inbox and environment news: Issue 577
March 26 - April 1 2023: Issue 577
Varroa Mite Spread: Palm Beach - Whale Beach Now In Eradication Zone: Local Beekeeper's Hives Safe So Far
Palm Beach and Whale beach became part of the eradication zone for European honey bees on March 20 - the NSW DPI sent through a media release and has been out in our community inspecting local hives, all of which have been found free of the mite at present.
President of the Northern Beaches Beekeepers Giles Stoddard, spoke to Pittwater Online this week stating his own hives (Avalon Honey) had been inspected on Monday, March 20, and all were good. Mr. Stoddard is known in the community for his advocacy of keeping hives clean and the processes to do so.
He is pleased the DPI is still pursuing its eradication program for infected hives, although he understands how devastating it must be for those impacted to lose whole colonies they have worked for years to build.
''It's the feral European honeybees we have to watch out for, those that are not part of a hive but are in the landscape and can infect other hives. Unless we get a very strong wind blowing from the Central Coast and Umina, local hives should remain varroa free.''
A baiting program is being rolled out by DPI for those wild honeybees using an insecticide which does not attract non-target species, such as native bees.
On March 21, 2023 NSW Department of Primary Industries (DPI) stated surveillance and tracing activities has confirmed six new Varroa mite infestations in beehives at four locations across the Central Coast, Hunter and mid-north coast regions.
The new sites are at Mooney Mooney, Clarence Town, Mitchell’s Flat and Booral. The new detections bring the total infested premises to 137.
DPI Varroa Mite Response State Coordinator, Dr Chris Anderson, said the detections were a testament to the extensive tracing and surveillance work being undertaken, by beekeepers and DPI, to manage the outbreak.
“These new sites have low mite loads, which suggests they are very recent infestations,” he said.
“The recent detection on the Central Coast, however, has meant DPI is now concentrating its Varroa response surveillance activities into the northern suburbs of Sydney, to ensure the infestation is localised and that there is no mite population in the area.
“DPI has also had to extend the eradication (red) zone following the new detections on the mid-north coast.
“We know that this is a difficult time for impacted beekeepers, but controlling and eradicating this destructive mite is critically important to NSW and Australia.
“Changes in the number of infected premises are expected at this stage in the response, however what is encouraging is that these mites are being found quickly.
“We thank beekeepers and the community for their cooperation with the response.
For more information, visit the DPI website www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/varroa or call 1800 084 881
NB; Varroa mite emergency zones as of March 24, 2023; There are three Varroa mite zones.
Photo European honeybee at Newport: AJG/PON
Australia’s 2023 Eucalypt Of The Year Is The Angophora Costata!
Announced by Eucalypt Australia on March 23 2023, and during its 10th year, this wonderful tree can be seen throughout our area and is so loved one of our early Reserves is named for one example, which sadly fell back to earth, after a long life, just last year in Angophora Reserve at Avalon Beach - there are some insights in the 2022 History page - which will rerun as the History feature this Issues as a special extra celebration.
It’s no wonder the tree is so well-loved, with those fantastically wiggly limbs that capture the imagination, and that smooth red bark that calls out to be touched!
Known as kajimbourra by the Dharawal people, the Sydney Red Gum is synonymous with the sandstone escarpments of the Greater Sydney region, where it grows in woodlands on shallow, sandy soils. Also known as the Smooth-barked Apple, the species is distributed from Bodalla on the NSW South Coast to Coffs Harbour (NSW North Coast), from the coast to adjacent inland ranges. Interestingly, there are disjunct populations on sandstone escarpments west of Townsville, suggesting a wider historic distribution.
Many Australians will be most familiar with the Sydney Red Gum as an important part of the urban forest in our cities and towns. With its broad trunk, attractive bark and spreading form, the species has been planted widely across suburban parklands and streetscapes and is beloved well beyond its natural range.
The Sydney Red Gum has this in common with this year’s runners-up, the Lemon-scented Gum (Corymbia citriodora) and Red Flowering Gum (Corymbia ficifolia). Each are so widely and commonly planted they have become part of the Australian psyche, at least in the south, where they evoke strong memories of childhood summers and days past.
But this year, it's our beloved angophora's turn to be lauded and applauded - if you want to see them persist, and have the room, plant a tree - some local instances:
On a local street
In McKay Reserve
Kimbriki Resource Recovery Centre March 2023 Updates: Native Bees Are Back At Kimbriki + Clean Water Diversion System
Native Bees are Back
The team at the Eco House & Garden have recently been collaborating with the team in Ku-ring-gai Council's Strategy & Environment Department (Loving Living Ku-ring-gai). Various information and experiences have been shared on topics including education, composting set ups, waterwise gardens, visitor interactions and experiences, and native bees.
Sadly Kimbriki, like many others, lost our native bees during the extreme weather conditions experienced in 2022. We were delighted to receive a new native beehive yesterday, March 24, 203, for our Eco Garden, donated by Ku-ring-gai Council and kindly delivered and installed by their resident bee expert, Alex Austin. We look forward to having the "girls" in our garden and sharing the joys of our stingless native bees with our visitors again.
Find out more about the importance of native bees at: www.wheenbeefoundation.org.au/about-bees-pollination/australian-native-bees
Photos: Kimbriki Resource Recovery Centre
Clean Water Diversion System
Have you visited Kimbriki recently and noticed the earthworks taking place?
We are busy implementing a Clean Water Diversion System, which will capture and divert water around the Kimbriki site.
Mark Wiser, Kimbriki's General Manager Operations provides a great overview of this important infrastructure project.
Swamp Wallaby At Palm Beach
Westleigh Park - Critically Endangered Forest - POM Open For Feedback By Hornsby Council Until April 8
Purchased from Sydney Water in 2016, the 36-hectare Westleigh Park, Hornsby Council states, will play a key role in recreational provision for the district including a diverse range of provisions for formal sports, passive recreation (e.g. picnics, walking, playground), mountain biking and ancillary facilities (including internal roads, carparks, amenities buildings, shared paths and water management).
At its 8 March 2023 Council Meeting, Hornsby Council endorsed a revised draft Master Plan for Westleigh Park to be published for comment as part of the exhibition of the draft Plan of Management (read the Business Papers and Minutes).
The revised draft Master Plan seeks to provide a conceptual framework for ongoing planning on the site.
The draft Plan of Management establishes an appropriate character and scale for the development and management for Westleigh Park. It will enable the construction of new open space facilities at Westleigh Park to commence and will help identify a program of development and ongoing maintenance works.
Closes April 9, 2023
Video published March 24, 2023 by Wild Bush Solutions
Calling All Citizen Scientists: Hunt For Shark Egg Cases Launches In Australia
March 20, 2023: CSIRO, Australia’s national science agency, is calling on citizen scientists to find and record egg cases washing up on Australian coasts, so researchers can better-understand oviparous chondrichthyans: egg-laying sharks, skates and chimaeras.
The Great Eggcase Hunt, an initiative of United Kingdom-based charity The Shark Trust, has launched in Australia in partnership with CSIRO to help provide new data for scientists studying the taxonomy and distribution of oviparous chondrichthyans.
Helen O’Neill, CSIRO Australian National Fish Collection biologist, said recording sightings of egg cases on beaches and coastlines would help scientists discover what the egg cases of different chondrichthyans look like, with some species still unknown.
“Egg cases are important for understanding the basic biology of oviparous chondrichthyans, as well as revealing valuable information such as where different species live and where their nurseries are located,” Ms O’Neill said.
Cat Gordon, Senior Conservation Officer at The Shark Trust, said the Great Eggcase Hunt began in the United Kingdom 20 years ago and has since recorded more than 380,000 individual egg cases from around the world.
“We’re really excited to be partnering with CSIRO to officially launch this citizen science project in Australia and to be able to expand the Shark Trust’s eggcase identification resources," Ms Gordon said.
"There’s such a diversity of species to be found around the Australian coastline, and with a tailored identification guide created for each state, they really showcase the different catsharks, skate, horn sharks, carpetsharks and chimaera eggcases that can be found washed ashore or seen while diving,” she said.
Also known as mermaids’ purses, egg cases come in many different shapes and colours, ranging from cream and butterscotch to deep amber and black. They range in size from approximately 4 to 25 centimetres.
Some egg cases have a smooth and simple appearance, while others have ridges, keels or curling tendrils that anchor them to kelp or coral. Port Jackson sharks have corkscrew-shaped egg cases that they wedge into rocks.
Each different species' egg case has a unique morphology that is helpful in taxonomy, the science of describing and naming species.
“At the Australian National Fish Collection, we are matching egg cases to the species that laid them,” Ms O’Neill said.
“We borrow egg cases from other collections, museums and aquariums around the world and use our own specimens collected from fish markets and surveys at sea or extracted from the ovaries of preserved specimens in our collection,” she said.
Chondrichthyans have the most diverse reproduction strategies found among vertebrates, encompassing parthenogenesis (no father), multiple paternity (more than one father of the litter), adelphophagy (baby sharks predating each other in the womb) and various modes of egg laying.
Egg cases found on beaches rarely contain live embryos, whose incubation times range from a few months up to three years, depending on the species.
“Egg cases found washed up on beaches have likely already hatched, died prematurely due to being washed ashore or been predated on by creatures like sea snails, who bore a hole in the egg case and suck out the contents,” Ms O’Neill said.
The Shark Trust is a United-Kingdom-based charity dedicated to safeguarding the future of sharks, skates, rays, and chimaera through positive change. The Trust achieves this through science, education, influence and action.
To get involved in the Great Eggcase Hunt, you can record sightings via the Shark Trust citizen science mobile phone app or through the project website: www.sharktrust.org/greateggcasehunt
Photo: Port Jackson shark egg on Station Beach at Pittwater. Image PON/AJG
The Port Jackson shark (Heterodontus portusjacksoni) is a nocturnal, oviparous (egg laying) type of bullhead shark of the family Heterodontidae, found in the coastal region of southern Australia, including the waters off Port Jackson. It has a large, blunt head with prominent forehead ridges and dark brown harness-like markings on a lighter grey-brown body, and can grow up to 1.65 metres (5.5 ft) long. They are the largest in the genus Heterodontus.
The Port Jackson shark is a migratory species, traveling south in the summer and returning north to breed in the winter. It feeds on hard-shelled mollusks, crustaceans, sea urchins, and fish. Identification of this species is very easy due to the pattern of harness-like markings that cross the eyes, run along the back to the first dorsal fin, then cross the side of the body, in addition to the spine in front of both dorsal fins.
These sharks are are oviparous, meaning that they lay eggs rather than give live birth to their young. The species has an annual breeding cycle which begins in late August and continues until the middle of November. During this time, the female lays pairs of eggs every 8-17 days. As many as eight pairs can be laid during this period. The eggs mature for 10–11 months before the hatchlings, known as neonates, can break out of the egg capsule.
Port Jackson shark adults are often seen resting in caves in groups, and prefer to associate with specific sharks based on sex and size. Juvenile Port Jackson sharks, on the other hand, do not appear to be social. A captive study showed that these juveniles did not prefer to spend time next to other sharks, even when they were familiar with each other (i.e. tank mates). Juvenile Port Jackson sharks have unique personality traits, just like humans. Some were bolder than others when exploring a novel environment and they also reacted differently to a stressful situation (in choosing a freeze or flight response).
Juvenile Port Jackson sharks are also capable of learning to associate bubbles, LED lights, or sounds with receiving a food reward, can distinguish different quantities (i.e. count), and can learn by watching what other sharks are doing.
At least in some of these lab experiments males are shyer than females and boldness increases with consecutive trials of the same experiment. In experiments with different music genres, none of the sharks tested learned to discriminate between a jazz and a classical music stimulus.
Port Jackson Sharks are considered harmless to humans, although the teeth, whilst not large or sharp, can give a painful bite.
Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Photo: Mark Norman, Museums Victoria
Cat Owners Encouraged To Keep Their Pets Safe At Home
Wednesday, 1 March 2023
Northern Beaches residents are being encouraged to keep their pets safe at home as part of a new animal protection campaign.
According to RSPCA NSW, two out of three cat owners have lost a cat to a roaming-related accident, and one in three to a car accident. Northern Beaches Council is proud to be one of 11 councils partnering with RSPCA NSW as part of the Keeping Cats Safe at Home project.
Promoting responsible ownership, the new campaign goes beyond desexing and micro chipping of beloved cats and asks owners to consider keeping their cats at home.
Northern Beaches CEO Ray Brownlee said there’s a dual benefit to cats and local wildlife that flows directly from promoting responsible ownership of domesticated cats.
“Northern Beaches residents love their pets, but they’re also passionate about protecting the local environment,” Mr Brownlee said.
“Because pet cats occupy a special place in our hearts we need to educate the community on how have them microchip and desexed to keep them safe. This initiative has an educational focus. It aims to protect tiny native species like lizards, mammals, baby birds and frogs, while also preventing domesticated cats from falling prey to road accidents.”
In 2021, the NSW Government awarded a $2.5 million grant from the NSW Environmental Trust to RSPCA NSW to deliver the project.
To help promote the campaign, Council is asking cat-lovers living on the Northern Beaches to submit a photo of their cat or kitten living their best life at home and go in the draw to win one of 10 $1000 vouchers for a deluxe outdoor cat enclosure from Catnets. The competition opens on March 1st and closes on Sunday April 9th 2023. Finalists will be published in an online gallery.
For competition details visit www.northernbeaches.nsw.gov.au/environment/non-native-animals/cats/competition-keeping-cats-safe-home
Learn more about keeping cats safe at www.rspcansw.org.au/keeping-cats-safe
Photo: Greg Hume
Black Summer Vigil For Wildlife: April 2nd
The New South Wales Wildlife Council invites all wildlife carers, wildlife vets, vet nurses, first responders and supporters to the upcoming Black Summer Vigil for Wildlife on Sunday April 2nd 2023 starting at 2pm.
Please join us for the Black Summer Vigil, a three-year anniversary memorial service for the three billion animals who lost their lives in the fires – “one of the worst wildlife disasters in modern history”.
Attend online or in-person at Camperdown Memorial Rest Park (Sydney).
RSVP at: blacksummervigil.com
You’ll hear personal stories from the NSW Wildlife Council, Southern Cross Wildlife Care and other first responders across wildlife rescue, rural fire service, photojournalism, Aboriginal custodianship, veterinary medicine, ecology and more.
+ Performance and Ceremony by Jannawi Dance Clan, sharing a Dharug cultural perspective to honour the Ancestors and bring the spirit of the animals into our midst.
Join us to honour the animals who perished – and in doing so, celebrate the unique and extraordinary wildlife of these lands.
Greg Mullins, Former Commissioner, Fire and Rescue NSW; Climate Councillor and founder, Emergency Leaders for Climate Action. Greg warned Australia's then–Prime Minister in April 2019 that a bushfire catastrophe was coming. He pleaded for support and was ignored, then risked his life dealing with the ramifications on the ground. “You couldn’t see very far because of the orange smoke. Everything was dark. It was probably 2 o’clock in the afternoon but it was like night. Then I saw something moving on the side of the road and I walked closer. It was a mob of kangaroos. The speed of that fire with its pyroconvective storm driving it in every direction, they had nowhere to go. They came out of the forest, on fire, and dropped dead on the road. I’ve never seen that. Kangaroos know what to do in a fire. They’re fast animals. Climate change, driven by the burning of coal, oil, and gas is driving worsening bushfires across Australia, and putting our precious, irreplaceable wildlife in danger.”
Internationally recognised ecologist and WWF board member, Professor Christopher Dickman oversaw the work calculating the animal deaths from Black Summer. A Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science, Professor Dickman already wore the heavy task of being an ecologist during the sixth mass extinction, in the country that has the worst rate of mammalian extinction in the world. On 8 January 2020 media around the world shared his finding that Black Summer fires had killed one billion animals. Sadly, the fires continued for two more months, and his team's final count was three billion. This does not include invertebrates: it is estimated 240 trillion beetles, moths, spiders, yabbies and other invertebrates died in the fires.
Coming up from the South Coast, owner of Wild2Free Kangaroo Sanctuary Rae Harvey, as seen in The Bond and The Fire. She is in the sad position of having personally known and cared for a number of Black Summer's victims: many of the orphaned joeys she cared for were killed in the fires. (She nearly died herself too.) For three years, she has been unable to even speak their names. Now, for the first time, she will tell the story of the joeys she lost.
Cultural burning practitioner and Southern NSW Regional Coordinator with Firesticks Alliance, Djiringanj-Yuin Custodian Dan Morgan. Dan practises using Aboriginal knowledge to heal Country. He has worked for 18 years with the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service and is on the board of management for the Biamanga National Park, a sacred area home to the last surviving koalas on the NSW south coast – which was partly destroyed by the fires of Black Summer. “The animals that live on our sacred sites are our Ancestors, it's our Cultural obligation to protect them. We have evolved with our Country over thousands of years, nourishing and protecting all living species. Our Country represents our people. So when the fires came, it was devastating to see the aftermath, and the feeling of helplessness was truly traumatising for our people, due to the denial of our Cultural right to manage Country as our Ancestors did for thousands of years prior to colonisation. Australia needs to make legislative changes that allow us to heal Country and our community through the fire knowledge and to stop incinerating ecosystems with destructive 'hazard-reduction' burns."
Head of Programs & Disaster Response at Humane Society International (HSI), Evan Quartermain was one of the first responders on Kangaroo Island where nearly 40% of the island burnt at high severity: “Those were some of the toughest scenes I’d ever witnessed as an animal rescuer: the bodies of charred animals as far as the eye can see. Every time we found an animal alive it felt like a miracle.” As a result of this firsthand experience, HSI commissioned a report into the state of Australia's disaster response for wildlife, which we'll also hear about.
+ More to come.
The Black Summer Vigil is brought to you by the Department of Animals, Animals Australia, the NSW Wildlife Council, World Animal Protection, Humane Society International and Defend the Wild, with support from WIRES, Firesticks Alliance, Nature Conservation Council of NSW, Wild2Free Kangaroo Rescue, Four Paws, Friends of the Koala and Kangaroos Alive.
Permaculture Northern Beaches - Upcoming Events
- Learn about Permaculture design
- Caring for and raising chickens
- Native bees and bee hotels
- Living Skills - soap making
- AND Live Music!
Report Fox Sightings
Weed Of The Week: Cassia - Please Pull Out And Save Our Bush
New Marine Wildlife Rescue Group On The Central Coast
A new wildlife group was launched on the Central Coast on Saturday, December 10, 2022.
Marine Wildlife Rescue Central Coast (MWRCC) had its official launch at The Entrance Boat Shed at 10am.
The group comprises current and former members of ASTR, ORRCA, Sea Shepherd, Greenpeace, WIRES and Wildlife ARC, as well as vets, academics, and people from all walks of life.
Well known marine wildlife advocate and activist Cathy Gilmore is spearheading the organisation.
“We believe that it is time the Central Coast looked after its own marine wildlife, and not be under the control or directed by groups that aren’t based locally,” Gilmore said.
“We have the local knowledge and are set up to respond and help injured animals more quickly.
“This also means that donations and money fundraised will go directly into helping our local marine creatures, and not get tied up elsewhere in the state.”
The organisation plans to have rehabilitation facilities and rescue kits placed in strategic locations around the region.
MWRCC will also be in touch with Indigenous groups to learn the traditional importance of the local marine environment and its inhabitants.
“We want to work with these groups and share knowledge between us,” Gilmore said.
“This is an opportunity to help save and protect our local marine wildlife, so if you have passion and commitment, then you are more than welcome to join us.”
Marine Wildlife Rescue Central Coast has a Facebook page where you may contact members. Visit: https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100076317431064
Watch Out - Shorebirds About
Possums In Your Roof?: Do The Right Thing
Aviaries + Possum Release Sites Needed
Bushcare In Pittwater
Where we work Which day What time
Angophora Reserve 3rd Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Dunes 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Golf Course 2nd Wednesday 3 - 5:30pm
Careel Creek 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Toongari Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon (8 - 11am in summer)
Bangalley Headland 2nd Sunday 9 to 12noon
Winnererremy Bay 4th Sunday 9 to 12noon
North Bilgola Beach 3rd Monday 9 - 12noon
Algona Reserve 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Plateau Park 1st Friday 8:30 - 11:30am
Browns Bay Reserve 1st Tuesday 9 - 12noon
McCarrs Creek Reserve Contact Bushcare Officer To be confirmed
Old Wharf Reserve 3rd Saturday 8 - 11am
Kundibah Reserve 4th Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Mona Vale Beach Basin 1st Saturday 8 - 11am
Mona Vale Dunes 2nd Saturday +3rd Thursday 8:30 - 11:30am
Bungan Beach 4th Sunday 9 - 12noon
Crescent Reserve 3rd Sunday 9 - 12noon
North Newport Beach 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Porter Reserve 2nd Saturday 8 - 11am
Irrawong Reserve 2nd Saturday 2 - 5pm
North Palm Beach Dunes 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Catherine Park 2nd Sunday 10 - 12:30pm
Elizabeth Park 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Pathilda Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Warriewood Wetlands 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Norma Park 1st Friday 9 - 12noon
Coopers Point, Elvina Bay 2nd Sunday 10 - 1pm
Rocky Point, Elvina Bay 1st Monday 9 - 12noon
Friends Of Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment Activities
Gardens And Environment Groups And Organisations In Pittwater
Federal Government States It Is Using Every Tool In The Box To Conserve More Of Our Iconic Landscapes; Invites Feedback On Framework
- A geographically defined area other than a Protected Area, which is governed and managed
- in ways that achieve positive and sustained long-term outcomes for the in-situ conservation
- of biodiversity, with associated ecosystem functions and services and where applicable,
- cultural, spiritual, socio-economic, and other locally relevant values.
Stressed Out: Mapping The Human Footprint On Coastal Areas Globally
March 20, 2023
A global mapping project led by University of Queensland researchers has revealed the major stressors placed upon global coastlines by human activity.
The team quantified and mapped the presence and extent of major land-based and marine stressors, finding that 97 per cent of coastal areas globally had at least one major stressor present.
Professor Salit Kark from UQ's School of Biological Sciences said the research team were surprised at the sheer extent and far-reaching impact revealed by the footprint map created.
"There is hardly anywhere on the planet, outside of the polar and arctic regions, that does not show some form of human pressure on their coastline," Professor Kark said.
"In essence, we have influenced the majority of coastal areas globally.
"We therefore should aim to map and understand our impacts, and also leave some untouched coastlines."
UQ PhD candidate Hannah Allan said the research outlined the spatial extent and magnitude of 10 major land-based stressors and 10 major marine stressors that occur across coastlines globally.
"The threats human activity pose to coastal ecosystems and biodiversity come from both the land and sea, sometimes arriving far from human activity," Ms Allan said.
"Therefore, coastal conservation must incorporate land-sea connections.
"Human population size, tourism, and roads were some of the biggest contributors to the terrestrial component of Australia's coastal human footprint.
"As for marine stressors, increasing sea surface temperatures, nutrient pollution, and shipping were found to be major drivers of human pressure on Australian coastlines."
Professor Noam Levin said a map of this kind, which assembles both terrestrial and marine stressors and presents the coastal human footprint globally, has rarely been attempted.
"This research offers valuable insights that could help decision-makers and managers identify where to mitigate particular impacts," Prof. Levin said.
"For example, the database underlying the human footprint can show specific areas with high oil and gas operations, such as in Western Australia.
"This can help develop preparedness procedures for the very realistic chance of environmental disasters that impact coastal areas, such as oil spills.
"An added benefit of our new global map is that it helps prioritise these decisions based on how widespread the potential pressures of our human footprint in certain areas of the world might be.
"Coastal areas, where 90 per cent of Australians live, were not immune to these stressors.
"For Australia, the highest human footprint was found in the coastal cities, in the order of Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, and Brisbane.
"We also mapped 160 areas on the planet with the most pristine coastal areas, including several in Australia.
"Of those, nearly 40 per cent were totally unprotected -- opening an opportunity to identify coastal areas for further conservation actions.
"A key finding was that light pollution is increasing, with more white LEDs being used, placing great strain on areas of high importance for biodiversity, disrupting the natural patterns of wildlife."
Moving forward, researchers are looking to fine-tune the mapping process, looking more specifically at Australia's coastlines.
"Our plan is to develop high-resolution coastal footprint mapping for specific coastal areas in Australia, using finer detailed layers that are currently not available at a global scale," Professor Levin said.
Hannah Allan, Noam Levin, Salit Kark. Quantifying and mapping the human footprint across Earth's coastal areas. Ocean & Coastal Management, 2023; 236: 106476 DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2023.106476
Pittwater Reserves: Histories + Notes + Pictorial Walks
A History Of The Campaign For Preservation Of The Warriewood Escarpment by David Palmer OAM and Angus Gordon OAM
A Stroll Through Warriewood Wetlands by Joe Mills February 2023
A Walk Around The Cromer Side Of Narrabeen Lake by Joe Mills
America Bay Track Walk - photos by Joe Mills
An Aquatic June: North Narrabeen - Turimetta - Collaroy photos by Joe Mills
Angophora Reserve Angophora Reserve Flowers Grand Old Tree Of Angophora Reserve Falls Back To The Earth - History page
Annie Wyatt Reserve - A Pictorial
Avalon's Village Green: Avalon Park Becomes Dunbar Park - Some History + Toongari Reserve and Catalpa Reserve
Bairne Walking Track Ku-Ring-Gai Chase NP by Kevin Murray
Bangalley Headland Bangalley Mid Winter
Banksias of Pittwater
Barrenjoey Boathouse In Governor Phillip Park Part Of Our Community For 75 Years: Photos From The Collection Of Russell Walton, Son Of Victor Walton
Barrenjoey Headland: Spring flowers
Barrenjoey Headland after fire
Botham Beach by Barbara Davies
Bungan Beach Bush Care
Careel Bay Saltmarsh plants
Careel Bay Birds
Careel Bay Clean Up day
Careel Bay Playing Fields History and Current
Careel Creek - If you rebuild it they will come
Centre trail in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
Chiltern Track- Ingleside by Marita Macrae
Clareville/Long Beach Reserve + some History
Coastal Stability Series: Cabbage Tree Bay To Barrenjoey To Observation Point by John Illingsworth, Pittwater Pathways, and Dr. Peter Mitchell OAM
Cowan Track by Kevin Murray
Curl Curl To Freshwater Walk: October 2021 by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Currawong and Palm Beach Views - Winter 2018
Currawong-Mackerel-The Basin A Stroll In Early November 2021 - photos by Selena Griffith
Currawong State Park Currawong Beach + Currawong Creek
Deep Creek To Warriewood Walk photos by Joe Mills
Drone Gives A New View On Coastal Stability; Bungan: Bungan Headland To Newport Beach + Bilgola: North Newport Beach To Avalon + Bangalley: Avalon Headland To Palm Beach
Duck Holes: McCarrs Creek by Joe Mills
Dunbar Park - Some History + Toongari Reserve and Catalpa Reserve
Dundundra Falls Reserve: August 2020 photos by Selena Griffith - Listed in 1935
Elsie Track, Scotland Island
Elvina Track in Late Winter 2019 by Penny Gleen
Elvina Bay Walking Track: Spring 2020 photos by Joe Mills
Elvina Bay-Lovett Bay Loop Spring 2020 by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Fern Creek - Ingleside Escarpment To Warriewood Walk + Some History photos by Joe Mills
Iluka Park, Woorak Park, Pittwater Park, Sand Point Reserve, Snapperman Beach Reserve - Palm Beach: Some History
Ingleside Wildflowers August 2013
Irrawong - Ingleside Escarpment Trail Walk Spring 2020 photos by Joe Mills
Irrawong - Mullet Creek Restoration
Katandra Bushland Sanctuary - Ingleside
Lucinda Park, Palm Beach: Some History + 2022 Pictures
McCarr's Creek to Church Point to Bayview Waterfront Path
Mona Vale Beach - A Stroll Along, Spring 2021 by Kevin Murray
Mona Vale Headland, Basin and Beach Restoration
Mona Vale Woolworths Front Entrance Gets Garden Upgrade: A Few Notes On The Site's History
Mount Murray Anderson Walking Track by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment: Past Notes Present Photos by Margaret Woods
Narrabeen Lagoon State Park
Narrabeen Lagoon State Park Expansion
Narrabeen Rockshelf Aquatic Reserve
Nerang Track, Terrey Hills by Bea Pierce
Newport Bushlink - the Crown of the Hill Linked Reserves
Newport Community Garden - Woolcott Reserve
Newport to Bilgola Bushlink 'From The Crown To The Sea' Paths: Founded In 1956 - A Tip and Quarry Becomes Green Space For People and Wildlife
Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves: A Headland Garden
Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty
Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern, Wilshire Parks, McKay Reserve: From Beach to Estuary
Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks
Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer
Pittwater spring: waterbirds return to Wetlands
Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur
Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek
Resolute Track at West Head by Kevin Murray
Resolute Track Stroll by Joe Mills
Riddle Reserve, Bayview
Salvation Loop Trail, Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park- Spring 2020 - by Selena Griffith
Seagull Pair At Turimetta Beach: Spring Is In The Air!
Stapleton Park Reserve In Spring 2020: An Urban Ark Of Plants Found Nowhere Else
Stony Range Regional Botanical Garden: Some History On How A Reserve Became An Australian Plant Park
The Chiltern Track
The Resolute Beach Loop Track At West Head In Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park by Kevin Murray
Topham Track Ku-Ring-Gai Chase NP, August 2022 by Joe Mills and Kevin Murray
Towlers Bay Walking Track by Joe Mills
Trafalgar Square, Newport: A 'Commons' Park Dedicated By Private Landholders - The Green Heart Of This Community
Tranquil Turimetta Beach, April 2022 by Joe Mills
Turimetta Beach Reserve by Joe Mills, Bea Pierce and Lesley
Turimetta Beach Reserve: Old & New Images (by Kevin Murray) + Some History
Warriewood Wetlands - Creeks Deteriorating: How To Report Construction Site Breaches, Weed Infestations + The Long Campaign To Save The Warriewood Wetlands & Ingleside Escarpment March 2023
Warriewood Wetlands and Irrawong Reserve
Whale Beach Ocean Reserve: 'The Strand' - Some History On Another Great Protected Pittwater Reserve
Wilshire Park Palm Beach: Some History + Photos From May 2022
Winji Jimmi - Water Maze
Australian Predators of the Sky by Penny Olsen - published by National Library of Australia
Baby Birds Spring 2015 - Rainbow Lorikeets in our Yard - for Children Baby Birds by Lynleigh Greig, Southern Cross Wildlife Care - what do if being chased by a nesting magpie or if you find a baby bird on the ground
Baby Kookaburras in our Backyard: Aussie Bird Count 2016 - October
Bird of the Month February 2019 by Michael Mannington
Birdsong Is a Lovesong at This time of The Year - Brown Falcon, Little Wattle Bird, Australian Pied cormorant, Mangrove or Striated Heron, Great Egret, Grey Butcherbird, White-faced Heron
Bird Songs – poems about our birds by youngsters from yesterdays - for children Bird Week 2015: 19-25 October
Bird Songs For Spring 2016 For Children by Joanne Seve
Birds at Careel Creek this Week - November 2017: includes Bird Count 2017 for Local Birds - BirdLife Australia by postcode
Black Cockatoo photographed in the Narrabeen Catchment Reserves this week by Margaret G Woods - July 2019
Black-Necked Stork, Mycteria Australis, Now Endangered In NSW, Once Visited Pittwater: Breeding Pair shot in 1855
‘Feather Map of Australia’: Citizen scientists can support the future of Australia's wetland birds: for Birdwatchers, school students and everyone who loves our estuarine and lagoon and wetland birds
Flocks of Colour by Penny Olsen - beautiful new Bird Book Celebrates the 'Land of the Parrots'
Front Page Issue 177 Front Page Issue 185 Front Page Issue 193 - Discarded Fishing Tackle killing shorebirds Front Page Issue 203 - Juvenile Brush Turkey Front Page Issue 208 - Lyrebird by Marita Macrae Front Page Issue 219 Superb Fairy Wren Female Front Page Issue 234: National Bird Week October 19-25 and the 2015 the Aussie Back Yard Bird Count: Australia's First Bird Counts - a 115 Year Legacy - with a small insight into our first zoos Front Page Issue 236: Bird Week 2015 Front Page Issue 244: watebirds Front Page Issue 260: White-face Heron at Careel Creek Front Page Issue 283: Pittwater + more birds for Bird Week/Aussie Bird Count Front Page Issue 284: Pittwater + more birds for Bird Week/Aussie Bird Count Front Page Issue 285: Bird Week 2016 Front Page Issue 331: Spring Visitor Birds Return
Jayden Walsh’s Northern Beaches Big Year - courtesy Pittwater Natural Heritage Association
John Gould's Extinct and Endangered Mammals of Australia by Dr. Fred Ford - Between 1850 and 1950 as many mammals disappeared from the Australian continent as had disappeared from the rest of the world between 1600 and 2000! Zoologist Fred Ford provides fascinating, and often poignant, stories of European attitudes and behaviour towards Australia's native fauna and connects these to the animal's fate today in this beautiful new book - our interview with the author
Juvenile Sea Eagle at Church Point - for children
Kookaburra Turf Kookaburra Fledglings Summer 2013 Kookaburra Nesting Season by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra Nest – Babies at 1.5 and 2.5 weeks old by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra Nest – Babies at 3 and 4 weeks old by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra Nest – Babies at 5 weeks old by Ray Chappelow Kookaburra and Pittwater Fledglings February 2020 to April 2020
Lion Island's Little Penguins (Fairy Penguins) Get Fireproof Homes - thanks to NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Fix it Sisters Shed
Magpie's Melodic Melodies - For Children (includes 'The Magpie's Song' by F S Williamson)
Nankeen Kestrel Feasting at Newport: May 2016
National Bird Week 2014 - Get Involved in the Aussie Backyard Bird Count: National Bird Week 2014 will take place between Monday 20 October and Sunday 26 October, 2014. BirdLife Australia and the Birds in Backyards team have come together to launch this year’s national Bird Week event the Aussie Backyard Bird Count! This is one the whole family can do together and become citizen scientists...
National Bird Week October 19-25 and the 2015 the Aussie Back Yard Bird Count: Australia's First Bird Counts - a 115 Year Legacy - with a small insight into our first zoos
New Family of Barking Owls Seen in Bayview - Church Point by Pittwater Council
Odes to Australia's Fairy-wrens by Douglas Brooke Wheelton Sladen and Constance Le Plastrier 1884 and 1926
Oystercatcher and Dollarbird Families - Summer visitors
Painted Button-Quail Rescued By Locals - Elanora-Ingleside escarpment-Warriewood wetlands birds
Palm Beach Protection Group Launch, Supporters Invited: Saturday Feb.16th - Residents Are Saying 'NO' To Off-Leash Dogs In Station Beach Eco-System - reports over 50 dogs a day on Station Beach throughout December-January (a No Dogs Beach) small children being jumped on, Native birds chased, dog faeces being left, families with toddlers leaving beach to get away from uncontrolled dogs and 'Failure of Process' in council 'consultation' open to February 28th
Pecking Order by Robyn McWilliam
Powerful and Precious by Lynleigh Grieg
Restoring The Diamond: every single drop. A Reason to Keep Dogs and Cats in at Night.
Sea Birds off the Pittwater Coast: Albatross, Gannet, Skau + Australian Poets 1849, 1898 and 1930, 1932
Seen but Not Heard: Lilian Medland's Birds - Christobel Mattingley - one of Australia's premier Ornithological illustrators was a Queenscliff lady - 53 of her previously unpublished works have now been made available through the auspices of the National Library of Australia in a beautiful new book
7 Little Ducklings: Just Keep Paddling - Australian Wood Duck family take over local pool by Peta Wise
Spring Notes 2018 - Royal Spoonbill in Careel Creek
Station Beach Off Leash Dog Area Proposal Ignores Current Uses Of Area, Environment, Long-Term Fauna Residents, Lack Of Safe Parking and Clearly Stated Intentions Of Proponents have your say until February 28, 2019
New Shorebirds WingThing For Youngsters Available To Download
A Shorebirds WingThing educational brochure for kids (A5) helps children learn about shorebirds, their life and journey. The 2021 revised brochure version was published in February 2021 and is available now. You can download a file copy here.
If you would like a free print copy of this brochure, please send a self-addressed envelope with A$1.10 postage (or larger if you would like it unfolded) affixed to: BirdLife Australia, Shorebird WingThing Request, 2-05Shorebird WingThing/60 Leicester St, Carlton VIC 3053.
Shorebird Identification Booklet
The Migratory Shorebird Program has just released the third edition of its hugely popular Shorebird Identification Booklet. The team has thoroughly revised and updated this pocket-sized companion for all shorebird counters and interested birders, with lots of useful information on our most common shorebirds, key identification features, sighting distribution maps and short articles on some of BirdLife’s shorebird activities.
The booklet can be downloaded here in PDF file format: http://www.birdlife.org.au/documents/Shorebird_ID_Booklet_V3.pdf
Paper copies can be ordered as well, see http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/counter-resources for details.
Download BirdLife Australia's children’s education kit to help them learn more about our wading birdlife
Shorebirds are a group of wading birds that can be found feeding on swamps, tidal mudflats, estuaries, beaches and open country. For many people, shorebirds are just those brown birds feeding a long way out on the mud but they are actually a remarkably diverse collection of birds including stilts, sandpipers, snipe, curlews, godwits, plovers and oystercatchers. Each species is superbly adapted to suit its preferred habitat. The Red-necked Stint is as small as a sparrow, with relatively short legs and bill that it pecks food from the surface of the mud with, whereas the Eastern Curlew is over two feet long with a exceptionally long legs and a massively curved beak that it thrusts deep down into the mud to pull out crabs, worms and other creatures hidden below the surface.
Some shorebirds are fairly drab in plumage, especially when they are visiting Australia in their non-breeding season, but when they migrate to their Arctic nesting grounds, they develop a vibrant flush of bright colours to attract a mate. We have 37 types of shorebirds that annually migrate to Australia on some of the most lengthy and arduous journeys in the animal kingdom, but there are also 18 shorebirds that call Australia home all year round.
What all our shorebirds have in common—be they large or small, seasoned traveller or homebody, brightly coloured or in muted tones—is that each species needs adequate safe areas where they can successfully feed and breed.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is managed and supported by BirdLife Australia.
This project is supported by Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority and Hunter Local Land Services through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program. Funding from Helen Macpherson Smith Trust and Port Phillip Bay Fund is acknowledged.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is made possible with the help of over 1,600 volunteers working in coastal and inland habitats all over Australia.
The National Shorebird Monitoring program (started as the Shorebirds 2020 project initiated to re-invigorate monitoring around Australia) is raising awareness of how incredible shorebirds are, and actively engaging the community to participate in gathering information needed to conserve shorebirds.
In the short term, the destruction of tidal ecosystems will need to be stopped, and our program is designed to strengthen the case for protecting these important habitats.
In the long term, there will be a need to mitigate against the likely effects of climate change on a species that travels across the entire range of latitudes where impacts are likely.
The identification and protection of critical areas for shorebirds will need to continue in order to guard against the potential threats associated with habitats in close proximity to nearly half the human population.
Here in Australia, the place where these birds grow up and spend most of their lives, continued monitoring is necessary to inform the best management practice to maintain shorebird populations.
BirdLife Australia believe that we can help secure a brighter future for these remarkable birds by educating stakeholders, gathering information on how and why shorebird populations are changing, and working to grow the community of people who care about shorebirds.
To find out more visit: http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/shorebirds-2020-program
Aussie Bread Tags Collection Points
Common Crow Butterfly Euploea Core
You may be seeing a few of these butterflies around our area at the moment, the Common Crow Butterfly Euploea core.
It belongs to the crows and tigers subfamily Danainae (tribe Danaini). E. core is a glossy-black, medium-sized 85–95 mm (3.3–3.7 in) butterfly with rows of white spots on the margins of its wings. E. core is a slow, steady flier. Due to its unpalatability it is usually observed gliding through the air with a minimum of effort. As caterpillars, this species sequesters toxins from its food plant which are passed on from larva to pupa to the adult. While feeding, it is a very bold butterfly, taking a long time at each bunch of flowers. It can also be found mud-puddling with others of its species and often in mixed groups. The males of this species visit plants like Crotalaria and Heliotropium to replenish pheromone stocks which are used to attract a female during courtship.
It is found in southern Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Russia, and Australia. In its range E. core is found at all elevations, right from sea level up into the mountains to 2,400 metres (8,000 ft). It can be observed in all layers of vegetation and in all types of regions from arid land to forested areas. It can as commonly be seen gliding over the treetops as flitting about a foot off the ground searching for nectar flowers. In thick forests it is often seen moving along open tracks or following the course of a river.
Photo taken in Careel Bay, March 2023. Pic; AJG
The butterfly, being protected by its inedibility, has a leisurely flight. It is often seen flying about shrubs and bushes in search of its host plants. It visits a large variety of flowering plant species. When gliding E. core holds its wings at an angle just greater than the horizontal plane, maintaining its flight with a few measured wingbeats.
E. core is a nectar lover and visits flowers unhurriedly. It seems to prefer bunches to individual flowers. When feeding the butterfly is unhurried and is not easily disturbed. It can be approached closely at this time. On hot days large numbers of these butterflies can be seen mud-puddling on wet sand. E. core is an avid mud-puddler often congregating in huge swarms along with other Euploea species as well as other danaids.
Eggs are laid on the underside of young leaves of the host plants. The egg is shiny white, tall and pointed, with ribbed sides. Just before hatching the eggs turn greyish with a black top. Throughout its life the caterpillar stays on the underside of the leaves. The caterpillar is uniformly cylindrical, vividly coloured and smooth. It has alternate white and dark brown or black transverse bands. Just above the legs and prolegs, along the entire body is a wide orangish-red band interspersed with black spiracles.
The adult butterfly has a life span of 11 - 13 weeks. The adults feed upon nectar from various flowering plants, including eucalypts.
Warringah Zone School Surfing
Congratulations Sateki Latu: Waratahs Cap
The 2023 TEA Textile Art Piece (TAP) Challenge
Major Upgrade Of Athlete Change Rooms Ahead Of FIFA Women's World Cup 2023™
Avalon Youth Hub In Avalon Beach: Join Us!
A History Of Pittwater Part 4: West Head - West Head Fortress Remastered 2023
Published March 2023 by Pittwater Pathways, John Illingsworth
This 2023 version updated to include the flight of David Geer's Sea Rey light seaplane. Essential to the production it has become part of it. Definition and video stability is further improved.
The story of the WWII fortress at West Head up to March 1941, including the installation of the guns as told by the man who was there - Jack 'Bluey' Mercer. The history of Commodore Heights, attempts by speculators to subdivide Ku-ring-gai Chase and the building of the Hawkesbury River railway bridge. An over-arching strategic theme from 1882 onwards reveals how the defence of Pittwater, Broken Bay and the Hawkesbury River railway bridge was essential to the war effort and the defence of Sydney.
Scouts Are Out & About
Over the past few months, all age groups in Scouting across Sydney North Region have been doing everything from canoe trips, hikes, and abseiling, to craft and community cleanups.
There's no better time to get into Scouting, with sections for ages 5-25, plus lots of satisfying leadership opportunities for adults.
Young people can have a four-week trial period, and Active Kids vouchers can be used towards membership fees.
Scouts are everywhere! Connect with your local Scout Group via sydneynorthscouts.com
Northern Composure Band Competition 2023
Due to the pandemic, Council have had the 20th anniversary on hold but pleased to say that the competition is open and running again.
Northern Composure is the largest and longest-running youth band competition in the area and offers musicians local exposure as well as invaluable stage experience. Bands compete in heats, semi finals and the grand final for a total prize pool of over $15,000.
Over the past 20 years we have had many success stories and now is your chance to join bands such as:
- Ocean Alley
- Lime Cordiale
- Dear Seattle
- What So Not
- The Rions
- Winston Surfshirt
And even a Triple J announcer plus a wide range of industry professionals
About the Competition
In 2023, the comp looks a little different.
All bands are invited to enter our heats which will be exclusively run online and voted on by your peers and community by registering below and uploading a video of one song of your choice. (if you are doing a cover, please make sure to credit the original band) We are counting on you to spread the word and get your friends, family, teachers voting for you!
The top 8-12 bands will move on through to our live semi finals with a winner from each moving on to the grand final held during National Youth Week. Not only that but we have raised the age range from 19 to 21 for all those musicians who may have missed out over the past two years.
- Voting open for heats: Mon 13 Feb – Sun 26 Feb
- Band Briefing: Mon 6 March, Dee Why PCYC
- Semi 1: Sat 18 March Mona Vale Memorial Hall
- Semi 2: Sat 25 March, YOYOs, Frenchs Forest
- Grand Final: Fri 28 April, Dee Why PCYC
For more information contact Youth Development at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 8495 5104
Stay in the loop and follow Northern Composure Unplugged on KALOF Facebook.
School Leavers Support
- Download or explore the SLIK here to help guide Your Career.
- School Leavers Information Kit (PDF 5.2MB).
- School Leavers Information Kit (DOCX 0.9MB).
- The SLIK has also been translated into additional languages.
- Download our information booklets if you are rural, regional and remote, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, or living with disability.
- Support for Regional, Rural and Remote School Leavers (PDF 2MB).
- Support for Regional, Rural and Remote School Leavers (DOCX 0.9MB).
- Support for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander School Leavers (PDF 2MB).
- Support for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander School Leavers (DOCX 1.1MB).
- Support for School Leavers with Disability (PDF 2MB).
- Support for School Leavers with Disability (DOCX 0.9MB).
- Download the Parents and Guardian’s Guide for School Leavers, which summarises the resources and information available to help you explore all the education, training, and work options available to your young person.
School Leavers Information Service
- navigate the School Leavers Information Kit (SLIK),
- access and use the Your Career website and tools; and
- find relevant support services if needed.
Word Of The Week: Textile
noun. any cloth or goods produced by weaving, knitting, or felting. a material, as a fibre or yarn, used in or suitable for weaving: Glass can be used as a textile. adjective. woven or capable of being woven: textile fabrics.
The word 'textile' comes from the Latin adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', which itself stems from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'. Originally applied to woven fabrics, the term "textiles" is now used to encompass a diverse range of materials, including fibres, yarns, and fabrics, as well as other related items.
A "fabric" is defined as any thin, flexible material made from yarn, directly from fibres, polymeric film, foam, or any combination of these techniques. Fabric has a broader application than cloth. Fabric is synonymous with cloth, material, goods, or piece goods.
The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, with roots in the Proto-Indo-European language. Stemming most recently from the Middle French fabrique, or "building," and earlier from the Latin fabrica ('workshop; an art, trade; a skilful production, structure, fabric'), the noun fabrica stems from the Latin faber; " artisan who works in hard materials', which itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European dhabh-, meaning 'to fit together'.
Cloth is a flexible substance typically created through the processes of weaving, felting, or knitting using natural or synthetic materials. The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning "a cloth, woven, or felted material to wrap around one's body', from the Proto-Germanic kalithaz, similar to the Old Frisian klath, the Middle Dutch cleet, the Middle High German kleit and the German kleid, all meaning 'garment'.
It is worth noting that although cloth is a type of fabric, not all fabrics can be classified as cloth due to differences in their manufacturing processes, physical properties, and intended uses. Materials that are woven, knitted, tufted, or knotted from yarns are referred to as cloth, while wallpaper, plastic upholstery products, carpets, and nonwoven materials are examples of fabrics.
The textile industry grew out of art and craft and was kept going by guilds, an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular territory.
The Syndics of the Drapers' Guild by Rembrandt, 1662.
The men (with the exception of Bel who is an attendant as indicated by his calotte) are drapers who were elected to assess the quality of cloth that weavers offered for sale to members of their guild. Their one-year terms in office began on Good Friday and they were expected to conduct their inspections thrice weekly. The Dutch word staal means 'sample' and refers to the samples of cloth that were assessed. The inspectors used pliers to press the seals of their city (front) and guild (reverse) into penny-sized slugs of lead that were specially affixed to record the results of the inspection. There were four grades of quality, the highest was indicated by pressing four seals and the lowest by pressing only one.
The men, who are appraising a length of Persian-style fabric against exemplars from a swatch book, are (from left to right): Jacob van Loon (1595–1674), Volckert Jansz (1605 or 1610–1681), Willem van Doeyenburg (ca. 1616–1687), Frans Hendricksz Bel (1629–1701), Aernout van der Mye (ca.1625–1681), Jochem de Neve (1629–1681). The guild commissioned this portrait and it hung in their guildhall, the Staalhof (nl), until 1771.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, during the industrial revolution, textiles manufacture became increasingly mechanised. In 1765, when a machine for spinning wool or cotton called the spinning jenny was invented in the United Kingdom, textile production became the first economic activity to be industrialised. There are numerous accounts and stories you may read of the impact of that on individuals and communities.
The precursor of today's textiles includes leaves, barks, fur pelts, and felted cloths. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the elements. At some point, people learned to weave plant fibres into textiles. The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests that textile-like materials were made as early as the Palaeolithic era.
Handmade floral patterns on textiles, The production of textiles which were initially artisanal work, has grown into a vast field today that includes the production of fibers, yarns, fabrics, and various fibrous products for different domestic and industrial usages. Photo: Lily Sanchez
Some fashionable songs from 1953 onwards:
Seniors Call For Fairer Pension Indexation
Government States New Bill Increases Aged Care Transparency
Older Australians’ Health Put At Risk By Lack Of Government Action On Dental Care
Tackling The Housing Crisis: New Report Outlines Comprehensive Strategy
- A recent burst of rental inflation has seen private rents growing at rates faster than in any other Australian jurisdiction.
- Homelessness in Queensland rose by 22 per cent in the four years to 2021-22, compared with only 8 per cent across Australia.
- Rising homelessness has been particularly evident in regional areas, where the average monthly number of Specialist Homeless Service users increased by 29 per cent from 2017-18 to 2021-22.
- Declining rental affordability for low-income households has been most marked in regional Queensland, where this trend has been ongoing since at least 2017-18, with the proportion of lettings affordable to this population cohort falling from 36 per cent to 17 per cent over this period.
- The sharpest private rent increases have been seen in regional markets, where over the past five years, median rents rose by 80 per cent in Gladstone, by 51 per cent in Noosa, and by 33 per cent in the Gold Coast.
- Overall, there are approximately 150,000 households across Queensland whose needs for affordable housing are currently unmet – that is, they are either homeless by ABS Census definitions or otherwise low-income recipients living in private rental housing and paying more than 30 per cent of household income in rent. As of the 2021 census, this ‘backlog need’ includes over 102,000 households who would typically be eligible for social housing.
- Meet social housing need by further expanding housing investments funds (state and federal responsibility), phasing in meaningful inclusionary zoning, examining scope for land value extraction via public housing estate renewal, mandating the inclusion of social/affordable housing for non-estate public land disposal, building community housing capacity, with special emphasis on Indigenous community housing organisations and establishing a permanent supportive housing funding framework.
- Both state and Commonwealth governments can assist with affordability and security for low-income private tenants by reforming rent assistance, further strengthening rental regulation, reviewing the scope for stronger short-term rental regulation and facilitating build-to-rent development.
- The Commonwealth government should reform private landlord tax concessions that negatively impact broader housing affordability.
- State governments should phase out stamp duty and replace it with a broad-based land tax.
- State and Commonwealth governments to re-establish housing entity within government.
- Establish annual publication of key social and affordable housing statistics.
Real-World Studies Confirm Effectiveness Of Bulevirtide To Treat Chronic Hepatitis D
High Rates Of Physical And Mental Health Problems Found In Children Held In Detention On Nauru: Study
Humans Are Altering The Diet Of Tasmanian Devils; Which May Accelerate Their Decline
Bird Flu Associated With Hundreds Of Seal Deaths In New England In 2022
Jellyfish Size Might Influence Their Nutritional Value
Recycling: Researchers Separate Cotton From Polyester In Blended Fabric
Mind-Control Robots A Reality
Origin And Evolution Of The Grapevine
Disclaimer: These articles are not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of Pittwater Online News or its staff.