Common shrub species in this understorey type include Forest Oak (Allocasuarina torulosa), Elderberry Panax (Polyscias sambucifolius) and Hickory (Acacia implexa).

The ground layer is dominated by grasses but includes ferns and herbs. Common ground layer species include Entolasia marginata, Basket Grass (Oplismenus imbecillis), Weeping Meadow Grass (Microlaena stipoides), Kidney Weed (Dichondra repens), Glycine spp. and Common Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum aethiopicum). Burrawangs (Macrozamia communis) are a common and distinctive feature of the understorey.

Spotted Gum Forest is not well represented in nearby conservation reserves, being absent from Garigal National Park and present in only small areas of Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. Benson and Howell (1990) identify Spotted Gum Forest as being characteristic of the Pittwater area. Thomas and Benson (1985) record this plant community as being present on Narrabeen Group sediments on the western foreshores of Pittwater, generally outside the boundary of Kuring-gai Chase National Park. Similar forests are found in McKay Reserve, Scotland Island and the National Trust property, Burley Griffin Lodge. They also occur north of Broken Bay, in the Gosford district. Spotted Gum Forests are poorly conserved in New South Wales and so the Spotted Gum Forest at Stapleton Park has conservation significance at a state level. This place is a treasure trove that connects Pittwater with its past in a vibrant living present in each year all residents strive to conserve and protect this reserve.

The woodland vegetation of the ridge crest on either side of Riviera Avenue includes a range of tree species indicating a variety of influences on its development. The dominant species as identified in previous surveys are Smooth-barked Apple (Angophora costata) and Sydney Peppermint (E. piperita). Associated with these are the sandstone-associated species Grey Gum (E. punctata) and Red Bloodwood (E. gummifera). The presence of Spotted Gum (Eucalyptus maculata), Rough-barked Apple (Angophora floribunda), Grey Ironbark (E. paniculata) and Port Jackson Cypress (Callitris rhomboidea) indicate a shale influence, possibly a shale lens as discussed previously. Bangalay (E. botryoides) and Large-leaved White Mahogany (E. umbra ssp. umbra) in this case indicate a coastal influence. 

A magnificent Grey Gum (E. punctata) example on the hill heading down Riviera Avenue with a Spotted Gum (Eucalyptus maculata) grpwing alongside it.

The understorey is variable and may point to minor changes in geology and past fire history. There are areas of tall shrubs of high density, areas of shrubby understorey of medium to high density and a patch of grassy understorey. Shrub species include Black She-oak (Allocasuarina littoralis), Old Man Banksia (Banksia serrata), Hairpin Banksia (Banksia spinulosa), Sweetscented Wattle (Acacia suaveolens), Broad-leaved Geebung (Persoonia levis) and Broom Heath (Monotoca elliptica).

Ground layer species include Flannel Flower (Actinotus helianthi), Kangaroo Grass (Themeda australis), Burrawang (Macrozamia communis) and Digitaria parviflora.

Stapleton Sandstone Ridgetop Woodland is similar to plant communities on Hawkesbury sandstone, but differs in the range of tree species present and the existence of a grassy area which supports the significant species, Craspedia variabilis. Open-forest on Hawkesbury sandstone dominated by Smooth-barked Apple, Sydney Peppermint and Red Bloodwood is widespread in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park (Thomas and Benson 1985). The community at Stapleton Park is considered to have significance at the local level. The lack of disturbance and the existence of this community on a ridge crest not subject to urban run-off problems make this site valuable as a reference site. Few sites with these characteristics remain in an urban situation in the Sydney region. 

An area on the south-facing slope supports vines and small rainforest trees. The area appears on earlier aerial photographs as part of the Spotted Gum Forest, however dieback  over the past forty years has resulted in the death of the eucalypt canopy trees. 

Species now present include trees Lilly Pilly (Acmena smithii) Cabbage Tree Palm (Livistona australis), Bleeding Heart (Omalanthus populifolius) Cheese Tree (Glochidion ferdinandii),Crabapple (Schizomeria ovata) Wilkea (Wilkea hugellana), Acronychina (Acronychina oblongifolia), Red Ash (Alphitonia excelsa) Bastard Mahogany (Synoum glandulosum) and vines such as Native Grape (Cissus hypoglauca) and Water Vine (Cissus antartica).

This community is considered to be structurally closed scrub, with many vines, and has affinities with subtropical rainforest, in particular suballiance 20 (Acmena smithii- Ficus spp.- Livistona - Podacarpus), with some warm temperate rainforest elements such as Crabapple (Schizomeria ovata). The development of Vine Scrub appears to have been after a localised occurrence of dieback, however the cause of the tree death at this location is unknown. The management of the vine scrub will be to exclude fire to allow survival of the rainforest species. 

The National Trust identify occurrences in the vicinity of Stapleton Park of the plant species Black Apple (Planchonella australis) and Bolworra (Eupomatia laurina) as being of significance due to their rarity in the Pittwater area. Bolworra was found to occur within the Park.

Another species of interest recorded in the Park is the daisy, Craspedia variabilis, which, although widespread in New South Wales, is rarely recorded in contemporary flora surveys of the Sydney region and is recorded as vulnerable in western Sydney by Benson and McDougall 1991. The presence of Port Jackson Cypress (Callitris rhomboidea) is also of interest as this species is rarely recorded in the Pittwater area. 

Black Apple (Planchonella australis) is a rainforest tree which has smooth, elliptic leaves to 10 cm and large, black, plum-like fruit. It occurs in rainforest communities along the coast, including Royal National Park, Evatt Park in Peakhurst and in the Wyong district. The National Trust record Black Apple as occurring on private land near Stapleton Park.

Bolworra (Eupomatia laurina) is a shrub or small tree with spreading branches from near the base. It occurs in rainforest or wet forests along the coast and Blue Mountains, including Darling Mills Creek at Baulkham Hills and Royal and Ku-ring-gai Chase National Parks. In the Barrenjoey area it has been recorded at Crown of Newport Reserve, Angophora Reserve, Bangalley Head, McKay Reserve and Stapleton Park and nearby private lands.

Craspedia variabilis is a small daisy to 20cm in height which was located in Stapleton Sandstone Ridgetop Woodland in an area characterised by a grassy understorey. This species appears to be rarely recorded in contemporary vegetation surveys in the Sydney region.

The presence of Port Jackson Cypress (Callitris rhomboidea) is of interest as this species is rarely recorded in the Pittwater area, being known from the western slopes of Scotland Island on shale and the western foreshores of Pittwater in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park also on shale parent material. 

Port Jackson Cypress (Callitris rhomboidea) and seed pods.

A Winter study of Fauna species present (wildlife), which could not include those species that visit in Spring, found 18 birds, four mammals, one reptile and one frog species. As with other reserves in the Pittwater area the fauna assembly is lacking in a variety of species which may be attributed to its isolation from other reserves and predation of fauna by domestic pets and foxes. However, there are a number of habitat features which make Stapleton Park suitable for fauna.

One of the features of the Park is its population of small insectivorous birds, particularly Brown Thornbills (Acanthiza pusilla), Golden Whistlers (Pachycephala pectoralis) and Grey Fantails (Rhipidura fuliginosa). These species are generally absent from surrounding residential areas due to the loss of a shrubby / small tree understorey. This habitat feature provides food, protection from predators and nesting locations for these birds.

As well as being important to resident birds the Park is habitat for winter and summer migrants such as Yellowfaced Honeyeaters (Lichenostomus leucotis) and cuckoos. It is probably also a 'stop-off point' for birds moving between conservation reserves to the north and south.

On Saturday we were fortunate to witness a pair of Scaly-breasted Lorikeets (Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus) inspecting a tree hollow as a potential nest site. 

Long-nosed Bandicoots (Perameles nasuta) also appear to be common in Stapleton Park as the conical holes they dig are ubiquitous. As these animals are no longer common in suburban Sydney and are susceptible to domestic pet attack, Stapleton Park represents an important refuge for the species' local population. Another reason to conserve and protect this hilltop paradise!

A species survey conducted by Council indicated that there were three sightings of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the vicinity of Stapleton Park in the period 1987 to 1992. Though this is few, the Koalas may use the Park more often than this and not be noticed by passers-by. Planting of additional Grey Gums on the crown of the Park would have helped compensate for the loss of food trees in the surrounding area, but unfortunately koalas in Pittwater were declared extinct during these same years - lost due to fences between feed sites, attacks by dogs and car strikes. Those of us who remember these adorable residents will be happy to know there have been recent sightings of these in the Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park, and at Terrey Hills and one Reader has forwarded a photo of one taken on the Wakehurst Parkway - so they are not completely gone - more on that soonish.

The Park is also known to be habitat for gliders. Fanning (1993) reported a Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps) in a residence in Cannes Drive, adjacent to the Park, and there was a report of a glider near Sanctuary Avenue. 

The endangered Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) may also occur in the Park as two pouch young were recorded from the Careel Bay area in 1989 (Linda Gibson [Australian Museum] quoted in Smith & Smith, 1993), from Palmgrove Road, Avalon in March 1994 (Linda Gibson [Australian Museum] pers. comm.) and from Prince Alfred Parade, Avalon in June 1994 (Smith and Smith 1994). Both species feed on exudates and insects found on eucalypts and wattles as well as pollen and nectar. Tree hollows are used for shelter and breeding (Suckling, 1983). Stapleton Park represents one of the few areas locally where their habitat requirements are fully met - there are even some nesting boxes that have been installed in the Park due to the high uptake of tree hollows available by birds.

Urban bushland areas throughout the Sydney region are significant because  they contribute to the landscape quality of the city, they provide habitat for plants and animals, which would otherwise become regionally extinct, they provide a corridor for the movement of migratory and nomadic animals, particularly birds, through the urban area, ™ they provide an educational resource and the first contact point with nature for many urban residents, they enable urban residents to undertake recreational pursuits in a bushland setting, and they are important for scientific studies, providing a record of the original landscape and vegetation and the changes wrought by urban development.

Stapleton Park has particular significance because, as stated above, it includes samples of Spotted Gum Forest, a community which is characteristic of the Pittwater area and which is inadequately conserved in New South Wales. Stapleton Park also protects populations of one plant species which has regional conservation significance; Craspedia variabilis. The Park protects populations of two plant species with local significance; Bolworra (Eupomatia laurina) and Port Jackson Cypress (Callitris rhomboidea).

The Reserve provides suitable habitat and food trees for three fauna species considered to be of special conservation significance; the Long-nosed Bandicoots, rare elsewhere in Sydney now, Squirrel Gliders and Glossy Black cockatoos, now listed as Vulnerable in New South Wales.

Stapleton Park is wonderful eco-system - which the plant and fauna list that runs below, derived from the 1994 Pittwater Council Stapleton Park Plan of Management, clearly illustrates. The * beside some species shows introduced plants, including weeds - which is left in to demonstrate why Pittwater has such a strong volunteer bushcare base. These areas are precious and looking after them and ridding them of these weeds so the original environment can be enjoyed, the plants endemic to here retained, and a home for all the animals that live here is very important. If you want to contribute there's a list of the Bushcare reserves and dates and times residents are turning up to restore these places in the Environment page. You do have to do a bit of learning through Council first, but imagine all you will learn through doing so.

Next time you glance up at that hill remember this too is part of your inheritance and all of us are Keepers of these places - let's look after them - it's not just a patch of trees, grass and ferns!


FERNS: Adiantum aethiopicum  (Common Maidenhair), Asplenium flabellifolium  (Necklace Fern), Blechnum cartilagineum  (Gristle Fern), Doodia aspera  (Rasp Fern) , Cyathea australis  (Rough Tree-fern), Davallia pyxidata  (Hare's Foot Fern) * Nephrolepis cordifolia NT (Fishbone Fern), Pteridium esculentum (Bracken Fern), Calochlaena dubia (False Bracken Fern), Lindsaea linearis (Screw Fern)

GYMNOSPERMS: Macrozamia communis (Burrawang).

ANGIOSPERMS: Pseuderanthemum variabile (Pastel Flower).

APIACEAE: Actinotus helianthi (Flannel Flower), Hydrocotyle bonariensis (Kurnell Curse), Hydrocotyle laxiflora, Trachymene incisa, Xanthosia pilosa (Hairy Xanthosia), Xanthosia tridentata 

APOCYNACEAE: Parsonsia straminea (Silkpod Vine).

ARALIACEAE: Astrotricha latifolia, Hedera helix (English Ivy), Polyscias sambucifolia (Elderberry Panax).

ASCLEPIADACEAE: Marsdenia suaveolens, Tylophora barbata (Bearded Tylophora).

ASTERACEAE: * Ageratina adenophora (Crofton Weed), * Ageratina riparia (Mist-flower)* Bidens pilosa (Cobblers Peg) Brachycome sp., angustifolia ssp. angustifolia, * Coreopsis lanceolata (Coreopsis) *Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush), * Conyza sp. (Fleabane), Craspedia variabilis, * Hypochaeris radicata (Catsear), Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Senecio sp. 

BALSAMINACEAE: * Impatiens walleriana (Balsam), 

BASELLACEAE: * Anredera cordifolia (Madeira Vine)

BIGNONIACEAE: Pandorea pandorana (Wonga Vine)

CAPRIFOLIACEAE: *Lonicera japonica (Japanese Honeysuckle)

CASSYTHACEAE: Cassytha sp. 

CASUARINACEAE: Allocasuarina littoralis (Black She-oak), Allocasuarina torulosa (Forest Oak)

CELASTRACEAE: Maytenus silvestris 

CONVOLVULACEAE: Dichondra repens (Kidney Weed)

CRASSULACEAE: Crassula sieberiana (Australian Stonecrop)

CUNONIACEAE: Schizomeria ovata (Crabapple)

DILLENIACEAE: Hibbertia aspera, Hibbertia dentata (Twining Guinea Flower), Hibbertia obtusifolia, Hibbertia riparia 

DROSERACEAE: Drosera sp. 

EBENACEAE: Diospyros australis (Australian Ebony)

ELAEOCARPACEAE: Elaeocarpus reticulatus (Blueberry Ash)

EPACRIDACEAE: Epacris longifolia (Native Fuschia), Epacris pulchella (Pink Swamp Heath), Leucopogon juniperinus (Prickly Beard-heath), Leucopogon lanceolatus (Lance-leaved Beard-heath), Monotoca elliptica (Broom Heath), Monotoca scoparia, Trochocarpa laurina (Tree Heath)

EUPHORBIACEAE: Breynia oblongifolia, Glochidion ferdinandii (Cheese Tree), Omalanthus populifolius (Bleeding Heart), Phyllanthus gasstroemii, Phyllanthus hirtellus (Thyme Spurge)

EUPOMATIACEAE: Eupomatia laurina (Bolworra)

FABACEAE: Acacia elongata, Acacia floribunda (Gossamer Wattle), Acacia implexa (Hickory Wattle), Acacia irrorata ssp. irrorata, Acacia longifolia (Sydney Golden Wattle), Acacia longissima, Acacia suaveolens (Sweet-scented Wattle), Acacia ulicifolia (Prickly Moses), Bossiaea ensata, Desmodium varians, Desmodium rhytidophyllum, Glycine clandestina, Glycine tabacina, Gompholobium latifolium (Golden Glory Pea), Hardenbergia violacea (Purple Twining Pea), Jacksonia scoparia (Dogwood), Kennedia rubicunda (Dusky Coral Pea), Oxylobium ilicifolium (Native Holly), Platylobium formosum, Pultenaea daphnoides, * Senna pendula var. glabrata (Cassia)

GOODENIACEAE: Dampiera stricta, Goodenia heterophylla, Scaevola ramosissima

LAMIACEAE: Plectranthus parviflorus (Cockspur Flower), Prostanthera denticulata

LAURACEAE: Cryptocarya microneura (Murrogun), Neolitsea dealbata (White Bolly Gum)

LOBELIACEAE: Pratia purpurascens (Purple Pratia)

LOGANIACEAE: Mitrasacme polymorpha, Muellerina eucalyptoides

MELIACEAE:Synoum glandulosum (Bastard Rosewood)

MENISPERMACEAE: Sarcopetalum harveyanum (Pearl Vine), Stephania japonica var. discolor (Snake Vine)

MONIMIACEAE: Wilkiea huegeliana (Veiny Wilkiea)

MORACEAE: Ficus rubiginosa (Port Jackson Fig), Ficus coronata (Sandpaper Fig)

MYRSINACEAE: Rapanea howittiana (Brush Muttonwood), Rapanea variabilis (Muttonwood)

MYRTACEAE: Acmena smithii (Lilly Pilly), Angophora costata (Smooth-barked Apple), Angophora floribunda (Rough-barked Apple), Eucalyptus botryoides (Bangalay), Eucalyptus gummifera (Red Bloodwood), Eucalyptus maculata (Spotted Gum), Eucalyptus paniculata (Grey Ironbark), Eucalyptus piperita (Sydney Peppermint), Eucalyptus punctata (Grey Gum), Eucalyptus resinifera (Red Mahogany), Eucalyptus umbra (Broad-leaved White Mahogany), Kunzea ambigua (Tick Bush), Leptospermum lanigerum (Hairy Tea Tree), Leptospermum polygalifolium (Yellow Tea Tree), Leptospermum trinervium (Paperbark Tea Tree), Rhodamnia rubescens (Brush Turpentine), Syncarpia glomulifera (Turpentine).

OCHNACEAE: * Ochna serrulata (Ochna)

OLEACEAE: * Ligustrum sinense (Small-leaf Privet), Notelaea longifolia (Native Olive), * Olea africana (African Olive)

OXALIDACEAE: Oxalis corniculata (Wood Sorrel)

PASSIFLORACEAE: * Passiflora edulis (Common Passionfruit), Passiflora herbertiana (Yellow Passion-flower)

PITTOSPORACEAE: Billardiera scandens (Dumplings), Pittosporum revolutum (Hairy Pittosporum), Pittosporum undulatum (Sweet Pittosporum).

PLANTAGINACEAE: * Plantago lanceolata (Lambs Tongue)

POLYGONACEAE: * Acetosa sagittata (Turkey Rhubarb)

PROTEACEAE: Banksia integrifolia (Coast Banksia), Banksia serrata (Old Man Banksia), Banksia spinulosa (Hairpin Banksia), Hakea salicifolia (Willow Hakea), Lomatia silaifolia (Crinkle Bush), Persoonia levis (Broad-leaved Geebung), Persoonia linearis (Narrow-leaved Geebung).

RANUNCULACEAE: Clematis aristata (Old Man's Beard)

RHAMNACEAE: Pomaderris ligustrina (Privet-leaved Pomaderris), Alphitonia excelsa 

ROSACEAE: * Eriobotrya japonica (Loquat), * Rhaphiolepis indica (Indian Hawthorn), Rubus parvifolius (Native Raspberry).

RUBIACEAE: Morinda jasminoides, Opercularia aspera, Pomax umbellata.

RUTACEAE: Zieria smithii, Acronychia oblongifolia

SANTALACEAE: Exocarpos cupressiformis (Native Cherry)

SOLANACEAE: * Solanum mauritianum (Wild Tobacco Tree), Solanum prinophyllum, Solanum pungetium 

STERCULIACEAE: Brachychiton populneum (Kurrajong), Commersonia fraseri (Brush Kurrajong).

STYLIDIACEAE: Stylidium lineare (Trigger Plant).

THYMELAEACEAE: Wikstroemia indica 

TROPAEOLACEAE: * Tropaeolum majus (Nasturtium)

ULMACEAE: Trema aspera (Native Peach)

VERBENACEAE: Clerodendrum tomentosum (Hairy Clerodendrum), * Lantana camara (Lantana)

VIOLACEAE: Hybanthus monopetalus,  Viola hederacea (Native Violet)

VITACEAE: Cayratia clematidea (Slender Grape Vine), Cissus antarctica (Water Vine), Cissus hypoglauca (Native Grape)


AGAVACEAE: * Agave americana (Century Plant)

ARACEAE: Gymnostachys anceps (Settlers Flax)

ARECACEAE: Livistona australis (Cabbage Tree Palm)

CANNACEAE: * Canna indica (Canna Lily)

COMMELINACEAE: * Tradescantia albiflora (Wandering Jew), Commelina cyanea 

CYPERACEAE R: Carex sp., Cyperus sp.  Gahnia sp: G.sieberana and G.melanocarpa (Sword Grass), Isolepis nodosus (Knobby Club Rush), Lepidosperma laterale, Schoenus sp.  

IRIDACEAE: * Freesia refracta var. odorata (Common Freesia), Patersonia sericea (Native Iris), * Watsonia bulbillifera (Watsonia)

JUNCACEAE: Juncus planifolius (Broad-leaved Rush)

LILIACEAE: * Agapanthus africanus (Lily of the Nile), Arthropodium milleflorum (Vanilla Lily), Caesia vittata, Dianella caerulea (Paroo Lily), * Lilium formosanum (Formosan Lily), * Protasparagus aethiopicus (Asparagus Fern), Schelhammera undulata, Thysanotus tuberosus (Fringe Lily).

LOMANDRACEAE: Lomandra filiformis, Lomandra glauca, lomandra longifolia (Spiny-headed Mat Rush), Lomandra obliqua.

ORCHIDACEAE: Acianthus exsertus (Mosquito Orchid), Acianthus fornicatus (Pixie Caps), Caladenia sp., Caladenia carnea (Pink Fingers), Caladenia catenata (White Fingers), Caleana major  (Flying Duck-orchid), Chiloglottis sp., Cryptostylis erecta (Bonnet Orchid), Dipodium punctatum (Hyacinth Orchid), Diuris aurea (Golden Doubletails), * Epidendrum ibaguense (Crucifix Orchid), Microtis sp. (Onion Orchid), Prasophyllum sp. (Leek Orchid),  Pterostylis acuminata (Sharp Greenhood), Pterostylis nutans (Nodding Greenhood), Thelymitra ixioides (Dotted Sun Orchid), Thelymitra nuda (Plain Sun Orchid).

PHILESIACEAE: Eustrephus latifolius (Wombat Berry), Geitonoplesium cymosum (Scrambling Lily).

POACEAE: * Andropogon virginicus (Whisky Grass), Anisopogon avenaceus, * Arundo donax (Giant Reed), * Bambusa sp. (Bamboo), * Cortaderia selloana (Pampas Grass), Cymbopogon refractus (Barbwire Grass), Dichelachne micrantha, Dichelachne rara, Digitaria parviflora (Small-flowered Summer Grass), Echinopogon caespitosus (Tufted Hedgehog Grass), * Ehrharta erecta (Panic Veldt Grass), Entolasia marginata, Entolasia stricta (Wiry Panic), Eragrostis sp. (Love Grass), Imperata cylindrica var. major (Blady Grass), Microlaena stipoides (Weeping Meadow Grass), Oplismenus imbecillis, Panicum simile (Two-colour Panic), Paspalidium distans, * Paspalum dilatatum (Paspalum), * Paspalum urvillei NT (Vasey Grass), Poa affinis, * Setaria geniculata (Slender Pigeon Grass), Themeda australis (Kangaroo Grass).

SMILACACEAE: Smilax australis (Lawyer Vine), Smilax glyciphylla (Sweet Sarsaparilla).

XANTHORRHOEACEAE: Xanthorrhoea arborea, Xanthorrhoea resinosa.

ZINGIBERACEAE: * Hedychium gardneranum NT (Ginger Plant) .

* - Introduced species or native plants not indigenous to the area

Streptopelia chinensis   Spotted Turtledove
Lopholaimus antarcticus  Topknot Pigeon
Trichoglossus haematodus  Rainbow Lorikeet
T.chlorolepidotus  Scaly-breasted Lorikeet
Calyptorhynchus lathami  Glossy Black Cockatoo
Cacatua galerita  Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
C.roseicapilla  Galah
Alisterus scapularis  King Parrot
Platycercus elegans  Crimson Rosella
P.eximius  Eastern Rosella
Cuculus pyrrhophanus  Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Eudynamys scolopacea  Common Koel
Ninox novaeseelandiae  Southern Boobook
Dacelo novaeguineae  Kookaburra
Halcyon sancta Sacred Kingfisher
Eurystomus orientalis Dollarbird
Coracina novaehollandiae  Black-faced Cuckoo- shrike
Pachycephala pectoralis  Golden Whistler
Rhipidura fuliginosa  Grey Fantail
Malurus cyanea  Superb Fairy Wren
M.lamberti Variegated Fairy-wren
Sericornis frontalis  White-browed Scrubwren
Gerygone olivacea White-throated Warbler 
Acanthiza pusilla  Brown Thornbill
Manorina melanocephala Noisy Miner
Anthochaera carunculata  Red Wattlebird
A.chryssoptera Little Wattlebird
Philemon corniculatus  Noisy Friarbird
Lichenostomus chrysops Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Melithreptus lunatus White-naped Honeyeater
Phylidonyris nigra White-cheeked Honeyeater
P. novaehollandiae New Holland Honeyeater
Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Eastern Spinebill
Dicaeum hirundinaceum Mistletoebird
Pardalotus punctatus Spotted Pardalote
P.striatus Striated Pardalote
Zosterops lateralis Silvereye
Dicrurus megarhynchus Spangled Drongo
Cracticus torquatus Grey Butcherbird
Strepera graculina Pied Currawong
Gymnorhina tibicen Australian Magpie
Corvus coronoides Australian Raven

Perameles nasuta Long-nosed Bandicoot
Pseudocheirus peregrinus Common Ringtailed Possum
Petaurus breviceps Sugar Glider
P.norfolcensis Squirrel Glider
Trichosurus vulpecula Common Brushtailed  Possum
Rattus rattus*  Black Rat
Pteropus poliocephalus  Grey-headed Flying Fox
Chalinolobus gouldii Gould's Wattled Bat
Vulpes vulpes* Red Fox

Ramphotyphlops nigrescens Blind Snake
Cacophis squamulosus Golden-crowned Snake
Drysdalea rhodogaster  Swamp Snake
Dendrelaphis punctulatus Green Tree Snake
Demansia psammophis Yellow-faced Whip Snake
Pseudechis porphyriacus Red-bellied Black Snake
Pseudonaja textilis Eastern Brown Snake
Phyllurus platurus Southern Leaf-tailed Gecko
Ctenotus taeniolatus Copper-tailed Skink
C. robustus Striped Skink 
Egernia cunninghami Cunningham's Skink
Egernia whitii White's Skink
Eulamprus quoyii Water Skink
Lampropholis delicata  Garden Skink
L.guichenoti Grass Skink
Saiphos equalis Three-toed Skink
Saproscincus mustelina Weasel Skink
Tiliqua scincoides  Blue-tongued Lizard

Limnodynastes peronii  Striped Marsh Frog
Crinia signifera Eastern Common Froglet
Litoria peronii Peron's Tree Frog 

Some Of What Was Seen

Scaly-breasted Lorikeet - pair seen checking out a tree hollow for nesting

Marita is kindly providing some scale for following photos of this particular Angophora:


The road down to the Avalon Beach side of the hill. We went North-West to go to Clareville-Careel Bay side of hill down Riviera:

That magnificent Grey Gum (E. punctata) example on the hill heading down Riviera Avenue in collage of photos to show its size.

Above and below; The view coming down Riviera Avenue to the West and to the North - where end of Lion Island may be glimpsed: