July 22 - 28, 2018: Issue 368

Roads To Pittwater: The Pittwater Road

Pittwater Road [a view through the trees] circa 1860 by William Andrews (1840-1887) from album 'Sketches of Sydney and environs, 18-- ' Image No.; c12837 0021 c - courtesy State Library of NSW

The first European acquaintance with Manly came in the first year of settlement of the colony of New South Wales. When Governor Phillip realised that Botany Bay was unsuitable, he reconnoitred Port Jackson in late January and encountered Aboriginal people in the Manly area. Two and a half months after the settlement had been established at Sydney Cove, Phillip led a flotilla of ten boats which landed in the vicinity of Manly Cove on 13 April 1788. Phillip walked across to the ocean beach and then northwards up the beach as far as ‘a peice [sic] of stagnate brackish water’ south of Manly Lagoon. Two days later the governor explored an inland route north, was turned back by the swamps around Burnt Bridge Creek, then returned to the ocean beach and walked up to Manly Lagoon. While awaiting Phillip’s return on 16 April, Lieutenant Bradley also disembarked somewhere around Manly Cove, visited the ocean beach and encountered a number of Aboriginal people. 

In his journal, Bradley described how he and his companions:

walked across the neck, where some Canoes were just landing which they did with ease altho’ a very great surf was running, they met us & walked over with us to the place where our Boat was laying, they staid with us half an hour, several women appear’d at a distance but would not come to us.

On 6 June and again on 28 June 1788, the governor, with Captain Hunter, led a party overland along the coast from the northern part of Sydney Harbour to Broken Bay and Pittwater. Hunter remarked as they walked on sandy beaches and on the wooded hills between:
We often fell in with paths, which the natives in travelling along the coast had trod very well down.

These were busy tracks in 1788, used by the numerous Aboriginal people who lived near the sea. Although disease quickly reduced the Aboriginal population around Sydney, the surviving original inhabitants sustained something of their traditional life for many decades on the northern beaches, which were only slowly occupied by permanent European settlers. As late as the 1870s a traditional camping place in Whistler St on the southern edge of the study area was ‘nearly always occupied’ by Aboriginal people. The site was on the north-east corner of Raglan Street adjacent to the weatherboard Catholic church of Mary Immaculate and St Athanasius built in 1868. 

The Aboriginal track from Manly to Broken Bay, as developed by the earliest Europeans, is shown very clearly by William Dawes in his map of 1791. It was closer to the line of Old Pittwater Road (now Balgowlah Road) than the present Pittwater Road. Nor did it utilise the beaches until north of Curl Curl.

Dawes, William & Hunter, John & John Stockdale (Bookseller). (1792). A map of all those parts of the territory of New South Wales which have been seen by any person belonging to the settlement established at Port Jackson.. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-230635598 - full map and section of to show track.

The other means of getting to Pittwater was via the then Lane Cove road or via water and walking along tracks to Sydney town:

The Nautilus arrived on Friday last from Hunters River; she had that morning dispatched her hired boat into Broken-Bay with five hands, in search of provisions, of which they  had been almost wholly out for several days, and a strong Southerly wind still rendering  them hopeless of making the Cove. The Nautilus, however, by dint of HARD BEATING got in the same evening ; the boat reached no further than Broken-Bay, where  she found a small Hawkesbury FLEET wind-bound. All the assistance here afforded them could only promise a slender sustenance to two, and three of the party formed a resolution to walk round and leave the boat in charge of a couple of their companions.  Fortunately the boat found her way in on Sunday evening about five o'clock, and an hour after the pedestrians hailed the vessel from the North Shore. Her freight consisted of 65 logs of Cedar, measuring from 7to 14 feet, slabbed and barked, all fine wood; 13 planks, and 73 red-pine spars, from 28 to 33 feet in length. She is now about to  sail for the Isle of France with a small speculative venture of She-Oak and Oil, the  latter of which she is to take on board in Bass's Straits. Her new baptism the l'Enfantd'Adele (the l'Adele's child) is rather whimsical, as it is doubtful whether the young lady may not be considerably older and much more experienced than her venerable parent.  SYDNEY. (1803, October 9). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625816
On Monday evening His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR arrived in the Cove on board His Majesty's brig Lady Nelson, having explored the whole of the Hawkesbury River and Broken Bay, including Pitt Water, Marrar Marrar Creek, and the upper and lower branches of the river. The Nelson anchored in the Cove between six and seven o'clock, and His EXCELLENCE on quitting the vessel was saluted with 17 guns from His Majesty's armed brig Emu. 
Sydney. (1816, March 2). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2176569

The above 'Excellency' was Lachlan Macquarie.

Robert Campbell junior, the nephew of the prominent Sydney merchant of the same name, already had a 700-acre farm promised at Mona Vale and quickly developed his own viable track from Manly Cove to Pittwater. Mr. Campbell gave up these properties in 1822 and sold them to another prominent Sydney figure, D’Arcy Wentworth.

Among the many improvements called for in the Colony, it is struck us, as most essential, that a means of communication should be opened, by road, to Newcastle, and the settlements at and near Broken-bay. That fine settlement is almost unknown from the present want of ferries and roads ; and we have no hesitation in saying, that Broken-bay will, ere long, be one of the most important districts in this Colony. Settlers, newly arrived, are beginning to cry out-- " there is no land," while millions of acres lie entombed upon the sea-side. In America the finest land taken possession of, is generally that contiguous to water carriage, and with the convenience of good neighbours. The North-east arm of Broken-bay is one of the finest enclosed pieces of water in the colony, resembling, it is said, in extent and smooth-ness, the beautiful water of Lochlomond, in Scotland ; and when the day arrives, which we hope is not far distant, when steam boats will ply from harbour to harbour along the shores of Australia, a grant of 1000 or 2000 acres in the neighbourhood of Broken-bay, Reid's Mistake, Port Stephens, will be a fortune.  "An honest tale speeds best, being plainly told." (1825, June 16). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser(NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2184149

As an individual personally interested, I felt much pleasure in the perusal of that paragraph in your last, which is headed "Coast Roads,"and alludes to the grand and beautiful scenery of Broken Bay, and its numerous ramifications, whence it has, I presume, derived its name.

Among the latter, the most beautiful is the North-east arm, latterly known by the name of Brisbane Water (in honour of HIS EXCELLENCY the present GOVERNOR of these Territories,) which, for varied beauty, cannot be excelled; and whether to the guide of the pencil or the plough, will ever repay the trouble of an excursion to its romantic waters.

On its immediate shores good land is to be found only in small patches, from sixty to one hundred acres generally, which will make uncom-monly desirable farms for what are called "small settlers;" as they are generally well watered, and boats of large carriage have access to their very doors ; of this class there are now about four one hundred-acre farms located.

But it is at the Northern extremity of these waters that the land becomes really available for large agricultural establishments; and in that direction will be found land of a quality equal to any in New Holland, and superior to most for tillage of every description, consisting of thick brush and forest land, all heavily timbered. The grass land in the vicinity of the lake is indifferent in quality, and insufficient in quantity to support large herds ; for sheep it is at present totally unfit.—But, at about fifteen miles further to the North it improves, and will in time become a desirable grazing country.

On the whole it may be said, that this part of our Country will be to Sydney hereafter, what Sicily was to Carthage and Rome, the granary whence she will draw her main supplies, for herself, her shipping, and I hope her exports.

That the settlers of this district will always be able to undersell their contemporaries in the market you will readily believe, when I state, that a schooner is now lying within one hundred yards of my growing wheat, which is capable of carrying away between two and three thousand bushels of grain, and arriving within eight hours after loading in Sydney Cove, with her cargo.

When I visited Brisbane Water first, little more than twelve months ago, I found it in lone and silent beauty ; the stillness of which was inter-rupted but by the scream of the curleu, or the loud laugh of the feathered jackass—there was but one being of my species and colour who had made any thing like a settlement on the shores, and he was merely what our neighbour Jonathan would call a squatter, who had set himself down there as a boat-builder, but to whom the Governor has since, on the recommendation of one or two Gentlemen, awarded a grant of one hundred acres. Now its calm bosom is daily ruffled by the busy oar of the settler, the blue-gum cutter,and the lime-burner each pursuing his own vocation— and as often happens, that opportunities of communication between it and Sydney offer three or four times a week.

Since I first visited and explored the shores of this water, numerous individuals have been there, and orders are at this time out, from the proper quarter, for the location of three or four and twenty thousand, acres of the same independent of the Missionary settlement at Reid's Mistake.

The projected new line of road from Sydney to Newcastle (which it it said is to cross the Hawkesbury at its lower branch), will bring the traveller within five and twenty miles of this district ;—did it cross the latter at Mangrove-creek (which I have been told was at first intended), it would bring him within twelve or fifteen ; when a steam-boat, of forty or fifty horse power, begins to run between Sydney and Windsor, it will set him (if he is a Brisbane Water settler) almost at his own door.

I do not despair of yet seeing a strong desire prevail with the wealthy cits, or burghers of Sydney, to obtain sites for summer residences and bathing lodges, on the shores of this beautiful lake, where they would be removed alike from the noise,bustle,dust,and other disagreeable et ceteras of the metropolis ; two small steam-boats, of ten or twenty horse power, plying daily between, the cabin fare two shillings and sixpence per head;— and I feel fully persuaded, that such vehicles of communication need only appear to be most liberally patronized.

June 20, 1825.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE SYDNEY GAZETTE. (1825, June 30). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2184185

In 1826 James Jenkins, assisted by convict labour, built a road at his own expense from North Harbour (now Balgowlah) to Long Reef. The road (now known as Old Pittwater Road) passed through the Brookvale valley via Miles Gully and was made official by Gazette Notice on 8 November 1861.

A few years later:
A PUBLIC MEETING will be held at Pier Hotel, Manly Beach, on TUESDAY, 23rd instant, at 7 o'clock, to appoint a Trustee for Pittwater Road, and other matters connected therewith. Advertising (1868, June 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13168001

Some descriptions of the journey to Pittwater from some of those who traversed this way over those earliest decades:

Sunday 8 o'clock A. M. started from the King's Wharf in a waterman's boat, for Manly Beach, the head of the North Harbour of Port Jackson, servant carrying two or three small bundles, containing cold ham and tongue, bread and cheese, a couple of bottles of Cognac, with change of linen, &c. landed and began our march, with coats across our arms, for the South Head of Broken Bay through the bush. After rather a difficult path of two miles we found by the roar of the surf that we were near the coast; when the trees getting thinner, all of a sudden we found ourselves on a fine sandy beach, called Cabbage Tree Beach, with a lagoon at the north end of it, running out with great rapidity into the sea. Here we were obliged to take off our shoes and stockings and walk across the water up a little higher than our knees. 

The head land jutting out too far into the sea, we were compelled to climb over the top, 300 feet high; but the view of Port Jackson and its hundred coves, its bold and fearful heads, with the coast to the north, and all the successive beaches and promontories we had to pass, amply repaid the trouble of the ascent. We soon got in sight of Long Reef, seven miles, which appeared on inspection, to be a very superior farm; considering its sandy situation, and standing very happily with a commanding sea view, both north and south. It is the property of a person of the name of Jenkins, whose improvements, plenty, and hospitality, evinced him a farmer of some substance. It was nearly one o'clock at noon, and rather singular to our Sydney notions to be asked if we would have a cup of tea; we preferred a good English cheese and a glass of brandy and water, and after resting ourselves, resumed our journey, which lay through the Narroby Lagoon, almost beautiful spot, and more resembling the lakes of Keswick and Ambleside, than any thing we had seen in the Colony. There having been no rain for three months, and a very low tide at the time, there was no occasion to take off more than our shoes and stockings, and we walked a quarter of a mile through the water, not deeper than our knees, over a fine sand that felt so velvety to our naked feet that we almost regretted it was not broader. 

Another head land, as usual, succeeded to this sand, and after ascending it we turned to our left through the bush and arrived at the head of Pitt Water and regaled ourselves at  the farm of one Geary. Here, a Sydney boat was at anchor, and very fortunately for us, had no objection to accept 15s,  for putting us across to Brisbane Water. This is not the usual place for crossing the Bay, but seven miles lower down, at the mouth of Pitt Water, at a projecting rock called Barren Joey; but we preferred the boat and the smooth placid inlet, at sunset to the rocky, unpleasant journey by land. 

Pitt Water is an old settlement, although having very scanty signs of cultivation. The few spots about it cleared are mostly for the rearing of onions, which, on account of the rich accumulation of sea shell, the soil is enabled to produce in great perfection. On our arrival  at the fisherman's hut, the usual place for ferrying passengers across Broken Bay, the moon had just risen and there was agreeable but uncertain light over the broad expanse  of water — the lofty craig of Mount Elliott — the entrance of the River Hawkesbury and the numerous headlands about the bay, which caused Capt. Cook to give it its name of Broken. It was well we were provided with a boat, for the fisherman had none, which much excited our surprise ;and in a passage of so much importance — so much danger in bad weather — and such increasing traffic as Broken Bay, the government, we hope, will not be long in establishing a competent and safe conveyance across this stormy estuary. 

From the South Head to the North is 18 miles, almost as wide as the entrance of the Mediterranean, between Gibraltar and Ceuta, and yet travellers are left to find their way across in little cockle shells of boats, when the fishermen think proper, and at a rate of more than one shilling per mile each passenger. The inconveniencies in winter must sometimes be serious, for instead of finding a decent or convenient ferry-house, it is; hardly credible that human beings can exist in such perpetual filth and darkness, as in the fisherman's hut at Broken Bay. Those who have crossed the Pentland Frith, and had the happy luck of being weather bound a week or ten days, at the Ferryhouse at Honna, might be able to make a comparison; but the house at Honna, is a Shropshire dairy by the side of this beastly abode. Cockroaches in thousands, were marching and counter marching on the rushy sides of the dwelling, and our persons in a few minutes were, literally covered with them. Fleas, bugs, and mosquitoes were only less annoying because they were less numerous. In vain did we wish for the flood tide to enable us to cross the bay, we were obliged to light cigar after cigar and walkabout outside the hut, and at last wrap ourselves up in a dirty, old sail, and try to go to sleep under the thwarts of our boat as she lay at anchor near the shore— but it was nearly impossible — the mosquitoes followed us, and some of the other vermin accompanied us, and what with their buzzing and biting, and the hardness, dirt, and wetness of our bed, it was merely closing our eyes and nothing else. At last the tide turned and the moon waned, it was 2 o'clock in the morning there was a fresh chilliness in the air— we lit another cigar; pulled up the stone and rowed away from this abominable hole. 

The old fisherman had just lost his black gin, who it appeared, had been his housekeeper for many months and had completely left her black associates for his company and hut. I blushed to think that any man, bearing the name of Englishman, should form a cool, deliberate connexion with a female savage, who must have been unlike her race, if she had ever washed herself, if she was not eaten up with vermin, legs ulcerated, and blotches on her head, and in manners and habits every thing that is base and disgraceful. Oh Mrs. Fry, I exclaimed, this would not have been the case but for your system of recommending female convicts to be kept at Millbank, instead of sending them to New South Wales. But for your unnatural folly, this old man would have been most likely a happy,  cleanly and creditable husband, with every thing around him comfortable and tidy, and half a dozen chubby children to make this stage in the journey pleasant and interesting. As it was, no doubt the black woman was getting more civilized, but the white man was approaching the savage state of indolence and filth. But enough— there was a great swell across the bay, much more than I liked, for our little boat, though the two men pulling, agreed that they had never seen the bay so smooth — this was annoying, but never mind. Mount Elliot seemed to recede from us the more we pulled— so, large an object, it was seen through the obscure starlight as if close to the boat, and yet we were pulling more than an hour before it was abreast of us. The tide now favoured us, and, the rapid rush near the sand rollers of Brisbane Water became louder and louder, and passing Lobster Beach, we regretted the indistinct twilight did not allow us to make out more than the beautiful outline of its surrounding hills. The morning of Monday here broke upon us, and the first sight and impression made by this enchanting spot will never, be forgotten. God has done every thing for you, oh, beautiful Lake Brisbane! Man nothing! Nature here still assumes her sway; and if we may judge from the stupendous size of her innumerable trees, years will revolve before she can be much disturbed. Twenty clearing gangs, in twenty years, might make some difference, but the forest appearing at present as everlasting as the hills, they almost mock the individual, whose feeble axe on their giant sides is like the tickling of a lady's fan. The day no doubt must come, when wealth and luxury shall have converted this elegant sheet of water into another Geneva or Maggiore, but who of this generation can hope to live to see it....
JOURNAL OF AN EXCURSION TO BRISBANE WATER. . (1826, December 20). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37071619

PARISH ROADS.-His Excellency the Administrator of the Government, with the advice of the Executive Council, having deemed it expedient to open and make the several Parish Roads mentioned in the schedule appended hereto, to be maintained at the expense of the parishes through which they pass : Notice is hereby given, that in accordance with the provisions of the Act -4th William IV., No. 11, Plans and Books of Reference showing the intended lines of the Roads in question are now deposited at the office of the Surveyor-General in Sydney and at the Police-offices mentioned.

It is requested that any well-grounded objections that may exist to the formation of the roads in question may be transmitted in writing to the Clerk of the Executive Council within one month from this elate.

By his Excellency's command,


Schedule referred to.

Roads No. 72-315.-Description of Road : Deviation in the road from Manly to Pittwater, county of Cumberland, in lieu of part of wall confirmed in Government Gazette of 31st May, 1861, folio 1234. Names of reputed owners or occupiers through whose properties the roads pass: R. Campbell, T. Collins, D. Rowan, J. Jenkins, E. Jenkins, and Reserve for Recreation and Camping. Police office at which the plans and books of references have been lodged; Water Police Office, Sydney. Advertising. (1872, April 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13255895

The road built by James Jenkins marks the old route to Pittwater along Condamine Street, Old Pittwater Road and Pittwater Road mark much of the old route. This 'road' and its thirteen bridges were built in 1826 by James Jenkins (1776-1835) at a personal cost of £300. He needed the road to transport produce from his Long Reef farm to North Harbour for the water crossing to Sydney's markets. On shore he built a small stone house and a landing place for his boat. 

When he petitioned Governor Darling for this land in March 1827 he reported that he needed these facilities because leaving his horse tied to a tree, its harness secreted in the bush, and his cart out in the open, meant that "any malicious or felonious person" could steal them. He worried, too, about his boat and its usefulness to "every fugitive convict or other evil disposed persons." 

Mr. Jenkins was a convict himself, arriving in Sydney on the Coromandel in 1802. 

WHEREAS about Four Weeks ago, a BOAT was FOUND alongside a Wharf belonging to Mr. JAMES JENKINS, of Cockle Bay ; any Person claiming the same, (by giving a proper description of it), may have it- returned, by paying the Expenses, or otherwise she will be Sold in 3 Weeks, from the Date of this Advertisement, to defray the same.
30th April, 1828.
Classified Advertising (1828, May 5). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2190347

Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 20th January, 1834
AT Eleven o'Clock of Friday, the Eleventh day of April next, the Collector of Internal Revenue will put up to Auction, at the Police Office, Sydney, the undermentioned Portions of LAND, on the conditions authorised by Government.

Further information, respecting the land, may be obtained from the Surveyor General ; and, respecting the conditions, from the Collector of Internal Revenue.

1. Cumberland, Manley Cove.—20, Twenty acres, more or less, the small sandy beach at Dobby or Dobroyd Bay, in north harbour, bounded on the east by the waters of Port Jackson, and on the north and south and west by lines to include the quantity: applied forby James Jenkins. Price 5s. per acre.
SALE OF LAND. (1834, January 22). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 45. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230686096

47. - By James Jenkins, resident in Kent-street, in the township of Sydney, parish of St. Philip, and county of Cumberland, in the said colony, gentle-man, to 200 acres of land, described at follows: situate in the county of Cumberland, and parish of Manley Cove, commencing at the north-east corner of John Harper's 40 acres, and bounded on the south by that farm, by a line west 64 chains, in the west by a line north 50 chains, on the north by William Cosar's 500 acres, by a line east 30 chains to Dewey Lagoon, north by that Lagoon to the sea, on the east by the sea to commencing corner.
48. - By James Jenkins, resident in Kent-street, in the township of Sydney, parish of St. Phillip, and county of Cumberland, in the said colony, gentle-man, to 30 acres of land, described as follows: situate in the county of Cumberland, and parish of Manley Cove, commencing at a marked tree, and bounded on the south by a line west 30 chains to Narrabeen Lagoon, and on all other sides by that lagoon to the commencing comer.
Advertising. (1834, March 3). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28654286 

In the years up to the 1850s, before Henry Gilbert Smith started the transformation of Manly, the principal route to the north from Manly Cove followed the traditional Aboriginal line which created Old Pittwater Road, now in part known as Balgowlah Road. Until sub-division of the 1840s farms took place under Smith, Pittwater Road was a poorly maintained access road, a subsidiary to Old Pittwater Road for north-bound traffic and not yet much frequented by tourists enjoying the harbour and ocean beaches. Even after Pittwater Road was adopted officially in 1860 as a government road to the north, it remained a ‘rambling sandy track’ into the twentieth century.

As a result of the promotional activities of Mr. Smith and others in the late 1850s, there was substantial public interest in land sales. An 1860 map is annotated with the names of many purchasers, and most of the allotments in Belgrave Street (now Pittwater Road) were gradually sold, some in groups to a single investor, which led to future sub-division.

As a result of Mr. Smith’s activities, the state government agreed in June 1860 to develop a public road from Manly to Pittwater, including part of Smith’s Belgrave Street and its extension, Pittwater Road. An 1861 article lists the road from Manly Cove to Pitt water as 16 miles and that from Manly Cove to Balgowlah as 2 miles:

(from the Herald, March 2.)
A few evenings ago the sum of £45,000 was passed in committee of supply, to be expended on roads other than main roads of the colony. These roads are divided into five classes, and the amount to be expended on each class is £50 per mile for the first class, £25 per mile on roads of the second class, £15 per mile on third class roads, £10 per mile on roads of the fourth class, and £7 per mile upon fifth class roads. The estimate is somewhat exceeded, it being proposed to expend on Sydney and metropolitan roads £1961 ; on the northern roads £16,816; on the western roads £10,530; and on the southern roads £16,860 ;-making a total of £46,167. The classification of roads is not made alone with reference to their relative importance, but has been influenced by the state of repair required, and the amount of money recently expended upon them ; and where the road tolls pass to the consolidated revenue, Parliament will be asked to vote the respective amounts for the repair of such roads. The following are the details of the classification and proposed distribution for 1861 :

THE ROADS OF THE COLONY. (1861, March 7). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18680666 

THE distance from Sydney to the above unfrequented spot is about thirty miles-easy of access, although, perhaps, less visited than any part of the environs of the metropolis, simply because people are not aware of such "an excursion being possible ; and also because of the necessity of a guide, or minute description of the route, to supply Which I have undertaken to describe my last journey on Easter Monday, two days being sufficient to accomplish it on horseback, the only conveyance it admits of.
We started from the North Shore Ferry in Windmill-street at noon, and ascending the road leading from the ferry to the top of the hill, turned to the right, opposite the chapel, and took the excellent road to Middle Harbour, about three miles of which are in good condition. Turning then to the left we enter the scrub, when a bridle-path is seen with a belt of trees, a hundred yards from the main road, this being the only guide to turn off to Middle Harbour. A mile through this path leads to a somewhat rugged descent to the sandy spit, projecting half way across, where Mr. Ellery, on being hailed, brings the punt across to fetch both cattle and men. The charge for this service is half-a-crown each way, and if the horses are swum across sixpence less.
The punt being under repair, we had to swim the horses-a very safe proceeding, which they appeared to enjoy amazingly; although at first I was not over-confident in the propriety of trusting my favourite steed to so very unceremonious an immersion. The distance is about a quarter of a mile, and free from sharks. The scenery of this inland bay is very fine; and I may as well mention en passant, that a small boat can be had to row two miles further up the harbour to its extremity into which the Willoughby Falls descend from the North Shore, which everybody ought to make a point of seeing.

On landing from the punt we looked in at Ellery's, where everything reminds you of a neat English farm ; and the gaude wife having regaled us with plenty of new milk, we ascended the zigzag path, cut in the solid rock at least 200 feet high, and reached the path leading to Manly Beach on the right, distant only three miles ; and to Pitt Water and Broken Bay on the leftdistant about twenty-four miles from the punt. To a stranger, a little difficulty exists in taking the right path for each place ; but Mr. Ellery never fails to explain the proper direction, and often accompanies a stranger to the top of the hill to see them right. 

Ellery's Cottage middle harbour  ca. 1845-1858 drawn by Conrad . Image No.: c12759_0007_c, courtesy State Library of NSW

The first landmark is a log-bridge over a wide creek, which leads through two or three small farms adjoining each other ; then a very good bridle road continues through thickly-timbered forest, when suddenly the sea is heard to break, and then immediately appears in an opening on the right, between two heads forming a large lagoon, running inland, called the Deewi lagoon, which is crossed in its narrow part by a wooden log-bridge. A sandy bar keeps out the water from the lagoon, except when the sea breaks in and then fills it, from which it again gradually drains out. A wild duck suddenly arose, disturbed by our noise, which gave an indication of work for the gun in this locality.
The road from here to Pitt Water follows immediately the line of the coast northward, which makes it easy without a guide as you cannot go wrong, and a small farm every two or three miles also enables milk to be had, and perhaps a crust ; but no other accommodation in the commissariat is to be expected ; unless, as in our case, you have friends on the road.

Passing Jenkins' farm there is a level piece of beautiful turf nearly two miles long, and a quarter of a mile broad, quite fitted for a racecourse ; forming the finest gallop anywhere near Sydney, and almost of it-self worth the trouble of riding out to. After this, bush occurs again, and then the Narrobin lagoon is reached, half a mile wide-sometimes nearly dry, sometimes up to the horses' knees or girths, and at times impassable. We found it very low, but filled with fish of various sizes, darting in all directions. This back water extends inland quite out of sight, but is a perfect level sand all over, and, if not fordable, can he crossed by the bar of sand which shuts it out from the sea.

The road continues alternating with fine galloping ground over the downs, on the sand-hills and through the bush ; every now and then magnificent headlands appearing suddenly as you emerge from the bush, generally enclosing between them a fine sandy bay, upon which the ocean rolls in with a most majestic appearance from the heights above.

Near Mr. Farrell's farm are cliffs at least 100 feet high, from which a man fell, whilst shooting birds, from the rock giving way; and, strange to say, he was not much hurt, as he walked out a few days afterwards. The beach underneath is covered with debris of trees and timber, driven down the Hawkesbury by the recent floods, and drifted about here into the bays. The road from Farrell's to the flagstaff has not the sea in view, being amongst bush and steep gullies, over picturesque murmuring creeks. 

We crossed a tent, where men were boring for coals on the Rev. Mr. Therry's land they have reached 150 feet without success ; but it appears that the cognoscenti have pronounced the seam to be deep but certain. That it is hard stuff in some strata, is seen by four inches only having been gained in the last two weeks. If coal is found, a tramway to Manly will save a sea voyage to Newcastle, and open a great traffic.

Suddenly, after emerging from a tortuous mountain track, we come in full view of the magnificent estuary of Broken Bay or Pitt Water, running nine miles inland, with water enough for the largest man of war: here the Juno formerly went for gunnery practice, and ascended five miles up.

The middle water is the mouth of the Hawkesbury, several miles in extent, and beyond it is the bar of Brisbane Water, known by the surf beating over it, and difficult of access for any but coasters and steamers, the deep channel being narrow with less than two fathoms of water This runs inland sixteen miles ; East Gosford, a rising township, being at the head of the head of the navigation.

Thus the Hawkesbury has Brisbane Water on the north, and Pitt Water on the south of its embouchure all three compused between the North and South heads, and about ten miles across. The appearance is not unlike Sydney Harbour near Middle and North Harbours, with the exception of more width, and heavier timber all around.

The first thing that met our eyes on the shores of Pitt Water, was a small colony of Chinamen, who live in tents, and are engaged in curing fish caught there for the Melbourne and Sydney markets; a dozen small boats are engaged in the trade, which I hear has been a good hit, although, just now, there are no fish, which is attributed to the great floods having driven them all out to sea. Another mile along a level piece of turf by the water side, brings us to the coast-guard station, where Mr Ross has for several years been in charge. He very politely led us to the top of the lock, where the flagstaff is placed commanding a splendid view of all the surrounding scenery for many milts in all directions. This is Barenjo on the South Head, and is about 100 feet high Several soldiers, made out of trees, as large as life, and painted, are placed about, and might actually serve as landmarks to vessels entering these complicated waters they would be more useful several miles up the mer, where Steamers have often taken the wrong channel, owing to the numerous wide branches on either side, rendering the proper channel difficult to recognise.
This ends the trip to Broken Bay, which, for diversity of scenery of entirely an opposite nature, constantly' recurring, forming a succession of panoramas of forest, lagoon, green turf, sand hills, mountains, gullies, creeks, precipices, and (few and far between) settler farms, I will venture to affirm, cannot be equalled in so short a distance of thirty miles in any part of Australia, and will well repay the trouble of the journey and somewhat plain fare attendant upon it, as, after Manly, there is no accommodation for travellers, and supplies should be carried with them from there from Manly, the distance to Barenjo is twenty-one miles, and can be performed, starting early in the morning, there and back the same day, half the road being a splendid turf, which part of the ground can be got over quickly, and the remainder offering no difficulties to the rider
This trip can only be performed on horseback, but you can avoid taking a horse across Middle Harbour by hiring one at Manly Beach, and going from there to Broken Bay, the road, after crossing the Manly Lagoon, being the same as I have attempted to describe.
A TRIP OVERLAND TO BROKEN BAY, THE MOUTH OF THE HAWKESBURY. (1861, April 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13059376 

One of the most definitive and lengthy descriptions of the Road To Pittwater during 1861 comes from the pen of Charles De Boos, a relative of whose still lives in Pittwater, during the series published as 'My Holiday' in 1861 and run in full as same here: 

Before altogether leaving Manly and crossing the lagoon that divides it from the country to the north-ward, we took one last look at the locality we were leaving. We were about to penetrate into an all but unknown country, for the wild legends respecting it current amongst Manly aboriginals have hitherto been regarded as fabulous ; and as we thus looked back at the civilisation we were quitting and forward into the wild scrub of Ti tea and honeysuckle, the feelings in our Cockney breasts were, I believe, somewhat akin to those which Leichhardt, Mitchell, or some other great explorer must have felt when from some giant ridge of the far interior he has looked back upon the station-the last vestige of civilisation he was quitting-and then forward into the wild, dark, and unknown sea of leaves that moaned and rustled before him. We had not all the little accessories that attend your great explorers, or perhaps we might amongst us have got up a little poetic fervor, and have perpetrated a few "lines on leaving Manly Beach on an exploratory tour to Pittwater." ...
Mounting the rocks on the north side of the lagoon, we pass along a paddock fence, and through a slip rail into a very primitive kind of farm yard, with everything lying about in the most admirable state of confusion. A row of pig-styes lay on our left, but the porkers  for whom they were intended appeared to have vacated their lodgings for some time past, in order, no doubt, to give up quiet possession to the troop of merry children, who, chubby, healthy, and laughing, all of them with that peculiar but beautiful silky flaxen hair that marks the young Australian, were making a "play" with bits of china, shells, and other odds and ends, and who peered at us wonderingly through tile chinks of the slabs, which walled in their supposititious parlour.

After crossing the stony ridge which separated us from the lagoon, we came down upon a heavily timbered flat, of fat black soil, but exceedingly damp and swampy; and here we encountered the first of the real natives of the district, for the farmer who had saved us from the dogs was hardly to be regarded in that light, living as he did so close upon the very borders of civilisation.

To our friend Tom-who, by the way, is a kind of universal genius, and knows a little of everything we entrusted the task of communicating with the stranger, who, after all, had nothing particularly formidable about her-for a female we supposed it to be, at all events if the style of dress in the district was similar to that of Sydney. She was evidently a very young, I can hardly say woman, and rode up leisurely -for she was on horseback-eyeing us with a look something between astonishment and amusement.

"Good afternoon," said Tom.

"Good afternoon," returned the horsewoman, and to my delight in perfectly good English.

" Are we on the road to Pitt Water?" asked Thomas.

" Yes," she replied; ''straight on."

“Straight on !" said I, as I looked forward through the heavy timber amidst which the road turned and twisted in anyway but a straight line.

" Yes," responded the damsel, " follow your nose, and take care not to bark it against the trees." With a light laugh, she gave her horse the whip, and cantered on, leaving me thoroughly discomfited.

After passing this flat, the road led along some dry stony ridges covered with a rather dense but low scrub, and so continued for some miles with very little change in the appearance of the country through which we were journeying, except when we passed the holding of some small settler, whose hut and clearing formed the only break in the monotony of the scenery. In fact I was surprised to find that even though so near to Manly Beach, and with so much fine rich land around, the number of settlers should be so few.

From the Manly lagoon to the bridge over the head of the Deewy lagoon, I do not think we passed more than a half-dozen of farms, and these were only very small holdings, producing nothing beyond corn and pumpkins, and looking just now more like poverty stricken and deserted tenancies than like the pleasant smiling freehold homesteads that the popular orators of the day have pictured to the people, and which the hon. Secretary for Lands desires to see scattered over the country, I was told that one of the reasons for this appearance, as well as for the small number of cultivation plots, was that the land was so very wet in anything like a drooping season-that the soil became too strong and sour to be-cultivated successfully whilst another reason was one that I argued afterward very fully with parties highly interested in the question, and to which I shall allude in its proper place.

The Deewy bridge is not a very extensive structure still it is sufficient for the traffic that passes over it, although it must be somewhat dangerous to cross of a dark night in consequence as well of its narrowness is of the total absence of any handrail or side guards.
It was all but carried away during the floods of last year, and was so materially injured as to render its passage a matter of considerable danger It was consequently repaired, subscriptions for the purpose having been raised from the inhabitants of the district , and though an application was made for a portion of the funds voted by Parliament for the repair of the road between Manly and Pittwater, it was refused, and the cost of the repairs fell entirely upon the settlers themselves.

After crossing the Dewy bridge, the road takes round the northern edge of the Deewy lagoonthrough a country covered with a pretty close scrub, intersected rather frequently by wallabi tracks, on which the imprint of these animals claws and tau were freshly left. As it was getting rather late, and as our swags were now beginning to press rather heavily upon shoulders as yet unaccustomed to such a burden, we did not beat up this country very closely, but rather pressed on in order to secure a good camping place for the night After passing for rather more than a mile along the edge of the lagoon, the road takes away to the left, over the point of a broken spur of a range that comes from the west almost down to Deewy and then by a series of gentle ascents leads up to the station of Miss Jenkins.

This is a most beautifully situated homestead the homestead sitting slightly back from the road, is nestled in at the foot of a lofty and thickly timbered range, and has a beautiful look out to the north, south and east, over the Pacific and over many of the bold headlands that breast its mighty rollers. 


But the evening was now drawing on apace, and the sun had long since sunk down behind the high range of hills which lay only some three hundred yards to the left of the road, so, after one more survey of the magnificent panorama of sea and coast that extended to our right, we passed on our way, and turning round the corner of what may perhaps be termed the home paddock of the property, we came upon a large extent of cleared ground, in which some few years back maize had evidently been grown, as the small hills that had been made round the plants were still easily perceptible

We had scarcely entered upon this clearing than a sound of horse’s feet behind us caused us to look round, and at a glance we recognised the female denizen of the district, whom we had encountered in the afternoon. She had evidently been to Manly for supplies, and had her horse freighted with several well-filled bags, which she managed to keep in order, and the same time to maintain her seat with perfect ease and nonchalance. Of course, Tom had a few words to say, en pastant, to the fair equestrienne, but I, remembering my rebuff of the previous part of the day, very wisely held my tongue. Nat, however, would not let me off, for with a savage grin he stroked himself down the nose, winked at the girl, nodded towards me, and said, " All safe” This, of course, elicited a smile at my expense, but as man was bon to suffer, I put up with it, though I dropped sulkily to the rear. Our fair fellow-traveller, however, had not passed us more than a couple of hundred yards than we suddenly saw her horse make some extraordinary and eccentric movements, turning round and round in a very circumscribed circle, occasionally giving a slight lift to his hind quarters, that very disagreeably affected the bags and sent some of the smaller ones flying in all directions. He then took the bit in his teeth and darted off to the left of the road, as if with the intention of scaling the mountains, comporting himself meanwhile in such boisterous style as to render it necessary for his rider to give all her attention to herself. Thus the bags being left to take care of themselves, banged about the horse's sides, the more vigorously as he curvetted the higher, until with a final effort he got rid of them all. A brief struggle now took place between the horse and the rider, in which the former was very quickly forced to succumb. Having conquered him, the young girl quietly jumped off his back, commenced collecting the lighter articles of her load, and was about to get the heavier bags, when our party came up and relieved her from her difficulty. It appeared that the horse had a sore wither, and by some means the saddle had got forward until it pressed upon the wound, and made the animal restive. Amongst us, however, we soon put the saddle right, gathered up the loading, packed it safely on the horse, mounted the equestrienne once more, and started her on the road homewards.

By this time, the shades of evening were fast closing in, and we at once made our way to the foot of the ranges which, as I have said, lay only some three hundred yards to the left or west of the road, and in one of the gulleys falling down from them we found a running stream of delicious water. Here, then, we determined to make our camp for the night.
(To be continued )

MY HOLIDAY. (1861, June 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Shortly before dawn we all awoke, almost simultaneously, the bitter coldness of the early day, exposed as we were without shelter to the sweeping breeze, and the falling dew, rendered it impossible to sleep longer, so we made up a roaring fire, draped ourselves in our blankets-more mericano-and enjoyed the luxury of a warm through. As the light of day ascended from the east, a heavy bank of clouds that lay on the S.E. horizon crept up gradually with it, giving us the very unpromising prospect of a wet tramp. By the time the sun had risen, we had performed our ablutions, made our pot of tea, and demolished our breakfast of tea and biscuit ; and shortly after the appearance of the great luminary, we once more shouldered our swags, and put ourselves en route.

Descending to the road, a few minutes walk along it brought us abreast of a cluster of buildings which we had mistaken for a farm, and which is known amongst the natives as "Jenkins" old place." And old enough it is, in all conscience-the houses having a ricketty tumble-down appearance sufficient to deter any but one who had a very heavy insurance on his life from venturing to go in them. There appeared to he no signs of cultivation, in so far as we could see from the road, the only relief to the otherwise forsaken look of the place being a solitary cabbage-tree palm, which grew at the foot of the hill in the bed of a small watercourse, but looked ragged and miserable, as if half-ashamed of the shabby rookery of houses with which it found itself in such close company. At the bottom of the hill by the roadside was a half broken down stockyard, and by the side of the stockyard was a quite broken-down cart, the body turned bottom upwards, and the wheels lying rotting alongside of it, as though there had been at one time an intention to repair it, but that a sufficient amount of energy for the purpose had never been forthcoming. None of the inhabitants described by Tom gave any signs of vitality as we passed, neither women, children, nor fowls being visible, and it seemed as if the roosters even were too dispirited to get up a crow amongst the lot of them; there was nothing, therefore, very attractive in this picture of desolation, and we made tracks away from it without regret.

Right: Plan of the survey of Jenkins' 80 acre grant [cartographic material] : situate in the Parish of Narrabeen: 1831 - 1859. MAP F 172. by Brownrigg, W. Meadows (William Meadows), courtesy National Library of Australia

The road now led us along a swampy honeysuckle flat for rather more than half a mile, and then brought us on to the margin of the Narrabeen lagoon. Narrabeen is a somewhat extensive lagoon, connected with the sea by broad sandy flats covered by the tide at high water, but hire at low water, with the exception of a distance of about twenty rods in width, forming a channel by which the surplus water of the lagoon runs out into the sea. The opening to the sea is somewhat narrower than this, though deeper, taking a man to the waist in wading over, whilst at the regular crossing-place the stream at low water is not much over the knee. It is situated between the island fall of the high precipitous ridge that, jutting far out into the ocean, forms Narrabeen Head to the north; and to the south, the long low sandy beach that extends northerly from the Long Reef. The large sheet of water that forms the lagoon is situated some two miles from the sea, with which the sandy flats connect it, although at high water, and particularly at spring tides, one broad expanse of water extending in one continuous sheet from the ocean into the interior for a distance of five miles is presented to the view, forming a magnificent lake, by no means wanting in picturesqueness and rude grandeur in some portions of it. Where the road crosses, the country for some distance around is flat, and consequently tame, and the picture is rendered sombre by the low, thick growth of ti tree that fringes the water line, and the dark leaved honeysuckles of the flat land beyond ; but higher up, where the fresh water of the lagoon commences, where ranges clad with giant timber come down to its margin, and where numerous gullies with the rich, dank jungle vegetation of the tropics, including the cabbage-tree palm, the fern tree, the bengola, and wild vine, empty their watery contributions into it wild landscape views might be taken fully equal to many of those about which artists have raved so much.

I have said that the morning was cloudy, and consequently the sun, not yet very high, was overcast and as we came down to the channel, over which we had to cross, the wind swept coldly over the sandy beach, making the task of stripping and crossing anything but a pleasant one. Under the circumstances, the twenty rods of width-for luckily we had hit the extreme low water - appeared, in my eyes a mighty waste of waters, and in the absence of guide or direction, it seemed a somewhat dangerous experiment to venture upon, particularly as the water was evidently running out with great swiftness.

"Oh," said Tom, as I expressed my doubts, " there's no danger; its all right !"

CONRAD MARTENS (1801-1878) Entrance to Narrabeen Lake - watercolour signed, titled and inscribed verso: Entrance to Narrabeen Lake by Conrad Martens 39.5 x 44.5 cm courtesy The Alan & Margaret Hickinbotham Collection

Right: The Plateau Valse [music] - 1880 - 1889 (9 pages - cover shown) by Charles Huenerbein, courtesy National Library of Australia

So we sat down, pulled off boots and stockings, and tucked up our trousers as high as we could ; but I noticed that with all his boasting, Master Thomas loitered considerably over his preparations, growling audibly over "those blessed boots," the getting on again of which he declared to be a matter of considerable doubt. Tom grumbled and fumbled so long, that Nat, declaring that "he wasn't going to wait getting cold through for him," took the lead in the advance, walked nonchalantly into the water and made steadily for the other side. I watched him with fear and trembling, expecting every minute to sea him disappear, but, as I perceived that he got half-way over with the water only up to Ins knees, I took heart of grace and ventured in. But oh the terrible agony of that first plunge! The water was as cold as if it had been fresh melted snow, and my feet, having been warmed by the brief walk, felt the change most bitterly. But on and on I went, the chill of the water biting in rising circles round my legs as I got deeper and deeper in the stream, causing an agony unspeakable. Just as I was about half-way across, I turned round in order to see by the distance I had passed how long this torture was to be continued and there I beheld Tom, all ready for the passage, peeping out at us through the bushes. He caught my eye, and shouted "Tell us if it gets any deeper!

The old dodger had quietly pushed us on ahead, in order, as he said, that we might take soundings for him. I made him no answer, for I was too full of my own especial sufferings just at that moment j and, i without joke, it was as painful an ordeal, in regard to mere corporeal pain, as ever I went through m so brief a time. In fact, so acute was it, that I felt as I neared the end of my torture as if I could not possibly hold out until I got out of that blood-chilling stream, but that my feet must give way, and that I must fall. However, across I did get, without the fall that I considered inevitable, and it was only by looking down at my feet and seeing them there doing duty, that I could assure myself that I still possessed those appendages. The feeling I experienced on quitting the water was as if feet ankles and legs had been cut off, just at the place where the water had reached highest, with a red hot saw. Though I looked down occasionally to assure myself of the fact that I still possessed them, it was only after a ten minutes' run upon the sand that any sensation of feeling in those useful members made assurance doubly sure; and during the whole of the day I felt that burning ring round my leg, sometimes with painful  distinctness.
There was a large flock of sand pipers, small birds, somewhat about the size of a lark, but with long lags like a snipe, that were running about the sand picking up their morning meal. I tried very hard to got a shot at them, .but they ran away so fast and kept themselves so pertinaciously out of gun-shot that at last I let fly haphazard at them, and of course got nothing.

We now made for the opposite bank of the stream, where, above high watermark, the grass grew in thick coarse tufts forming a convenient towel with which to wipe the sand from our feet, and here we once more resumed boots and stockings, and got into marching on, though not before Tom had had a desperate struggle with his rebellious watertights, in which, from dread that in the end the boots would get the best of it, we were at last fain to join, and so by dint of numbers gained the mastery. Tom seemed quite proud of his achievement, and stalked along in consequence quite boastfully for the rest of that day's journey.

We had hung our loads on the posts of a fence that skirted the edge of the sand, and which enclosed paddock of long reedy grass, as high as a man's waist though beyond some gently undulating land the crest surmounted by a not very neat but substantial looking slate dwelling, rose up from the marshy plain, and appeared to be rich cultivated land. We were about to take our loads from the temporary pegs on which they hung, when we were joined by another wayfarer, who, like ourselves, had just crossed the lagoon, and came up to us to reconnoitre.

"Shooting?" asked he.

"Yes," answered Tom, "if we can act anything to shoot."

" You didn't ought to want for plenty to shoot here away," he responded, and I ought to have stated that the new arrival was evidently of the sea, sailory. About this, there could be no doubt, even at the first glance.

“Any ducks?"-and here Tom now took up the questioning,

"Plenty in the black lagoon," he answered. 

                                                     Above: View from Brock's House, Allen Family Album, 1911. Image No: 3289054, courtesy Mitchell Library NSW.

"And where is the black lagoon ?"

"About two points west of north, two miles from here," said the seaman.

" Any wallabi?" asked Tom.

"Not many here away, but plenty about old Cooper's place."

"And where was that?"

"Oh, the other side of Lush's."

Here, then, we had a key. We knew Lush's.

" Whose place was this ?"

This ?-why, this was Collins'."

And now we approached a tender point-one upon which we all felt, I won't say tenderly, because we didn't, but ravenously.

" Didn't he know where we could beg, borrow, of steal apiece of meat, salt or fresh?"

He shook his head doubtingly. We had evidently given him a puzzler. Ducks, wallabi, or pigeons could be mapped out with a wave of the hand, but the location of meat, which I had always deemed an indispensable requisite to man's carnivorous nature, was not so readily to be pointed out.

At last he said, "You see meat is rather a scarce article 'n these parts. They have to bring it all the way from Sydney for they can't always get it at Manly, and in consequence they often run out of it. It's hard to say, where you'll get any. But" and here he brightened up a bit, and, of course, our countenances which had got ruefully long during this speech, brightened a little also,-"come up to Collins'; if he's got any, he'll let you have some."

"Is this Collins' place here?"

"Yes," answered the sailor, "he's a very decent fellow too." And so to Collins', under the guidance of our nautical acquaintance we determined to go, and with something like hope in our hearts shouldered our loads.
[To be continued.)

MY HOLIDAY. (1861, July 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

...We soon left the flat, and began to mount the sides of some heavy, stony ridges, which the flock we had just passed had entirely denuded of everything having the slightest claim to the name of grass; and for some two miles the road was all up hill and down hill, mounting a long steep rise on one side merely to descend it on the other. A number of short broken ridges occur here starting off from the main range, in most confused style, and making this up-and-down work absolutely necessary. At last, however, we came down upon a long ridge of sand banks, composed of coarse sea sand, evidently thrown up in some former day by the mighty ocean. In this, tufts of harsh wiry grass were growing, intermingled with the fleshy, salcolaceous plants so frequently found in the immediate neighbourhood of the Australian coast. Here and there occurred thick groves of honeysuckle, though dwarfed by the powerful and salt-laden breezes off the sea. We could now perceive that we were not far from the edge of a long sandy beach, which extended to the light of our road, I should say, at a rough guess, nearly a couple of miles.

On our left, a long range of swamps, all full of water, and some of them of very considerable extent, ran along far as the eye could reach in advance of our path, bearing a little to the east of north, and ending between the points of two ridges, which appeared almost to meet each other, but which in reality are widely apart, the extensive muddy flat that forms the southernmost extremity of Pittwater lying between them. Into this is emptied all the surplus water of these lagoons that lie so near the sea, and are indeed only separated from it by the low narrow range of sand-hills I have before described. We could see also that this range of lagoons ran a long way back to the southward, and, as far as we were able to judge, must have been some ten or twelve miles in length.

Standing upon the most prominent of these sand-hills, and running the eye along the line of low land that intervenes between this spot and the head of Pittwater, the particular name of which is, I believeCreel Bay, one cannot help feeling impressed with the certainty that at no very distant epoch, the long peninsula that commences here and terminates at Barranjuee, was an island. How the present barrier of sand-hills has been formed, whether by an up heaving of the land, or by deposition by the waves, is for somebody more versed in such matters than myself to say. .

"Do you see the smoke rising from beyond that bank ?" said our guide. Yes, of course, we all saw it.

"That is Lush's, he rejoined, and of course we were all delighted to hear it, for here we had determined to fix our headquarters. At the same time the barren-ness of the land we had passed through, more particularly in regard to the interesting article of beef, caused certain serious misgivings to enter our minds. What if the mistress of the house was subject to the periodical visitations that Nauticus had alluded to, and had gone " to see the doctor and get some ?"

The prospect was too miserable to be contemplated. But we walked on in stern resolution, determined to brave our fate, even if it should come in the shape of pumpkins and honey, the last resources of the Pitt Water larders; and to sacrifice ourselves if need be in the cause of enquiry by laving down our bones to bleach in the desert ranges. In my excitement I happened to make this latter remark aloud, when Tom at once corrected me by informing me that our bones would not bleach in the damp bush-they would only get green mouldy. Nat, with his usual grin, told me that I ought to have said, " laying down our bones to frighten the poor little wallabi from their play."

"Talking about laying down bones," said our self constituted guide, "it's just about here that old Foley was supposed to be shot,"

"Here? Foley! shot !" we ejaculated.

“Yes, his cart and the body was found over yonder, and they traced the blood up to here, where it is supposed he got his settler." This, of course, made us exceedingly anxious to learn all the particulars of the occurrence, and we questioned our companion respecting them. He knew but little of the matter, but that little whetted our curiosity, and subsequent inquiry brought out all that has as yet been known relative to this bloody tragedy.

It was a cruel and a cowardly deed that had been committed some thirteen years back -in 1849, I believe. Foley was a well to-do settler, occupying at the time the farm, to which we were then making our way. On the morning of the day on which he met his death he had, in company with his farm servant, driven his cart to Middle Harbour for the purpose of taking butter and other produce to market.Arrived there he had sent on his man with the produce and had himself returned homewards. He was seen by several settlers to pass their places, at one or two of which he stopped, and he had called also at the house the nearest to his own on his road home. That home he never reached alive.

The usual hour of his return having passed, his wife became uneasy, and accompanied by her two daughters, grown up girls, went on the road to meet him. Hardly had they gone half a mile, when they came upon the cart, completely overturned in the bush, and lying upon the old man's body, the horse between the shafts, but on his back and so incapable of freeing himself. Poor Foley was brought home a corpse to the house, which he had so recently left in good health, and then an examination of the body showed that he had been the victim of some dastardly assassin. Two shot wounds, either sufficient to have caused death, were discovered in his back, piercing the body through. It would appear that the old man must have been sitting unconcernedly in his cart, as he passed the bush behind which his cowardly murderers were concealed and that, the moment his back was turned to the ambush, the felon shots were fired that sent the poor victim, without warning "unanseled, unanealed," into the awful presence of his Maker.

The horse had doubtless taken fright at the shots fired so near him, and had bolted, but the wheels of the cart having come into contact with a tree or a stump, the vehicle had over-turned with such violence as to throw the horse upon his back, and thus to prevent him from bringing home his ghastly bleeding burden. Two persons on whom suspicion had fallen, on account of some misunderstanding having occurred between them and the murdered man, were arrested and committed for trial on the coroner's warrant, but the evidence produced against one of them who was tried, so little touched him that he was acquitted, and the other was discharged from custody without trial. There the matter has hitherto rested, and this, like many another deed of blood, for it is all nonsense to say that "murder will out," is doubtless decreed by the All-wise to pass unpunished by man. Unknown of all but the Omniscient, the murderer stalks abroad in security, but who can say that the blood-bedabbled figure of the old man does not walk forth at his side by day and stand at his bed by night, blighting his path and haunting his dreams.     

The details of this tragedy had so far whiled away the time that, almost before we were aware of it, we found ourselves in sight of the homestead of Mona Vale, better known-amongst the peninsularies as Lush's, and consequently close to it, since it is so nestled down amidst the sand hills that surround it, as to be unperceived until you are within hundred yards of it. We found it a neat looking little place so far as outside appearance went, not evidently the worse for wear, like every building we had then met, and I may add, like every one we afterwards came to in the district. It had, at one time, been a dwelling of some pretension, as was evident from the stabling, fowl-house, and dairy, now somewhat dilapidated; and from the enclosed garden in front of the house, in which flowering plants, roses, pinks and geraniums, struggled manfully for existence with the strangling couch grass, amidst which they were all but buried. A large stockyard, in which was a shed, covering in the milking bails and calf pen, lay to the north of the house, the venerable grey hue of the timber speaking for the antiquity of the construction, as well as for the durable character of our colonial timber, since the posts, though somewhat eaten away by decay below the surface, were still sound and hard as flint above it. At the back of the domicile, or east- ward, the high sandbanks sheltered it from the fierce Sharp breezes from the ocean, though the surf, as it curled and dashed upon the long sandy beach, roared and moaned incessantly in such close proximity as to be inconvenient until the ear had got accustomed to the sound.

To the right, or northerly, a high range, terminating in a rocky headland which jutted far out into the sea, and abruptly ending the long line of beach, arose almost bluffly from the edge of a small paddock reserved for a kitchen garden; whilst southerly, a close belt of honeysuckles protected it. To the front or westward, the view was open, extending along the broad clear flat which I have before spoken of as reaching to the head of Pittwater, and a large portion of which I could now see was enclosed, thereby forming a vast paddock. Beyond this again the prospect was bounded on the right by the fall of the Baranjuee ranges, and on the left by the great Lane Cove range, and the complicated series of tortuous ridges that ramify from it.

Land at Mona Vale, formerly David Foley's Bungin farm. Mona Vale views: Mona Vale, Call Number Government Printing Office 1 – 15675, courtesy of the State Library of NSW.

f.109 Mona Vale road to Broken Bay. Image No.: a5894117h from album: Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales

... (To be continued.)  
MY HOLIDAY. (1861, July 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13058404

Narrabean And Mona Vale.

THERE are few spots about Sydney more picturesque and interesting than Narrabean and Mona Vale, Pitt Water, and the wonder is that more visitors from the noisy and dusty metropolis do not find their way to these peaceful sylvan scenes, to rusticate and recruit their flagging energies. Fish abound in the lagoon, and at the present season there is no lack of game in the underbrush near the shore, and the ridges that extend towards the higher country at the back. In addition to this, the character of the whole place is different from anything that is met with in any other part of the metropolitan districts ; and as the eye takes in the prospect afforded, particularly at Narrabeen, one who knows the history of the locality can hardly help being impressed with the idea that it is a picture full of sad memories and mournful recollections. Right before the visitor, as he stands upon the piece of elevated land overlooking the lagoon, extends a fine stretch of grassy country, almost as level as a race-course Though within a few yards of the ocean, not a rock or sign of such proximity is visible, and the whole reach is protected from the violence of storms by a belt of thick forest which margins the ocean throughout. At the back rugged ridges rise precipitously, and these being clad with foliage to their very crown, add much to the sense of beauty and security, as it were, of the whole place. Hereabout are evidences of a once busy time; but desolation now presents itself on every hand. The houses are in ruins, and the fences dilapidated, and one sees nothing now but what indicates a marvellous chance from the past; remnants of once comfortable homesteads show themselves, and time indeed seems here to have destroyed all that the energy and industry of man once sought to produce or rear up. Turning round, and looking in a north-easterly direction, an enchanting view meets the eye. 

Our artist has endeavoured, in the accompanying engraving, to depict some of its beauty. Almost at one's foot the placid waters lie like a mirror, over an area of several miles, till the ridges push in their rugged outlines on either side, and thus intercept the view ; but then, farther on, the eye catches a glimpse of a piece of cultivated country, where, one would think, a man might dwell in peace and quiet all his days. To the right the lagoon extends towards the ocean, from which it is separated by a sandy bar, which, however, allows of overflow one way and the other according to the circumstances of the hour. Cranes and aquatic birds abound, but there is very little sign of human life during the greater part of the year. At certain seasons, however, a few fishermen come to the place for a few weeks' stay, and with the aid of their boat and net are able to make the visit profitable. Our view shows their boat upon the lake, moving silently along as a thing of life. 

No more enchanting sight presents itself than this when observed at an early hour- as day breaks, and the gloom disappears, and each headland and bay is lit up, and the whole scene which lies before the eye presents a magnificent panorama of undisturbed nature. Turning again to the ruins, one wonders why such a spot should be I deserted, and the mind is by degrees induced to picture the past, and ask where are those busy hands that first broke in upon this silent scene-that in old times toiled and toiled from day to day beneath the burning sun, to gather about them the comforts of civilisation - all scattered or fallen into disrepair and ruin. Each stone has its history, and the decayed and tottering posts erected by industrious hands tell of the men who have long since passed over to the majority.

But all must be left to the imagination ; there is no one about to reveal the past; nothing seems to live or flourish, save a gigantic cabbage-tree, which rears its head fifty or sixty feet, and, defiant of both time and tempest, looks complacently down on the surrounding scene of desolation. Of late years the place has been in the possession of the Jenkins family, whose members have won for themselves the esteem of all the residents of the district, and whose generous hospitality is spoken of by every one who visits Narrabean. Their homestead is situated a short distance in from the coast, at Long Reef, and its unobtrusive yet comfortable appearance reminds one of an English country home. 

The land at Narrabean is not now cultivated; the soil has been worked out long ago, but a few sheep and cattle are frequently depastured there. Wherever one looks in this district, the scenery presents an aspect totally different from what is usually met with on the coast, as here is found a long stretch of land within a stone throw of the ever-rolling ocean, originally of great fertility, but exhausted by long cropping and careless cultivation. It is much the same with the Mona Vale estate, which is situated about three miles on the opposite side of Narrabean, and usually reached by crossing the lagoon in its shallowest part, which is about the centre. As one wends his way along through the bush, and Mona Vale opens out before him, he stands to behold and enjoy the novel view that presents itself ; it is so secluded and quiet, and yet so grand, with the rugged ridges on the one hand, and the turbulent ocean on the other, that it singularly impresses the visitor, who becomes eager to learn its history, and feels sure there must be many pleasant reminiscences to tell of past occupants. What a sad mistake ! What fearful trials and losses and disappointments have been experienced here. Its history should be written in blood, for if ever red-handed crime flourished in any country, it flourished and triumphed here, till it brought ruin and death to honest people ; and justice, outraged beyond bearing, rushed in and brought the delinquents to punishment. The description of these places has already taken up all the space that can be afforded, so we must defer till a future opportunity a brief outline of the leading incidents in their history. Narrabean and Mona Vale. (1877, January 6). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70598057 

The age old problem of increased population attracting increased funding for infrastructure such as roads met a catch 22 situation in the turning of tracks into passageways that could be ridden or, when automobiles came along, be driven along. Limited access meant roads remained in a poor condition, were unsealed and in places, not navigable. Add to this the great font of creeks, lagoons and waterways that required bridges and the problem of access persisted into the 1920's, as some articles noted, while others were used to promote the wonderful aspects of the area as a means to attract more people - 'The Wonders of Warringah' - February 1st in the Sunday Times, is just one example of these.

Deputation after deputation 'waited upon' a minister for roads, for bridges, for connecting old tracks to new tracks;

Narrabeen Lagoon Crossing Place - 1880

Pittwater scenes, 1880 / Harold Brees, LNarrabeen Lagoon Crossing Place - 1880, Image No.89644600, courtesy State Library of New South Wales.

The same Minister was waited upon on Friday by the Mayor of Manly (Mr. Hilder), with Messrs. Hayes and Barker, who asked the Government to put in repair that portion of Pitt-water-road, running through the municipality of Manly, before the management of the road was taken over by the municipal council. Mr. Lackey informed the deputation that the Government had already made provision for the work being performed. PITT-WATER ROAD. (1880, March 13).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 27. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70941827 

A Bridge over the lagoon - what? Finally:

Mr. LACKEY, in reply to Mr. Furnell, stated that a sum had been noted for consideration of the Cabinet for the erection of a bridge across the Narrabeen lagoon. 
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. (1881, January 15). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70951884

Mr LACKEY in answer to Mr Teece, said that tenders for a bridge over Narrabeen Lagoon, close to the present road, would be invited in two weeks. PARLIAMENT OF NEW SOUTH WALES. (1882, September 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13526176

A description of the road and way through Narrabeen lagoon of then:

The Sketcher.
A Trip To Gosford.

Leaving Sydney by the 7.15 a.m. steamer for Manly, one discovers how pleasant and refreshing a trip down the harbour may be on a crisp September morning, and regrets on reaching Manly that there are but some 15 or 20 minutes allowed for satisfying the sharpened appetite before the Pittwater coach gets under way. Bowling round the corner, the team, fresh as two-year-olds, takes us at a merry pace along the level road, past the lagoon, and into the bush, continuing amid rock and scrub that grows so prolifically in this sandy soil. A fairly good road gradually ascends for several miles, the left being a mass of rough broken country, and the right, some high ground shutting us off from the sea, till presently we come almost on to the sea-shore, and every hill we top gives as a view of the continuous bay and headland coast-line stretching ahead for miles. 

After some six or seven miles, descending a sharp decline, we almost ran on top of the Collaroyhigh and dry on the beach.The bizarre object startles one as it is so absurdly out of place; but the Company's balance sheet still reckons her an asset. 

The road seems to end here, and the coach enters upon a level strip of sward overawed by a straight range of steep, rocky hills, with a cabbage tree on top, limned against the sky. Here, meeting the fresh north wind that lifts the horses' manes, the leaders put their heads down and stretched themselves for a canter. I had been especially directed to select this route on account of the beauty of its scenery, so closely resembling, at times, that of the Rhine. But although one part of Europe may frequently recall another to the recollection, yet in Australia nature has assumed such distinct characteristics, that all comparison is rendered out of the question, nor could any effort of the imagination convert the old stone ruins on the rise at the end of the flat into the remains of some castle of romance. We could not elevate oneself above the conviction it was but a settler's or free selector's home-stead. Recently the land about here was sold, fetching prices up to £10 for quarter-acre blocks. 

A little further on we entered Narrabeen Lagoon, when the water came over the bottom of the coach. For three quarters of a mile the coach struggled along through marsh and water, not daring to stop lest the wheels sink in the sand. However, it is understood the Government will call for tenders next month for the construction of the bridge. 

Coming out of Narrabeen the coach passes round a finely formed hill abundantly clothed with tree and fern, including quantities of the Burrawang species. On the left arises a cleared eminence with two red cattle; beyond, a half-cleared flat, with a mass of low gnarled gum trees in front, through which the road leads ; on the right are some stretches of white sand, with a reddish-brown bluff rising above, and splashes of spray dashing up against it ; a few light clouds above break the sunshine. It is a good specimen of natural Australian landscape, and these are to the picture the finishing touches of the artist's master hand. As a centrepiece of such a scene, none but a painter knows the value of a lumbering coach and four, axle deep in water, slowly dragging its way along. 

From Narrabeen to Pittwater is a succession of hills and gullies, the views, and retrospect from each becoming finer and finer.The aspect of the coast, which is now continuously in sight, suggests somewhat the snapped off red clayey cliffs of Devon ; while two or three miles beyond are seen the deep gorges among the hills that hide the lake of Pittwater. From a distance, the rugged boldness of the hills bear many of the characteristics of mountainous parts of the Black Forest, although when close the vegetation and the general appearance of 'unfinishedness' effectually dispels the illusion. 

Presently we approach a promontory with rounded top and sides, smooth shaven like a lawn, and interspersed with scrub like the soft buxom furze of a Cornish hillside. It is remarkable besides for its massiveness, and one feels on reaching the summit as though he had overcome one of the obstacles of life. At length, reaching the eminence above Pittwater, we take our last view of the ocean with its half score of white sails dotting its wide surface in an aimless sort of way, and call each other's attention to the dignity waves can assume as they come rolling in with a slow lazy sweep and curl and break on the curved sandy stretch that connects the protruding frowning headlands.

Turning inland, we enter, as it were, the top rim of the basin of the lake, and suddenly come upon the loveliest spot between Sydney and Brisbane Water. On the left one looks down a gorge ever so steep down: down through the stems of several species of gum, ironbark, mahogany, forestoak, turpentine, and cabbage tree, their tops netted into a dense mass of foliage, their bases buried in a profuse overgrowth of fern, bracken, clematis, and the graceful burrawang, a species of palm-fern, while in the mid-distance between the tree stems one can trace the stream at the bottom. The scene is rich with the luxuriant beauty of a New Zealand pass. Coming round the shoulder of the hill, openings in the trees betray glimpses of the deep blue waters of the lake, while the scene stretches away beyond to the high enclosing hills, in all their deep colouring, like one of Conrad Martens' pictures. 

A few minutes more, and the coach stops at the Newport Hotel, having accomplished the 14 miles in about two hours. At the waterside awaits the steamer Florrie. A little to the right, in a small bay, is another wharf, with a large house close by approaching completion, and destined for a boarding-house. As we steam out, we wonder which way we shall take, for the lake is completely landlocked by huge bluffs rearing themselves up above us like so many 'Ball's Heads,' and suffering rough jagged gorges to penetrate their way deep into their mass. In several places where the nature of the ground allows settlement, cottages and gardens and orchards have sprang up, and their beauty of situation renders one envious of the owners. 

Bending to the right, we pass between Lord Loftus Point and Scotland Island, while far ahead, near the heads of Broken Bay, is seen the noble island, in shape like a couchant lion guarding the entrance as he faces it. Pittwater forms a magnificent harbour, and, undoubtedly, in due time its waves will reflect the lights of a grand city reared upon its banks. Its entrance, some three miles wide, is wondrously safe. Its waters are deep, absolutely sheltered from every quarter; and as to its size, would float the navies of the world. Pittwater is the southern arm of the estuary, Brisbane Water the northern, while between, straight in from the Heads, stretches westward the grand outlet of the Hawkesbury River, between two enormous banks. Few rivers can match its magnificence of debouchure, as the hills boldly approaching the ocean in all their pride of strength majestically deliver up the waters confided to their charge. At the Barrenjoey lighthouse, whence also a cable is laid to Brisbane Water, we come in sight of the entrance to the harbour, and as we cross have a full view on our left of the estuary of the Hawkesbury. ...SYDNEY. The Sketcher. (1882, September 30). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 542. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161926095 

Pittwater Affairs.
A meeting of the residents of Pittwater was held on Saturday evening at Bolton's Hotel, for the purpose of urging the Government to make the road from the Lagoon to Newport. Mr. Crawford, who was appointed chairman, in a neat speech, explained the object of the meeting and drew Attention to the state of the road which, in some parts was almost impassable, he stated that he was convinced it was only necessary to bring the matter under the notice of the Minister for Works to get the work done. After several forcible and appropriate speeches were made the following gentlemen were appointed to wait upon the Minister.— Messrs. M'Keon, Drs. Tebbut, O’Riley, James, and F. Smith. At the conclusion of the business a concert was given by a number of ladies and gentlemen, (visitors from Sydney), and a most enjoyable evening was spent. Pittwater Affairs. (1883, March 27).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107230268 

By June 1883 the first bridge over Narrabeen lagoon was being built - this appears to be what is later described as a 'road bridge' - quite flat and possibly prone to flooding and without a walkway for pedestrians;

A deputation waited upon the Colonial Secretary yesterday in reference to the road between Manly Beach and Newport, Pittwater. The deputation consisted of Dr Tibbets and Messrs M'Ewan, F. Smith, R. Crawford and R. Innes. It was represented that the Government expenditure on the road under notice had been made on the Manly Beach end, leaving the other end in a disgraceful state. Alarge coach traffic passed over the road in the shape of visitors to the Hawkesbury, and the bad condition of the road caused them great inconvenience. 
Mr STUART said he was aware that the road was very bad, but it was being gradually improved, and as soon as the bridge over the Narrabeen was finished, work could go on at the end of the road which now required to be put into a proper condition. DEPUTATIONS. (1883, June 2). The Sydney Daily Telegraph (NSW : 1879 -1883), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238491545 

Twenty years later:
Bridge Works— Filling in of Four Spans, Construction of Embanked Bridge Approach and Renewal of Superstructure in connection with No. 1, Narrabeen Bridge, on road Manly to Barrenjoey, Contract No. 37/1904-G—J. H. Shedden, Islington. Government Gazette Tenders and Contracts (1904, December 30). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 9446. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226487992 

filling-in of four spans, construction of embanked bridge, approach and renewal of superstructure in connection with No. 1 Narrabeen Bridge, on road Manly to Barrenjoey (contract No. 37/04-05), J. H. .Sadden, Islington, £515; TENDERS ACCEPTED TO-DAY. (1904, December 28). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113302022 

Narrabeen 'road bridge' - postcard, from the collection of Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1, courtesy National Museum of Australia - circa 1907 to 1913

Narrabeen – A J Hanson
The Art Exhibitions. (1899, August 20).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127380049 

 View - Narrabeen Lakes, ca. 1900-1910, Image No.:a116483 courtesy State Library of NSW.

An overview of that large coach traffic can be read in The Wild Coachmen Of Pittwater - A Long And Sometimes Bumpy Ride On Tracks Instead Of Roads  - interestingly some of the Notices make it apparent that people are picnicking at Narrabeen and Bayview, Mona Vale (Rock Lily or Tarramatta) and on the Pittwater, from this era:

Mount Loftus:
Yesterday morning a party from Government House and the detached Squadron made an excursion up the Hawkesbury, and for-tunately the weather was so fine that every lovely scene on the river appeared to the best advantage. The Royal Princes were of the party. At an early hour those engaging in the excursion left Man-of-war Stairs, and proceeded in the steam launch Nea to Manly, whence they were conveyed by Mr. Boulton's coaches to Newport. There they were received by Mr. Jeannerett on board the steam launch Pelican. Barrenjuey was passed about 11 o'clock. At Barrenjuey Mr. A. T.Black and friends  were invited on board the Pelican, and the boat then proceeded up the river.   The Detached Squadron. (1881, August 4). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 6. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article819027

MANLY TO NEWPORT AND PITTWATER. Boulton's Royal Mail Coaches leave Manly every SATURDAY, at 3.30p.m., returning Mondays at 5 a.m. WILLIAM  BOULTON, Newport Hotel, Newport. Advertising. (1883, June 15). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13537010

Coach – Farrells and Boulton’s combined; 

Visitors wishing to see the beautiful scenery on the noted Hawkesbury, second to none in the world for scenery and beauty, can start from Sydney every FRIDAY, 2.15 p.m. steamer to Manly, from Manly 3.16 to Newport, where passengers will find comfortable apartments for the night at Boulton's Newport Hotel. Steamer leaving Newport 6.30 a.m. Saturday, arriving Wiseman's Ferry 12 o'olook for luncheon, leaving 2 o'clock p.m., arriving Sackville Reach 5 p.m., where Underwood's coaches will convey passengers to Windsor Railway C.53 p.m., arriving in Sydney 0.3 p.m. Book Maddock's, 381, George-street. HAWKESBURY RIVER
Visitors wishing to see the beautiful scenery on the noted Hawkesbury, second to none in the world for scenery and beauty, can start from Sydney every FRIDAY, 2.1» p.m. steamer to Manly, Farrell's Coach from Manly 3.16 to Newport, where passengers will find comfortable apartments for the night at Collins' RetreatSteamer Young Charlie, leaving Newport at 6. 30 a.m.Saturday, arriving Wiseman's Ferry 12 o'clock for luncheon, leaving 2 o'clook p.m., arriving Sackville Reach 6 p m., where Underwood's coaches will convey passengers to Windsor Railway 6.53 p.m., arriving in Sydney 0 p.m. Book Cole's, King and George streets 
Advertising. (1884, April 16).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13571765

There was also picnickers - that there were picnic grounds you had to have a ticket to get into is some indication of the growing traffic on the roads due to visitors. This has remained a problem for Pittwater, the beauty of the area, combined with a long legacy of people who would protect that environmental beauty that attracts so many, has been paid for, in roads, wharves and other infrastructure maintenance, by those who live here through rates. 

The usage by visitors is taken into account in some measure through some government subsidies, but those who live and lived here, even when a smaller population, funded these as their was deemed to be the year round benefit even when 'seasonal' traffic, extending also year round, was causing the required and necessary maintenance due to deterioration - especially since so much of this road remained just dirt for so long, dirt which becomes mud with each rain:

NOTICE is hereby given that persons found trespassing on our leased lands at Narrabeen Lake, extending from the picnicgrounds to Bay View-road, without holding our exemption ticket, will be prosecuted as the law directs. Cattle will be impounded.
Livery Stables, Manly.
Department of Public Works, Railway Branch. Sydney, 20th May, 1885. GOVERNMENT RAILWAYS. (1885, May 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13589158

TWO REGULAR TRIPS WEEKLY in the Hawkesbury Steam Navigation Company's S.S. HAWKESBURY. Passengers leave CALEDONIAN WHARF, 7.30 a.m.. WEDNESDAY, reaching WINDSOR same night, and SYDNEY by 0.20 u.in. next day. ,
On FRIDAY, start for Manly by 2.15 p.m. trip, 1s each, by BLACK and CO.'S COACH, to Newport, staying at BOULTON'S NEWPORT HOTEL. Leave Newport, 7 a.m., SATURDAY, dine at WILBOW'S HAWKESBURY HOTEL. WISEMAN'S FERRY, thence steam to SACKVILLE REACH, whence CLEMENT HOUGHTON, of Richmond, meets party with coach and conveys them to WINDSOR, where they take tea and resume journey by rail, reaching Sydney about 7 p.m. N.B.-Passengers may leave Caledonian Wharf, 3 a.m., SATURDAY, if necessary. WEDNESDAY'S PASSENGERS. MAY STAY ON THE RIVER TILL SATURDAY. BOOK ONLY at THE TOURISM'S' BUREAU, .. BRIDGE STREET, where all expenses, including hotel accommodation, may be paid before starting.
Advertising. (1886, September 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13615890

Joseph Black at Newport with passengers and the mail - courtesy Mr Black's family

DEATH OF AN OLD DURALITE. Mr. Joseph E. Black passed away at his residence, East Gosford, on Tuesday, aged 73 years. He had been ailing for the past six months, suffering from an affection of the heart. Deceased was born at Dural, where his people were well known fruitgrowers; and he was a member of a family consisting of eight sons and two daughters. Two brothers and a sister still survive. He leaves a widow, two sons and a daughter. The oldest son is head steward on the Ventura, and the other son is managing a station property on the Northern Rivers. 

The late Mr. Black was a resident of Gosford for about 15 years, prior to which he was in business at Manly, where he conducted livery stables, and sold out when motor cars came into universal use. He was a genial, kind-hearted and highly-respected resident of the community, and his demise is genuinely regretted. The funeral took place on Wednesday afternoon, the remains being interred in Point Clare cemetery. — ‘Gosford Times.’ [Mr.. Black was a brother of Messrs J. E. Black, Ted Black, Fred Black and others of that well-known family.] DEATH OF AN OLD DURALITE. (1919, August 9). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 – 1950), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86109859

THE MONA VALE SALE. WATER FRONTAGES, PITTWATER. SPECIAL DAY, MONDAY, JUNE 13. In consequence of the uncertainty of the weather, it has been decided that the SALE shall be held at the SYDNEY AUCTION MART, on MONDAY, JUNE 13, instant, at half-past 11 a.m. To enable intending BUYERS to VIEW the LAND, arrangements have been made with Messrs. Black and Frost, coach proprietors, to run conveyances from Manly to the ground everyday, commencing on MONDAY, the 8th-lnstant, until the day of sale. These coaches will leave the pier at Manly at a quarter to 1.and will leave Pittwater at half-past 4. Visitors-can leave Sydney, therefore, at half-past 12, returning from Manly at 6 p.m. TICKETS can be obtained from the auctioneers. The ESTATE Is one of the most charming near Sydney, comprising the advantages of rich soil, beautiful scenery, and lovely water frontages. PLANS can be obtained from the Auctioneers, MILLS and PILE, 130, Pitt-street; from Mr. Negus, Pier Hotel, Manly; and from the proprietor of that delightful hostelry, the Rock Lily Hotel, Pittwater-road. Terms of Sale :-10 per cent, deposit, 15 per cent, in 3 months,and the balance in 1, 2, and 3 years' credit, bearing interest at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum. PURCHASERS CAN TAKE IMMEDIATE POSSESSION. _MILLS and PILE,  Auctioneers, 130, Pitt-street. Advertising. (1887, June 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13648145

TENDERS ACCEPTED. - The following tenders have been accepted : Conveyance of Mails. Manly, Newport, and Bayview, six times a week, and Newport and Barrenjoey, twice a week-Thomas Frost, coach, two or four horses, one year, £150 ; GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. (1887, December 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13668076

Schaeffer renames Newport Hotel 'Lake View' for his short tenure:Advertising. (1886, January 2 – Friday – same again on 8th Jan, 1886). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28359570

Picnic to Narrabeen Lake at Pier Hotel: Advertising. (1886, January 12).The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13608787

Charles Swancott in his book Dee Why to Barrenjoey and Pittwater describes the poetical mien of one of the gentlemen who was a coach driver (above right) for the Rock Lily's  robust and lusty and determined to make it work owner Leon Houreux

On Saturday afternoon, at the Rock Lily Hotel, NarrabeenMr. Leon  Houreaux gave a dinner to celebrate the opening of his new line of coaches between Manly and Pittwater. The trip is a very pleasant one, and the vehicles are exceedingly comfortable. This line should prove a boon to residents in the locality of Pittwater. The Sydney Morning Herald. (1890, March 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13763337

Having thoroughly explored the town, we will embark on one of Mr. Leon Houreux's magnificent coaches, which can he engaged for parties desiring a lovely drive by writing to the proprietor. His coaches are the best in New South Wales, and add to the enjoyment of the drive. As we bowl along the pretty country roads, we pass numerous charming residences, and also a haunted house. The Salvation Army have a resting house for then* hard-worked officers, which is beautifully situated on the side of a hill overlooking the sea. There is a stopping place at the Narrabeen Hotel, kept by Mr. Norris-a most charmingly situated hotel facing the road, the picture of which will gi ve you a good idea of the number of travellers who frequent this place. Close to the hotel are the celebrated Narrabeen Lakes, where there is splendid fishing, shooting, and boating, to be had within a half-a-mile of the hotel. Mr. Norris makes a specialty of providing boats,camping outfits, lunches, &c, for parties coming from town to spend a day or two in this lovely district. After having partaken of light refreshments, a good assortment of which will be found here, we once more resume our journey, and after about three quarters of an hour's lovely drive through ;some of the prettiest scenery in the country we pull up in front of a most comfortable and picturesque hotel at Rock Lily, owned by Mr. Leon Houreux..
 Madame Houreux is a most hospitable proprietress, and the rooms are most tastefully decorated in oil colors by Mr. Leon Houreux-stirring scenes on sea and land-the pictures well worth gazing at, not only from an artistic point of :view, but as curiosities in such a pretty wvayside inn. The gardens are laid out in good style. The tame and harmless native bear, the noisy laughing jackass, and the prying magpie are to be found here, making up a tiny and interesting menagerie. Mr.Leon Houreux evidently understands the way of catering for the public, as you can obtain the most récherché Parisian dinners here at a reasonable figure. After having partaken of a choice lunch, with a bottle of real French claret, of which he is an undoubted judge, you once more resume your seat on the coach, and proceed to Newport, to arrive there in time for tea., which has been already ordered at the pretty hotel kept by Mr. Thomas H. Hodges. This hotel is beautifully situated, and the view is well worth taking the journey alone to see. Opposite the hotel is Lord Loftus Point, which in tho olden days was evidently a favorite spot for aboriginal encampments. From here you have a splendid view of Pittwater, which is the widest arm of the Hawkesbury, being over a mile wide... There is also Scotland Island, which is celebrated for its fine fish. A Christmas Holiday Trip. (1893, November 25). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1853 - 1872), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63104125

Readers can see in the page on The Rock Lily Hotel (Restaurants you could also stay at) that many a politician, including Dalley who is stated to have travelled to dine every Sunday at the Hotel, visited the area regularly being transported via the coaches. A dirt road would not have held up well under such passages, especially as they increased.

Mr. Black sells his business:


WILLIAM INGLIS and SON have received instructions from Mr H BOURKE Jun , to sell by auction, at MANLY BEACH (next to Pier Hotel), on MONDAY AFTERNOON NEXT, 4th FEBRUARY, AT 3 O'CLOCK P.M, The whole of that well-known 'bus plant (until recently-known as Black's line of coaches), and Comprising 10 horses in hard-feed condition, all thoroughly broken in; 4 (a team) of cream ponies, broken to saddle and harness; 7 drags and waggonettes, with hoods; 1 omnibus car, carries 20 passengers; 2 sociables (one with hood); S S buggy; 14 sets double harness, 5 sets single harness; 2 sets buggy harness, sundry collars and harness, saddle and bridle, stable tools, &.C , &c; Also right of road from Manly Beach to Narrabeen, Rocklily, and NewportAdvertising (1895, January 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13996528 

Narrabeen Lake. A FAVORITE PLEASURE RESORT. (See illustration on page 26). Narrabeen Lake is one of the prettiest spots within easy reach of Sydney. It is situated six miles from Manly, being accessible by coach daily from that popular watering-place. Narrabeen is rapidly becoming a favorite resort for picnic parties and pleasure-seekers of all kinds, who are attracted there by the beauty of the scenery, which is of the character so well described by Byron in the lines:  

There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,

There is a rapture on the lonely shore, There is society where none intrudes,

By the deep sea, and music in its roar.

A great variety of ferns and wild native flowers abound in the neighborhood, and waratahs are very plentiful. The illustration is taken from the plateau - an elevated position in the fore- ground overlooking the lake. A beautiful view is obtained from here. To the left are picturesque hills and undulating vales, with their luxurious foliage and bushy undergrowth of wild vines, which flourish in tropical profusion ; while here and there are huge gray rocks, whose sombre hue serves to tone down the rich colors in the scenery. To the right is a view of the beach and ocean, with a coastal steamer on her course northward. In the distance is Broken Bay, the entrance to the Hawkesbury River.  Narrabeen Lake. (1890, March 29). Australian Town and Country Journal (NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 26. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71109744

The state of the road into Pittwater, was certainly brought to the attention of visiting ministers on a visit to the Ingleside Powder Works and Mill in July 1884, and, as this little report outlines, the attitude of the taxpayer in expecting something for their taxes, also is defined once again;

The "Milch Cow."
That trip to see the new gunpowder works at Narrabeen up Manly way, undertaken on 26th of July by His Excellency the Governor (Lord Loftus), the Hon. W. B. Dalley, the Hon. G. R. Dibbs, and many others, was not a pleasant one. There was a series of mishaps. The roads were knee deep in mud; it was necessary sometimes to wade through water; horses were stubborn and occasionally would not go; and at the works where experiments with gunpowder were made for the inspection of the visitors, the explosions caused serious accidents to, some of the men employed. 
The Narrabeen works are the only ones in Australia. They have not been established by the Government, but by the Australasian Powder and Explosives Manufacturing Company limited. It is altogether a matter of private enterprise. We want more private enterprise, more private companies, more independent action. In England most of the great works including the railways, are performed not by Government, but by companies. We have often drawn attention to that fact. 
His Excellency the Governor made some sensible remarks on this very point. He said 'lam extremely glad to testify my appreciation of the public spirit and enterprise this company has evinced in erecting these works. It is a self supporting industry; that is to say, the investment is entirely from the company itself, unaided by the Government. Now my observations in this colony lead me to the conclusion that the Government is called upon to pay for everything. (Hear, hear.) The Government is regarded as a sort of milch cow that everybody, particularly those gentlemen-in Macquarie-street— (laughter) — think they have aright to milk. I have seen in this country very few evidences of public spirit and public enterprise.'
These are true and good words. When we ourselves think of the roads, the bridges, the water and gasworks, the railways, the telegraphic lines, markets, the steam boats, &c,'all started by private companies in England and elsewhere, the force of Lord Loftus's remarks is more keenly felt. If we had more companies, people would have some other means for investing their money besides in strips of land and small paddocks. The "Milch Cow." (1884, August 2). Balmain Observer and Western Suburbs Advertiser (NSW : 1884 - 1907), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article132245186

Mr P Fletcher Watson has sent in more than a dozen exhibits, and every one of them is attractive. During the past year or 18 months he has been the director of an open-air sketching class, and while teaching other people the principles of perspective and colouring, he has himself learnt - what his previous studies of cathedral interiors did not teach him - how to represent out of-door light and atmosphere. His pictures are simply quickly-finished sketches, but there is a dash, and vigour, and originality about them which make them decidedly effective. No 93, " Hunter's Beach, Middle Harbour," and 94 " Narrabeen Lagoon " are good examples of his style, whereas No. 121, which depicts the troopships passing the Gap on the 3rd of last March, is superior in merit to both of them. The picture is decidedly sombre in tone - a gray sky, a sullen sea, to the left a frowning per-pendicular headland, and in the middle distançe the white transports passing over the swell which ever heaves just outside the entrance to Port Jackson. No 172, " Shades of Evening, Narrabeen," is a clever effort; 279, "Careening Cove, Neutral Bay," is full of vigour, and his other harbour sketches show work which goes in the right direction. 
ART SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION. (1885, April 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13579492

In October 1885 New South Wales colonial election was held with votes, then, still being limited to males only of whom 129,888 cast votes and 2,669 voted informally. There was no recognisable party structure at this election, the last election for which this was the case; instead the government was determined by a loose, shifting factional system. Parliament was dissolved on October 7th and voting took place from the 16th to the 31st with a new parliament opening on November 17th.

'School' of whales off Narrabeen. Probably these monsters of the deep are anxious to know the names of our new Ministers.Brevities. (1885, October 8). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111342468

One Alderman of Manly Council, on being elected, quickly took the government to task for the benefit of those travelling along the road to Pittwater:

To the Editor.
Sir, — Allow me to call the attention of the proper authorities to the dangerous and disgraceful state of the Pittwater-road, from the spit at Middle Harbor through the village of Manly. The road was never known to be in so dangerous a state. Many accidents have already happened such as broken springs, broken axles, and bruised limbs of human beings, and broken knees of the horses of the district. It is simply a disgrace to those who are responsible. It has been decided not to allow any more Government money to be spent on the main road through Balgowlah and Manly, notwithstanding great care is taken of the Military-road on the other side of the spit. The road referred to is entitled to have £60 per mile spent upon it, and is as much a military road as that on the other side of the water. 

This road leads to Broken Bay, a place that must be defended in case of war, it being the best landing place for any fleet that may visit us for hostile purposes, where they could land their forces with the greatest ease and in unlimited numbers, and march on to Manly, or via Lane Cove-road, and storm Sydney in the rear. What is really required is a light railway to the waters of Broken Bay, which would not alone be desirable for military purposes, but would be a profitable one to the Government, together with the fact that it would have, a marked influence on the sale of Crown lands in this district of which there are thousands of Acres unsold. The Government could sell enough land to pay for the line of rail in the district through which it passes, and the balance of the said lands would fetch a high price and would return a large amount of cash to the Treasury; but in the meantime the roads should be kept in a proper state of repair. 

The Municipal Council of Manly have done wonders in making roads, pathways, planting trees, forging parks and reserves and the residents have subscribed handsomely, in addition to their rates, towards making these improvements, and it is very unfair that this council should be required to keep the Pittwater-road in repair— their funds will not permit of it. Besides Manly is not only a place for its residents, it is a place of resort for the whole of the colony; in fact visitors from all parts of the world stay or call at Manly, and it is a good advertisement for the colony to have-such a place of interest and resort well cared for by keeping the streets, parks, &c , in clean and proper repair, quite as much so as the Botanical Gardens, the parks, or any other of our places of public Interest; and I sincerely trust that whoever is responsible for the dangerous state of the road through the village and Balgowlah will have the matter at once attended to,— 
Yours, &c., S. B. BAILEY. 
PITTWATER-ROAD. (1886, October 4).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107313234 

Several accidents at Jenkins's Bridge, Narrabeen, on Prince of Wales's Birthday. Brevities. (1886, November 11). Evening News(Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107315131 

Narrabeen Requirements. — Mr. S. B. Bailey has received the following communication from the Department of Public Works .—
' Sydney, December 1, 1886. Sir,— In reply to your letter of the 12th ultimo, urging the 'erection of a bridge over Jenkins Creek, Narrabeen', I am directed to inform you that the matter will be considered when funds for 'repairs to bridges’ during next year,: shall have been made available. With-respect to the railing on the road across Narrabeen lake, I am to state that should there be any money in hand after the road itself has been metalled, this matter will also be taken into consideration.— 
I have the honor, &c., John Rae.' 
IMPORTANT NOTICE. (1886, December 3). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107319206 

S. B. Bailey was Samuel Bennet Bailey, elected as an Alderman for Manly council in 1886. He died in 1896, aged just 51 years. His father, William Bailey, was a Mayor of Newtown and noted Architect and Builder.

Mr. S. B. Bailey.
Merriwa, Tuesday.
At a full meeting of the local bench of magistrates, held in the court-house, Merriwa, to-day, Mr. W. F. Parker, P.M., passed, some complimentary remarks upon Mr. S. B. Bailey, J.P., and spoke in very favourable terms of his actions on the bench during the last four years. He said he regretted Mr. Bailey's departure from the district, Mr. Alfred W. Blaxland, J.P., spoke in similar terms. Mr. A. McRae, C.P.S., also stated that Mr. Bailey by absence from the township would be felt by many. Sergeant Hassard spoke on behalf of the police as to Mr. Bailey's willingness at all times to attend to duties connected with the court, and regretted his departure. Mr. S. B. Bailey. (1881, June 29).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107219824

NOTICE is hereby given that at a meeting of the Electors of the above Municipality holden at Council-chambers, Manly, at the hour of noon this day, the following were duly nominated as Aldermen and Auditors :

CHARLES HADLEY HAYS. Accountant, West Promenade. — Nominated by Alfred Hilder, merchant, West Esplanade; Charles George Warburton, merchant, East Esplanade ; W. H. Vivian, grazier, Balgowlah-road ; and Michael Metcalfe, merchant.

JOHN BAKER SMITHERS, Agent, Belgrave-street. — Nominated by Alfred Hilder, merchant, West Esplanade ; Charles George Warburton, merchant, East Esplanade ; W. H. Vivian, grazier, Balgowlah-road ; and Michael Metcalfe, merchant, Steyne.

ROBERT EVANS, Agent, Queenscliffe. — Nominated by Alfred Hilder, merchant, West Esplanade ; Charles George War-burton, merchant, East Esplanade ; W. H. Vivian, grazier, Balgowlah-road ; and Michael Metcalfe, merchant, Steyne.

WILLIAM JOHNSON, Master Baker, Raglan-street. — Nominated by George Alexander Murray, capitalist, The Crescent ; and Thomas Arthur Strickland, merchant, The Crescent.


JOHN GEORGE GRIFFIN, Civil Engineer, Addison-road. — Nominated by James Martyn Combes, freeholder, Addison-road ; John Smedley, architect, Manly Point ; Clement A. Benbow, dentist, Manly ; Frederick Phillips, accountant, Darley-road ; H. Townsend Robey, land agent, Manly ; Dr. Sachs, medical practitioner, The Steyne ; and Leslie Johnson, East Esplanade.

SAMUEL BENNETT BAILEY, Freeholder, Raglan and Belgrave streets. — Nominated by George William Barker, free-holder, East Esplanade ; John Woods, freeholder, Fairlight ; James Martyn Combes, freeholder, Addison-road ; Nicholas Weekes, freeholder, Addison-road ; and Alfred Hilder, mer-chant, West Esplanade.

FREDERICK CHARLES PASSAU, Jeweller, Belgrave-street. — Nominated by William R. Row, accountant, Osborne-road ; George H. S. King, clerk, Belgrave-street ; Charles Jenner, coachbuilder, Victoria-parade ; Robert Quirk, grocer, Denison-street.

WILLIAM JOHNSON, Master Baker, Raglan-street. — Nominated by Francis William Heaton, contractor, Manly; Timothy O'Connor, master butcher, Raglan-street ; and Stephen Sullivan, storekeeper, Manly.


JAMES MARTYN COMBES, Freeholder, Addison-road. — Nominated by George William Barker, freeholder, East Esplanade ; John J. Lough, freeholder, Belgrave-street, and others.

WILLIAM ROOKE ROW, Accountant, Osborne-road. — Nominated by John J. Lough, freeholder, Belgrave-street ; George William Barker, freeholder, East Esplanade, and others.

There being no opposition in the office of auditors, Messrs. JAMES M. COMBES and WILLIAM R. ROW were declared duly elected.

NOTICE is also given that there being a greater number of Candidates nominated for the office of Aldermen, in both Ordinary and Extraordinary Vacancies, a POLL will be taken on FRIDAY next, the 5th day of February, at the Council-chambers, Manly, and at the Exchange, Sdney, commencing at 8 a.m., and finally closing at 3 p.m. of the same day.

Mayor and Returning Officer. 
Council-chambers, Manly. Advertising (1886, February 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13610407 

BAILEY.—October 15, Samuel Bennett Bailey, eldest son of William Bailey, aged 51 years. Family Notices (1896, October 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14071436

Death of Mr. William Bailey, J.P.
(See portrait on this page.)

One of the pioneers of New South Wales and a gentleman who has been interested in its progress since his arrival therein, in the person of Mr. William Bailey, J.P., passed away at his residence, 28 Crystal-street, Petersham, Sydney, on July 5 at the ripe old age of 80 years. The late Mr. Bailey was born in Cornwall in 1819, and arrived in the colony in February, 1848. He immediately went into the building trade, and at an early age had embarked in business for himself. His business acumen became so well known and appreciated that he was appointed valuator to the Mutual Benefit Building Society, the first of such societies started in Sydney. He was subsequently appointed valuator to the Mutual Life Association and other similar Institutions. The late Mr. Bailey was a figure in municipal politics, and presided. over the deliberations of the Newtown Council as Mayor for six years. He was a member of the council for seventeen years. The deceased'also occupied-the important position of returning officer for Newtown, and was returning officer for Ashfield at the time of his death, having performed the duties for six years. Mr. Bailey's knowledge of the building trade made him a most useful member of the City of Sydney Improvement Board, of which he was a member from its inception, while he held the office of chairman for several years. Mr. Bailey took a keen interest in the question of penny postage, and it was through his indefatigable exertions that it was extended to the suburbs. Indeed, Mr. Bailey was always to the front in every movement which'had "progress" for its watch- word, and his memory will be revered by, those who knew his sterling worth, and by his son and daughter, who are left to mourn their loss. 

The funeral, took place on Saturday afternoon. There was a large attendance of old friends of the deceased . gentleman, including the Revs. J. E. Carruthers, G. Lane, Dr. Brown, W. Clark, Rogers,Boyer, Messrs. W. H. M'Lennon, G. Crawshaw, F. Bennett, J. Morey, J. Connolley, ' Solaway, L. Tyerman, P. A. Cubitt, and representatives of the Mutual Life Insurance Company. The principal mourners were Mr. Frederick W. Bailey, of Lake Bathurst (son), and Prank, Stanley, and Alfred Bailey (grandsons). The funeral service was conducted by the Rev. J. E. Carruthers, assisted by the Revs. G. Lane , and Dr. Brown, the interment being made in the Wesleyan section of the Necropolis. A large number of . sympathetic messages and cards were , received by Miss Bailey (daughter) and Mr. F. W. Bailey. The funeral arrangements were carried out by Mr. J. Medcalf.

The Late Mr. William Bailey, J.P.
(Photo, by Newman, George-street, Sydney.)
Death of Mr. William Bailey, J.P. (1900, July 14). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 26. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71384272

The new bridge at Jenkins' Creek is to be commenced. The approaches on either side of this creek are in a fearful state. As there has been such an enormous increase of traffic on this road, the authorities should allow a special grant to have the road properly made. The amount allowed per mile would then be sufficient to keep same in repair. It is hoped that the promise made by the Commissioner of Roads, viz., to have a railing put upon the approaches to Narrabeen bridge will be fulfilledThe Hon. W. B. Dalley was on one occasion capsized into the lake. 
This district is looking beautiful; the rock lilies and wild flowers are commencing to bud, and flowers in great profusion will be displayed in full bloom by the end of August. Gillbirds have not been at all plentiful this season. Hundreds of disappointed shootists have had to return home without a brace. Many have taken revenge by shooting a few magpies or a stray parrot.
NARRABEEN. (1887, July 29). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108007815

This item not only points out a tragedy but also the use of 'foreigner' being applied to anyone who wasn't an Anglo-saxon - a terminology which appears to have persisted when referring to a gentleman who lost his life in 1938 when he had a heart attack and his car ran off the Spit Bridge. An article states he had been a resident of Cootamundra  - visit Roads To Pittwater: The Sandspit Punt and Spit Bridge

The 'Relief Works', organised to employ the unemployed, are also an example of how, over and over, much of the infrastructure in New South Wales, and across Australia, was built during times of economic depression and may not have been afforded, or done, otherwise. The same recurred during the Great Depression of the 1930's and to that we owe other roads and works in Pittwater and Warringah, such as the Rock Pools at each southern corner, or upgrades of those that had already been put in place during the 1920's;

John Straago, a foreigner, was killed at the relief works, Narrabeen, yesterday by a falling tree. Another workman escaped with some bruises. SUMMARY. (1887, December 14). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 1. Retrieved from  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236766701 

One of the unemployed complain about the quality of the meat supplied to the men on the Narrabeen relief work. The corned beef which is supplied to the men, and boiled the same evening, is, he says, found next morning to be putrid. This he declares to have occurred four times during the past week. If they complain they are told to accept what they get or go. The unemployed number among their ranks many persons who have been reduced to their present position purely through misfortune, and he objects to the manner in which they are sometimes treated by the "upstart" who are placed over them. The superintendent, Mr. Oxley, has the confidence of the men, but if any complaints were made to him, it is alleged, his subordinates would make it inconvenient for those under them. This, he states, is the general feeling on the works. NARRABEEN RELIEF WORKS. (1888, January 10). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229746316

Matters in connection with the unemployed appear to be progressing in a satisfactory manner, so much so that the efforts of the Casual Labour Board to reduce the number of men by finding private engagements for them have proved eminently successful. The men now employed upon the relief works number about 1400, whereas at this time last year the number out of work was something like 7000.At the present time there are upwards of 700 men employed in clearing land and making a road at Narrabeen. Upwards of six or seven thousand acres of land have been subdivided and cleared for sale at this place. 
About 120 men have been sent to Cook Park to carry out certain work in connection with the formation of that reserve. They are at present employed in removing sand and level-ling the park, for which work they are paid at the rate of 6d. and 7d. per cubic yard. The work is of a profitable character, and the park when completed will be an exceedingly beautiful one. At Bankstown Common there are also about 60 men employed in clearing land, and about 120 more are engaged at similar work at Camp Creek, on the Illawarra line, towards Coal Cliff. At Bulgo, in the same district, there are 100 men. The men, in addition to clearing the land, are also engaged in making roads through Crown lands. It is believed that this work will be of a very reproductive character, as it is expected that high rates will be obtained for the land. In some cases upwards of £100 per acre is being asked for it. There are also 60 men engaged in road-making at Hornsby and Hermiton, and 20 others at Leichhardt Park are employed in forming and clearing the reserve. There are 130 men engaged in road-making at Peakhurst, and 60 at Liverpool, whilst 25 others have been taken on at Rook-wood, where work has been found for them in the way of scrub clearing. The numbers of men given at the various relief works named will make a total of 1375. They are employed on piecework, and make from 2s. to 3s. and 4s. per day. Any man found in an intoxicated state whilst on the works is instantly dismissed. Upwards of 600 men have been dealt with in this way during the last 12 months. Private employment has been found by the board for upwards of 2000 men during the past few months. The board anticipate that in a very short time, in view of the works authorised, that there will be plenty of work to absorb all the surplus labour.
The additions to the Lands Office and the construction of the reservoir at Potts Hill are to be proceeded with very shortly. These works will afford employment for 600 or 1000 labourers. There are also other undertakings, such as the construction of wharfs and jetties, which will require a large number of hands ; and it is also stated that one or two large mercantile buildings are about to be commenced by private firms, and these will give employ-ment to a large number of men. The work already per-formed by the men is said to be of great utility, and it is believed it will give a good return to the Government. Upwards of 1300 acres of land have been cleared at Rookwood, and surveyed for sale, and some of it is valued at £200 per acre. THE UNEMPLOYED AND THE RELIEF WORKS. (1888, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13687850 

Fell Over the Rocks
Manly, Saturday. — One of the unemployed was brought in from Narrabeen relief works to-day suffering from serious internal injuries. He was taken to the Sydney Hospital. He fell over the rocks on Thursday night. 
Later. — An elderly man named John Gower, 60, a laborer, residing at Narrabeen, was conveyed to the Sydney Hospital this afternoon by Constable Effell, of Manly Station, who stated that while the man was walking along the cliffs near Manly he lost his balance, and fell over. On being examined by Dr. Hughes, he was found to have sustained contusions over, both hips and back, and was injured internally.
Fell Over the Rocks. (1888, July 2). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107330766

From the facts and figures given on Friday it will have been seen that the operations of the Casual Labor Board have been on a much more extended scale than the public have imagined. The board has acted as a labor bureau as much as anything else, and the work done in this direction has demonstrated the necessity for a permanent institution of this character being established, where employer and employee may readily come together. Both may be seeking one another, but from the want of some common ground, on which to meet they are very apt to miss each-other. During the 18 months of the board's existence as many as 8119 names have passed through the books. The majority of these have been actually employed at one time or another by the board, but a larger number have simply been introduced to employers in the country, and elsewhere who were seeking mechanics or laborers at current wages. 

As many as 2892 men of all kinds of trades have thus been provided for and this may be regarded as one of the most satisfactory results of the board's efforts. When the work of the board ends in its capacity of providing and supervising relief works its operations should certainly not cease in the direction of assisting master and man to come together. The Idea is old enough elsewhere, and events have proved that it is an excellent one which should be more completely developed here. 

While there was a good deal of genuine distress in New South Wales, prompting the starting of relief works, it has been proved that a large number of those assisted to a livelihood Were not old residents in the colony. OF those taken on 740 were recent arrivals from Victoria, 504 from New Zealand, 470 from Queensland, 195 from South Australia, 61 from Tasmania, 33 from West Australia and 10 from Fiji, making a total of 2009 from the other Australian colonies. To this number have to be added 1010 from other places— 802 came from England, 64 from Scotland, 73 from Ireland and 81 from other countries, all during the 18 months. Thus 3019 of the 8119 were not genuine residents of the colony, whose real share of the unemployed did not reach more than 5100 men. Of those 8000 odd men 2055 were married, having 5687 children. That these men should be willing to take a pittance of 3s. 6d. a day upon which to keep a wife and family is one indication of the paucity of employmentia the colony at the time. But a further evidence of the real need is given by a study of the trades and professions of the men willing for the time to do laboring work. Such a variety of occupations surely seldom before were found in the like company of men working under similar conditions. They are so various as to be worth enumerating in full. There were 40 cabinetmakers, 10 chemists, 42 coachbuilders, 101 cooks, 24 coopers, 127 clerks, 24 confectioners, 6 candlemakers, 148 coalminers, 5 dyers, 44 drapers, 71 enginefitters, 142 engineers, 7 engravers, 44 farmers, 9 farriers, 110 firemen, 10 galvanised ironworkers, 150 blacksmiths, 8 bookbinders, 380 carpenters, 18 bootmakers, 177 silver and copper miners, 2 nut and bolt makers, 22 printers, 4 photographers, 42 plummers, 17 saddlers, 101 stonemasons, 37 tobacco twisters, 1 veterinary surgeon, 17 waiters. 8 wheelwrights. 67 boilermakers, 69 butchers, 1 brewer, 6 boatbuilders, 3 bellhangers, 6 gunsmiths, 5 grinders, 5 glassblowers, 5 hatters, 8 patternmakers, 3 potters, 77 plasterers, 4 piano tuners, 3 ropemakers, 56 sawyers, 2 surveyors, 15 slaters, 400 sailors, 29 tinsmiths, 89 bakers, 100 brickmakers, 82 bricklayers, 12 jewellers, 99 ironmoulders, 10 ironmongers, 2 inkmakers, 81-quarrymen, 39 shipwrights, 3 spinners, 5 smelters, 4 woolsorters, 7 woodturners, 11 machinists, 13 tanners, 6 tutors, 3 blindmakers, 47 gardeners, 44 grocers, 15 grooms, 15 brass-finishers, 8 basketmakers, 5 millers, 7 rabbiters, 1 marble polisher, 3 locksmiths and about 4600 laborers. Altogether there were over 80 different trades and professions represented. 

Among those who classed themselves as laborers were, as it was afterwards ascertained, two clergy-men, more than one surgeon, a few reporters, two sons of English noblemen, and others once in good positions in society. One of the clergy men was of the Church of England. It was a noticeable fact that most of those that had come down from the better classes socially had done so through an all-prevailing habit of intoxication and this degrading vice unfitted them for the manual labor required in these relief works, so that they could not in the majority of cases earn the small amount provided as the fruit of the labor of their hands. Neither the noblemen's sons, the clergymen, the reporters, nor the doctors are now employed. 

The skilled artisan and others unused to navvy work, found the labor of filling and wheeling earth, clearing bush and forming roads, for a time quite beyond their powers, and it not unfrequently happened that at the first start they were hardly able to earn their food of 1s. 1d. per day, but, after a week or two, they generally acquired the necessary adaptation for the duty, and were able, side by side with the most hardened and experienced laborer, to fill and wheel and cut.

Between 20 and 30 nationalities have been represented on the works, these including such countries as Turkey, Sweden, Russia, Egypt, Ceylon, West Indies, Mauritius and Spain. It has been the practice of the board to keep a black list, showing those who have been discharged for drunkenness, neglecting their work, or otherwise misconducting themselves, and this list now contains fully 600 names. A man when once discharged is seldom, if ever, taken on again, as the works are only for those really in need, and men in such want are not likely, to be careless of how they act. 

Friday was pay-day at the Narrabeen. Here there are now employed 250 men, who have been engaged clearing the land and forming and making roads. On the first of next month over 2000a. are to be sold, and as the spot is accessible to Sydney, the land good, and the site healthy it is expected that a respectable price will be realised. Early on Friday morning Mr. John Davies, chairman of the Labor Board, with Mr. T. C. Hinchcliffe, secretary and paymaster, proceeded to the camp, driving from Manly along the old Pittwater-road for most of the distance, and then through a well-defined track in the bush. The drive is in itself a very pleasant one, but on a day like Friday nothing could have been more enjoyable, especially the portion through the bush with the avenue of trees on either side and the wild flowers peeping out from the undergrowth of ferns and shrubs. 

The camp is situated opposite the Dee Why lagoon, about half-a-mile from it, and some six miles from Manly, it is placed in a somewhat extensive valley, the ground on either side rising rather abruptly, and terminating in plateaus from which views of Manly, of Sydney and far out to the Pacific are obtained, the Dee Why Lagoon in front and the Narrabeen on the left assisting to complete the varied picture. The party were met by Mr. F. A. Oxley, superintendent in-charge, and the work of paving the men was immediately proceeded with. The men work in gangs of from six to eight each, and the foreman of each gang receives the pay for those in his lot. They all looked to be strong, decent fellows enough, and the report, of the 260 in the camp made by Mr. Oxley was eminently satisfactory. 

Work at this place was started in August, 1887, when 900 men were put on, but this number has been gradually reduced to the present strength. Since the date named 3869a. of land have been cleared of the bluegum, blood-wood and other timber with which the place was covered. Ten miles of roads have been formed and 2297 chains cleared for roads, and numerous culverts, pipes, drains and other works have been made, and the wilderness has been transformed into a spot fit for human habitation. The land is to be sold in pieces of from 2a. to 19a. each in extent, the average being about 6a. It should command a ready sale, as it is not more than 10 miles by road from Sydney, and when the proposed bridge over Middle Harbor has been made will be easily accessible. There are, as in other parts, a great variety of trades and professions amongst these "unemployed." It has been ascertained that in the number there is a drill-instructor, a master-mariner, a bookkeeper, a veterinary surgeon, a schoolmaster, a commercial traveller, a lawyer's clerk, a publican, a tailor, a professor of gardening, a groom and a dancing-master. Here is the nucleus of a highly civilised community. There was at one time a clergyman, but he has gone to other pastures. There is no public-house within many miles of this model state, and no wonder, therefore, that the report from the superintendent of works of the men under his charge is so complimentary. 

The Casual Labor Board consists of three members— Mr. John Davies (chairman), Colonel Wells of the Works Department and Mr. Houison, of the Harbors and Rivers' Department. As chairman, Mr. Davies Is in constant attendance at the office in Goulburn-street, and lie, with Mr. Hinchcliffe, personally looks after the payments to the men fortnightly, seizing the opportunity them of visiting the works and seeing that matters are going ou ail right. The board hope that by the end of the year, or before much of the 'coming year has been consumed, the relief works will no longer be necessary and they are trying, as soon as possible, to reduce the number of men, finding where this can be done other and more lucrative employment for them.
THE "UNEMPLOYED." (1888, October 15).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article235702626 


How this pleasant picturesque watering-places is advancing is well indicated by the opening of a telegraph station there the Saturday before Christmas, 'Our bachelor' and myself intended to be present at the ceremony. We were prevented by the temporary suspension of the vehicular traffic between Manly and there, owing to the supply not being equal to the demand. The extra demand on that day from visitors to Newport and holiday parties taxed the resources of the Manly coach proprietors; but by the exercise of a little patience and with the loss of a little time all were accommodated. The road between the lagoon at Manly and Dee Why Lagoon has been stripped of many of its charms. Formerly it was like a woody winding lane odoriferous as a flower garden at dewy eve or early morn; now it is tame and treeless, here and there shorn of most of its glory by bush vandals and land jobbers. 

There are four public-house between Manly and Newport, two of which, I believe, have been built since the unemployed were set to work at French's Forest and Narrabeen. How the tenants and owners of the houses can make a living is a mystery. Perhaps their owners are far-seeing men, who have speculated in anticipation of the Pittwater tramway (the bill for which was lately passed) being constructed.

When we arrived at Pittwater harbour the day was declining, but the gala remained in all its glitter. Mr. Cracknell, who performed the opening ceremony had departed with some others for Sydney ; but the notabilities of the locality were in no hurry to leave, having their gondolas at hand to convey them home. 

A few years have made a great change in Pittwater. The western shore of the harbour is all under cultivation. Fruit trees of all kinds flourish there, and some vegetables can be produced a fortnight earlier than around Sydney. Fish is abundant in the harbour. We assisted at three hauls of the net of our host, Mr. Bulfin. 'Our bachelor' and another gentleman donned fishing garb for the occasion, put their shoulders to the wheel, or rather to the ropes and towed very well indeed for amateurs. Our labours were attended with but moderate success. There is much inquiry for land in Pittwater now, the prospect of the tramway thither doubtless stimulating it. Scotland Island, in the middle of the harbour, area about 150 acres, has been sold to a Melbourne company for £2,500.There is some speculation as to what they are going to do with it. The impression prevails that it is to be utilized for a marine public resort. It was also said down there that a that a well-known gentleman on the North Shore   intends building a large marine hotel on the eastern shore of the harbour, between Stokes's Point and the new wharf. It is a very eligible site if trade could be commanded; but that, no doubt, would come to a well-conducted house. A place there would be easy of access from the harbour, the new wharf affording facilities for landing found nowhere else in the Pittwater peninsula. The largest excursion steamers can come alongside it in all weathers, there being a depth of over 18 feet at low water. 

The romantic marine retreat of the late lamented Mr. Dalley on Cabbagetree beach, underlying Bilgola head on the Pacific shore, has been purchased by Mr. Jackson. Mr. J. M. Taylor, our bachelor (so designated from having obtained his B.A. degree as an evening student at the University the morning of our visit), was delighted with Pittwater. As a holiday retreat he would prefer it to the mountains principally because 

'There is a society where none intrudes By the deep sea, and music in its roar.'  C. B. PITTWATER. (1889, January 12).Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115380870

Government Relief Works Stopped.

The decision of the Government concerning the work performed by the "unemployed," has been communicated by Sir Henry Parkes to the Casual Labor Board, the communication including instructions which mean simply the stoppage of relief work such as has been performed under that board for the past eighteen months. The principal reason assigned tor this decision is the heavy expenditure incurred by the Government, the irregularity of which has gone far beyond what was originally contemplated, and which not only creates a serious drain upon the public revenue, but an erroneous and prejudicial effect on the public mind as to the real condition of the country. 

Sir Henry Parkes is evidently of opinion that in consequence of these works men have been induced to come from other colonies, and therefore instead of doing away with it the difficulty has been actually increased. Although he thinks the work performed has been of solid value to the State, and that the board have done their best, to properly direct this large body of labor, still he considers that no public improvement, however important, should be undertaken where the effect is to serve the interests of private proprietors without the case being first submitted to him, and receiving his written approval on behalf of the Government. 

Those now employed on the relief works are to be dispensed with as follows : One-third on January 31, one-third on February 28, and the remainder on March 31. The board have announced the decision of the Government to the men now engaged on the works, and have intimated that no further employment will be given to persons seeking work. At the same time, a reply has been prepared by the chairman (the Hon. John Davies, M.L.C.) to the letter received from Sir Henry Parkes. 

The board, it is understood, point out that owing to the terrible drought, the absence of public works, and further avenues opening up to absorb surplus labor, the public offices will be besieged and an agitation created in the city by the unemployed. In fact, the entire abolition of the works would, it is argued, lead to a renewal of the very difficulties that the board were brought into existence to obviate. At the time the board took office, in May, 1887, there were 4010 employees, and they were receiving the high rate of wages of 6s per day; and their implements, tents and rations were found them. This rate of wages, it is pointed out, attracted large numbers from the country and from the other colonies. Many were induced to leave private employment and cast in their lot with the " unemployed." The price of labor was reduced by the board to 3s 3d per day, and this led to a diminution of the number on the pay-sheets. 

The number at present engaged on the relief works is about 1000. These are occupied clearing roads in different parts, Liverpool, Waterfalls, Cook Park, Narrabeen, &c. The works at Hornsby are now finished, and those at Bankstown will be concluded by the next pay day. Since the board have been in existence 8306 persons have gone through their books. Upwards of 2480 have been found work, through the instrumentality of the board, at private employment. About 400 gradually left upon finding employment elsewhere at more remunerative rates, and 720 have been discharged from faults of various kinds. The total expenditure upon the unemployed has been £235,000. This includes the amount expended be-fore the board took office and the expenditure of municipalities throughout, the colony. 

The following particulars, set forth in a return, which is to be presented to Parliament as soon as the House resumes its sitting, show the quantity of work doneLand cleared and under-scrubbed, 31,706 acres ; roads cleared, 358½ miles — cleared and formed, 222 ; roads cleared, formed, and made, 86¾. Bridges, culverts, &c. : Bridges, 26 ; side drains cut, 18 miles; culverts, 185. 

The amount realised for Crown lands already sold, improved by the unemployed, is given as under: Berowra, 100 acres, .£608; Coma, 100, £2000; Heathcote, 203, £8235; Dobroyde, 30, £4500; Field of Mars, 697, £70,000 ; Gordon, 430, £34,000; Hornsby, 100, £3856 ;Narrabeen, 1313, £29,000; Rookwood, 79, £9000. Total, £161,199. 

The estimated value of Crown lands similarly improved, and available for sale, is as follows : Peakhurst, 90 acres, £55 per acre, £5050; Rookwood, 613, £150, £91,950 ; Garie, 200, £50, £10,000; Dobroyde, 50, £150, £7500 ; French's Forest, 10,000, £50, £500,000; Gordon, 4000, £100, £400,000; Hornsby, 2500, £50, £125,000 ; Holdsworthy, 10,500, £15, £157,500.; Manly Cove parish, 10,000, £30, £300,000; Bankstown Common, 66, £75, £4950 ; Berowra, 3000, £10, £30,000; Bulgo, 200; £100, £20,000 ; Camp Creek, 3840, £100, £384,000, Eckersley, 10,500, £15, £157,500 ; Field of Mars, 5903, £75, £442,725; Heathcote, 227, £50, £11,350; total, 61,089 acres, £2,047,525

These works, according to the minutes of the board, have all been carried out with the expressed approval of Ministers, the majority of them bearing the signature of Sir Henry Parkes.

Government Relief Works Stopped. (1889, January 4). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108794670

Serious Blasting Accident.

A serious blasting accident occurred at the Narrabeen relief works on Tuesday afternoon, when a man named Cornelius Downey, who is employed on the works, was badly injured. He was engaged with others blasting a large rock, and immediately after the explosion took place a piece of the rock was hurled upwards, and struck the unfortunate fellow on the forehead, .which . rendered, him unconscious. He was speedily taken to the Sydney Hospital, where he was. admitted last night by Dr. T.-F. Wade. Examination showed that the man's condition was serious, he having received a compound depressed fracture of the skull. An operation was performed, and the depressed bone successfully removed. Up to the present the patient is progressing favorably. Serious Blasting Accident. (1889, February 28). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108790532


"For what reason do the tall pine and the white poplar love to associate their branches in a hospitable shade?" was the question put by one of old who knew how to enjoy the good things of life to his friend Dellius. To the epicurean no verbal answer was necessary. The friendly trees made this grateful shade so that he might lie upon it in remoto gramine per dies festos and drink the good Falernian. This is the true way to look at life, as only the men of a fairer day knew it. For them - true beauty worshippers - the sea danced and laughed in the sunlight, the fleecy clouds were blown across the clear blue of those astounding skies, and the winds made a pleasant susurrus in the deep woods, and the birds sang, and the bees made sleepy music and sweet store of honey : for them the cataract roared, the grass grew and the violet crept across it, and the whole world lightened on its way simply to add to their pleasure. And all the wisdom garnered since by this wise old world shows that they were, in this right, by reason of philosophy, as simpler people were by intuition, who did the same. The other day I had an opportunity of spending a few dies festi on one of the many arms of Broken Bay.

To those who have not journeyed to Pittwater it is, perhaps, necessary to say that the route via Manly Beach is the most convenient way of reaching it. When the passenger arrives at Manly the Pittwater coach awaits him, and a drive of an hour and a half will land him at his destination. If the weather is gray and cold the trip should not be attempted. To be seen at its best Pittwater should seen in sunlight. There are several houses of accommodation about which offer the traveller all the necessary comforts. For my part I put up at the house of a friend who has one of the loveliest spots on the coast. Part of his land forms a peninsula, with deep, rich soil, in which the fig, the lemon, the orange, the olive, and the vine flourish to full perfection. 

There was at one time some excellent timber growing along the Pittwater road, tall, straight, sound, close-growing trees, which have for the most part disappeared under the woodman's axe within the last five years. This is a pity, but perhaps it could not be otherwise. The forest was too close to Sydney to escape the attention of wood merchants. There is still, however, quite sufficient native woodland to give the proper rustic air to these regions. How long this will be so under our present reckless system of forest destruction it is impossible to say, but those at least who own mighty tracts of virgin land along this road should endeavour to protect the native growths as far as possible from annihilation. We will regret our apathy in the matter of preserving our woods some day, when it is too late, perhaps, as the Herald has often pointed out, for anything but regrets.

Something at least may be said in favour of the sense of beauty of the inhabitants of this district. Along the road every now and then the traveller may catch a glimpse of the graceful aspiring crown of tall, slender cabbage palms, which have been spared by the ruthless hands which have destroyed so much besides that was beautiful. Two or three handsome growths stand like sentinels on either side of the road, though the army which they guarded has long since faded away - ended in smoke probably. The cabbage tree splits easily into light serviceable planks, and this made it much sought after for the gunyah of the early settler. When dry it burns like tinder, and these two fatal qualities have been its ruin. A few, as I have said, still remain. One magnificent specimen, standing back some distance from the road, must be from 80 to 100ft in height, and with its plumy head and symmetrical trunk visible among the amorphous forest shapes about it, is full of graceful tropic suggestiveness. There are one or two other species of dwarf palms scattered about, which have failed to attract the attention of "flower show" prospectors - a class of people whose ruthless hunt after specimens is responsible for a large proportion of the destruction which has visited our most ornamental native plants.

The road traverses the Narrabeen lagoon, an imposing marine "billabong," such as our coast has several notable examples of. These are connected with the sea, either by a shallow channel with a sand-bar across it, or as in the case of the Narrabeen lagoon and that of Curl Curl nearer Manly, are severed from the sea, by a sandbank, which, however, offers no impediment to the influx of the sea under the influence of a spring tide or a heavy easterly wind. These are the true nursing grounds of our young fish. Within those charmed waters the shark may not enter to disturb their peaceful inhabitants. By reason of the clear sand bottom they are beloved of the sole, the sand-flathead, the whiting, and the sand mullet which reproduce in the tender complexions of their bodies something of the transparency of the waters and the whiteness of the sand. Consequently the Narrabeen is a favourite resort of camping parties, which, rumour hath it, have never yet gone unrewarded from its shores.


Narrabeen Crossing. Image No.: a106063h From Scenes of Narrabeen album, ca. 1900-1927 Sydney & Ashfield : Broadhurst Post Card, courtesy State Library of NSW.

Across the lagoon in a direction different from that taken by the road the telegraph line takes a short cut, passing the water in a few giant strides. Not very long ago the coaches had to pass through the water too, and this must have conduced to many a good ducking suffered by the traveller of the past. On some of the lagoons, which are plentiful along this road, the black swans congregate at certain seasons, probably when the hot breath of the drought has made them fearful that the inland waters were about to forsake them altogether, as Lake Albert and other extensive sheets of water actually do in a season of prolonged dry weather. From time to time, from an elevation over which the road passes, the traveller catches a view of the coast as far as the famous headland of Barranjoey. Bluff after bluff fronts the sea in curious and beautiful regularity, now calm and clear in contour as the cuttings in a cameo, now veiled in a light blue mist, which bestows harmony and tone on the scene, and whose impermanent curtain every breath of sea-borne air momentarily dissipates. On a bright, clear day this view, which may be obtained from the hill lying between Fairy Bower and Manly Beach, is superb. But our two stout horses stay not for the picturesque, and we soon arrive at Pittwater, an arm, as every one knows, of Broken Bay.

This latter inlet is for once well named. Equally happy is the title bestowed on Lion Island, that grim image of stone rudely shaped by Nature to keep perpetual watch and ward over the picturesque waters within, and appropriately gazing over the ocean, from which the white sails and black smoke of the enemy of our long tranquility are some day to spring. According to General Schaw the defence of Sydney will be incomplete until Broken Bay is strongly fortified. Was it to emphasise the weakness of the place that this Titanic lion was placed in frowning strength immovable in the war of winds and the whirl of waters? Absit omen. It may yet be renowned in history ; it surely will in romance. What significance could be drawn from its apparently meaningless symbolism Hawthorn has shown us in the " Great Stone Face." To the majority of the world, however, this rock is like the rock in the desert from which the Israelitish leader smote the living water. We poor exiles might touch it with our little wands for years, and all in vain, until the due hierophant comes along and strikes it with his sacred force, when, behold, a spring of glittering song or sparkling prose gushes out which we all rush to drink. And forevermore the spring is as much ours as his who caused its pure initial flow.

After a journey there is nothing more pleasant than the after-tea gathering about a glorious wood fire, sipping the mellow liquid that glimmers in polished glasses, while every head is dimly seen bulking through a nebulous halo of aromatic smoke. ...

A RUN TO PITTWATER. (1889, September 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13739295

Suburban Railway Agitation.

At the invitation of Mr. W. C Woolcott (of the Tourists Bureau) a party of gentlemen, consisting of Mr. J. F. Burns, M.L.A., Mr. Cullen, M.L.A., and Mr. M. M'Mahon (of M'Mahon's Point), drove from town on Saturday morning to attend a meeting at Newport, advocating the construction of a line of railway from North Shore to Manly, thence to Newport and Pittwater.
Newport is a beautiful watering place, surrounded by scenery that rivals the best to be found in Middle Harbor, and is a favorite resort for tourists and holiday folk. It is situated some twelve miles from Manly, and is at present approached by ocean boats — Broken Bay being in close proximity, and two lines' of stage coaches. In the village itself there are manifest signs of progression — a church, a post and telegraph office, and a very comfortable hotel are boasted by the little community. A public school is in course of construction for the benefit of the twenty-one infantile Newporters that are growing up thereabouts; and a commodious hall for public purposes is about to be erected.
After the party had been shown over the village an adjournment was made to the Newport Hotel, at which place the meeting was held. 
There were some forty gentlemen present, prominent among whom were Messrs. John Wood, F. Chave, T. W. Willans, D. Scott, L. Houreux, M. Roche, W. Boulton, M. Robertson, F. West, O. West, and M'Laughlin.
Mr. Chave was voted to the chair, and, after briefly explaining the object of the meeting, called on Mr. Willans to move the followingresolution — ' That in the opinion of this meeting the time has arrived when Manly and Pittwater should be connected with North Shore by railway.' Mr. W. Boulton seconded the resolution.Suburban Railway Agitation. (1890, June 23). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), , p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128778044 


The electoral campaign so far as the Ministry are Concerned was opened yesterday, when Sir Henry Parkes addressed a small meeting at Hodge's Newport Hotel in the afternoon. Mr. W. Bulfin occupied the chair.

Sir HENRY PARKES, who met with a hearty reception said he had come out to Newport that morning with some pleasurable anticipations. He remembered addressing a small meeting in that immediate neighbourhood some time ago, and he met with so much cordiality and altogether so much enjoyed his visit that he felt certain that he should have a repetition of that kind of enjoyment. But he came out here with other anticipations, which might appear to some hardly well founded, but which to his mind, had a very good foundation . He looked forward to the time when that portion of the colony would be a very busy scene.  It was not in the nature of things for a place possessing so many advantages in so many features of natural attractiveness to remain for a long time without those natural beauties being taken advantage of and though they were a scattered hamlet now with only a few persons attending a meeting of that kind he anticipated the time-and not beyond another generation when Newport would be a well-known fashionable watering place…

Sir Henry Parkes, in replying, said that as they had been good enough to pass a vote of confidence in him without asking any questions, he had one or two pieces of information to give them as a member of the Government. The Government was considering, and he had no doubt that consideration would lead to active steps being taken of supplying them with a wharf suited to their purposes, on both sides of that important water. He ascertained that from the Works Department. Also he had to tell them that the Government was considering better requirements for the Public school there, for the accommodation and shelter of the children attending.

He was glad to see the youngsters present, because they had arrived at an age when they came to take an interest in the course of public affairs, and in a few short years-a few years which would fly away in swifter moments than they could imagine-they would be men in the life of the country. A vote of thanks to the chairman was passed, and the meeting closed.  ST. LEONARDS. (1891, June 9). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13827407 


The Minister for Works to-day received a deputation from the Manly Municipal Council, introduced by Mr. J. F. Cullen, M.L.A., to ask that the Government should make the old Narrabeen-road continuous from Manly to Narrabeen or to open up Condamine-street so that access could be had from the Spit to Pittwater without going some miles round Manly. It was pointed out that the road was one of public importance, and that, therefore, the Government should even be asked to form it, especially as the portion of Condamine-street would only cost some £350. Mr. Young said the only difficulty was that the road was within municipal limits, and the Government did not as a rule make roads through municipalities, though they had subsidised the council to an extra extent. If the road was a through one there might be some argument in favor of the work being done by the department, but he must say that they could not expect the Government to bear all the expense of the work. Mr. Cullen said that the road was a main one, and led to the defences. Mr. Young said all the roads were main ones, and if they had wanted this particular one for defence purposes it would have been made long ago. Mr. Cullen hoped that if the Government thought that the council should bear a portion of the expense that the Government proportion would be a large one. Mr. Young promised to look into the matter and if he could assist them he would do so. SYDNEY-NARRABEEN ROAD. (1891, September 15). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 5 (SPECIAL EDITION). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227259766



A cycling tour for an afternoon or a day, with good roads, a bracing atmosphere, and incomparable scenery is a condition which should bring Joy to the heart of any bicycle rider, beginner or old hand, novice or veteran, affecter of the drop or diamond frame. The conditions named supply the materials for the perfect short bicycle ride, and when the writer credits the coastal road between Manly and Newport, Barranjoey, or Bayview with that description, those whose good fortune it Is to know It will have no hesitation in agreeing with him. For the benefit of those who have not an Intimate acquaintance with the ins and outs of the road, Its windings, and its crossings, we to-day publish a map Illustrating the route, replete with all the information which a cyclist a’wheel can require. The road has been carefully traced out, measured, and verified by actual experience, so that It can unhesitatingly be accepted as thoroughly reliable. This map is the first of a series that we purpose publishing In our Saturday's Issues giving information about cycling routes. 

The ride may be commenced at either Manly, North Sydney, or Mosman's Bay. For the reason that the road along the North Shore ridge is known to all residents of Sydney, without further explanation It has been omitted from the map, which takes up the work of illustrating at the Spit, Middle Harbor. Here the roads from either North Sydney or Mosman's converge, and run over a good surface either Into Manly or, as the map shows, across a cut through Greendale, picking up the main Newport road a few miles down the coast. 

Newport is merely a resting-place, dotted among the hills that sweep down to the valley of the Hawkesbury, near Its mouth. It is situated on the east side of an arm of the estuary, known as Pittwater, and the few residences there have frontages to an almost landlocked harbor way of great beauty. The mouth of the Hawkesbury and the commanding heads of Broken Bay, with five miles of rolling ocean between them, are seven miles away, and along the arm of the estuary lies a succession of fascinating bays. Steeply falling hills, wooded to the water's edge, roll down and meet the bays, and the water on a hazy summer's day' takes on an Intense blue. The beauties of M'Grath's Creek, the Basin, Careel Bay, and Barranjoey are admired by all those who have visited this fairyland, and need to be seen to be understood. Words could not paint the scene which may be viewed from the heights of Barranjoey Heads on a blazing summer's afternoon, when the water takes on its deepest color, and the hills flash green, and a world of oceans seems unrolled to seaward. The majestic Lion Island and the rolling entrance to the Hawkesbury lies just below the spectator on the one hand. Seaward he gazes on the limitless Pacific, which at his feet surges on to a dazzling beach of snowy whiteness, and Inland is an entrancing vision of wooded hills and blue lakes seen through a light hazy mist. The rugged heights of Kuringai Chase roll away westward, and the lighthouse Is the only thing that makes civilisation real in the imagination. This scene is but one of the pleasures of Pitt-water, which is within an hour and a half's easy ride from the city. It is, therefore, not to he wondered at that Newport is a favorite ride. 

The ride from Manly to Newport is the one which is perhaps the most popular, for it is the shortest, and includes from Sydney a pleasant little run on the Manly harbor steamer. Newport, as explained, is on the eastern shore of Pittwater. Across the arm, a matter of half a mile or so, is a small settlement known as Bayview, the road to which has been lately very much Improved, until the run up the west side of the water has become quite as popular as the old Newport ride. Accommodation of a first-class quality may be obtained on either side. 

The run from Manly to Newport can be accomplished by cyclists of any calibre riding comfortably in an hour and a half, while the "scorchers" can crowd It Into about 60 minutes. The journey is, of course, a longer one if North Shore or Mosman's Bay Is made the starting point. Then the high ridge running along the north shore of the harbor, and dividing the waters of Port Jackson proper from Middle Harbor Is skirted on a level road with a splendid surface, until the tract starts to fall to the level of the water at the Spit, Middle Harbor. This fall Is nicely graded, and can be ridden In comfort at a good speed with a brake, while the views which open up as the cyclist rushes down the incline of a sweeping valley from the ridge to the shores of what Is perhaps the most beautiful natural harbor In the world well repay him for the extra exertion of the longer ride. After the drop to the water, Middle Harbor is crossed in a Government punt at a cost of 2d. The climb up the ridge again on the east side is not quite so well graded as that just descended, but yet is perfectly easy of negotiation when the surface is good, which is usually the case. When the ridge is climbed the rider has the option of two roads, both of which are good. He can either take the turn off to the left through Greendale, which saves a considerable distance, and comes out between Manly and Brookvale on the Newport road, or he can go down Into Manly, and pick up the route there. 

The road from Manly runs out along a lovely stretch over Curl Curl Lagoon, and passes a turn off to the right, which is marked by a fingerpost — "To Harboard Estate," before the Greendale road is fallen In with. After these two roads converge the route passes over gently undulating and pretty country through Brook vale, a tiny settlement with a public school and post-office, and over the Stoney Range. This is a fair hill, and will he found to be indicated in the map by arrows. There is a short pinch at the top, but the hill can be easily ridden, though It Is not a rise which should be rushed on account of the pinch at the top. The descent is straight and perfectly safe, even without a brake. After a short run through what is almost a natural avenue, the road opens out on to the Deewhy Lagoon, which runs In off the ocean. The road just here for half a mile Is always bumpy, but if the rider will ease up slightly ho will experience very little inconvenience, and the bad piece does not extend far. The road then winds up a long hill In full view of the ocean, which thunders in on a fine sandy beach Just below the rider. A slight turn to the left is made on top of the hilland the road falls away into Narrabeen; the concluding mile before this place is reached being ridden alongside one of the finest beaches on the coast. A short rush down bill brings the rider unexpectedly right on to this magnificent beach, and the change from winding among the trees to the continuous roar of giant rollers, which seem to dash up almost beneath the handle-bars, is an interesting incident of a pleasant ride. 

A rest may be called at Narrabeen, and, if required, refreshments obtained. There is an hotel and an accommodation house right on the road. 

Narrabeen Lakes Estate, 1906 / Arthur Rickard & Co. Ltd Auctioneers.  1906. MAP Folder 114, LFSP 1695 (Copy 1). Part 2. (sales brochure) Image No.: 22704748, courtesy National Library of Australia. 

Visit:  Charlotte Boutin and The Firecracker That Closed Narrabeen Hotel by Ken Lloyd (SavaLloyd)

The lagoon here — the upper reaches of which are famed for their scenery — is crossed immediately on leaving. The lagoon is really a big arm of the sea, which is just over a line of sandbanks about half a mile on the right. A run of a mile and a half brings the rider to the Cutting-hill, which is one of the stiffest climbs on the route. It has, however, a good surface, and over the top of this rise the road drops for half a mile into Rocklily. There is another hotel here. A few hundred yards further on the road divides, the left-hand portion leading to Bayview, on the west side of Pittwater, and that on the right hand to Newport. 

 Above and Below: Panorama of Mona Vale, New South Wales, ca. 1930 [picture] / EB Studios National Library of Australia PIC P865/125 circa between 1917 and 1946] 

Following the right-hand road after a couple of not insignificant hills are climbed, the ocean is once more opened out from the top of a high cliff, and on a fine day a magnificent prospect is obtained. From this point also Pittwater on the left first becomes visible, and it appears a great lake nestling among the rolling hills

 Image No.: a924065h, New South Wales, 1879 - ca. 1892. N.S.W. Government Printer, 'View from Bushrangers Hill Looking South , Near Newport, NSW'. Courtesy State Library of NSW.

Down through a ferny glade, over a slight rise, and down another long descent, and Newport is reached. The rider has the choice of an hotel and an accommodation house for convenience. Here boats and bathing can be obtained, and the hays and coves of Pittwater afford amusement in an endless variety of ways. Good fishing is also to be obtained in the direction of Barranjoey. 

The road extends, as will be seen on an investigation of the map, on to Barranjoey, where the lighthouse is situated. The hills on this route, however, are almost unrideable, and the road is scarcely ever used by cyclists. 

The road on the Bayview side runs right along the shore of the harbor, to Church Point, a distance of two or three miles. There are two accommodation houses here, and good boats are to be obtained at the point, where there Is a splendid wharf. The road all the way is of sandstone formation, and is found at its best after heavy rain. Sometimes in continued dry weather it becomes loosened, but a shower or two of rain soon puts It right again. It can generally be described as a splendid road for cycling. None of the hills are very bad, and there are only two places on the whole route where it is necessary that, more than ordinary caution should he exercised. They are both on the Newport road. One is a hill recently graded, encountered soon after Newport is left on the return journey. It is indicated in the map by arrows. There is a sharp turn half-way down in a cutting and cyclists should not let their machines go until they are safely round this. A similar turn, though without the cutting, will be found in the Cutting-hill, between Narrabeen and Rocklily, when returning to the city. Care need be exercised to make the turn safely. Apart from these two points the road can be ridden In perfect safety by the crudest novice. 

All the cross-roads and "turn-offs" which are marked in the map are surveyed roads, but are to all Intents and purposesimpracticable for cycling, as they have not been formed. Some cyclists have ridden over them, but more from a spirit of adventure than from any hope of an enjoyable ride. The distances on the map are all measured from ManlyFAVORITE CYCLING ROUTES. (1897, July 31). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238392082 

A glimpse of those 'ferny glades' leading to Newport - although this flat land seems most similar to what was then called the "Black Swamp" camping grounds and what we now call Kitchener Park at Mona Vale - there is a remnant of this at the corner of Pittwater Roads and Coronation Street at Mona Vale, just near the Mona Vale Hospital:

Citizen Soldiers on Trek--"C" Company, 7th Infantry Regiment.
(See letterpress on page 24.)

1- The Party Nearing Pymble 

2.-The Men at Breakfast. 

3.-Resting During a Halt on a Difficult Track. 4. Unloading the Transport Waggon. 

5. The Party Leaving the First Bivouac. 

6.-A Signalling Party at Work. 

7. Filling Water-bottles. 8. "Officers' Mess”. 

9. A Bivouac Before Reveille,

Citizen Soldiers on Trek.

_ (See illustrations on page 21.)

The question as to whether a country can depend on a citizen army for its defence has often been discussed, and, while opinions' on the subject differ, the South African campaign clearly demonstrated that volunteers, properly trained and officered, are capable of performing equally good work as regular 'troops. One of the most import ant lessons taught by the war is that all branches of the service must possess greater mobility that before, and that 'the men must be trained unto conditions as near to those met with on service's possible. It was with these Objects in view that the Trekking Party of "C" Company of the 7th Infantry Regiment (St. George's Riffles), which is illustrated in this issue, was organised. This company may fairly claim the honour off setting an example to the remainder of the local volunteer forces in this respect as it has now has two treks to its credit. The first took place at the beginning of the present year, while the one illustrated extended over Saturday afternoon, Sunday, and Monday, October 4, 5, and 6. Both treks were highly successful, for, although some arduous 'work' was performed, the practical instruction received will prove of incalculable Value to those who participated in the treks. Captain F. Walsh (the officer commanding "C"! Company) has commanded 'both trekking' parties ; the first consisting of about 20 men and the latter of about 40. Lieutenant J. M. Moore (of  “B" Company) also took part in the latter trek, and both officers are shown at dinner in one of the pictures. 

The experiences gained during 'the first trek were exercised to advantage during the more recent one, and resulted in a greater amount of work being accomplished. The second trek took place north of Sydney, within the country bounded on the north by the Kuring-gai Chase, and on the west by the North Shore railway line. A start was made from Sydney on Saturday afternoon, the party proceeding to the Spit, Middle Harbour, and thence via the Pittwater and Narrabeen roads to near Newport, where the party bivouaced for the night. 

Some interesting night operations were carried out in the vicinity of the Narrabeen Lagoon, a small party having been detached at the junction of the Spit and Narrabeen roads, with instructions to move from its halting place at 9.30 p.m., and attack the main party, which was holding the bridge over the Narrabeen Lagoon. The operations we're not hampered by any conditions, and as the parties were several miles' apart, the commanders of the opposing forces had ample opportunities to: display their skill in handling the men. The bivouac was reached about 8 p.m. on Sunday. Reveille sounded at 6 a.m., and the party moved off a little after 7 a.m., scouting, etc., being practised throughout the day. The country over which the party travelled on Sunday was of the roughest description, and in some places even the roads were so bad as to make progress slow, and the transport cart had to be unloaded on several occasions. The party bivouaced near Pymble on Sunday night, and on Monday morning resumed the march towards Sydney, attack and defence work being carried out during the day. The party was made as mobile as possible, and, with that end in view, tents, etc., were not carried, the men relying entirely on their great coats. The party covered about 45 miles during the trek. The officers, non-commissioned officers, and men of the company who took part in the trek are to be congratulated on giving up the holidays, with a view to increasing their military knowledge, even at . great personal discomfort, and it is to be hoped that the authorities will recognise the value of these trekking parties, and grant mere encouragement to our citizen soldiers than is at present the case.

"Rank and File." Citizen Soldiers on Trek. (1902, October 15). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 21. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71494259 

In 1896 a shift to get a decent road began to complement the 'Jenkins Creek' at Dee Why crossing:

Department of Lands,
Sydney, 31st July, 1896.

NOTICE is hereby given that it is proposed to resume certain lands for roads under the 42nd section of the Crown Lands Act of 1889 (53 Victoria No. 21).

Should any person desire to object to the action proposed to be taken, it is requested that objection be made in writing, and forwarded to the Minister for Lands within one month from the date of this notice.


Description of Road :—Roads of access, viz., No. 1, from the Manly-Pittwater Road, within James Jenkins' 200 acres grant, portion No. 1,219, to waters of Deewhy Lagoon; and No. 2. from the Manly-Pittwater Road, within W. Cossar's 500 acres grant, portion No. 1,218, to the Pacific Ocean, parish of Manly Cove, county of Cumberland. Plan of which may be inspected at this Office, a tracing of the same at the Office of the Crown Lands Agent for Metropolitan District, and Schedule of particulars at the Local Land Board Office at Sydney. [Eds. 95-460-16 R. 5,355] NOTIFICATION OF PROPOSED RESUMPTION OF LANDS FOR ROADS. (1896, July 31). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 5264. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222504601

When Governor Phillip first set out in search of good farming land, close to the settlement at Sydney Cove, he found some on the coast a few miles north of Manly, where he also discovered ' the finest piece of water I ever saw,' which he named after William Pitt the younger, the British Prime Minister at that time. It took the Governor and his party three days to complete their excursion to Pittwater. They had to wade through the swamps and marshes of Curl Curl, Dewhy, and Narrabeen lagoons. The same journey can now be performed in little over an hour. 

The swamps and marshes have been drained, the lagoons bridged, and there is an excellent road from Manly to Newport. It is very popular with cyclists from the city and suburbs. Narrabeen and Rock Lily are favourite picnic grounds on holidays, and were more facilities for transit available, there is no doubt that the bulk of the vast crowds that visit Manly on Saturdays and public holidays would extend their journey outwards to enjoy the magnificent scenery of sea and land, for which the drive to Pittwater is justly celebrated. 

The people of Pittwater and Narrabeen are agitating for a light railway or tramway from Manly to Newport. Such a. means of communication would open up a splendid district, and afford excursionists the healthiest and most attractive outlet perhaps in the whole world. The Hawkesbury has been called by Trollope and other travellers the Rhine of Australia. Pittwater at its mouth deserves to be designated the garden of the beautiful river. That part of Pittwater between Newport and Barrenjoey is a true peninsula, Atone time, and not very long ago apparently, it must have been an island. A few feet depression in the neck at the foot of Mount Loftus would make it one now. The road from Newport to Barrenjoey is neglected. For two miles it is a series of hills and hollows, cut, rutted, and washed away in divers places. The cyclists generally avoid it, and so would the horse if he could help himself. It is dangerous and laborious to vehicular traffic, and is a drawback to settlement in that part of the district. Now that Barrenjoey is to be fortified, there is some talk of cutting down or tunnelling the hills, and filling in the hollows. As it is the only road by which an invading army could reach Sydney from Broken Bay, their progress could be stemmed in the cuttings there by a few hundred men, as effectually as the 300 Spartans blocked the Persian hosts at the Pass of xhermopylio. But apart from the military use that may be made of the road, it is a work of necessity on the part of the Government to make its hilly ways level in the interests of those who have taken up land there. Settlement has been delayed there by the difficulty of road access, it is said. The owners of land about there have been taking things too easy. They neither approached the Government nor their representative on the matter. Mr. Dugald Thomson, the member for the district, would, I am sure, have done something for them had their requirements been brought under his notice. It may not yet be too late to do so. There are still, unfortunately, unemployed. If the Government is to provide work for them, what work is more urgent than this road? It is a national work that must be done some day. It is a work that will facilitate settlement on the land beyond Newport. It is a work that will be of more lasting benefit than sand-shifting or Bogan scrubbing. It is a work in which the tourist and the excursionist in quest of the grand and beautiful are interested. 

The landmarks on the road from Newport to Careel Bay are Farrell's farm, west of Bilgola Beach, and Dalley's Villa, situated on the ocean beach, in the valley of calms and ferns. There the deceased Privy Councillor often retired to enjoy 'rapture on the lonely shore,' and the music of the boundless Pacific. The 'old homestead' near the head of Careel Bay, where the pioneer settler and patriarch of Pittwater, Mr. John Collins lived, is a place of interest. He was monarch of all he surveyed there for upwards of a generation, until the estate was sold in 1880. It consisted of two grants to Father Therry in 1833 and 1837, made to the good and holy Archpriest probably as compensation for the injustice inflicted upon him, and the bitter persecution of which he was the victim some years before then. By his will Father Therry left the estate to the Jesuits, who sold it, as I have said, in 1880. 

The western shore of Pittwater harbour is all taken up, and dotted with pretty homesteads and a few cyclist 'boxes.' There is a good road skirting the shore as far as Church Point or M'Gar's Creek, which gives it an advantage over the eastern side of the harbour. Mr. J. Roche's orchard at Bay View is a place of beauty and of profit to the enterprising owner. His poultry-yard is an exhibition in itself, where the rarest varieties of fowls may be seen, all in first-class condition. Over this pen and that and the other is the Agricultural Society's first-class award, given at different exhibitions. A visitor's judgment is that if he had sent his. whole stock to the Exhibition he might defy all competition. The Bay View Post-office, with a telephone, is attached to a store in front of his grounds. The various industries that Mr. and Mrs. Roche successfully conduct are worthy of praise and admiration. There is also a post and telegraph office at Newport, so that
in the matter of postage, telegraphic, and telephonic communication Pittwater is up to date. Religion and education are amply provided for at Pittwater. Most of the denominations have places of Divine worship there. There are two Catholic churches, one at Josephton, Careel Bay, and the other at Mona Vale, which are served by the Rev. Father Dowling, or one of the priests attached to St. Patrick's College, Manly. There is a Public school at Bay View, and one also at Newport. A SKETCH OF PITTWATER. (1898, May 7). Freeman's Journal(Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115386531 

A promise of asphalt!:

THE PITTWATER-ROAD. (1898, November 8). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239464969

The other way to Pittwater, also then called Pittwater road, as was what we call Mona Vale road now at one time:

The need of putting part of the road from the Ryde district to the sea coast at Pittwater into repair was brought under the notice of the Minister for Works yesterday by residents of Ryde and neighbourhood. It was a main road and a military road at one time, and passed through Crown lands, and, with the opening of the bridge over the Lane Cove would have a considerable traffic. The Minister said the report of the officer was against the proposal. He would, in view of their re-presentations, look further into the matter.
PITTWATER-ROAD. (1900, June 8). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229378260 

Tram from Manly to Pittwater.
The scheme of a tramline between Manly and Pitt water has for some years been the object aimed at by the progress associations of Manly and district. The State Minister for Works (the Hon. E. W. O'Sullivan) has had the project before him ever since he took office, and so long ago as Jauuary, 1900, at a banquet at Pittwater, promised that while he was Minister he would not lose sight of it. On Saturday the Minister took the first step towards the realisation of the work by turning the first sod of the section from Manly to Narrabeen.

Mr. O'Sullivan was conveyed to Manly in the launch Premier, which arrived at its destination shortly before 2 o'clock. He was accompanied by Mrs. and Miss O'Sullivan, Mr. and Mrs. T. B. Curran, Mr. Dugald Thomson, M.P., Mr. B. Sleath, M.L.A.., and Mr. J. H.. Purves. The Minister was received by the Mayor of Manly (Mr. E. W. Quirk), and was conducted to the foot of the Corso, where he at once tussad the first sod and declared it well and truly turned. 

Cheers were given for the King and also for the success of the tramline, after which the Minister, the Mayor, and Mr. Dugald Thomson mounted a temporary platform. Mr. Dugald Thomson then, on behalf of Manly and the Tramway League, presented to Mr. O'Sullivan a gold-mounted., inscribed spade, with the hope that it would be cherished as a memento. Mr. Thomson said that it was of solid and genuine gold because those who gave it believed the project now initiated was of a solid and genuine character; and for himself he was satisfied that, us the enormous number of one and a half million of people yearly visited Manly, the undertaking was one which would bring revenue to and not deplete the Treasury. Mr. O'Sullivan accepted with pleasure the handsome gift, which would he handed down in his family for centuries, he honed. He said he was glad to take the initial step in this particular tramline, for he had strong faith in reproductive works, and considered no work more likely to be reproductive than thin, because it served a popular watering-place, to which there came no less than 1,600,000 visitors last year. Assuming that that number would be maintained year by year, and knowing how much more readily people would pay a penny train fare than walk even for such a short distance as from the pier to the ocean beach, he was confident that the line would pay from its inception. It was intended eventually to run the line right out to Pittwater, with a branch line at Bayview, thus Opening up one of the most picturesque regions of the State. The trip would be possible, by its cheapness to the poorest, and thus not doubt would the work bring in revenue, but also it would promote the welfare, health, and happiness of the people. He looked upon Manly as one of the beauty spots and recreation grounds of the federation, add he would endeavour to do for all seaside resorts what he was now doing for Manly. So soon as the sleepers could be made ready, and other preparations made the work would go on. He knew that there were a lot of Doubting Thomases in Manly, as elsewhere, but in this case, granted that all appliances were ready, he would have a start made in a few weeks. It those appliances were not ready there might be a delay of three months, but there should be no stone left unturned in the Works Department in the endeavour to make a commencement of this line, which would convenience not only Manly, but all the people who visited this part of New South Wales. 

Tram from Manly to Pittwater. (1901, May 4). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1105. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165291178 

The interest in cycling during this period cannot be underestimated - motor cars were being seen but most people could not afford such luxuries - bicycles were the way to get around. Having been touted as being used in the Boer War to great effect, and races and clubs springing up everywhere, it is no surprise the area of Pittwater was made accessible for those who wanted cycling-camping trips away within their budgets. 

The rise in popularity, and its being followed by local press with some lovely early photographs of Pittwater:


A cycle path, 20 miles in length, 10 miles either way, between Manly and Pittwater, was opened on September 7, when over 1,500 wheelmen from all parts of New South Wales attended. It was opened by the Minister of Works. Mr. E W O'Sullivan.


THE PITTWATER CYCLE PATH. A NEW SYDNEY CYCLE PATH. (1901, September 14). The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), p. 29. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139746417 

Manly to Pittwater Cycle Path.

The views we publish afford an idea of the beautiful district which is opening up for cyclists by the construction of the Manly to Pittwater Cycle Path. The Public Cycle Paths Committee deserve the thanks of all cyclists, for by means of their efforts sufficient funds have been collated to pay half the Cost of the path. The work was generously carried out by the Government….. The Manly to Pittwater path is the second constructed under the auspices of the Public Cycle Paths Committee, and in the future the movement is expected to greatly extend. 

1 A glimpse of coast scenery from Newport-road. 2. Bay View from Newport Wharf. 3. Bush scene near Newport. 4. View near Terminus at Pittwater. 5. Broken Bay. VIEWS NEAR TERMINUS OF MANLY-PITTWATER CYCLE PATHS. Manly to Pittwater Cycle Path. (1901, August 24). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 478. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165234800  


1. An ideal bicycle stretch near Pittwater. 2. The Lagoons, Narrabeen. 

3. Dee Why Hill. 

4. At Narrabeen. 

THE MANLY-PITTWATER CYCLE PATHS. (1901, August 24). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 479. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165234777

                 Narrabeen Looking South. Image No.: a106057h From Scenes of Narrabeen album, ca. 1900-1927 Sydney & Ashfield : Broadhurst Post Card, courtesy State Library of NSW


Though the continued appeals to the Government for the construction of the tram from Manly to Pittwater have not met with anything beyond the usual shelving promises, the matter is not by any means being allowed to cool. An effort is now being made to allow private enterprise to take the matter up, and the following letter has been addressed by Mr. George Brock of "The Oaks" to the Hon. Secretary of the Newport Progress Association.—
" Dear Sir,—I beg to bring before the notice of your Council the proposal I have made respecting the tram which I propose to take over and have completed by this time next year to Narrabeen and in two years to Pittwater. I trust your council will give the scheme every support and by doing sol will give private enterprise an opportunity to do what the Government have fairly messed up. As there will be a large amount of employment, it being being intended to start from Pittwater end as well as from Manly tram sheds, your council (in the event of my getting the concession to be allowed to take it on) might provide or partly so the labor for Pittwater end." 

A rough plan accompanies the letter showing that the route proposed to be taken does not follow the road all the way. His intended to have three sections Brookvale threepence, Narrabeen sixpence, and Pittwater ninepence. If. the matter is taken up as it should be the tram to Pittwater may become an accomplished fact, and the proposal now made is worthy of the hearty cooperation of all concerned. 

The Postmaster General of the Commonwealth has notified the Hon. Dugald Thompson, the Federal Member for Warringah, that the mails for the residents round the bay at Pittwater will be delivered by the launch that is used in carrying the children to school. The post and telegraph office at Barrenjoey having been closed, the work is now being done at the Newport post office. Our indefatigable Mayjor, (Alderman J, J. Glover, J.P.,) is working hard to get work in band completed as soon as possible. NEWPORT-PITTWATER. (1904, November 26). The Mosman Mail (NSW : 1898 - 1906), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article247009079

"MANLY TO PITTWATER TRAMWAY." (1905, April 9). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 2 (Magazine Section.). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article125863155

Round Sydney - BY Motor Car - A Trip To Newport: 1904 Sydney Mail Article


 Round Sydney - BY Motor Car- A Trip to Newport.

THE motor car is a luxury for the comparative few. In Sydney the delights of yachting have been vouchsafed to many who could never have experienced them otherwise by co-operative ownership and by hiring. Messrs. Thomas Cook and Sons, the well known tourist agents, whose Sydney branch is in Hunter-street, guided by the success of the motor service to the Jenolan caves, have decided to make a motor drive equally accessible to all. They have arranged for motor trips around the most attractive routes about Sydney— and no other city possesses so infinite a variety —on very moderate terms, which afford to the motorless resident an opportunity of showing new hospitality, and to the visitor a delight hitherto difficult of attainment. It was for one of these trips — Sydney to Newport, via Manly — that our representative last week accepted an invitation, and took with him a ''Mail' photographic artist. 

The stretch of coastal country between Manly and Rock Lily, and thence along to Newport by one road and Bayview by another, is justly esteemed to afford one of the most beautiful drives of its type in Australia —many go further, and declare it to be one of the most beautiful in the world. When to this is added the strip of country between North Sydney and Manly, with its magnificent glimpses and panoramas of the lake-like waters of Middle Harbour, and of Sydney Heads, there is comprise d within the day’s outing a series of pictures for which we can only seek rivals in the world-famous portions of the Mediterranean coasts. And here we have characteristic elements of beauty either lacking there or possessed by us in a higher degree. 

The popularity of the bicycle made familiar to thousands, who would not have otherwise seen them, these beauty spots. Others have driven or used the coach services. But the ideal method of seeing this beautiful stretch of country and spending a thoroughly enjoyable 'open-air' day is by motor car. There is no questioning the fascination of automobilism. The man who has not a car may effect to disparage his more fortunate neighbour who has, and may make satiric remarks as to the latter’s misadventures in his initiatory stages. He may jibe at 'stink pots,' at dust, at the odour of petrol, and the rest — all these are for the man who stays behind, not for the man in the car. And for the man in the car there is the glorious sense of speed controlled at will, the bounding freedom of the rapid moving automobile, the easy run up the hills that have hitherto been toilsome trials to his horses, the grand rush of speed on the level stretches, the flight as through space against the keen breeze. All this produced by a turn of the wrist, and all comprising a sense of exhilaration and of power almost intoxicating in its delights where, as on the routes chosen by Messrs. Cook, the roads are good and the scenery is delightful. 

Our car, a 9-h.p. De Dion, piloted by an expert driver, set out from Messrs. Cook's office, on a delightful day of last week — bright, clear, sunny, with a light cool breeze. It was threaded skilfully through the traffic over the wood blocks to the North Shore horse ferry. Landed on the other side, we ran easily up the long hill to Ridge street, and thence fairly flew along the level roads on the heights, with their superb outlook, to the Spit ferry, experiencing a preliminary taste of what a motor can do when the road is free and good. Here and there a stop was made to take a photograph. 


Across the Spit ferry, and again we set out up the picturesque winding road on the Manly side, along the crest past many spots of interest. We passed a dwelling where the two coiners were wont to practice the revolver shooting which they ultimately used upon policemen. As we went, every turn of the wheels seemed to open out a fresh aspect, each more insistent than the last, in its claims to consideration. Down the Red Hill, past 'Dalley's Castle,' and that most picturesque of kirks, the Manly Presbyterian Church, and after a brief pause for refreshment, our driver turned him on that coastal stretch to Newport, which lives in the memory of all who have ever seen it.


The pictures on this page will give some idea of the glories of the whole trip, but no mere black and white can suggest the wealth of colour and the atmosphere which are the most exquisite elements in the scenes themselves. There is every type of waterscape —Smooth beaches in Middle Harbour, with the gently rippling marge of lake-like waters, shimmering in the sunlight or giving back amore intense blue than even the blue of the Australian sky. Lagoons at Curl Curl and Deewhy, the waters running in among the thickets on the banks, and the trees mirrored oil their surface. The forest-bound lake at Narrabeen; great stretches of white and grey and yellow beaches along the long line of ocean front from Manly to Barranjoey. 

Rushing surf breaking upon the sands, surging over the rocks at Long Reef, dashing on the cliffs of each bold headland that breaks the beach line till they are mist enshrouded with the rising spray. And for landscape, nearly every variety but the Alpine. The Middle Harbour heights give glimpses of the picturesque suburbs that are generically termed Mosmans, with their red roofs and constant effort at the picturesque in architecture from cottage to mansion — an effort often crowned with success. The sunlit bush and verdure-cinched hills set in opalesque waters as the run down the Spit-road is made. There is the charm of Sydney's only 'village' when Manly is reached: and then along the road to the far famed Hawkesbury at Pittwater — only the brush of the inspired artist and the pen of the true poet could convey adequate idea of that. 

Take one scene alone. The view from the Newport hill looking south across Mr. Brock's estate, and on over Rock Lily to the bold hills and headlands about Narrabeen. Here the great master of artistic composition, Nature, has made a masterpiece. Look at the photograph as it is reproduced — and it has some of the defects inherent in even the best photograph in its accentuation of the line of fencing. But take the picture as a whole— the long stretch of road across the foreground and to the right carrying the eye away with its admirable perspective. In the reality the road banks have red and rich yellow tints: above them the blackberry bushes run riot in autumn colouring; across the fence the rich dark greens and browns of the bush throw and the bright greens and light yellows of the neat pastures beyond. Lagoons, like opals in a golden setting, more trees, green hills, dark distant bush on the n-ht and in the centre. And on the left the white beach with its whiter fringe of ever-moving surf, a sapphire sea, a towering, bold, brown cliff. Above all the vivid blue sky and the whole landscape bathed in the rich light of an Australian winter day's sun that glorifies all it touches. A mere catalogue of forms and colours, you say? Yes, but the reality is exquisite, and it is only one of a long series of beautiful scenes along a beautiful road. Near where we stopped to take the photographs one of the great army of cyclists to whom every inch of the way is familiar, lay under a tree conning a little volume. It was Omar. The cyclist had realised his tree and his flask of wine, and 'thou'? Possibly she, too, might have materialised had we waited — he was evidently waiting — or perhaps his wheel was his love. At least the Rubaiyat seemed peculiarly suited to the setting. That, the Persian poet would have revelled in — even plus a bicycle and motor car. As we bowled gaily along the smooth surface with the free swinging motion of the motor car at speed, at every turn in the road came the suggestion that the photographer should get down and ''take that.' The car must have been laden with photographic plates had a tithe of the suggestions been adopted. Yet each was fully justified by the special aspect of the moment. 

Take the Narrabeen lake, for instance, with its surface still and every stem and bough reflected It is charming even from the roadside, and when that is left and by boat the visitor rows in among the bold hills with their adornment of splendid forest trees the wonder is that though thousands visit it in the year, and hundreds go upon its waters, the number is not many scores of thousands- We go far to see lake scenery any finer. Then take the stretch of forest road running down into Rock Lily with the hills beyond. That is exquisite. And on the coast from Newport to Barranjoey there are scenes rivalling the famous Illawarra coastal scenery — smooth buffalo-grassed slopes and flats, bush-crowned hills, tropic luxuriance of palm, towering cliffs, shell-strewn beaches, and always crowning beauty— sea and sky. 

As for Pitt water (which term includes the lovely Bay View), that would require a chapter to itself, and then its beauties would not be adequately described. All that visitors, distinguished or undistinguished, have written as to the glories of the Hawkesbury applies in an accentuated form to its Pittwater arm. Here we have the bold and graceful hills, palm-clad slopes, fern gullies rivalling the great fern gullies in the Dandenong ranges, of which Victorians are so proud, fjord-like waters, recalling Norway or New Zealand, and the splendid stretches of that noble reserve, the Kuring-gai Chase, accessible only rowing boat or launch 'obtainable on the spot- It is not surprising that Sydney people — Professor Anderson is a notable instance — are establishing summer homes for themselves here, where all is peace, and Nature has lavished her richest gifts of soil and water, climate and scene — the gardens and such orchards as those of Mr. Roche show the fertility of the soil. And there is this added attraction about the whole district we have been endeavouring to suggest, everyone has heard of the particular portion of the anatomy upon which an army is held by high military experts to travel — sometimes (when bullets fly) in a literal- but always in a metaphorical sense. J. M. Barrie last year invented for it a new euphemism. On the road from Manly to Pittwater, and at that lovely Hawkesbury arm, 'Little Mary' is well catered tor at every stage. There need be no anxiety as to commissariat, even when the hamper has been forgotten in the eager zeal of the motorist to 'get her going.' As for our car, it did its work, guided by the driver (J Cunningham) admirably. Since then it has had a run up to Moss Vale, whence it returned comfortably in five hours.

Round Sydney. (1904, June 29). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1628. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163988582 






'Road scene from Manly - Pittwater' - Broadhurst Postcard circa 1900 - 1910, courtesy National Museum of Australia (NMA)

Beaconsfield Street, Newport, Circa 1900 - 'Newport Road', ca. 1900-1910, courtesy State Library of NSW. Image No.: a116490h

In 1906 the "Local Government Act 1906 No 56" and "Local Government Extension Act, 1906 No 40" the responsibility for roads was devolved to local government under the new Local Government Act, which came into operation on 1 January 1907. The Act also increased the number of local government authorities by compulsorily incorporating many rural areas as shires. However, the Public Works Department remained the main construction authority. On 30 June 1906, the Public Works Department cared for 48,311 miles (77,749 km) of roads. Roads Trusts cared for 195 miles (313.8 km). A total of 1,338 miles (2.153.3 km) was controlled by local government with government subsidies. An additional 8,300 miles (13,357.6 km) of municipal roads received no subsidy.

The Department also remained in charge of what it declared were 'Main Roads' - the Pittwater Road, despite being the main means of communication with Pittwater, and all in between Sydney and Barrenjoey, did not rate a mention. This meant the maintenance and upgrades, if any were to occur, remained the responsibility of two local councils - Manly and Warringah Shire. They could get funds to help with upgrades and new works, for the tramway as just one example:

Department of Public Works,
Sydney, 31st December, 1906.
The Houorable CHARLES ALFRED LEE, the Secretary for Public Works for the time-being in and for the State of New South Wales, in the Commonwealth of Australia, in accordance with section 38 of the Local Government Extension Act, 1906, and section 119 of the Local Government Act, 1906, do hereby notify that the roads named in the Schedule hereto were, on the 10th December, 1906, classified by me as Main Roads within the meaning of the said sections of the said Local Government Extension Act, 1906, and the said Local Government Act, 1906.

Secretary for Public Works.

Schedule of Roads Classified as Main Roads. 
Great Northern Road, Morpeth to Maryland. Great Southern Road, Ashfield Cross Roads to Albury. Great Western Road, Sydney to Warren.
Albury to Boomanoomana, and branch to Murray River at Corowa. Ballina to Tenterfield. Bathurst, via Blayney and Cowra, to Grenfell.Bombala, via Tantawanglo, to Merimbula. Goulburn to Cooma. Grafton, via Glen Innes, to Inverell. Main South Coast Road (Campbelltown, via Wollongong, Ulladulla, and Punkalla, to Bega). Milson's Point, via Lane Cove Road, to Peat's Ferry Road. Orange to Forbes.
South Grafton, via Hillgrove, to Armidale. Tarago to Braidwood. Wallerawang to Mudgee. Albury to Urana. Albury and Corowa Road to Urana. Corowa to Coreen and Jerilderie Road at Momalong. Howlong to Walbundrie. Mulwala, via Savernake, to Momalong. Albury, via Wagra and Jingellie, to Tumbarumba. Tumbarumba to Little Billabong. Tumut, via Adelong, to Tumbarumba. Tumut, via Tomorrama, to Yass. Cooma, via Kiandra and Tumut, to Gundagai. Cooma, via Jindabyne, to Kosciusko. Cooma to Big Badja. Adaminaby to Billylingra. Adaminaby to Jindabyne. Bombala to Delegate. Bombala, via Nimitybelle, to Cooma. Cathcart Junction, via Pambula, to Eden. Towamba, via Bondi, to Maharatta Bridge. Tathra, via Bega, to Nimitybelle. Bemboka to Wyndham. Bermagui to Yourie. Braidwood, via Belligen, to Bateman's Bay. Braidwood, via Nerriga, to Nowra. Braidwood, via Araluen and Kiora, to Moruya. Bowral to Robertson and Fitzroy Falls. 
Moss Vale, via Barrengarry, to Nowra. Moss Vale, via Robertson, to Albion Park. Moss Vale, via Meryla, to Barrengarry. Mittagong, via Wombeyan Caves, to Taralga. 8utton Forest, via Exeter, to Barber's Creek. Camden to the Peaks. Rocky Point Road. Sydney, via Dover Point, to Bulli Pass. Hartley, via Jenolan, to Tarana. Goulburn, via Kippilaw and Gunning, to Burrowa. Goulburn, via Narrawa, to Burrowa. 
Marulan, via Bannaby and Taralga, to Crook well. Queanbeyan, via Brindabella, to Diamond Hill. Queanbeyan, via Upper Gundaroo, to Yass. Great Southern Road, via Burrowa and Narrawa, to Dalton. Grenfell, via Marsden and Stockinbingal, to Cootamundra. Temora, via Young, to Koorawatha. Cootamundra to Binalong and Burrowa. Cootamundra, via Temora and Wyalong, to Cudgellico. Junee, via Ganmain, to Narrandera. Wagga, via Kyamba and Humula, to Tumbarumba. Wagga, via Narrandera, to Hay. Deniliquin to Boomanoomana. Canathool to Hillston. Forbes, via Goolagong and Canowindra, to Woodstock. Forbes, via Marsden, to Wyalong. 
Forbes to South Condobolin. Parkes, via Bolderogery, to Cumnock. Parkes, via Condobolin and Euabalong, to Cudgellico. Cowra, via Breakfast Creek, to Burrowa. Cowra, via Canowindra, to Eugowra. Cowra, via Goolagong, to Grenfell. Lyndhurst via Bigga, to Crookwell. Bathurst via Rockley, to Burraga. Bathurst, via Newbridge and Tuena, to Goulburn. Kelso to Monkey Hill. Kelso, via Oberon, to Taralga and Goulburn. Kelso, via Palmer's Oaky, to Sofala. Bridgewater to Yeoval. Orange to Canowindra. Wellington to Ulundry. Dubbo, via Gilgandra, to Cohborah. Dubbo, via Parkes and Forbes, to Young. Dubbo to Denison Town. Wellington, via Goolma, to Gulgong. Belah, via Tooraweenah, to Gilgandra. Coonabarabran to Gunnedah. Coonabarabran, via Mundooran, to Mudgee. Mudgee, via Denison Town, to Mullaley. Coonamble, via Tooraweenah, to Mundooran. Walgett, via Coonamble, to Gilgandra. Walgett, via Bugilbone, to Pilliga. Moree, via Boggabri and Gunnedah, to Quirindi. Moree to Mungindi. Moree, via Goonal, to Mogil Mcgil. Narrabri, via Rocky Creek, to Cobbedah. 
Warialda, via Gunyerwarildi and Yallaroi, to Yetman. Inverell, via King's Plains, to Glen Innes. Inverell, via Strathbogie, to Deepwater. Inverell to Texas. Inverell to Wallangra and Ashford. Inverell, via Warialda and Bogamildi, to Moree. Inverell, via Tingha and Kangaroo Camp, to Guyra. Tamworth, via Barraba and Warialda, to Goondiwindi. Walcha, via Nowendoc, to Taree. Blandford, via Timor, to Gundy. Tamworth to Gunnedah. Quirindi to Bomera and Coonabarabran. Muswellbrook, via Cassilis, to Coolah and Coonabarabran. Muswellbrook (back road) to Wollar and Cudgegong. Scone, via Barry and Nundle, to Tamworth. Singleton, via Maison Dieu, to Denman. Wollombi, via Broke, to Whittingham. Wollombi, via Yarramalong, to Wyong. Singleton, via Warkworth and Putty, to Bell's Line. Richmond Bridge to Mount Wilson.
Windsor, via Sackville, to Wiseman's Ferry and Gentleman's Halt. Round Corner at Dural, via Wiieman's Ferry and St. Albans, to Warkworth. Gosford, via Cooranbong, to Wallsend. Wyong, via Jilliby and Mandalong, to Morrissett. North Coast Road (Hexham to South Grafton). Stockton to Nelson's Bay. East Maitland to Awaba. Morpeth, via Dungog, to North Coast Road at Weismantels. West Maitland, via Eccleston, to Upper Allyn. West Maitland, via Kurri Kurri and Cessnock, to Wollombi. Booral, via Bullah Delah and Cooloongolook, to Taree. Bullah Delah to Larry's Flat. Laurieton to Comboyne. Port Macquarie to Walcha Road. Kempsey, via Jeogla Mountain, towards Armidale. Ural la, via Balala, to Bundarra and Inverell. Armidale, via Yarrowiek, to Bundarra and Bingara. Tenterfield to Mingoola and Bonshaw. 
Deepwater, via Nine-mile, to Tent Hill. Murwillumbah, via Cudgen Wharf, to Tort anora. Byron Bay, via Mullumbiniby, to liainsville. Lismore. via Federal, to M urwillumbth. Lismore to Nimbin and Jiggi. South Lismore, via Wyra'lnh. to Rous. Woodburn, via Tueki. to ttou*. Woodburn to Harwood. Casino to Coraki. Casino, via Myall Creek, to Lawrence. Casino to Woodenbong. Casino, via Ett'ck, to Kyogle. Arnolds, via Apple tree Flat, to Cangi. Qreberts to Solfermo. Grafton to Southgate to Broadwater. Mclntock's, via Kangaroo Creek, to Nymboida. South Grafton via Sharpes, to Coffs' Harbour. North Coast Road, via Dorrigo, to Perretts. Sharpes to Moonee and Woolgoolga, Coramba, via Dorrigo, to Armidale Road. INSPECTION OF MAIN ROADS. (1906, December 31). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales(Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 7020. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226478603

In The Riddles of The Spit and Church Point are listed some of the local residents who became employed in supplying the works of building or maintaining local roads. From Warringah Shire Council minutes are listed works happening even prior to the Local Government act changes;

George Riddle as quarrying and delivering 1000 yards of spalls by Warringah Council September 6th 1904: “That Contractor Riddle had filled up the water table near the Spit Road and that he had been using some of the Council’s tools on this.” The President said that he had given Riddle permission to do so on payment of a fee’

Interestingly 15/11/1904 ‘G Boulton for supplying 100 c/yards of blue metal for Church Point Road at 5/6 per yard was unanimously accepted’ and in same Minutes ‘C. Boutin given permission to make an approach to her hotel at Narrabeen.’ - While ‘Oliver’s, Riddles, Browns and Wilcoxes Contracts be placed against the Special Grants’

Also from this Meeting: ‘That W. Brewer was prepared to repair the culvert on Cabbage Tree road for 6 pounds and the one on Powder Works Road for 30/ - unanimously agreed to let Brewer carry out the work

‘That G. Riddle had put out some inferior Ballast’ + ‘that Cr. Holden and Cr. Ralston seconded move that the sum of 20 pounds be paid to G. Riddle as a progress payment on his Contract of Ballast supplied as per contract – carried unanimously. ‘

24/1/1906: Brown re breaking 500 yards of ballast to be supplied by G Riddle – decided to call for tenders for the same – in same Minutes; ‘re resumption of Collaroy Beach – It was decided to request that the Department do this without cost to the Council’. – and stand over until next meeting; ‘Protection fences at Dee Why Lagoon and Sheep Station Hill’

20th September 1907: Did Engineer tell Riddle he was dismissed? ‘No” – did Engineer tell Riddle he had Contract? ‘No.”

29th November 1907: G Riddle contract extend spalls from 100 to 1500 yards from Spit Road to Post Office

27th April 1908: pay G Riddle for 69 yards of ballast placed on Chard Road at one and six per yard

24th April 1908: ‘Tender of G Boulton accepted for 200 yards of metal for Newport At 5/6 per yard after lots had been drawn between he and T Douglas who tendered at same price’ + The Tender of G. Riddle was accepted for metal ballast 600 yards at 4/3  from the Brookvale Post Office to the new metal, and 200 yards at 5/6 to be placed at the Salvation Army Home of Rest.


Last week Mr. Conyers, of the Public Works Department, measured up the second lot of stone from French's Forest now lying on the Pittwater-road, between North Manly and Brooklyn. The quantity was 500 cubic yards, for which Mr. Carew, the shire clerk, received a cheque for £150 this week from the department. This cheque (the second) he has passed on to the contractors, Messrs. G. Riddle and H. Thew, whose first cheque, for 585 cubic yards, amounted to £174.

Nearly 1100 yds from French's Forest, out of 4000 required for the tramway, have now been got out and paid for. The 1200yds got out of the quarry at Brookvale by the first contractor, for which the department paid about £250, will make up the full total of 5000 yds required for the tramway. The approved stone, under the new contract, is now coming out of French's Forest very fast.  BROOKVALE TRAM. (1909, April 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15052498

Narrabeen corner of Waterloo streets and Pittwater Road, circa 1900 - 1905. Image by Star photo Company, courtesy State Library of NSW. This is the view south - the little church is that which was destroyed a few years later to accomodate Narrabeen tram works and lines. Read G S Locklel's account of this in  Roads To Pittwater: The Wakehurst Parkway Along Old Oxford Falls Track

Narrabeen Road circa 1906-1907 (direct road) Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 . courtesy National Museum of Australia

Image No.: a106069h from Scenes of Narrabeen Album ca. 1900-1927, Sydney & Ashfield : Broadhurst Post Card Publishers, courtesy State Library of NSW - the second Narrabeen Hotel may be seen with the dome a little north of the butcher's shop.

At Narrabeen— On the Pittwater Road— The Joys of Simple Life
On Saturday the road to Narrabeen and Pittwater was worthy of many photographers, who might have found really humorous pictures by standing at spots on the road and snapping the vehicles and the occupants thereof. Said vehicles, of all sorts and descriptions poured along the road all day long. 
The camera men had no time for the road scenes, because they were all hastening on to Pittwater and the regatta. But boats are after all only boats. One racing yacht is very like another racing yacht, though to an expert such an opinion is rank heresy. Whereas the "human Comedy" is never the same. It varies with every day. But at first glance, the human comedy, as enacted on the road to the surf, seems deadly monotonous. 
You can't help wondering whence most of the vehicles are dug up. You don't see them waiting by Manly pier. Only the over-worked coach, the crowded 'bus, and the smart motor-'bus, with humanity clinging on all over it, are noticed when the traveller leaves the boat and seeks the means of getting along to Pittwater. Except, oh, notable omission!— except, of course, the 'Manly cab. Everything about dear old Manly is like Itself, and characteristic, but nothing is so racily Manly-esque as the Manly, cab. They breed, a race of pale cream ponies for those would-be elegant vehicles with their air of faded gentility. A brown or bay or black pair In front of those well-known victorias, which from behind resemble the modest equipage of an admiral, would look shockingly incongruous. Imagine Boutine or the Rock Lily Hotel without a Manly cab with its light-colored chariot-rushers waiting outside the hotel while the fares refresh themselves within! 
Why, the mind's eye refuses to form the picture. You simply can't do It!

'Bus and cab and coach stream along, till the outskirts of the village are reached, and then the weird freaks come into the picture. The tram has apparently made no diminution in the number of horse-drawn vehicles. They are there in greater numbers than ever, and the tooting of the motor horns scatters them more frequently than of yore. 

Narrabeen Road circa 1913 - Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 . courtesy National Museum of Australia

Going down to Pittwater on Saturday, fortunate beings sitting aloft in all kinds of cars and carts, or whirling on bicycles, pitied the groups of less fortunate fellow-mortals waiting for transport with apparently not a hope of getting It. Did they all get to their destination, and, If so, how did they all get back again? Every hut, hovel, cottage, camp, and tent along the whole route Is crammed chock-a-block these week ends. Most of the huts, hovels, &c., have fancy names, such as "The Castle," "Redbank," "Sandbeck," and the like. Any appropriate name for any seaside building would Just now be "Gad," for out of it "a troop scometh." 

From one corrugated iron tank about 10 by 10, twelve men will emerge, each browner and with rather less clothing on than the other. But how contented with life they look! The 'bathing of the bottle-oh was a great Tact yesterday and Saturday, as it is every week-end; The bottle-oh, like all his superiors in the social sphere, feels the great Sydney yearning to be washed in the surf every week-end. Alleged "spring" carts full, of him Jolt along the road, while the occupants roar songs and wave flagons of beer and behave themselves just not quite rowdily enough to bring their conduct under the term "righteous behavior" within the meaning of the Act. But once in their "neck-to-knees" and shooting breakers, the bottle-oh is not to be distinguished from the top loftiest Percy de Vere that ever shed his collar fence to don a Canadian. Breakers bring us all to one level. The surf-bather is the true socialist. 

In the Narrabeen Lagoon yesterday a party of young athletes were doing wonderful things In the water. They were quite as clever as frogs, which are much more agile than fish, because a frog must breathe atmospheric air. occasionally, while a. fish has only-one element to play about In. These youths would rush down the steep sandbank and turn somersaults under the water, emerging after a long time, that seemed about 15 minutes to the onlookers, yards away from the shore. Their figures were "superb," like the figures of the girls at Maxim's. They looked fit for anything in the water, or on the verge thereof. But in their cart going home wildly waving beer bottles and yelling derision at the cream-colored cab occupants whom, they passed on the road, they were just badly clad bottle-oh’s in frowsy hand-me-downs. 
The old horse galloped along drawing humans who looked much stronger and more capable than the derelict gee-gee. 

The charm of Manly and all that part right along to Barrenjoey is that it must be left to nature. You can't brush and comb and titivate it into civilisation. The weekenders don't want to get into civilised clothes and sit down to a silver and crystal laden table or napkins rings and black coffee. The simple life as the camper lives It is truly Australian. For him (and her) the old brown teapot, or even billy, is much to be preferred to any thermos flask. The cold beef and the chops fried out of doors are sweeter fare .than made dish eaten In. a hot dining-room, with perspiring waiters behind the diner, and fashionable hobble-skirted dame sniffing contemptuously at Nature and all her ways, opposite him. For him (and her): the surf is the great event and attraction, and all the repurtenances of life as she is lived in cities mere Impertinences. 
All the parts around the Narrabeen Lakes are pleasantly flavored with the mysterious. The district is one of the oldest settled in Australia. Then It seemed to be forgotten for years, until the surf bathing craze set in, and now camps are as thick there as houses in a smart suburb. The narrow spit of land lying on the farther side of the bridge, and between the lake and the ocean is a canvas town at present.' In New Year's week there were 78 canvas camps alone one bank of the lagoon. These canvas-householders have folded their tents like the Arabs, but the permanent campers are thick as bees there still. The great attraction is that after being tossed about in the cold, bracing ocean, the bather can turn his back on the surf and walking about 50 yards to the lagoon and plunge into a warm bath. It is an Ideal Summer existence. Just surfing and loafing and getting finely tanned and Invigorated. Surfing is the latest cure for nervous breakdown: it is also an antidote to the nor'-easters also it cures Insomnia. In time no doubt it will be found the one and only remedy for 'housemaid's knee!" 
Weird folk dwelt about here In the early days. One extraordinary erection, used now as a summer cottage, Is said to be haunted. It Is an enormous corrugated iron structure, "with a five-row barbed wire fence all around it, and no windows opening on the road leading to the lagoon. Inside the rooms are vast and cool, being lined as to the walls with asbestos, sawdust, and other cooling substances. There are '.'the ghost room,' other haunted chambers upstairs, enormous 1-nts, and other queer things, that recall tales a la R.L.S. of smuggling dens and ' rnqe aboard the lugger and the girl is mine.” IN SOCIETY and OUT OF IT (1911, January 9). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 6 (CRICKET EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221588977  


The  ceremony of turning, the first sod in connection with the three miles extension of the Manly-Brookvale tramway towards Narrabeen was performed  yesterday afternoon by the Minister for Works, Mr. Arthur Griffith. After the actual ceremony, at which Master Staurt Griffith assisted, the chairman, Mr. Alexander Ralston, president of the Warringah Shire Council, presented Mr. Griffith with a gold spade suitably inscribed as a memento of the occasion. In supporting this, Dr. Arthur, M.L. A. for the district, referred, to Mr. Griffith's ' brickworks, and said that if he could supply bricks to him at a cheaper rate than private enterprise when he required to build, he would have them, provided they were good. The Narrabeen tramway was badly needed.  Mr. Griffith had 'the true interests of this district at heart, and he was sure he would do his best for it. He was hopeful that very shortly the tramway route would be extended as far as Mona Vale and Bayview.


Mr. Griffith, in responding-; said that the general policy of the Labor Government was one of progression, and the extension of some of the schemes of the Wade Government. They had resumed a big area of the foreshores of the harbor, and were about to resume the Salvation Army's property at Long Reef Point. They had also recently resumed an area at Narrabeen for a park site. The construction of the tram extension to Narrabeen would be done as cheaply as possible. The materials would be carried by steamer from Sydney to Manly jetty; taken out of the boat; and placed upon a tram on the wharf.  In order that this might be done, he had .arranged with the Port Jackson Ferry Co. to temporary extend ...in the jetty, which would save a great deal of time ... The materials would be run out at half the cost. He hoped that the line would be completed before Christmas so that the public would have the benefit of it during the Summer months.  Councillor Quirk proposed the toast of the Federal and State Parliaments, to which Colonel Ryrie, M.H.R,.' Dr. Arthur, Dr.. Naah,  Mr.McFarlane, and Mr. Briner, M.L.A'.s responded. Colonel Ryrie mentioned that from 'inside information' it was practically certain that the Mona Vale site for the Naval College had been abandoned, and in that case he would support the Barrenjoey scheme, for he considered Broken Bay and Manly district the back-door to Sydney. BROOKVALE-NARRABEEN TRAMWAY. (1911, July 30).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120689220 

Pittwater Road at Dee Why, circa 1910





TRAMWAY CONNECTION WITH NARRABEEN. (1912, March 6). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 35. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164295089 

A tramway extension from Brookvale to Collaroy Beach, Narrabeen, being a continuation of the present line from Manly to Brook-vale, will be officially opened by the Minister for Works this afternoon. But though Mr. Griffith and the Ministerial party will not commence their official trip from Manly till 1.40 p.m., the car service will begin, according to the published timetable, at 6.42 a.m. to-day.

Work was commenced on the line in August last, following an official turning of the first sod by the Minister on July 29. The extension was commenced at about three miles 33 chains from Manly at the present Brookfield terminus. The new portion travels along Pittwater-road on the left-hand side for a distance of about one mile. Thence it runs through the Salvation Army property for two miles ten chains on a strip of roadway 33 feet wide, and passes the Deewhy Lagoon, over portion of which a light bridge has been built. The line continues on to Collaroy Beach, and thence on to Fielding-street, where it at present terminates. The new extension measures 3 miles 25 chains, and the total length of the line from Manly to Fielding street is 6 miles 58 chains. The first stop-ping-place after Brookvale is between Pine-avenue and Mitchell-road. Others are at victor-road, the intersection of Manly-road and Pittwater-road opposite the brick kiln; about 4 chains from Redmond road; about 12 chains from where the line enters the Salvation Army property; at 5 miles 52 chains; at 5 miles 64 chains; at the boundary of the Salvation Army property; at Collaroy-st, and at Fielding-street. There will be two penny sections making the fare from Manly to Narrabeen 5d. Cars will run about every hour from 6.42 am to 10.14 p.m.

The extension was built on the day-labor system, under the supervision of Mr Hutchison, chief engineer of the railway and construction branch of the Public Works Department. A successful trial run was made over the new portion on Thursday and the line has been handed over to the Railway and Tram-way departments. TRAMWAY EXTENSION. (1912, August 3).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 18. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15326769 

At the last meeting of the Warringah Shire Council a letter was read from the Narrabeen Progress Association, directing attention to thestate of the Pittwater road from the tram terminus to the lagoon bridge. Another matter to which attention was drawn was the condition of the Narrabeen Bridge. It was urged that some kind of protection be provided to prevent possible accidents to children. Both matters are to have attention. NARRABEEN BRIDGE. (1913, May 21).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113371300 

The postmaster at Narrabeen brought under the notice of the Warringah Shire Councillors at their last meeting the shocking condition of the approach to the post office at Narrabeen. The writer wanted something done-at an early date. President Quirk said that at presentthe spot was a bog-bole, and badly needed repair. A crossing was an urgent necessity. The matter is to receive attention.NARRABEEN POST OFFICE. (1913, June 5). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113360538 

The Salvation Army has offered to give a strip of beach frontage to the Warringah Shire Council. The strip runs from Collaroy Beach to the existing reserve on the basin, going around Long Reef headland. The concession, it was stated, would be given on condition that the council would make the army an allowance of £250 on road construction in future subdivisions. The strip offered will provide a very fine lookout, and afford an uninterrupted promenade round the Long Reef headland.
The council decided to accept the army's offer. LONG REEF HEADLAND. (1913, October 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15458631 

BEACH. NARRABEEN. (Collaroy) from the collection of Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1, courtesy National Museum of Australia handwritten on back; Day after arrival of Fleet 5/10/1913'-  this would refer to the arrival of the Australian Fleet and International Fleet review . Visit: 

International Fleet Review on Sydney Harbour October 2013 and The Opening of the Sailing Season on Sydney Harbour, October 1885

First Naval Exercises by New South Wales Colonial Ships –The Wolverene at Broken Bay It may not surprise many of you that the first ever Naval Exercises carried out by colonial vessels began from Broken Bay – where else? In the lead up to the International Fleet Review in Sydney Harbour, October 3-11 2013, celebrating the entry of our own Royal Australian Navy fleet into Sydney Harbour 100 years ago, we will share a few articles on the lead up events to this original great day for New South Wales and Australia. First though - Colonial Naval Ships Exercises; 1885...

From Colonial Navy Brigades in Second Hand Ships to Where the Australian Navy was Born – The Practical Verses of William Rooke Cresswell’s Charter - International Fleet Review 2013 precursors - Article II

The Arrival of the Australia's Navy in Sydney Harbour - 4th of October, 1913 International Fleet Review 2013 precursors - Article III

The Australian Fleet Celebrations of October 1913 - A Week of WelcomesInternational Fleet Review 2013 precursors - Article IV

International Fleet Review Pictorial from RAN Fleet Entance on 4th of October 2013 to Sydney Harbour by Brian Friend OAM - retired Water Policeman and IFR 2013 Tall Ships Pictorial by Michael Mannington

NARRABEEN BRIDGE TRAM. (1913, October 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 23. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15458630 

The extension of the tramway from Collaroy Beach to Narrabeen Bridge was on Saturday afternoon the subject of great local festivities.
A special tram, gaily bedecked with Christmas bush, waratahs, and palms, conveyed a large party from Manly Beach wharf to the bridge, a distance of about eight miles. The journey lies through remarkably pretty scenery, which will most likely make the run a favourite one with excursionists. During the whole distance the traveller is with-in hail of the beaches, upon which the waves of the Pacific Ocean beat, and the many glimpses of blue sea, with snow-white embroidery, as the rollers wash into spray on the shingle, and the glimmering stretches of sand, serve to make the trip a delightful one. Deewhy Lake, with its black swans, is passed en route, and the tram brings one to the first of the Narrabeen Lakes.

It was explained by Mr. Quirk, in opening the proceedings, that the Minister for Works  (Mr. Griffith) had built the tramway to Collaroy Beach, which was as far as he could make it, for less than £20,000. The mile section from Collaroy to Narrabeen was an addition.

The ceremony of cutting the blue ribbon across the track and declaring the extension open was carried out by Mrs. Griffith, the wife of the Minister, who said they were very pleased to have with them Mrs. B. W. O'Sullivan, widow of the Minister for Works who had turned the first sod in connection with the tramway. (Applause.)

A party of visitors were then driven round the district in motors as the guests of the Pittwater Progress Association, the excursion showing that the neighbourhood is progressing. The Narrabeen Lakes country together with that intervening between it land the "village," constitutes Manly's big "back yard," as it has been called. Judging by some of the vegetable and fruit gardens seen between Manly and Narrabeen, the country is by no means unsuitable for agriculture. After Mrs. Griffith had cut the blue ribbon, the local children rendered "Advance Australia Fair."

Mrs. Griffith was presented with a diamond ring as a memento of the occasion.
At the conclusion of the ceremony a Venetian carnival was held on the Narrabeen Lakes. 
NARRABEEN TRAM. (1913, December 15 - Monday). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15497971 

Narrabeen tram, circa 1913 on Manly Corso: the route commenced at The Esplanade in Manly before proceeding North along Belgrave St, continuing past the turnoff at Raglan St for the Spit and progressing to Pittwater Road. From here it continued past the turnoff to Harbord before ceasing at a Bridge in Narrabeen, North of Waterloo Road.

The picnicking germ is abroad, for in these autumn days, though the enervating atmosphere of summer is gone, the air Is but chilly enough to be exhilarating, and round Sydney, despite what our English visitors say, there are roads and- views charming enough to please even the most Insular taste. Take the Pittwater-road, for instance. It is Saturday afternoon, and the Spit ferry Is crowded with a well-governessed girls' school, a motor cyclist, and one or two motor cars. As the ferry puffs across you catch glimpses that almost persuade you to abandon the proposed afternoon at Pitt-water for a rowboat and blistered hands up .the green echoing reaches of Middle Harbor. But wherever you look there are temptations. On the Manly side a ruined stone house clamors for exploration (they say it Is haunted), and down the harbor a motor launch fusses along, leaving distressed opal waters in Its foamy wake. At last you are on the Manly-road, with purple distances to the left, while the right-hand side continually surpasses Itself with peeping blue bays, finally achieving an epitome with a view of the Heads, the sea, and a miniature pine-clad Manly. And now for the Pittwater-road that opens out before you. Even on the outskirts of Manly, the city and suburbs become as unreal as a memory grown , old, tor on either side of the road are grassy paddocks en closed by two-railed fences, and further out glossy green hedges gay with scarlet autumn berries. There is nothing here to intimate that you are within easy distance of a city. A motor car comes honking along, and a small boy wheeling a billy-cart becomes so agitated that he tips his baby brother on to the grass at the side of the road. A policeman goes by riding a bicycle,' and falls to understand the Interest his. mode of loco motion arouses in the motoring tourist. Far away where the road rises red between an avenue of blue gums one sees a high wheeled sulky drawn by a contented moke that would not know a cab if he saw one. His master, a bearded man in a dilapidated felt hat, occasionally touches him with the whip, apparently with that courteous motive of saying Dobbin the trouble of flicking his tail to remove the flies. 

And soon Dee Why comes into view, lying low along the beach— a reedy lagoon dotted with black swans. It is pretty enough now, but on the homeward journey you may be fortunate enough to see it with the sand left wet by the outgoing tide, and reflecting the afterglow of the sunset. The ocean is at its bluest on autumn days, and the sails of a yacht not far out become dazzlingly white in contrast. On the horizon several plumes of smoke indicate the track of ocean liners. Colors are vivid and outlines sharp, so that even your English cousin is constrained to pronounce the view "ripping." 

But you cannot wait long here, for the afternoons close in quickly now, and 19 miles is a long way from home. So on again through Narrabeen, where a mongrel runs out barking from a high piled weatherboard cottage, and the children stop making sand-pies for a minute to watch you pass. Skirting the lagoon, you get a cameo view of the narrow isthmus of sand between the sea and the brackish water of the lagoon, and beyond that the surf breaks in gleaming spray at the foot of a rocky promontory. To the left as the road continues there is French's Forest, thick and green and glossy, but you must keep straight on, since you have decided this afternoon for Pittwater. Gum trees and grassy paddocks, with an occasional reed-choked swamp, and now and again a tiny redwood cottage, unpainted, and perched upon a hill slope, and by the way a wattle tree that has mistaken autumn for September, and burst into bloom in company with a stray boronia and a red bottle, brush — so the road goes winding on quite unaffectedly, with a surprise at every turn, until you come to your journey's end, a little way out of Pittwater. And now, not very far from Barrenjoey, where on a green patch, with sand hills and the sea on one side, and thickly foliaged hills on the other, you encourage a smoky little fire with pungent smelling woods until the billy boils and your eyes weep unrestrainedly.  PITTWATER-ROAD. (1914, May 24). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 20 (SUNDAY EDITION). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224645958 

Sepia photographic postcard titled "LOOKING TOWARDS NARABEEN (sic), COLLAROY, N.S.W." circa 1920-1924. The Rose Series. The postcard is unused. Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 . courtesy National Museum of Australia

Placing the making, care and upkeep of local roads under local government drew criticisms that led to a number of word skirmishes prior to things shifting a bit. 

Minister for Public Works, Arthur Griffith, led a major push for a central roads authority controlled by the state government, and financed from the moneys already given to the local governments for the upkeep of these roads.:

Mr. T. I. Campbell, secretary to the Shires Association of N.S.W., forwarded the following letter, under date 22nd October last, to the" Minister for Works, but up to the present has received no reply:—
Dear Sir,—Under direction of the Shires Association Executive Council," i_have the honour to forward to you the following resolutions adopted  by the above council, at meeting held on the 18th instant:—
(1) That this Association protests strongly against the statement of the Hon. the Minister for Works, that the main roads of the State have been allowed to fall into a condition, of disrepair, owing to the neglect of the shire councils, and to respectfully point out and affirm that the said roads are now in a better condition than when handed over by the- Works Department. 
(2) That this Association also protests against the proposed Roads Board, and the cancelling of a large proportion of the endowment, as being unnecessary, and - against the principles of Local Government, by the establishing of a dual control, and will be a further tax on ratepayers of the state.
(3) That these resolutions be submitted to the Hon. the Minister by a deputation from this Association.
I tried to arrange through your private secretary, for a deputation if a date, convenient to yourself could be arranged whilst the members of our Council were in Sydney, but received message to the effect that you .required a written application, and that you would then consider the advisability of fixing a date on which you would receive a deputation.
You have intimated to the House that the matter has been considered by Cabinet, and that the Government policy is to establish a Roads Board, and transfer £230,000 of the present shires endowment to that board, on the plea that the shires have misapplied the money included in the endowment, with very few exceptions, I am directed to respectfully ask that you will be so good as to specify any shire or shires to whom this statement will apply.
My Executive, consider it most unfair and ungenerous on your part to make a sweeping assertion of this character, and have no hesitation in stating most emphatically that you
cannot substantiate it.
I ain directed to further point out that the present endowment was arrived at by a Board specially appointed, of Departmental officers, and who had the opportunity of closely considering the position after three years' working of the Local Government Act, and who were, presumably, in the best position to indicate that the experimental amount of subsidy provided for by the Local Government Act was inadequate to the responsibilities thrown upon the shires.
It is notorious that the conditions in which the roads, bridges, anrl culverts were handed over to the local governing bodies was such that a great deal of the shires' rates revenue was absorbed in renewals and repairs, and the increase in endowment by the previous Government was a recognition of this fact.
I am also directed to state that we will be able to show that the main roads through shires are in a better condition than when these were handed over to the shires.
Many shires have complaints from their ratepayers that the roads in municipalities, after leaving the shire area are in a bad state, and my council would request your special attention to this phase of the position, as probably the reason for the agitation for the proposed Roads Board, as many of the municipalities extend for considerable distances from the town boundaries that it is naturally assumed these are under the control of shires, and that the endowment provided is being misapplied.
You, as Minister, however, should be in a position to know the true state °l affairs, and as the representatives of the shires, we are able to affirm that the main roads through our areas are in reasonably good repair, and that we are justified in also providing reasonably good roads for the proper development of the areas under our control, and a reasonably fair regard for the interests of our ratepayers in this particular is not an injustice to the general taxpayers of the country.
We respectfully submit that the creation of the proposed Roads Board will be destructive of the principles or local government, and 1 am directed to respectfully ask that you will consent to receive a deputation from the Shires Association, as the only wav by which the position as affecting shires can be properly placed before you. 
MAIN ROADS BOARD. (1912, November 15). The Land (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article102924463 

Legislation for Main Roads was narrowly defeated in the parliament year after year until the end of World War 1. 

Widening Suggested
A deputation from the Warringah Shire Council this morning asked the Minister for Local Government to widen Pitt-water road between Manly and Narrabeen. It was pointed out that this widening would one day be necessary, and should be undertaken before the estates through which the road passed were sub-divided. In reply, Mr Fitzgerald indicated that this was a matter which would be dealt by a Main Roads Board, were such a body in existence. He regretted that the funds at the government's disposal would not permit him to grant the request of the deputation. PITTWATER-ROAD (1919, October 10). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article116079534 

Widening Pittwater-road
A deputation from the Warringah Shire Council, which asked the Minister for Local Government today to widen Pittwater-road from Manly to Narrabeen, before the land along the road was subdivided, was told that there were no funds available. Widening Pittwater-road (1919, October 10). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222295115 

Waggon Sinks in Pittwater Road
The rates imposed by the Manly Council are by no means low, and loans have been raised from time to time for the purpose of putting the streets of the Village into something like passable order ; but very little in this direction has been accomplished. Only last Friday a waggon loaded with eight and a half tons of cement was proceeding along Pittwater-road, close to Carlton-street, when an outward-bound tram caused the 'driver- to pull off the rails, with the result that the waggon sank up to the axleboxes in the sand, which was only covered by about two inches of metal. Although there were six horses drawing, the load, they failed to move it, and four' more hitched on had no better result. Finally it was dug out. MANLY'S STREETS (1921, August 21). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article123243365

The long and winding road to commence turning a dirt track and partly tarred road (Main Road Number 164 by then accoridng to the photo below) into four lanes that are concreted and upgrading the above bridge into something better commenced -:

FATAL BEAUTY (1923, March 5). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118837336

2. FISHING AT THE NARRABEEN LAKE. PICTURESQUE NEW SOUTH WALES: SCENES ON THE HAWKESBURY RIVER AND NARRABEEN LAKE. (1923, May 26). The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), p. 56. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article140744434

Council's Unfair Burden
Running the entire length of Warringah Shire from Manly to Barrenjoey is Pittwater-road, one of the most popular motor routes In the state. Incidentally, not one per cent of the motorists are ratepayers of the area. In spite of this fact, the Government refuses to bring the road under the provisions of the Main Roads Act. beyond doling out a pittance of £1100 a year as a subsidy. The result is that the upkeep of this thoroughfare absorbs money that should be expended on the other roads. The council have no option but to patch where it should construct. Thus the progress of the district is retarded. PITTWATER ROAD (1923, September 11). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119185506

Remarkable Pittwater Road.
Kuring-gai Shire is building a new road, a permanent good road, partly at the expense of the Government. Warringah Shire wants one like it. It wants to lay 9 1/2- miles of the Pittwater road, from Condamine-street, to Newport, with 18ft. concrete track. With members of Parliament representatives of the shires, asked the Minister for Local Government, Mr. Fitzpatrick, for assistance in this £70,000 venture. Mr. Fitzpatrick said he would promise nothing at the moment, but he would direct that the departmental engineers report was favorable, he would be prepared to recommend Cabinet to give some financial aid to the shireRemarkable Pittwater Road. (1923, November 15). Manilla Express (NSW : 1899 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191814474

After Inspection by a majority of the Warringah Shire councillors, it was decided to recommend to the full council the adoption of the engineer's report respecting the reconstruction of the main Narrabeen bridge.
The piles will be encased with concrete, and the structure will be redecked, and a cantilever footway, 4ft 6in wide, will be provided for pedestrian traffic. The growth of traffic in the locality has necessitated the construction of the footway for the protection of the public.
NARRABEEN BRIDGE. (1923, November 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16121580 

Pittwater Road Narrabeen Lagoon Dec 11, 1924 - State Records of NSW photo 

Following a spate of Commonwealth controlled road projects after WWI, years of lobbying by the Royal Automobile Club, National Roads Association, NRMA and other automobile associations and road carrier organisations, the formation of a Main Roads Board. The enabling Act was passed on 10 November 1924 and the Board began operations in March 1925 and was proceeded by:

A feature of the campaign launched, by the Government for reconstruction off the main roads in the county of Cumberland is the material . assistance being given in the raising off the necessary, money by associations interested in good roads. These people— Royal Automobile Club, National Roads .Association, Master. Carriers, Chambers of Commerce and a host. off, others— have been for years past bitter critics of every Government the State has had. They, upbraided Minister after Minister for neglect, short-sightedness and ignorance 'with regard to the necessity for good main roads, and they levelled a particularly heavy fire against the present Government during the first few weeks off its office. The Government embarked on a road construction policy soon afterwards. The critics saw their goal in sight at last; and now they are working hard, side by side with the Government, to assist in raising contributions for the £501,000 road loan. - Quite a spirit of rivalry has sprung up between them, each striving to raise and forward larger amount than the other to swell the steadily mounting total.
Mr. Lang, State Treasurer, is hopeful of being, able to make an early start on  the work ...-Western Road from Parramatta to Penrith and the main Northern-Road from Parramatta, to Wiseman's Ferry. Over 200 men are now employed on the South Coast Road and the Main Southern Road, and as soon as the engineers and surveyors have completed the preliminary work and the additional plant, is secured more men "will be put on." 
The Railway Commissioners are lending assistance by making available, as from to-day, six of their surveyors, and by placing at the disposal of the Works Department a sandstone bank at Pvrmont for the purpose of ballast supplies. 
"I should like to emphasise the soundness of the: proposition put before the investing public, in the shape of the £510,000 Good Roads Loan," said Mr. Lang, "The Government proposes to provide for the repayment of the Good Roads Loan by requiring the Main Roads Board to set aside and pay into the Treasury each year the interest on the loan. and an additional sum sufficient to repay the loan within a term of 15 years (or such longer' period as the Treasurer may decide. Those are the provisions which were included in clause 17 of the Metropolitan Main Roads Bill introduced by Mr. Mutch in the last session of Parliament— and proposed to be retained in the measure to be introduced in the coming session. 
" When the Main Roads Board makes its annual payment to the Treasurer to cover the interest and. to provide for the sinking fund, the interest will be paid into the consolidated revenue, and the instalments of the repayments of the principal will go into the general sinking fund administered by the State Debt and General Sinking, Fund Act. off 1904, to be applied by the commissioners In redemption of loans raised. , ' main roads board fund; ' 'The Main Roads Board will get its funds from several sources. First there will be set aside for its use one-half off the motor-car taxation raised in the county' of Cumberland; The remainder is intended to be set aside for counting main roads. Then there will be the metropolitan share of the Government's annual main roads vote. That share, instead of going directly to council as now, will go into the metropolitan main roads fund for the board to control. There will be new revenue obtained by registering and licensing all vehicles owned and used by persons resident in the metropolitan area, and there will be a contributioncollected by each of the councils in the county of Cumberland and paid into the metropolitan main roads fund. This contribution will be based on the unimproved capital value of ratable land and wiII be either at 1/2d or 3/4d in the £ in addition to the present rates, according as Parliament may determine. It is also proposed that those lands which front the main-roads, and which will therefore reap a special benefit from the operations of the Main Roads Board, shall pay ... less in the £ on 'the unimproved capital value. It will be seen, therefore, that there will be full provision made for repaying the loan within, a reasonabletime, and that the repayment will be made by the area benefited — it will not be made a charge on the whole of the country." - . "Let me emphasise it again;" said Mr. Lang; " the loan will be as sound an investment as any other proposition put before the public, as the interest and principal sums will be secured upon the consolidated revenue of the State," BETTER MAIN ROADS. (1921, May 12). Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article195011005

The demolition of buildings along the new thoroughfares was common, including, as now, the acquisition of properties in the way, which resulted in the end of what were local historic landmarks here since European migrations to this place:

Landmark Disappears
(By J.G.L.)

Collaroy's oldest landmark is disappearing. A week or two hence and the last will have gone of the long, low cottage in which Miss Jenkins, a daughter of one of the earliest residents, ended her days about 16 years ago. 

That was before Narrabeen had come into its own and before the latter-day people who took up a position on the southern end of Long Reef Beach, which is the chart name for the three-mile stretch of sand and blue water that runs from Twights to the headland on the north, decided upon a name of their own, and very naturally dropped on Collaroy. There was nothing else for it. Narrabeen was not then considered to be among the nicest places on the coastline. It was somewhat wild in more than one sense. Many of the old-time folk coupled it up with Clontarf and Chowder Bay, and passed right on to Pittwater, where there, was no suspicion and very little doubt. 


Collaroy got its name because one of the oldest of the Newcastle traders ran ashore in the small bay, a little to the south of the present surf sheds and house. The steamer was making for Sydney with a full cargo and lots of passengers, many of whom were returning after a successful race meeting on the Hunter. There was no excuse for the mishap. The night was clear and the sea quite calm. It was within an hour of daylight when the old paddle-wheeler came to an abrupt stop in the second line of breakers. 

Some of the gear, of the steamer came to light only last week-end, just at time, as it were, to be in the same picture with the broken walls and the big, unlucky Norfolk Island pine which was chopped down one day recently because it happened to stand right in the centre of one of the new roadways which are being run through the old home grounds. A big current has torn the southern end of the beach to pieces, exposing a lot of anchor-chain, a big wooden pile used for one of the straining lines in the efforts to refloat the steamer, and a fire bar or two, which would probably have been thrown overboard to lighten the vessel. The fire bar, thick with rust and barnacles, I carried away home. 


The old Jenkins home was built on the 314 acre paddock and bush lot on the western side of the main road. That parcel of land, with the balance on the sea side of the road, was originally granted to Mr. William Cossar by the Crown. A lot of the country, especially that portion over which the Long Reef golf course now runs, was under cultivation in those early days. Sheep were kept on the hilly land behind the old homestead. Some of the old mesh wire fence which ran round the sheep paddocks can still be found. Very soon now all traces of the Jenkins' efforts will be wiped away. Mr. Ben. Tabsley was another of the early workers, round Narrabeen. He grew wheat and maize on the flats near the seashore. I have not yet been able to trace the exact location where Mr. Tabsley did his pioneering. 


Mr. Cyrus E. Fuller, well known in Sydney, Bible Depot and Christmas card specialist, also was among the early workers round about Narrabeen. He planted : a big orchard under the foothills, between Collaroy and Jenkins Streets, and made quite a success of the fruit-growing. About 30 years ago Mr. Twight, still a resident, leased the Fuller orchard, and carried on the business of growing Early Newington peaches and Lord Nelson apples, passion-fruit were natives on the area. After a big blow one could shovel up the fallen fruit. Mr. Twight says that he many a time sold extra quality Newington peaches at 6d apiece. Fancy prices were easily obtainable. Travellers to and from the Hawkesbury bought eagerly.

Traffic was by coach, cart, and sulky. Mr. Black had much to do with the coaching. He carried the passengers who were doing the round trip, via Windsor and Sackville Reach. Mr. William Maddock, an old city bookseller, did the hooking for that run. Two journeys were made each way every week. The Hawkesbury trip was always recommended to visitors from far afield. I remember selling tour tickets to Mr. R. A. Proctor, and also to the much-travelled Mr. Smythe, who was his agent at the time he toured the Australian capitals with his talks on astronomy. 


In those days gillbirds were plentiful, and much shooting was done. Fishing, too, was good both in the lake and outside, on the reefs. It was the sport that attracted Mr. Gordon and Mr. Dillon, two expert linemen, who built small homes near the present "bundy" site. Mr. James Wheeler, who is now the oldest resident in the district, was familiar with Narrabeen when the place was in its infancy. His father many a time sailed a big ballast boat down to The Basin, on the north side of Long Reef, and spent a week or two on his lakeside grant, away from the worries of the city to which he belonged. His business, I understand, was In the Blue Bell Hotel, somewhere in Phillip Street. 

All the old hands know that it was possible, even in years gone by, to spend a very pleasant day at Narrabeen. I am told that two well-known sportsmen resident in Manly made a remarkable return after a day on the northern beaches. They had hired one of the creamy horse- vehicles to take them out and home. All went well on the return until the driver lost his balance and tumbled off In the sand by the roadside. Neither of the sportsmen or the ponies knew of the mishap until the driverless carriage pulled up at the livery stables within a short distance of the old-time pier. How the coachman got home I do not know. More than likely he put in part of the night on the Collaroy. For a year or two the vessel was the Saturday night home of many a "tramp" and fisherman. One of Sydney's most successful booksellers told me that he had a fore-cabin "possie" on more than one occasion. 

All these old-time Items and Interest are disappearing fast. Collaroy and Narrabeen will shortly be numbered among the nearer seaside suburbs. All the old-time links are being broken. Who knows when the sea will again leave the connections which helped to lift the Collaroy over the sand-bar and out into deep water; or who will raise another Norfolk Island pine to stand on the landscape with the giant which for half a century cast its welcome shadows across the lonely home threshold where Miss Jenkins spent more than half her life? COLLAROY (1925, October 3). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245046727 

No 24. 'Ruins of Jenkin's home, Collaroy'. From album Historic pictures of Manly and Pittwater, 1856-1937 / compiled by Percy W. Gledhill, courtesy State Library of NSW

MIGHT HAVE HAD £250,000, BUT GETS £2/10/- A WEEK 
Sydney- Man Who Fought Salvation Army for Ancestral Estate

SO passes the glory of the world — in a mist of Blood and Fire.  It is as well for Phillip Jenkins that he is a philosopher. The Jenkinses are gone — save for him, and he is 72, and childless. The homestead, built a century ago to nurse a proud line of colonial barons, has crumbled under the hands of the demolisher. The erstwhile forest lands are bare grassy hills scarred with new roads, and the old farm fields sprout a harvest of houses. Flivvers buzz over the landscape, trippers, weekenders, outer-suburbanites and market-gardeners throng the fertile valleys, and the estate agent is everywhere. And only yesterday all was silence, all was solitude. 

The Jenkins held sway over a thousand acres, another settler ran cows back in the hills, a former assigned servant of James Jenkins tilled his land a little way up the coast, and between there and Brook-vale there was no one else to trouble the sea, and the sky, and the sand, and the scrub. As Phillip Jenkins grew up, fishing off Long Reef, hunting in the hills, riding over the estate that passed to his aunt Elizabeth, who had adopted him when his father died, others came to the district. It was still a wild region, the newcomers were wild folk, and wild deeds followed. They will still show you the place in the bush behind Narrabeen where murder stalked one night, and tell you that a convict came there to find a brutal master of earlier times, and strike him down. They will tell you how many a man was "put away" in those dark times by neighbors ill-disposed, and hint at wild orgies in the "Narrer Bean Camp" of the blacks — so called from the long slender native beans that grew beside the lake there. This was Phil. Jenkins' environment, but he was not of it. Up in the old homestead he lived under the care of an eccentric maiden lady who saw sin in almost all things, but who husbanded carefully the estate her father had left to her care. Phillip never thought hut that he would be heir to the lands his grandfather had pioneered. It was early in last century when James Jenkins came from England and started a shop in Sydney. Later a land grant of 200 acres at Deewhy was made to him and to one, William Cossar, a grant was made of 600 acres situated to the north of Jenkins' land. Jenkins later bought Cossar's land as well as 188 acres known as Sheep Station Hill on the northern side of Narrabeen lagoon. On re-measurement in after years this land is shown to be 259 acres. When Jenkins died, over 900 acres passed to his three surviving children— Elizabeth, Martha, and John. The other son, James, had died, leaving his son, Phillip, another part of the original holding-, which he later lost.

In 1885 Elizabeth, the leading spirit of the three, became interested in the work of the Salvation Army and from time to time she made gifts of money and land to the institution. Finally, in 1894 she was instrumental in having the whole of the land transferred to the Army in return for an annuity of £175, and an undertaking to take over her liability in connection with certain bank shares which she held. Miss Elizabeth Jenkins died in 1900 and her will under which she left all her remaining estate, amounting to £120, to the Army also, was attacked by Phillip Jenkins on the ground of incapacity and undue Influence.

Evidence in the Equity Court showed that she was an eccentric woman. The Judge refused probate, which had been asked for by Brigadier John Hendy of the Army, who, with Thomas Coombs, had been appointed executors. On appeal to the Full Court in 1901 this decision was reversed, Hendy and Coombs being granted probate. If the will could have been proved invalid, an attack would have been made on the deeds of settlement. At the time the deeds were executed an understanding was reached between members of the Jenkins family and the Army that although the latter was legally entitled to assume possession of the property, nothing would be done to disturb Its condition during the lifetime  of any member or the family. This agreement was observed by the Army. Nothing was done until John's death about 1911 — Martha had died many years before. The tramway to Narrabeen was built in 1911-12 and opened for traffic on Eight Hours' Day, 1912. On that day the Salvation Army held its first sub-divisional sale, when land adjoining Collaroy Beach averaged over £5 a foot. Conditions of that sale — and of all subsequent subdivisional sales— were that all fences erected must be approved by General William Bramwell Booth, and that the purchasers and the registered proprietors for the time being must not sell, permit to be sold, or connive at or be parties to the sale of any intoxicating liquors on the land. In addition, there was a condition in respect of the first sale prohibiting the carrying of liquor In the land.

Subsequently the Army applied to bring one part of the land, the area of which was 824 acres, under the Real Property Act, but the Crown claimed that Deewhy Lagoon of 62 acres, which was included in the application, was not a part either of the Jenkins or the Cossar grant. The present Chief Justice, sir Philip Street, sitting in Equity, held that the lagoon waters were not tidal, waters, and that they, were included in one or other or both grants, Followed an appeal, about 1910, to the High Court, which decided that the Crown was entitled to all the area from time to time covered by water. As Deewhy lagoon was continually being drained, the judgement that the ownership of the land would shift from the Crown to the Army, and vice versa, with the covering and uncovering of the land by water. The obvious difficulty of interpreting the ownership based on this unusual judgement resulted in a compromise being reached. 

The estate, for the most part a narrow strip skirting the coast from Deewhy to Mona Vale, comprised originally about a thousand acres. The Salvation Army authorities have shown careful discrimination in in the manner of their throwing the estate open for sale, having regard to its value in the coming years as an aid to the Army's work. Large sums of money have been laid out in the developmental work— — in the construction of roads, bridges, etc. To date about two-thirds of the total area has been disposed of, and further sales are planned for the early future. On the estate the Salvation Army has established a colony for aged men, about 85 being in residence there: also a large Home for Boys. A section, at Collaroy, is set apart for the purposes of a seaside holiday ground — used, among, other things, as a fresh-air camp for poor mothers and children from the city and suburbs, also for children from various metropolitan Institutions. In addition It provides a summer camping ground for the Army's Life Saving Scouts and Guards and other young people. Then there are erected on the estate two Salvation Army halls —one at Deewhy and one at Collaroy. The Army has been generous in its gifts from the property for public purposes, such as recreation grounds at Dee-why, Collaroy, Narrabeen, and Mona Vale. In addition to the usual statutory area for reserves, it set apart for similar purposes - a strip, of foreshore extending from Narrabeen to Mona Vale. The popular Griffiths Park, comprising at 177 acres, probably the most attractive section in the whole district, was included in the original estate. Proceeds of land sales are credited to a central fund at headquarters, for the purpose of assisting in the erection of Institutions for the care of the friendless and needy, also halls in localities where it is not possible locally to raise sufficient funds. ' Further, one-third of the net proceeds of sales is devoted to the missionary operations of the Army, which are now well established in India, Burma, China, the Dutch Indies, Korea, Zululand, Nigeria, and Kenya, From Australia many Salvation Army officers have gone forth to these lands in connection with missionary service. In all this, the Salvation Army claims that the intentions of Mr. and Miss Jenkins, from whom the Army derived this property, are being observed both in spirit and In deed. Not one penny of the proceeds of the estate, Army officials make clear, is used for the personal benefit of any, but those for whose aid the Army 

During the past two years (owing to expenditures required for development purposes) the Army has not benefited at all from the estate. But prior to that period, for some twelve years the proceeds of the estate have assisted the funds of the organisation to the extent of about £9000 a year. Meanwhile, Phillip Jenkins . is philosophical. He has a roof over his head, a few shillings to keep the wolf from the door, a few old friends, and a good wife. He has farmed his little block in the past, but now, getting on in years, and in poor health he sits on his verandah watching the golden lemons dropping off his trees for want of a payable market, rather like golden coins slipping from a man's hand. He is philosophical. If ever he does cry out against Fate, rate's answer, it seems, is a lemon.

Phillip Jenkins' Cottage in the Narrabeen Bush 

IN a weatherboard cottage in the bush at Warriewood, a few miles from Narrabeen, lives a man who, but for an old woman's whim, might today be worth, anything up to a quarter, of a million pounds. He is Phillip Jenkins, sole survivor of a family that settled in the district 100 years ago, and to-wards the end of last century owned, land from Narrabeen to Deewhy

THAT land was transferred to the Salvation Army by Phillip Jenkins' aunt, Miss Elizabeth, and approximately £108,000 has already accrued to the Institution from the sale of a portion of the property. Jenkins fought the Army at law and lost. Now, he receives from the Salvationists an annuity panning out at £2/10/- a week. 


MIGHT HAVE HAD £250,000, BUT GETS £210- A WEEK (1928, November 3). Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 - 1950), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article234382625 

The Main Roads Board had generous funding and three members - Under-Secretary for Local Government John Garlick (president) and engineers T.H Upton and H.H Newell - who supervised a complicated system of finances intended to spread road funding across the state. Separate funds were provided for metropolitan (County of Cumberland) and rural areas. 

During the first year of the Board's operation it was discovered that many of the councils did not have the equipment or skill to maintain roads worthy of motor vehicle use. This was compounded by the then Labour Premier Jack Lang, who refused federal subsidies for road construction and substantially cut road funding in favour of public transport. There was also a problem with the favoured choice of material used - concrete - as this became slippery for horses when wet and quickly broke down under the weight of massive amounts of automobiles - the amount of work being done, all at once, is astounding;

Concrete to the Fore
In view of the hundreds of thousands of motorists who will be on the roads of New South Wales during the forthcoming Christmas holiday season, they will be pleased to hear that the choice of a holiday resort will not be largely limited by the poorness of the roads, for the Main Roads Board of this state in the twelve months of its existence, has exercised the utmost judgment and wisdom, in reconditioning and reconstructing the worst portions of the missing links in the chains of arterial roads leading out of the County 'of Cumberland, to north, west and south. Those who do not find all they might desire in the way of good roads must bear in mind that their reconditioning is a colossal work; involving widening in many cases, that can only be undertaken by the comparatively slow process of realignment — that is five years. 

In such cases the Board is doing its best to construct pavements that will be efficient and practicable for the interim and allow of duplication or extension later. Another factor necessarily mitigating against too speedy completion of improvements is the Board's policy of constructing 'permanent types of pavement — mostly concrete — for which special designs have to be prepared and the funds found. This general undertaking of concrete roads is most marked; and the number of sections completed or under construction is a credit to the progressive policy of the Board. ' The proposal of the Lang Government to rob the board of some of its funds, that are all too plainly insufficient to carry but road work as expeditiously as desirable, can only he regarded with apprehension. 

In several cases of roadwork mentioned, the Government has seen fit to make funds available primarily to provide work for the unemployed. It would be a more far-seeing policy to create a permanent avenue of employment by embarking seriously on road reconstruction throughout the State; good roads being urgently required as a prime factor in assisting development, production and trade. As a result of the Board's activity, the Great Western Road has received particular attention from Sydney to Mount Victoria, reconstruction of Parramatta Road from Homebush to Lidcombe having been put in hand, together with reconstruction of Church Street, Parramatta, from Boundary Street, to the Great Western Road. The section between Penrith and Lapstone Hill at Emu Plains has been reconstructed, and the road up Lapstone Hill, which is the commencement of the ascent to the Blue Mountains range, has been completely relocated by construction of a deviation of an easy grade.. .The section between Blackheath and Mount Victoria has also been reconstructed. . . On the Prince's Highway, Cooks River Rd., St. Peters, is to be widened and reconstructed in concrete, which will involve time in resumptions and realignment. Commencement has been made with Loftus section of the road to top of Bulli Pass. At Stanwell Park, use of an abandoned railway cutting for a deviation on the lower road, has also been turned to advantage. This work was carried out 'by day labor by the Bulli Shire Council,' with funds provided by the Board. Completion of Botany Road to the tram terminus is to be carried out in concrete; concreting of Gardener's Road from Daceyvillc to Botany is also promised. On the Great. Northern Road from Sydney to Newcastle, a missing link of four miles of Lane Cove Road is to be widened and reconstructed in cement concrete, in the municipalities of Willoughby and Lane Cove, but this has been delayed by negotiations for resumptions, which are now practically finalised. 

The new road will extend from North Sydney. 
The section from Pearce's Corner to Hookham's Corner, Hornsby, is to be reconstructed by Concrete Constructions Ltd., in cement concrete and reconstruction of Peats Ferry- 'Rd, between Berowra and the Hawkesbury River, is now in hand. Not much has 'been accomplished with regard to the new road between Sydney and Newcastle to provide a direct link between the two cities, beyond surveys and preliminary work, but up to June 30, five miles of road formation through mountainous country, involving heavy rock cuttings and banks, had been opened up in Hornsby Shire, beyond Berowra, working towards Kangaroo Point. This work has been carried out with unemployed labor from the Sydney Labor Bureau, directed by the Shire Engineer, T. A. Donaldson. The earth works on the road must be completed and allowed to consolidate for at least twelve months before any permanent pavement is constructed, so that present effort is being concentrated on formation. The Parramatta to Wiseman's Ferry Road has been improved in three imoortant sections; Church Street North; extension from Pitt Town to Cattai, Creek (carried out by arrangement with the Public Works Department); and Cattai Creek to Naroota Section formation and gravelling, consisting 'of 111 miles— this was undertaken with £54,000 provided by the Government for unemployed relief.  

Important sections of the Great Southern Road through Campbelltown have been completed or are in course of construction. In the former category is the section from Narellan to Camden, whilst Burwood and Enfield section is under construction. A section of the Liverpool Road, which was one of the worst in the metropolis has been reconstructed, test pavements being laid down over various lengths. Suicide corner has been improved by re-location. The extension of the .first section of the reconstruction of Windsor Road from McGrath's Hill through Windsor, to proceed ultimately through Richmond to the Nepean River, has been completed. Construction of the remaining length, in Windsor from Smith Creek to Rickaby Creek will follow, and the Richmond Section is also being carried out. The tender of James Sweeney for reconstruction of Weston Road section of Sydney-Balmain-Ryde Road in cement concrete has been accepted. The portion of the roadfrom Parramatta River Bridge to Pittwater Road in Hunter's Hill and Ryde has been reconstructed in concrete by Concrete Constructions Ltd., consisting of 12-feet strips on either side of the tramway. This is an 80-feet.wide road and the strips -will be duplicated later, as traffic warrants. Reconstruction of Pittwater Road to Devlin Lane is being carried out in 3* inches tar concrete and bitumen' surface. Money will probably be borrowed to complete this road. Construction of Enmore-Petersham-Canterbury Road along Stanmore and New Canterbury Roads had already been commenced by Concrete .Constructions Ltd., when the Board took office, the work being undertaken by the three Councils concerned. .Though design of this road was not all that the Board desired, it approved of continuance of the work, with minor alterations that were possible. This concrete road was recently completed and opened for traffic, the length being 2 miles, 73 chains. There was also 3000 square yards of concrete pavement laid in Canterbury Municipality under an independent contract with the same contractors. Sections of less well known roads, used for goods traffic, that have been carried out in concrete are Garden Street, Alexandria, and Erskineville Road, Newtown. The former, was carried out by the State Monier Pipe and Reinforced Concrete Works , in reinforced concrete and the latter by Concrete Constructions Ltd. Forest Road, Hurstvillc, in bituminous asphaltic concrete is well in hand, being undertaken by the Neuchatel Asphalt Co New South Head Road, Paddington must not be forgotten as one of the main works in concrete to be carried out by the Board. Some .difficulty has been experienced by reason of the fact, that this road is being widened by realignment. The Board's engineer and the Woollahra Council's Overseer of Works, Mr. C. J. Coleman, are cooperating in carrying out the work. Tenders are about to be invited for reconstruction of Sydney Road, Manly, from Dudley Street to Crescent Street, and plans are in course of preparation for reconstruction from Pittwater Road, Manly, to Newport. Reconstruction of this favorite route is a much felt want. 

Motorists Protest Against Roads Grab 
The N.R.M.A., representing nearly 25,000 active members, is urging motorists and road users throughout the State of New South Wales, to co-operate in bringing pressure to bear on the Government, and particularly on representatives of their various districts, urging it to refrain from its iniquitous proposal lo misappropriate revenue obtained by special taxation, for the clearly defined purpose of road betterment. The Association urges the Government to immediately appoint an adequate Main Roads Board permanent staff to enable the speedy carrying out of long overdue main road works, instead of threatening to limit the usefulness of the Board by the drastic reduction of its funds. 'Local Government authorities are also in…. Local Government (1926, December 22).Construction and Local Government Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1913 - 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article109640213 

Restoration of roads finances was completed by Nationalist Premier T.R Bavin, who gained power on October 18th, 1927 and returned roads to the minister for Local Government. He also ratified the Federal Aid Roads Grant, but a 6 months wait for these funds caused further delays for vital roadworks. 

In the interim, main roads were reclassified to clarify their significance. Thirteen thoroughfares were judged to have sufficient importance to make them state highways. These were the Princes, Hume (then Great Southern), Federal (newly constructed), Snowy Mounatins (then named 'Monaro'), Great Western, Mid Western, Mitchell, Barrier, New England (then called 'Great Northern'), Pacific (then called 'North Coast'), Oxley, Gwydir and the link between the Hume and Pacific Highways via Pennant Hills and Woodville Roads. This was confirmed by the Main Roads (Amendment) Act 1929.

The naming and allocation of numbers to 'Main Roads' within the metropolitan area meant Notices such as these began to appear, in which we can read that the number given to one road changes to the number given to the Pittwater Road from Manly to Mona Vale (more of these, although not all, are recorded under Extras):

(Sydney-road—Main Road No. 164.)
NOTICE is hereby given that the levels of Sydney-road, between Dudley-street and Hill-street, shown on plan exhibited at the Town Hall, Manly, and duly notified in the Government Gazette of the 8th October, 1926, and the Manly Daily of the 2nd October, 1926, have been approved by the Council. Such levels are now fixed and will take effect from the date of publication of this notice.
Town Hall, Manly, Town Clerk.
13th November, 1926. 
MUNICIPALITY OF MANLY. (1926, November 19). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4992. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223000009 

Section 264 of the Local Government Act, 1919.

Shire of Warringah: Main Road No. 164, Pittwater road between Eastbank-street and Waterloo-street.

NOTICE is hereby given that The Commissioner for Main Roads proposes to refix the levels of a length of Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 164) between Eastbank-street and Waterloo-street, within the Shire of Warringah, in accordance with the plans and sections prepared by the Department of Main Roads. Any persons interested may set forth in writing, addressed to the undersigned, within one month from the date hereof, particulars of any objections they may have to the proposal, together with a claim for compensation for any loss or damage which they may sustain by reason of the' property ill which they are interested being directly affected in an injurious manner by reason of the refixing of the levels. A plan of the proposed levels may be inspected at the Department of Main Roads, 309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney, and at the Shire Office at Brookvale.

S. R. HENDERSON, Secretary. 809 Castlereagh-street, Sydney,
3rd March, 1933.
(M.R. 479-137)
DEPARTMENT OF MAIN ROADS. (1933, March 3). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 897. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223045589

And ways to make the Road to Pittwater were expressed;

A scheme for the Improvement of the road from Manly to Newport, Palm Beach, and Barranjoey, which, if carried out, will Involve an expenditure of nearly £40,000, was discussed on Monday by the Warringah Shire Council.

The shire engineer (Mr. E. Ward) submitted a special report at the request of the council, in which he dealt with the condition of the main road from the Manly boundary of the shire at Burnt Bridge Creek to Newport, and of the Barrenjoey-road from Newport to Palm Beach. He estimated the cost of reconditioning the Pittwater-road as far as Newport at £10,095, and of deviations to the Barrenjoey-road In the vicinity of Bilgola Beach at £19,230-a total of £36,391. Adding 6 per cent. for contingencies (£1720), the estimated cost of the whole scheme was £37,111.

Councillor Rayner said that if concrete roads were constructed the cost of the road as far as Newport would be £74,000, and If continued to Barrenjoey the road would cost between £120,000 and £150,000. He was still favourable to the big scheme if the council could borrow half the amount, and Induce the Main Roads Board to finance the other half.

The deputy president (Councillor McKillop) reminded the council that when the larger schemes were discussed twelve montbp ago It waa decided that they were beyond the shire's borrowing capacity. Although the road as far as Newport was designated a main road under the Local Government Act, there had not yet been any decision of the Main Roads Board to declare the Pittwater road a main road"As a matter of fact," he added, "the board can take the £6000 per year main roads tax from the shire, and still say that the highway through the shire is not a main road." The council had, however, been in communication with the board, which had asked for the Information contained in the engineer's report, and also for a census of the traffic using the road.

It was decided, on the motion of Councillor Howitt, seconded by Councillor Ellsworth, to forward the information to the Main Roads Board, and to request the board to receive a deputation from the council.
PITTWATER. (1925, April 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16215541

Repairs to the road beyond the Narrabeen Bridge, and an indication of how individuals supporting an organisation thta helps them helped shift the condition of local and state of the roads:

The following latest - road bulletin was issued by the N.R.M.A. This great association is daily becoming more popular, and is doing remarkable work. The grand total of members stands now at just on 12,000, and since January 1, 1925, close on 8000 new members have been enrolled.
Sydney to Manly, Narrabeen, Newport, and Barrenjoey. 
The road is very fair to Condamine-street and on to Brookvale, fair to Narrabeen, very good, and just repaired to Rocklily, patchy and badly pot-holed from there till Newport is reached. From' there to Barrenjoey the road is mostly rough. Some of the corners are blind and narrow. Care should be exercised as several bad patches are encountered. A beautiful tour in spite of rough roads, and highly recommended for pleasure and scenery. Roseville Bridge, and French's Forest. The road is now very fair to bumpy. The various roads through the forest are only in fair to rough condition, with a few very rough patches on the Pittwater-road. This road is breaking up very badly in several places.
MOTORING (1926, January 3). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 7 (Social and Magazine Section). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128132913

Along the Coast to Bilgola Beach
PASSING through Manly, Dee Why, Narrabeen, and Newport, magnificent ocean views are obtained. Some of our finest beaches stretch themselves before one's gaze.

LEAVING the city, one proceeds to Fort Macquarie, where the vehicle ferry is taken across the harbour. Meantime, it is advisable to turn the car's speedometer back to 00.0. After leaving the punt, the usual route is followed to North Sydney Post Office (about a mile away). The right-hand turn leads into Miller-street, which is followed until the speedo shows 01.7. There you again turn right and follow the main road, which leads to Mosman and The Spit. Having covered 25 miles, the principal highway can be avoided by turning left as the speedo shows 02.6, but with 02.8 in view, a right turn will bring you to McPherson-street by the time 03.3 miles have been recorded. 

Middle Harbor View 
Run down McPherson-street to Wyong road, at the foot of the first-named thoroughfare, and turn right as the speedo registers 03.9. Here a fine view of Middle Harbour Is obtained. Continue along this road until 04.3 miles have been left behind, when you turn left and follow a good asphalt road which leads on to The Spit Road, where you turn left as 04.6 is seen on the speedo-meter. 

Over Spit Bridge 
You are now heading for The Spit Bridge, which is reached after travelling six miles. After crossing the bridge, proceed up the winding slopes of Seaforth Hill and look down upon picturesque Middle Harbour. Upon reaching the hill-top, bear to the right until you meet the tramline, which will guide you to Condamine-street (07.8 speedo.) where you turn abruptly to the left and follow this asphalt road for nearly two miles, until the speedo. reads 09.5 miles. You then turn left and follow the tram-line on through Brookvale (10.5 speedo.), Dee Why (11.5 speedo.), and Collaroy (13.8 speedo.) to Narrabeen, where the tram terminates. 

Keeping to the main road, a bridge is crossed and you career merrily onward till Mona Vale is reached and 18 miles have been covered.The road now turns to the right, passing La Corniche and running up a long hill, whereon is situated the Eleven Mile Store. Shortly after this the speedo. shows 19.3 miles, and you turn sharply in to the right, making seawards, which brings you on to the Bungan Head Road. 

A Lovely View 
At this point, the coastal view is magnificent, a pretty beach spreads it self beneath your gaze, whilst miles of coast line provide a marinescape that beggars description. But to continue our journey, we push on along the road until a miniature castle is seen upon the highest point, from which further views of a wonderful nature may be obtained.

Bilgola Beach

Resuming the trip, by following this road, will bring you out on to the road-way after about 20 miles have been covered, but a further half mile is necessary to reach a left-hand turn that leads on to the main highway once again. By this time you are in Newport and soon pass its pretty beach as 21.2 miles are showing. 

Through a Palm Grove 
Proceeding straight on, a sharp hill is negotiated from the top of which more glorious ocean views may be enjoyed, but on descending the other side, a prominent sign board will be seen directing travellers to turn sharply to the right, through a palm grove, to Bilgola Beach, where grassy slopes lead down to golden sands whereon play the mighty waters of the ever restless ocean. 
BRIGHT BREEZY TRIP (1926, December 12). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168725669 

The 'Eleven Mile store, opened by Mr. Porter, was named as such because it was then 11 miles to Manly. It was later named, just a few years later, the 'Eight Mile store', possibly soon after the 1925 'road repairs' spoken of in the above January 1926 article:

Max Dupain, 'Nine Mile Store', Newport, circa 1930 

Reconstructed Eleven Mile Store (Porters Store) - courtesy Guy Jenning's The Newport Story 1788 - 1988

Pittwater Road 
The N.R.M.A. Touring Department reports that the Kuringai Shire Council, in conjunction with Warringah Shire and the Main Roads Board, is at present busy remaking and reconditioning the Pittwater road from Pymble to the Northern Suburbs Showground in Warringah Shire. It is hoped to have the road in good condition ready for the holidays and in readiness for the heavy traffic anticipated on account of the Northern Suburbs annual show on January 14 and 15 next. The transport problem on show days is interesting, in that the whole of the visiting public has to be carried to and from the ground by car or bus. Pittwater Road (1926, December 23). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104949036 

These items speak about the second bridge across Narrabeen Lagoon  - the Ocean street Bridge

Tenders are Accepted
Subject to approval by the Salvation Army, Warringah Shire Council on Monday accepted tenders for the Narrabeen Peninsula Bridge. If council's decision stands also for its approaches, Mr. Holden of Newcastle will build the bridge, and Mr. John MacDonald of Dee Why, who for many years has been road contractor to the Salvation Army, will construct its approaches. NARRABEEN PENINSULA BRIDGE (1927, July 27). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 28. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article246988416 

NEW BRIDGE Over Narrabeen Lake
The Salvation Army has notified Warringah Shire Council that Mr. Jas. Shedden's tender for the bridge, and Mr. John Macdonald's tender for its approaches, have received their approval. The work is to be commenced without delay, and it is hoped it will be completed in time to permit the first sub-division auction sale of Narrabeen Park Estate to be held at ChristmasNEW BRIDGE (1927, August 3). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article246404351 

ONE-WAY TRAFFIC may be instituted at Narrabeen with the completion of this bridge across the lake. It will be a boon to motorists travelling to Palm Beach Beach. POTTERY MAKING ON MODERN LINES--AN INSPIRED STATUE BY NOTED FRENCH [?]H SCULPTOR--BRIDGING THE NARRABEEN LAKE: (1927, November 24). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article246394596

NEW DRIVE FOR MOTORISTS. — This bridge will connect Narrabeen Peninsula with the headland, and open up to motorists a wonderful scenic drive along a road which is now being built as far as Mona Vale. The bridge should be finished early in the new year. 
BRIDGE AND HOSPITAL BUILDING (1927, December 27). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article121700358

The Bridge, Lakes Entrance. N. Narrabeen. N.S.W. (Ocean street bridge looking north, circa 1928)

Ocean street Bridge - View to Narrabeen Camping grounds, circa 1930


The foreshores of the lake were flooded by the recent heavy rains. The Warringah Council workmen opened a way to the sea on Sunday morning. Forestry, Floods, and Kindergarten Work (1927, November 30). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), , p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158295859 

A 1926 Overland, a 1928 (?) Chrysler, and a 1928 (?) Dodge ploughing through Narrabeen floods - Image. No: hood_06391- from the collections of the State Library of NSW.

A car and a horse plough through a flooded road, Narrabeen - Image. No: hood-006394 from the collections of the State Library of NSW

NARRABEEN RAILWAY (1928, January 13).The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237535871 

 Samuel Wood - postcard photonegatives of Narrabeen, ca. 1928. Images No.: a1470095 and Bridge, lagoon and camping ground, Image No.: a1470093, courtesy State Library of NSW.

  Samuel Wood - postcard photonegatives of Narrabeen, ca. 1928. Image No.: a14700932, courtesy State Library of NSW.

Initially, the only classification was Main Roads, however Sir Michael Bruxner and H.H. Newell (Commissioner for Main Roads 1932-1941) devised a new system which would divide the state’s classified roads into three categories:
  • State Highway
  • Trunk Roads
  • Main Roads
These new classifications came into force on 7 August 1928, with State Highways numbered 1-50, Trunk Roads 51-99 and Main Roads 101-999. 

With the introduction of Commonwealth Grants for works on “Developmental Roads”, a new classification was then introduced to cover these roads. Developmental Roads were numbered from 1001-1999 and Developmental Works (such as a bridge) were numbered from 3001-3999.

Later, extra classifications were added to reflect changing transport needs and an expanding road network. These included Secondary Roads (complementing the network of Main Roads in urban areas), Tourist Roads (roads serving primary tourist attractions) and Freeways (there was no such thing as a freeway in Australia before World War 2). Trunk Roads were later abolished by the State Roads Act 1986 and those former Trunk Roads became ordinary Main Roads.

After the major review of the classified road system by the Department of Main Roads in 1948, many years passed before another major review was undertaken. The next major review came in the late 1980s, presumably as part of the continuing “corporatisation” of Government departments. A memorandum of understanding was signed by the Ministers for Roads and Local Government, which split all classified roads into two broad management groups – State and Regional. Those unclassified roads made up a third group – Local. The aim of the split was to focus RTA responsibilities on a greater control of expanded network of State Roads (prior to this the RTA only had complete control over State Highways, Freeways and metropolitan Main Roads) and rationalise the administrative overlap with Councils in relation to funding other roads, including the introduction of a block grant of funding for Regional Roads. Following the introduction of the State/Regional/Local system, extensive changes were made to the classified road system from 1991 to 1995 resulting in a large net increase in the length of declared roads. However, even with a change in legislation in 1993 the State/Regional/Local system was not incorporated into law. From and by Ozroads: The Australian Roads Website ; 2004-2006 http://www.ozroads.com.au

The declaration of Pittwater and what we now call Mona Vale road as Main Roads under this 1928 adjustment:

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1927
D. R. S. de CHAIR,

I Sir Dudley Rawson Stratford de Chair, Governor of the State of New South Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, and in pursuance of the provisions of section 8 of the Main Roads Act, 1924-27, do hereby repeal the Proclamation of the Main Roads numbered and described in Schedule "A" attached hereto, and proclaim these roads as Main Roads in accordance with the numbers and descriptions set out in Schedule "B" attached hereto, together with certain other roads whose recommendation has been concurred in by the Councils of the Municipalities and Shires concerned.

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this eighth day of August, 1928.
By His Excellency's Command,

Schedule "A."...

Schedule B.
No. 162. From the intersection of Wicks-road and Lucknow -road (Main Road No. 191) at North Ryde, via Wicks-road, Pittwater-road, Lane Cove road, De Burgh's Bridge, Ryde Road, Gordon, Stoney Creek Toad, St. Ives and Tumble Down Dick and Lane Cove road, to Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 164) at Rock Lily.
No. 164, From the intersection of the Great Northern Highway (Main Road No. 9), Lane Cove road, and Mount-street, North Sydney, via. Mountstreet, Miller-street, Falcon-street, Merlin-street, Military road (with branch from Merlin-street easterly and northerly, via, Falcon-street and Lay cock-street, to Military-road), Spit-road, Upper Spit road, Spit Bridge, Sydney-road, Condamine-street, Spit-road, and Pittwater-road, to Newport.
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1927. (1928, August 17). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3814. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219952359

The Department of Main Roads (DMR) was created in November 1932. The DMR undertook works across NSW; including maintenance of all major roads into Sydney and programs of road reconstruction, construction, upgrading and rerouting. The DMR was also responsible for many ferries and New South Wales bridges.

In January 1989 of the Department of Main Roads, Department of Motor Transport, and the Traffic Authority were amalgamated into the Roads and Traffic Authority under the Transport Administration Act, No. 109, 1989 (NSW).

On 1 November 2011, the Roads and Traffic Authority in turn was merged with NSW Maritime to become Roads and Maritime Services. Planning and co-ordination functions were transferred to Transport for NSW.
More Riddles and others local road works funded by council:

24/01/1927: Resolved (Crs. Parr, Greenwood)--that the Tender of Alfred Howlett and George Riddle of £ 537.10.0 for the Alexander Street job be accepted subject to the specified deposit being lodged.

16/05/1927: TENDERS Resolved (Crs. Atkins, Greenwood) - That the tender of' Messrs. Howlett and Riddle  of £161 10.0 for the Mactier Street work be accepted

25/7/1927: Resolved (Cre.Campbell, Parr) - That the lowest tender, that of G. Riddle , for £360 for the formation and ballasting of Tyndora Avenue for 20 chains from Oliver Road to Albert Street be accepted. . . and 4.Freshwater Avenue. Resolved (Crc. Campbell, Parr) - that the lowest tender, that of G. Riddle, for £190.150 chains formation and ballasting of Freshwater Avenue, between ... and Charles Street, be accepted. 5. Mitchell Road, Short Street, Nicholson Street, part of Mitchell Road Wattle. Street and William Street. Resolved (Crs. Campbell, Parr) - . That the lowest tender, that of Howlett and  Riddle, at £825 be accepted for 50 chains of formation and ballasting on the street.. 

No. 4: A letter from G. Building Riddle, Contractor, 29/8/35, requesting permission to put on a coat of 3 inches of Gordon Road gravel instead of tar on the Wimbledon new road, and, if he could obtain.a refund from the Manly Gas ...Company, he be allowed to treat the completed road in the same way, was road in conjunction with the report. Resolved, - That the Committee's report be adopted, and the Contractor's request be granted, but only so far as it concerns the road inspected by the Works Committee. Resolved, -,That in future new roads be not tarred until the Tarzina o blinding wears down. (Crs, Hewitt, Campbell) Road 

49. G. Riddle, Contractor, 20/9/35 and 26/9/35, requesting Council to agree to the laying of 3 inches of gravel on the extension of Wimbledon Avenue in Wimbledon Estate RUA subdivision. Resolved, - That the Council comply with his request. 

A few sidetracks (more of these below) to illustrate roads were still being built that would allow visitors to view ocean vistas while wending north, as much as provide access to their homes, new or otherwise, for residents:

£200,000 TO NOTHING
Golden Chance at Elanora Heights, Narrabeen For Quick Thinkers THREEFOLD SECURITY ON INVESTMENT
INVESTMENT, £100,000; SECURITY, £300,000. 'To improve the golden moment of opportunity, and catch tho good that is within our reach is the great art of life.'
It is commonly said by those who have consistently failed to take all the swift advantage of the hour, that the opportunities for making money do not present themselves at this present as they did in the early days, but the Spaniards have a wise saying to the 'effect that there is no man whom fortune docs not visit at least once in his life. Opportunity is now knocking at our door if we will but listen, instead of railing on Lady Fortune. . . in good set terms.' 
Land Properties and Investments, Ltd., have purchased a property, the Elanora Heights Estate, Narrabeen, consisting of 518 acres of land, Torrens Title. This was purchased for £70,000, and is independently valued to yield a net return of at least £130,000. By a rapid mental calculation it will be seen that the company are liable to make the profits usually associated with a speculation, whereas the security is that of the soundest and most gilt-edged investment. Valued conservatively, the average yield for subdivision purposes will be £3 per foot. 
This will yield 100,000ft at £3 .. .'. .... £300,000 
Deduct :
Cost of roads . . . . £20,000 
Cost of property . . . . 70,000 
Cost of disposal and other expenses.. .. 80,000 

In allowing the sum of £80, 000 for cost of disposal and- other expenses, it would seem that the directors have made, doubtless deliberately, far more than ample provision for ever possible contingency. Indeed, there can be no possible probable doubt whatever' that no small portion of this £80,000 may be regarded in the light of 'hidden reserves.' 
Hence, the estimated sale value of the land may also be deemed to be unduly cautious. This, of course, is an erring on the right side, and exactly what one might reasonably anticipate from such a board of directors. Based on the conservative estimate of the valuators, every £100 invested in the company's shares will yield £230, and, during the five years in which the profit is accruing, interest at the,- rate of 6 per cent, will be earned on the full £230. That is to say, every £100 earns £13/10/ per annum for five years — nearly 14 per cent, on the £100 invested, and at the end of five years, the profit of £230 will he realised. Naturally, the shares are being applied for rapidly by some of the most astute investors in Sydney, and each member of the board has recently doubled his holding in the company. 
In regard to the board, Mr. W. A. Freeman is a director of Austral Malay Tin, Ltd. He was a member of the original Malaysia Syndicate, out of which sprang Alluvial Tin, Ltd., with a capital of £25,000. This company was sold the other day for £750,000. Mr. .Tames Crockett has just succeeded in effecting the merger of suburban timber interests, Tanner and Peters, Ltd., and Walters, Middleton, and Eades, Ltd., with a capital of £250,000, without making any appeal, to the public. Colonel T. A. J. Playfair, D.S.O., D.B.E., V.D., has just been made a member of the Legislative Council by the Nationalist Government, is president of the N.S.W. Constitutionalist Association, and Col. Eric Campbell, D.S.O., has, for some years, specialised successfully in company law. So you see, the board — like Caesar's wife — is above suspicion. 

The opening of the City-Middle Harbor-Manly-Narrabeen railway must coincide with the opening of the Sydney Harbor bridge, and the Warringah Council levies a larger number of rate assessments
(over 27,000 ( than any other council in Sydney or Greater Sydney, and the unimproved capital value of land in Warringah Shire has appreciated in the astounding fashion shown below : 
1911 .. ..  £363,000 
1914 ...      699,754 
1917 .. .. .. 976,030 
1920 .. .. 1,080,056 
1923-  ... 2,137,618 
1926 .. .. 3,635,983 
These figures are most significant. It would be easy to fill several pages of the 'Sunday Times' with confirmatory information concerning this most intriguing and desirable investment, which is no less inviting to the man of small savings as to the wealthy. It is suggested that readers with much or little money to invest should hasten to get into touch with Mr. E. L. Walter, the organising underwriter, 350 George-street (National Mutual Buildings), who will gladly make available all the information about this remarkable investment.
Alas, how often the golden moments in the stream of life rush past us, and we see nothing but the sand. Yes, there are opportunities to-day, as ever, for the man with vision and courage, but 'we must take the current when it serves or lose our ventures.' Elanora Heights is a Narrabeen tide in the affairs of Sydney men, which, taken at the flood, must lead to fortune. See Mr. Walter now, while the tide is at the flood. 

The Elanora-road, leading from Elanora Heights to the Narrabeen Lake and Narrabeen.
£200,000 TO NOTHING (1927, November 20). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 11. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128525257 

Same image of that car travelling down same Elanora Rd towards Narrabeen Lake. 

Fourth subdivision of Narrabeen Park Estate, Narrabeen, will be offered for sale on the ground next Saturday. Auctioneers in conjunction will be Messrs, Raine and Horne and A. C. Greenwood.
Some allotments have frontages to the reserve, which separates them from a secluded, pretty beach, but the main attraction of this section Is Its propinquity to the bridge across Narrabeen Lake entrance, and therefore a corresponding closeness to the shopping centre, tram terminus and 'bus routes. Through this subdivision runs Narrabeen Park-parade, an alternate — and much more picturesque — route from Narrabeen to Newport. It joins again with the Pittwater-road after traversing a series of slopes which overlook the ocean, and it is on these slopes the estate Is situated. From almost every allotment charming views may be had. Allotments to- be sold have frontages of from 50 to 60 feet and depths of around 160ft. Terms of sale will be: 10 per cent, deposit and the balance payable In 5 years. ON NEW ROAD (1929, February 27). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 3 (LAST RACE EDITION). Retrieved from  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230381176 

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1929.
(L.S.) .
I Sir Dudley Rawson Stratford de Chair, the Governor of the State of New South Wales, in the Commonwealth of Australia, with the advice of the Executive Council, and in pursuance of the provisions of section 49 (1) of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1929, do by this Proclamation declare that so much of the land hereunder described as is Crown Land is hereby appropriated, and so much thereof as is private property is hereby resumed under the Public Works Act, 1912, for the purposes of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1929, and that the land hereunder described is hereby vested in the Main Roads Board of New South Wales; and I hereby further declare the land hereunder described to be a public road, and in accordance with a recommendation of the Main Roads Board of New South Wales, the said land is hereby placed under the control of the Council of the Shire of Warringah.
Signed and sealed at Sydney, this eleventh day of September, 1929,
By His Excellency's Command,

Descriptions of the Land referred to:
All that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Manly Cove, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part, of lots 17 and 18, section 6, deposited plan 10,609: Commencing at a point on a north-western side of Pittwater-road bearing 203 degrees 17 minutes and distant 4 feet 10 ½ inches from the easternmost corner of lot 17 aforesaid bounded thence on the south-east by part of the north-western side of Pittwater-road aforesaid bearing degrees 17 minutes 52 feet 2 1/2 inches and 237 degrees 8 minutes 15 feet 5 ½ inches; thence on the north-west by lines bearing 36 degrees 42 minutes 30 seconds 14 9 5/8 inches and 29 degrees 7 minutes 50 feet 10 ½ inches, to the point of commencement—having an area of 6/10ths of a perch or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of B. Sturrock and A. Wooster. (M.R.B. Nos. 479, 138 and 139)
Also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Manly Cove, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lot 6, deposited plan 11,358: Commencing at the intersection of the south-western side of liay-street With a south-western side of Pittwater-road and bounded thence on the north-east and south-east by part of the Southwestern and north-western sides of Pittwater-road aforesaid, being lines bearing 169 degrees 32 minutes 16 feet 6 inches and 203 degrees 17 minutes 22 feet 6 inches; thence on the west by a line bearing 9 degrees 5 minutes 37 feet 4i inches, to the point of commencement, having an area of 3/10ths of a perch or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of A. K Nash. (M.R.B. No. 479-142)
And also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Manly Cove, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lot 16, section 3, deposited plan 9,125; Commencing at a point on a north-western side of Pittwater-road, being the south-eastern corner of lot 16, section aforesaid; and bounded thence on the north-west by a line bearing 23 degrees 14 minutes 86 feet 11 inches to the north-western side of Pittwater-road aforesaid; thence on the south-east by part of that side of that road being lines bearing 195 degrees 2 minutes 60 feet and 220 degrees 31 minutes 28 feet 10 inches,, to the point of commencement,—having an area of 1 3/10th perches or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of A. H. Harris.
(M.R.B. No. 479-143) MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1929. (1929, September 13). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3761. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223023133 

A Main Roads Board loan of £58,000 for the construction of the section of Pittwater road from Brookvale to Collaroy has been accepted by the Warringah Shire Council, The loan has been obtained from the State Superannuation Board. PITTWATER-ROAD LOAN. (1929, August 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16579654 

The Main Roads Board has supplied the following in-formation concerning the chief thoroughfares of the State :—
Construction of Pittwater-road between Deewhy and Collaroy in concrete has been commenced, and traffic is being detoured temporarily via Fisher-road, Deewhy, and South Creek road. Prominent notices are posted at each turn-off for the guidance of motorists.
ON MAIN ROADS (1929, September 28). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118992673

H92 - Pittwater Road, Dee Why near Hadleigh Avenue December 1929 - photo courtesy State Records of NSW

H93 - Pittwater Road, Collaroy near Eastbank Street December 1929  - photo courtesy State Records of NSW

The N.R.M.A. announces that the Main Roads Board is giving special attention to a number of important road works in the metropolitan district with a view to having the work advanced or completed in time for the Christmas holiday traffic. Rapid progress is being made in reconstruction in concrete of Pittwater rd., between Dee Why and Collaroy, and the Board hopes to have the whole length of the new road available during the holidays.
SPEEDING UP ROAD WORKS (1929, December 20). The Murrumbidgee Irrigator (Leeton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156534902

Within recent months the road from Manly to Plttwater has been greatly Improved. Much of it has been concreted, and while the surface leaves nothing to be desired, several parts of it are narrow.

The stretch of new concrete between Dee why and Collaroy is just wide enough for two vehicles to pass without inconvenience. If a motorist stops his car on this portion he creates a bottle neck which causes congestion and prevents other drivers passing near him. This dangerous practice has been brought to the notice of the R.A.C.A. by one of its officers, who says that many cars were parked on the new concrete last Saturday. Pittwater Road carries heavy traffic, especially at week-ends and parking should be prohibited on all narrow sections and particularly on the one in question. SELFISH PARKERS (1930, February 7). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 22 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226023718

This sounds familiar - an early B-Line?:

£1,500,000 Bus Highway Between Pittwater and the City!
High Speed Transport; Twelve Stations on Route
Warringah Shire Council is to erect a great concrete highway from Sydney to Pittwater for high-speed 'buses, which will stop at 12 elaborate 'bus stations— the first transport speedway of its kind in the world. For the gigantic, ambitious work a Sydney firm has offered £1,500,000 to the Council, and it requires only the adjustment of preliminaries finally to clear the way to a commencement of the work.

THE scheme is the 18 months' study of the chairman of the Warringah Shire Council, Mr. Frank Corkery. At sittings of the council in camera he has disclosed his big plan, and the council is enthusiastic. Originally it was proposed to serve this rapidly-growing area by a train service to Manly. The council believed, however, that only the fringe of the development ideas would be touched by a railway, the cost of which was mentioned as about £4,500,000.

But with the slump, and the complete hold-up of new railway works, the hope of getting that line is remote possibly for the next decade. "There is not a land agent, land shark, or speculator of any description behind the offer of £1.500,000 to the council to construct the highway," Mr. Corkery last night told the "Pictorial." When the road is complete it will be used, according to present plans, exclusively by huge 'buses.
£1,500,000 'Bus Highway Between Pittwater and the City! (1930, April 12). Daily Pictorial (Sydney, NSW : 1930 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article246118003

Details Of Principal Thoroughfares: Points To Avoid 
MOTORING conditions along the more important tourist routes within 60 miles of Sydney are described by the N.R.M.A. touring department as follows: —

Sydney to Palm Beach: Good to the Spit Bridge. Battle Boulevarde on the Manly side of the bridge is now open and hhould be used by all outward bound traffic. Very good along Sydney-road: fair to good In Condamine-st: bumpy and corrugated stretch is alone the tram lines to Brookvale; thence very good to Narrabeen. Good asphalt to Newport, except for corrugated and bumpy stretchas. 

The scenic drive along the ocean front from Narrabeen is recommended.  The right fork is taken on entering Narrabeen, and Ocean-st is followed to a bridge over the mouth of the Iagoon. Beyond a hill a little further on extensive views of the coast line are obtained. The surface up to this point is good, but becomes loose In places before the main road is rejoined. New detours overlooking the coast line are available at many places further on. 

Conditions are generally fair to good from Newport to Palm Beach. 
Bumpy Tramtracks 
Manly to Brookvale: Bumpy along the tram lines In Pittwater-road: concrete approaching the "cutting". A good alternative route is by way of North Steyne and thence along Old Pittwater-road, which is good tarred surface. Mona Vale to Church Point: Good tarred surface except for bumpy and corrugated stretches In the last mile.
ROADS AROUND SYDNEY AND THEIR CONDITION (1930, November 6). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118770283

The N.R.M.A. has been advised by the, Main Roads Board, that the bridges over Narrabeen Lagoon are to undergo repairs that will necessitate the closing of the road to vehicular traffic from August 26, until further notice. The alternative route for motorists travelling further north is by way of Ocean-street and Narrabeen Park-parade. NARRABEEN BRIDGE. (1931, August 27).The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article106853511 

Concrete Highway v. Expensive Railway
Striking figures
The cost of a railway line from the city to Newport, across the Harbor Bridge, would be about £4,500,000. A concrete roadway serving the same suburbs could be built for £1,500,000. (THIS is the contention of Mr. L. C. Carrington. hon. secretary of the Manly- Warringah Railway and Adyancement League). 
The exclusive announcement in Saturday's "Pictorial" that Warringah Shire Council was considering a scheme for a concrete 'bus road from Sydney to Pitt-water has caused great interest in the Northern Suburbs, and Mr. Carrington has prepared the following comparisons: —Railway. — To cost, £4,500,000; to repay loan in 25 years, £352,000 a, year; 100,000 travellers each day: through fare 2/31. 
Concrete Highway. — To cost, £1.500,-000; to repay, loan in 25 years, £117,000;. 100,000 travellers each day; through fare, 9 1/4d. 

If 1d a passenger were added for interest arid sinking fund, the cost of travelling by rail would be 2/4 1/2, and by highway 10 1/4d. 
Huge Difference 
To repay £1,500,000 in 25 years, with interest at 6 per cent., would cost £321 a day, while similar repayment. on a £4,000,000 railway would cost £964 a day. Hence the difference in fares. The estimate is based on 50,000 people from the areas served travelling to the city and back each day. A toll of 1d on all passengers would produce £35.000. more than would be needed each year for the highway loan.
HUGE SAVING FOR NORTHERN SUBURBS (1930, April 16). Daily Pictorial (Sydney, NSW : 1930 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article246118768

Motorists should exercise care when driving on to the bridge beyond Narrabeen Bridge on the main road to Mona Vale. The approaches, which are narrow, have been lately remade, and the ramping is set at a steep angle. It would be a wise move for the authorities to provide an easier and longer slope at these approaches. BRIDGE APPROACH AT NARRABEEN. (1932, February 22). Moree Gwydir Examiner and General Advertiser (NSW : 1901 - 1940), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111686560 

A smaller scheme, unlike the April 1930 announcement, for concreting and widening the Pittwater road to Narrabeen:

Concrete Plan Held Up By Council
The Main Roads Department is ready to construct a strip of concrete, 20ft. wide, on Pittwater-road, from Collaroy to Narrabeen tram terminus, for which Warringah Shire Council's proportion of the cost would be £2292. The council has decided to defer consideration for the present. The length mentioned is one of the worst on the road to Palm Beachand would join up with the strip of concrete running from Brookvale to Collaroy. ROAD TO NARRABEEN (1933, January 28). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 4 (CRICKET STUMPS). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228903692

Narrabeen's Unspoilt Days.
Once, long ago, the drive along this road was a feast of beauty, when one bowled along between sea and bush, with wide-spreading views on either side. We used to leave Circular Quay by the 8 o'clock boat to Manly, where at the wharf was waiting the old coach with its four horses. With luck-one seemed to be always lucky in those far-away days we got box seats and set out on our journey with gay spirits in the morning sunshine. Down the Corso we rattled, and along the Steyne, with the pine trees making a delicate screen between us and the blue ocean. Leaving the Steyne, we crossed the bridge over the lagoon, not yet drained and ordered, into a golf course and suburban lots, but stretching lazily over the lowlands, where a vegetable gardener or two grew produce for "The Village." Then on past swamps, where red callistemons flowered in thousands, on round the foot of the hills, where a million flowers bloomed amongst the grey rocks and birds sang gaily and darted to and fro before us.

Here and there, at long intervals was a dwelling-some hermit In search of solitude, or an intrepid pioneer sensing the future value of the land. But so few they were that they scarcely made an impression on the landscape, and the drive seemed to be all bush. All bush and sea, for ever and again as the road leaned seawards we had the uninterrupted view of golden sand and blue ocean. Deewhy Lagoon, with its background of sand-hills and bushy cliffs, was a'swarm with black swans. Narrabeen stretched in a long, unbroken vista from Long Reef to the Lakes. What houses there were were mostly on the land side of the road, and a few on the shore were so scattered that they did not interrupt the view. (Our young architect used to plan an ideal Narrabeen, with all the dwellings on the hillside and the whole sea front a reserve.) And so all the way to Church Point. At Rock Lily and Bayview, where painters and professors had holiday homes, the houses were built on the higher side of the road, above the encroachment of the tide and the mosquito-laden swamps, and the view was free for all travellers to enjoy.

Perhaps time has shed a glamour on that drive. Certainly the road surface was not what it is to-day, and the old coach rolled and rattled at times, but what are jolts and jerks to sixteen on a fresh spring morning, with sea and sky and bush alive with beauty?

Of the road which branched off to Newport and beyond we knew less, but we used to hear of the many charms along its length from two young men who every winter Sunday morning set out with a packet of sandwiches to walk to Barrenjoey. (They didn't "hike" in those days; they simply walked.) Later we came to know that road well, too. The green slopes and beach of Mona Vale, where a man ahead of his generation had built a mansion, almost at the end of the world it seemed then, the spreading sandhills of Newport, and the little beach beyond, with its rich palm grove-we knew them in their unspoiled days. Leaving the sea, the road climbed across to the inland harbour and ran along the water's edge, with nothing but the tall gumtrees to break our view of the blue bay; past Careel Bay, with Its mangrove swamp; past the green flats, with their narrow border of pearly sand, to Palm Beach itself, where the gaunt grotesque tea-trees and banksias grew to the edge of the rosy sands.

But year by year the road grew, and in its growing lost much of its charm. Tramlines stretched out mile upon mile; houses sprang up in long rows; the swamps were drained; the wild flowers disappeared. At Deewhy the black swans still floated on the lagoon, but in lessening numbers; Narrabeen Beach-now Collaroy-was hidden by a continuous line of cottages, and the sea was glimpsed only at the end of side streets; our young architect's dream of an ideal Narrabeen was gone for ever. The pleasant green sward which flanked Broken Bay at Palm Beach was covered with dwellings, and the white beach which encircled it "like a lovely woman's arm." as a poet said, was barely visible from the road. On the ocean front most of the tea-trees and banksias had gone to make way for neat lawns stretching to within a few yards of the water. Everywhere beauty had been driven out by profit, and the road which might have been one of the loveliest of seaside drives had been reduced to an almost suburban dullness.

With a luck which comes but seldom to those who have wasted their opportunities, this coastal strip has been given another chance. A new road has been built along the top of the cliffs, with wide views over hills and ocean. It is a road along which we always take our visitors, and we are never disappointed at their exclamations of surprise and delight. One world traveller said: "I have never seen a more beautiful seascape. It alone is worth the long journey to Australia!" 

But alas! this new road is threatened with the fate of the old one. Already here and there a building stands between the road and the ocean. At present they are too few to spoil the landscape, but unless some action is taken in a few years, the whole of the view will be blocked out by rows of houses, and our last chance of a magnificent scenic drive will be gone.
THE OLD ROAD. (1933, May 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16965117 

The before and after images of this work:

Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen [From NSW Government Printer series: Main Roads] Contents Date Range 01-01-1933 to 31-12-1933 – March 9, 1933 - Government Printing Office d1_21972, Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen [From NSW Government Printer series: Main Roads] Contents Date Range 01-01-1933 to 31-12-1933 March 9, 1933 Government Printing Office d1_21970 - Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen [From NSW Government Printer series: Main Roads] Contents Date Range 01-01-1933 to 31-12-1933 1933 March 9, 1933 Government Printing Office d1_21969 - Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

Pittwater Road at Narrabeen Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen March 3 1938  March 9, 1933 (this is over the bridge at Narrabeen and looking north towards Warriewood) Government Printing Office- Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen [From NSW Government Printer series: Main Roads] Contents Date Range 01-01-1933 to 31-12-1933 – August 4th, 1933 - Government Printing Office d1_21972, Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen [From NSW Government Printer series: Main Roads] Contents Date Range 01-01-1933 to 31-12-1933 August 4th, 1933 Government Printing Office d1_21970 - Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

Main Road 164. Pittwater Rd, Collaroy to Narrabeen [From NSW Government Printer series: Main Roads] Contents Date Range 01-01-1933 to 31-12-1933 1933 August 4th, 1933 Government Printing Office d1_21969 - Courtesy NSW State Records & Archives

On September 30th, 1939 he last tram run to Narrabeen was completed and the tram tracks trhat can be seen at the side of these images were taken out. Visit: Tram Memorabilia - Historic Daylight Run For Sydney Light Rail Begins 80 Years After Last Tram To Narrabeen Closed

A glimpse through the trees towards the bridge at Narrabeen. THE BRIDGE AT NARRABEEN. (1933, July 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16993223 

From NSW State Records - dated 1934
Avalon to Palm Beach.
The Minister for Works and Local Government (Mr. Spooner) stated at Palm Beach on Saturday that a marine drive connecting Palm Beach, Whale Beach, and Avalon would be one of the public works to be considered by the Government next year.

Mr. Spooner said he hoped to have the co-operation of the shire council in this project, which would open up some of the finest views along the coast, and bring Whale Beach into more convenient access for the public. It would add still further to the tourist attractions of the shire.

The Minister's proposal would practically link up with the projects already in hand by the Warringah Shire Council, which will even-tually provide a marine drive from Barrenjoey to Queenscliff, where it will link up with the ocean front at Manly, and thence continue along the plateau to North Head, at the har-bour gateway. On the other side of the Heads projects are being considered by the eastern suburbs councils, which would continue the marine roadway to Botany Bay.

SCENIC DRIVE. (1936, December 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17293524

Sydney, 17th August, 1938.

I, the Right Honourable John de Vere, BARON Wakehurst, Governor of the State of New South "Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby notify that the roads hereunder described, in pursuance of the provisions of section 18, Public Roads Act, 1902, are hereby declared to be public road, and dedicated to the public accordingly.

WAKEHURST, Governor. 
COLIN A. SINCLAIR, Minister for Lands.

Warringah Shire.

The parts of road known as Bay View road, lying between the existing public roads. 1,475b-1,603, and the present high-water mark of Pittwater fronting portions 43 and 27, parish Narrabeen; county Cumberland, Land District Metropolitan. R. 37-J,012.
DECLARATION OF ROADS TO BE PUBLIC ROAD UNDER PROVISIONS OF SECTION 18, PUBLIC ROADS ACT, 1902. (1938, September 2). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3492. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225072451

HOLIDAY-MAKERS AT NARRABEEN LAKES. These young men at Narrabeen Lakes are typical of thousands who left the city to spend the Christmas holidays in the sunshine but not too far from cool waters. Picture:  HOLIDAY-MAKERS AT NARRABEEN LAKES. (1938, December 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17542475

On 22 March 1932, under the Ministry of Transport Act., Premier Lang combined main roads, railways and tramways and transferred their control to a board of eight Transport Commissioners. This legislation eliminated the Main Roads Boards with Newell and Upton being given positions in charge of the Highways and Road Transportation Branch. The new system did not last long at all. Lang dismissed in May 1932 for going against the federal government's Financial Agreement Enforcement Act. His replacement, Bertram Stevens, returned main roads administration to a single commissioner, H.H. Newell, as a temporary measure, and subsequently created the Department of Main Roads under the Minister for Transport, Michael Bruxner. On 30 December 1932 Newell was formally appointed Commissioner for Main Roads and Upton became Assistant Commissioner.

The new department began the mission of improving road safety and congestion. In 1933 the first set of traffic signals were made operational at the intersection of Kent and Market Streets. By the late 1930's they were a common sight all over Sydney. In 1938, a centre line marking became standard for all sealed main roads.

Driver Escapes
Car In Creek: Driver Neck-Deep In Water

A man whose sedan car plunged from a bridge into Mullet Creek, Narrabeen, yesterday was rescued sitting at the driving wheel in water up to his neck. He is David Kennedy, 52, of Stanley Street, Chatswood. He was driving from Palm Beach to Manly along Pittwater Road. The car struck the western wing of the bridge, slewed across the road, and plunged through the wooden panelling on the opposite side. The car dropped six feet to the water, and sank to a depth of four feet, keeping upright. Saw Car Disappear George Robertson, of Jenkins Street, Crow's Nest, who saw the car disappear from 100 yards away, ran to the bridge. He saw Kennedy sitting in water up to his neck, and, clambering on to the top of the car, helped him to escape. Kennedy, who had small scratches on his nose, went home. He told the police that he thought he must have felt faint, for he did not remember the car striking the wing of the bridge. He recalled seeing the bridge rails ahead, as the car dashed towards the side, and then the icy water closing over him. Constable Turner (Narrabeen) is inquiring. Driver Escapes (1939, September 21). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1931 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article247810804

Delay by the Department of Main Roads in repairing and widening Pittwater-road, Collaroy, was criticised last night at a meeting of the Associated Motor Transport of New South Wales. It was stated that the department had promised to improve the road when the Manly-Narrabeen service ceased. Two months had passed and nothing had been done. Heavy buses were causing the road to crumble. It was decided to protest to the department and also to urge the immediate elimination of bottlenecks in the road approaching the shopping centres of Dee Why and Collaroy. PROTEST AGAINST PITTWATER-ROAD (1939, December 2). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2 (LAST RACE EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231507631 

There are many more stories along the route of Old Pittwater Road and Pittwater Road itself, to be explored in the to follow these Roads TO Pittwater as a "Where the Streets Have Your Name' series, so we jump forward to wondering when the 'Bay View road' (the old name for the road to Church Point, as proclaimed as renamed to be 'Pittwater Road' too - this installing possibly one of the longest roads in Sydney.

A few interesting 'markers' are worth noting there:

From Warringah Shire Council Minutes of meetings:
34. Land Board Office, 9/2/40, further re A. J. Riddle's application for extension of term of his Special Lease for boat shed &c at Pittwater off Church Point, stating Main Roads Department is agreeable to the extension, provided 48 ft. is left from the centre of the existing formation of Bayview Road Lease for future road-widening; requesting Council's concurrence in the extension desired. Resolved, - That the Council concur in the extension. 35. Palm Beach Lands Ltd.,12/2/40, (a) forwarding cheque for • 4.00 for improvement of Norma Road, as arranged, and requesting Norma that the work be proceeded with as early as possible; (b) eioad requesting that as a settlement has now been arrived at, the this its ...

3. Proposals for Declaration of Additional "Brick Areas" - Report submitted to Council on 18/2/41: Resolved, - That the Council, in exercise of the power given it by Clause 22 (f) of Ordinance 71, hereby declares the following lands to be within "brick areas" and prohibits the erection on such lands of buildings with external walls of materials other than brick, stone or concrete or the likematerials, viz - A. All lands having frontage to Main Roads Nos. 159 and 164 (Pittwater Road, Newport Road, Barrenjoey Road and Ocean Road) Brick from the southern boundary of the Shire at Manly Lagoon to the Areas southern extremity of Ocean Road at Palm Beach, except, (i) lands fronting Pittwater Road from Powderworks Road intersection northerly to Warriewood Road intersection; (ii) lands facing Barrenjoey Road from Attunga Road northerly to Plateau Road  intersection; (iii) lands facing Barrenjoey Road from Careel Head Road intersection northerly to the southern end of Iluka Road at its intersection with Barrenjoey Road; and (iv) lands fronting Barrenjoey Road from Palm Beach Road intersection northerly to Very's property, being Lot 5, D.P.6746 and Lot B. of a resubdivision of Lot 4, D.P. 6746. B. All lands having frontage to or bounded by Condamine Street (Main Road No. 164) in its new location. C. All lands having frontage or bounded by Main Road No, 174. (Bayview Road) from its intersection with Main Road No. 164 (Pittwater Road) at Mona Vale to its north-western extremity at Church Point. (Crs. Sterland, O'Reilly) (A proposed amendment moved by Cr. Campbell, seconded by Cr. Savage, that consideration be deferred for another three months was defeated, and the above motion was carried on division by four votes to three

SHIRE OF WARRINGAH.—Road Levels.—Notice is hereby given that the Department of Main Roads, acting on behalf of the Warringah Shire Council, intends to carry out work on Main Road No. 174, Bay view-road, between Bayview and Church Point, necessitating the fixing of levels for this road. Plans showing the new levels may be inspected during office hours at the Shire Hall, Brookvale. All persons interested may lodge objections or claims in writing (addressed to me) within one month from date hereof. W. U. GORS, Shire Clerk, Council Chambers, Brookvale, 7th October, 1949.
SHIRE OF WARRINGAH.—ROAD LEVELS.—Notice is hereby given that the Department of Main Roads, acting on behalf of (1949, October 7). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2998. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225592257 

(r_.s.) J. NORTHCOTT, Governor.
I, Lieutenant-General John Northcott, Governor of the State of New South Wales, in the Commonwealth of Australia, with the advice of the Executive Council and by virtue of the provisions of the Transport (Division of Functions) Act, 19323947, and in pursuance of the provisions of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1949, do, by this my Proclamation, declare that so much of the land hereunder described as is Crown land is hereby appropriated, and so much thereof as is private property is hereby resumed under the provisions of the Public Works Act, 1912, for the purposes of the Main Roads Act, 39241949, and that the land hereunder described is hereby vested in the Commissioner for Main Roads, and I hereby further declare the land hereunder described to be a public road, and, in accordance with a recommendation of the Commissioner for Main Roads, the said land is hereby placed under the control of the Council of the Shire of Warringah.

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this fifth day of April, 1950.
By His Excellency's Command,
M. O'SULLIVAN, Minister for Transport.

Descriptions of the Land referred to.
All that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, and. Stale of New South Wales, being part of lots 5a to 12a inclusive, deposited plan 4,010, part of portion 19, parish arid county aforesaid, part of lot 11, section 1, Mona Vale Estate, part of lot A as shown on plan in Dealing B93666, and part of a reserve for public recreation: Commencing at the intersection of a north-eastern side of Bayview-road with the northwestern boundary of lot 5a aforesaid; and bounded thence on the north-west by that boundary of that lot bearing 57 degrees 20 minutes 37 feet 74 inches to the north-eastern boundary of lot 5a, aforesaid; thence on the north-east by part of that boundary of that lot bearing 152 degrees 55 minutes 81 feet 7 ½ inches; again on the north-east, the east and again on the north-east by marked lines bearing consecutively 1&9 degrees 5 minutes 5 seconds 880 feet 1 inch, 170 degrees 51 minutes 35 seconds 82 feet 6| inches, 174 degrees 24 minutes 30 seconds 82 feet 6& inches, 177 degrees 57 minutes 25 seconds $2 feet inches^ 181 degrees 30 minutes 20 seconds 82 feet 6| inches, 183 degrees 16 minutes 50 seconds 678 feet 10 inches, 181 degrees 6 minutes 10 seconds 96 feet inches, 16 degrees 44 minutes 45 seconds 96 feet 3 ½ inches, 172 degrees 23 minutes 20 seconds 96 feet 3 ½ inches, 168 degrees 1 minute 55 seconds 96 feet 3| inches, 163 degrees 40 minutes 30 seconds 9(3 feet 3£ inches, 159 degrees 19 minutes 5 seconds 96 feet 3 ½ inches, 154 degrees 57 minutes 40 seconds 96 feet 3 ½ inches, 150 degrees 36 minutes 40 seconds 06 feet and 146 degrees 15 minutes 20 seconds 96 feet 7 ½ inches to a north eastern side of Bayview-road; thence on the south-west, the north-west, the west, again on the south-west, again on the west and again on the south-west by that road bearing consecutively 324 degrees 4 minutes 10 seconds 240 feet 9| inches, 344 degrees 18 minutes 10 seconds 746 feet 11 inches, 31 degrees 47 minutes 10 seconds 157 feet 6 ½ inches, 4 degrees 56 minutes 10 seconds 460 feet 4| inches, 347 degrees 3; minutes 271 feet 9 ½ inches, 352 degrees 30 minutes 440 feet 101 inches, 346 degrees 23 minutes 15 seconds 425 feet 6J inches and 306 degrees 8 minutes 15 seconds 29 feet 10 inches to the point of commencement,—having an area of 1 acre 3 roods -5 perches or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of the estate of the late John Orr, the estate of the late A. R. Percy, F. G. Larson, F. E. T. Lewis, the Council of the Shire of Warringah, the Crown and others.

Also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lot 2, section 1, Mona Vale Estate, and part of lot 6, section 1, deposited plan 6,392: Commencing at the intersection of the north-western boundary of lot 6 aforesaid with a south-western side of Bayview-road; and bounded thence on the north-east by part of that side of that road bearing 169 degrees 6 minutes 20 seconds 125 feet 10| inches; thence on the south-west by marked lines bearing consecutively 346 degrees 36 minutes 10 seconds 49 feet 6£ inches, 311 degrees 35 minutes 40 seconds 49 feet 6§ inches, 336 degrees 35 minutes 15 seconds 49 feet 6£ inches, 331 degrees 34 minutes 50 seconds 49 feet 63 inches and 326 degrees 34 minutes 20 seconds 49 feet 6^ inches to a south-western side of Bayview-road; again on the north-east by part of that side of that road bearing 144 degrees 4 minutes 30 seconds 125 feet 10§ inches to the point of commencement, —having an area of 4^ perches or thereabouts, and said to be 111 the possession of the estate of the late J. Orr and Mrs. Christina D. Orr.

Also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lot 1, section 1, deposited plan 6,392: Commencing at the intersection of a south-western side of Bayview-road with a north-eastern side of Darley-street; and bounded thence on the south-west by part of that side of that street bearing north-westerly 8 feet; thence on the north-west by a marked line bearing north-easterly 6 feet 7i inches to the south-western side of Bayview-road aforesaid; thence on the north-east by part of that side of that road bearing south-easterly 8 feet to the point of commencement,—having an area of 24 square feet or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of Mrs. Christina D. Orr.

Also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lot 1, section 2, deposited plan 6,392: Commencing at the intersection of a north-eastern side of Bayview-roadwith a south-western side of Darley-street; and bounded thence on the north-east by |3art of that side of that street bearing south-easterly 8 feet; thence on the south-east by a marked line bearing south-westerly 6 feet 8 1/2 inches to the north-eastern side of Bayview-road aforesaid; thence on the south-west by part of that side of that road bearing north-westerly 8 feet to the point of commencement,—having an area of 24 square feet or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of Irene A. Westmoreland.

Also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lots 1, 2 and 3, section 2, deposited plan 6,392: Commencing at the intersection of the north-western boundary of lot 2 aforesaid with a northeastern side of Bayview-road; and bounded thence on the south-west by parts of north-eastern sides of that road bearing 329 degrees 5 minutes 7 feet 4 inches and 348 degrees 54 minutes 50 seconds 169 feet 0-} inch; thence on the northeast by marked lines bearing consecutively 166 degrees 29 minutes 30 seconds 81 feet 8| inches, 161 degrees 38 minutes 50 seconds 81 feet 8| inches, 156 degrees 46 minutes 5 seconds 82 feet 10i inches and 152 degrees 2 minutes 25 seconds 78 feet 2 1/2 inches to a north-eastern side of Bayview-road aforesaid; again on the south-west by part of that side of that road bearing 329 degrees 5 minutes 151 feet 8 inches to the point of commencement,—having an area of 6 1/2 perches or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of Irene A. Westmoreland, E. C. Seale and G. M. Bushnell.

And also, all that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, and State of New South Wales, being part of lot 7 as shown on plan 6,546 (L) at the Registrar-General's Office; Commencing at the intersection of a south-western side of Bayview-road with a north-eastern side of Park-street; and bounded thence on the south-west by part of that side of that street bearing north-westerly 12 feet; thence on the northwest by a marked line bearing north-easterly 6 feet 0| inch to the south-western side of Bayview-road aforesaid; thence on the north-east by part of that side of that road bearing south-easterly 12 feet to the point of commencement,—having an area of 35 square feet or thereabouts, and said to be in the possession of G. E. Johnson.
(D.M.E, No. 479-1,523) 
TRANSPORT (DIVISION OF FUNCTIONS) ACT, 1932-1947. —MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1949.—PROCLAMATION. (1950, April 21).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1079. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220099707 

(L.S.) J. NORTHCOTT, Governor.
I, Lieutenant-General Sir John Northcott, Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Member of the Royal Victorian Order, Governor of the State of New South Wales and its Dependencies, in the Commonwealth of Australia, with the advice of the Executive Council, and in terms of section 8 of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1950, and in pursuance of the Transport (Division of Functions) Act, 1932-1950, do by this proclamation give and notify to the main roads or portions thereof described in the first column of the Schedule hereto the names appearing opposite thereto in the second column of the said Schedule.
Signed and sealed at Sydney, this tenth day of January,
By His Excellency's Command,
W. F. SHEAHAN, Minister for Transport.

Description. Name. 
That portion of Main Roads Nos. Pittwater-road, 159 and 164 from Raglan-street, Manly, to Mona Vale, and Main Road No. 174 from Main Road No. 164 at Mona Vale to Church Point.
Main Road No. 164 from Mona Vale Barrenjoey-road.
to Ocean-road, Palm Beach.
Main Road No. 162 from the Pacific Mona Vale road.
Highway (State Highway No. 10) at Pymble to Main Road No. 164 at Mona Vale.
Main Road No. 174 from Church McCarrs Creek road.
Point to Main Road No. 162 at Terry Hill.
Main Road No. 328 from Pittwater- Warringah-road.
road (Main Road No. 164), Brook-vale, to Roseville Bridge within the Shire of Warringah.
(D.M.R. 479-5,320) 
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1950.—PROCLAMATION. (1951, February 2).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 290. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220102904 

From Warringah Shire Council Minutes of meetings:

Renaming - Main Roads Roads Department, Circular, 29/1/54, stating that the naming or re-naming of a Main Road  is effected by proclamation of the Governor on the recommendation of the Main Roads Department, that prior to recent amendment of the Local Government Act it was the practice of the Local Government Department to inquire whether the road  concerned formed Street part of any proclaimed Main Road, but since the amendment a number of cases have occurred where Councils have taken action pursuant to Clause 53. to alter names of Main Roads without reference to the Department, and therefore pointing out that in any case where Council wishes a Main Road  to be-named or renamed  it is necessary that :the matter be referred to the Department of Main Roads for -consideration.. '"Received"

There's one last Road TO Pittwater, finally named as being part of Pittwater at least at one end, in 1951 - that runs next - The Road to Pittwatre named 'Mona Vale' - although it didn't start as such.

There's also a page of the Sand Spit and Spit Bridge to share too - that will be available next Issue.


1. On the Narrabeen Lagoon. 2. View from Sheepstation Hill, looking south. 3. Bay View. 4. a dip in the surf at Narrabeen. 5. Near Long Reef. 6. Approaching Narrabeen. 7. One of the creeks.

The distance from Manly to Bay View is about 15 miles. The road is by the Narrabeen-road past Rocklily. A proposal to put down a tram line is now being considered, and a member of the ministry was recently driven over the country, which in many parts is remarkably picturesque.

1. On the Narrabeen Lagoon. 

2. View from Sheepstation Hill, looking south. 

3. Bay View. 

4. A dip in the surf at Narrabeen. 

5. Near Long Reef. 

6. Approaching Narrabeen. 

7. One of the creeks.

MANLY TO BAY VIEW—A POPULAR EASTER RESORT BY ROAD. (1900, April 14). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 878. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165297416

Image No.: c071950005 Box 17, Albums of William Joseph Macpherson - Bay View, courtesy State Library of NSW and Macpherson Family.

NB: these are photographs by William Joseph Macpherson (Wharriewood - Warriewood) - visit:  The Macphersons of Wharriewood and Narrabeen: the photo albums of William Joseph Macpherson

The corner where the Pittwater road at Church Point ends and become the McCarr's Creek road

References And Extras


1. TROVE - National Library of Australia 

2. The roadmakers : a history of main roads in New South Wales / produced and published by Dept. of Main Roads, New South Wales by New South Wales. Dept. of Main Roads. 1976

3. Vital connections: a history of NSW roads from 1788 by Rosemary Broomham. Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW. 2001

4. The old roads by Eirene Mort (1879-1977). 1931

5. RTA Thematic History - A component of the RTA Heritage and Conservation Register, 2nd Edition, 2006 by Terry Kass, Historian and Heritage Consultant

Act 4 William IV No.11 roads

The Roads Act 4 William IV No.11 1833 was the first statute to authorise the Government to make, alter and improve roads in the Colony through private freeholds. The Act stated that the road was to be surveyed or delineated on a plan. When opened by proclamation the road was to be maintained at the expense of the local parish. These were known as "confirmed roads". They were not established as public roads unless they were proclaimed to be open for public use and if no compensation was paid, until the road was in fact used by the public.

The public use was limited to the surface, subsoil and headroom necessary to accommodate and support the kind of traffic contemplated by the dedication.

Act 4 also contained power to divert and alter the course of public ways already made and when the new road was completed it would be in place of the old road. See also Closure of an Act 4 William IV Road.

Quarter Sessions roads

Quarter Sessions roads, usually 12 feet (3.655 metres) or 20 feet (6.095 metres) wide, were created by decisions of the Court of Quarter Sessions under the provisions of Act 4 William IV No.11 1883. These provisions were continued in the Public Roads Act 1897 and Public Roads Act 1902. As far as is known no applications have been made since 1910.

The Court could not grant access to more than 6.095 metres in width after which the road was marked out in accordance with the Courts direction. The road was for private access similar to a right of way and many developed public status through use and by absorption into roads of greater width. There was no divesting in fee except for the surface right only.

Provision for the opening of a Quarter Sessions road ceased on 18 October 1968. The Roads Act 1993 provides that any road that was a Quarter Sessions road immediately before 1 July 1993 is now dedicated as public road. When closed, these roads do not vest in the adjoining owner.

Retrieved from NSW Land registry webpage at: 


Colonial Statistics. BROKEN BAY AND BRISBANE WATER. - 1838

THERE is no part the colony within a hundred miles of Sydney, which has either been so long settled, or so little frequented by travellers from our colonial capital, as the country intervening between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. It is a broken, sterile, and uninteresting country for the most part; but there are particular spots in it of a much superior character, and the scenery in certain localities, especially along the coast, on the Narrabeen Lagoon and the inlet called Pitt Water is exceedingly fine. We happened to make a pedestrian tour from Manly Cove, on the north side of the harbour near the Heads, to Broken Bay a few weeks ago; and, although we cannot say much either for the country or the road, there is nevertheless sufficient to be gleaned by a careful observer ever in such a tour as to prevent us from saying, " it is all barren." In fact, as the finest flowers and shrubbery are generally found on the most barren land, it is not always the best land that will furnish the best subject for a good literary article. 

An extensive bottom, as the farmers would call it, of the richest alluvial soil may be exhibiting to the delighted eye of the settler a splendid crop of maize; or a series of "flats," with not a tree upon them in their natural state, may present the finest wheat land in the world ; but we confess there is very little bottom for a good article in either case, and even a good writer soon becomes flat enough unless he takes a kangaroo leap to some subject of a more interesting or spirit-stirring character. To be threading one's way, how- ever, through a tangled wood while the loud roar of the vast Pacific's big ocean waves breaking ever and anon on the ironbound coast of this vast terra incognita, is sounding in one's ear like distant thunder, or like the roar of artillery — to mount one of those barren hills that stretch along the coast to catch a glimpse of the wild, but romantic scenery around from its rocky summit — to be walking by moonlight along one of the sandy beaches that line the shores of Pitt Water, the exact counterpart of one of our finest Scotch Highland lochs—to be arriving late in the evening at some small settler's farm, who has just been six months on his land, to be regaled with tea without sugar out of a common water-jug, and a piece of a damper—to sleep, or rather to attempt to sleep with a host of active little combatants as numerous and as formidable as a Roman legion— and finally to lose one's way for five or six hours in the bush, and to arrive at the North Shore with one's clothes so torn with the prickly shrubbery of that locality as to render it necessary to bivouac for a time till the sun has gone down on the town of Sydney, and darkness covers the land—these are the subjects which one can either write upon, or read about without getting tired or complaining of flatness. 

There is a respectable family of the humbler walks of life settled at Manly Cove whose establishment exhibits in a very strong light, the immense benefits which this colony will eventually derive from the introduction of reputable and industrious families of a similar class in society into its extensive territory, under the admirable system introduced by the Whig ministry, in appropriating for that most important purpose the proceeds of all Crown land sold in the colony. The family we allude to is of the name of Parker. It consists of a husband and wife, rather past the middle age, and two stout young men, their sons. The father is a gardener, who emigrated with his family from England to the Cape of Good Hope a good many years ago, but preferring this colony, from all he had heard and read of it both in England and at the Cape, came on to New South Wales, leaving his third son in business at Cape Town. One of Mr. Parker's other two sons is a stonemason, and the other a carpenter and cabinetmaker, each of whom appears to be as much an adept in his own business as his father, who is a remarkably intelligent, shrewd, and well-principled old man, evidently is in his. Mr. Parker has purchased twenty acres of land and rocks on the eastern side of the cove, part of which he has laid out very tastefully, his two sons having been occupied in the mean time in erecting a neat stone walled cottage with suitable outhouses, part of the walls of both being the solid rock, which has been hewn away in certain places, and allowed to remain in others to suit the taste or convenience of the proprietor. In short the combination of mechanical force which Mr. P.'s virtuous and respectable family have been able to bring to bear on their little property is one of the happiest we have witnessed in the colony, and the result, we are confident, within a very few years hence will be the transformation of their twenty acres of rocks and land, hitherto deemed good for nothing, into one of the best cultivated, most romantic, and most valuable properties of its size within a day's journey of the capital. Mr. P.'s object has been to establish himself as a gardener and nurseryman, to supply the Sydney market with vegetables, fruit, fruit- trees, and shrubs. 

As soon as a few small steam boats, such as ply on the river Mersey between Liverpool and the numerous little thriving villages along the Cheshire shore, are procured and set to work in our harbour of Port Jackson to ply between Sydney and the more important localities on the opposite shore, every acre of available land within a reasonable distance of the North Shore, will be increased in value several hundred per. cent. We are happy to find that an experiment of this kind is about to be tried by the establishment of a Steam Ferry Boat between Dawes' Battery and Billy Blue's Point. The establishment of such a boat will not only lead to the formation of several thriving villages on the North Shore, but will set an example which some people will soon follow by placing boats of a similar kind on other short courses within the harbour. Within a few miles of Manly Cove, from which there is a tolerable road for a considerable distance towards Broken Bay, there is more available land than we anticipated finding, and there is already something doing also in the way of improvement; the important operations of felling, fencing, and cultivating, being pursued by certain proprietors in that neighbourhood with some vigour. A very large portion of the land, however, is irreclaimably and hopelessly sterile. 

On the banks of the Narrabeen Lagoon, a pretty extensive and romantic sheet of water situated about nine miles from Manly Cove, and communicating with the ocean in high floods there is a small extent of superior land for cultivation with a considerable tract of very fair pasture land belonging to the family of the late Mr. Jenkins, of Sydney; and about three miles farther on, towards the head of Pitt Water, there is a very fair cultivation farm leased to a small settler of the name of Foley. But the patches of arable land all along from Port Jackson to Broken Bay, are generally of such limited extent and the pasture land of such inferior quality to the forest land of the interior, that there must always be a very limited and widely scattered population in that part of the territory. 

The South Head of Broken Bay is called by its native name, Barranjoey. It is a bold, rocky headland, situated at the extremity of a long narrow strip of land separating the main ocean from Pitt Water, and has evidently been an island at some former period, with a spit of sand running out from it towards the south. This sand-spit would be gradually extended by every gale till the island was at length married indissolubly to the main, the ceremony of joining hands having been performed by Father Neptune himself. There is a small patch of alluvial land of the first-rate quality near Barranjoey Head, on which a very industrious small settler of the name of Sullivan has set down, within the last few months, on a lease from Mr. Wentworth, the proprietor. The extent of land he has managed to clear and put into crop in so short a time, is as creditable to the settler as the splendid crop of maize and tobacco it bears is to the land. The neighbour-hood of Pitt Water and Brisbane Water is considered particularly favourable for the growth of onions, and the raising of that useful article of horticultural produce for the Sydney market, is the main dependence of the small settlers in these districts. The past season has been considered rather unfavourable, however, for this crop, the late rains, which have come in such good time for the maize, having been too late for the onions; but we found a very tolerable crop notwithstanding on various farms in both districts. 

The scenery near Barranjoey is romantic and interesting in a very high degree, the land and water being finely disposed for a picture, and the forest trees on the low ground along Pitt Water being remarkably umbrageous and beautiful, while the view from the Head itself — including the vast Pacific; Pitt Water separated from it by the narrow strip of land above-mentioned, and running up for the remaining part of its extent between two ranges of considerable elevation, and losing itself at length in the distance ; Broken Bay, with the lofty, precipitous rocky island, called Mount Ellis, guarding the entrance of the Hawkesbury, and standing off, like a sentinel on duty, from its opposite shore, while the lower reaches of that noble river are seen stretching far inland between the lofty and barren ranges that line the whole extent of its course from the Blue Mountains to the ocean — all this is uncommonly fine. 

Second or third-rate writers of literary articles of this kind regularly wish for the pencil of a Claude, or a Salvator Rosa, when they find themselves in such situations as we found ourselves in, to our no small gratification and delight, when we stood perched for a time on Barranjoey Head ; but as such idle wishes would not save any of our readers who might be desirous of experiencing the same pleasurable emotions, the trouble and fatigue of a long pedestrian tour through the bush, we shall not put ourselves to the trouble of uttering them. If any of our readers should be desirous of visiting the district of Brisbane Water, which we can assure them is well worth visiting, we would by all means advise them to postpone their visit till some of our enterprising colonial speculators shall have put a steam-boat on the course between Sydney and Brisbane Water. 

For our own part we crossed Broken Bay in Sullivan, the small settler's small boat; and as there is a large extent of shallow water on the north side of the Bay, on which the sea breaks violently (whence its appropriate name, Broken Bay) whenever there is the least wind from certain quarters, we confess that sailing in such a vessel is somewhat dangerous. Rollers rise instantaneously, even in the mildest weather, in the Bay, and when one of these breaks on a small boat she is almost sure to be swamped, and all on board drowned. 

Brisbane Water is an inlet from Broken Bay, opening into the land at its north-eastern extremity. There is a reef of rocks extending for a considerable distance across the entrance from south to north, but the channel is sufficiently wide for those who are at all acquainted with the locality. The inlet, for a considerable distance up, is exactly like the embouchure of a large river, and as there are several other inlets of a similar kind opening into the main one, as Broad Water, Kingcumber or Cockle Creek, the district is a complete alternation of land and water, affording excellent means of communication for the settlers and most delightful scenery. Both along the banks of the main inlet and the other two just mentioned, there are settlers' houses for the most part picturesquely situated with a greater or smaller extent of land in cultivation around them according to circumstances. There is much alluvial land of the first quality in the district, and the crop of maize, wherever we had an opportunity of observing it, was quite magnificent. Maize, onions, shingles, and sawed timber are the principle productions and exports of the district, and from the large quantity of these articles that have been exported to Sydney during the last few years, the settlers generally, we were happy to find, are in a thriving condition. Indeed, the district of Brisbane Water has sufficient resources for the sustentation and employment of a large population, and its vicinity to the capital will certainly attract numerous and reputable families and individuals as permanent residents in it whenever it is thrown open to the public by the establishment of a steam communication with the capital. From the want of such a communication at present Brisbane Water, although within four or five hours sail of Sydney, is virtually as distant from it as Port Macquarie, and till such a mode of communication with it is established, its re- sources will never be developed nor its rapid advancement both in population and in importance generally secured. It is a matter of astonishment, therefore, to us, that while there is such a rage exhibited in the colony, on the part of certain of our colonial speculators, for the extension of steam communication with Hunter's River, the capabilities of a district, so much less extensive it is true, but so much nearer hand, should hitherto have been so totally neglected. There are at present three steam boats running between Sydney and Hunter's river, and a fourth is expected to commence plying immediately. Now, whether this is overdoing the thing or not we have no means of determining; but as the smallest and tardiest of these vessels will in all likelihood stand but an indifferent chance of success in competing with the others, we would by all means advise the proprietor to try the experiment of changing her course by causing her to ply alternately between Sydney and Brisbane Water, and Sydney and Illawarra. 
Neither of these districts is supposed to be at present sufficiently advanced to afford constant employment to a steam vessel of the size of the Maitland, but knowing both of them, as we happen to do, we are confident they would afford such employment to any vessel that would make a voyage from the capital to each alternately. The machinery of the Maitland is scarcely powerful enough for her size, and although a good sea boat she is unable to make much progress against a head sea. She will therefore run the risk of being driven off the course when a third powerful vessel, to ply twice a week, is placed on the Hunter's river line. But her slower rate of sailing than that of the other Hunters' river vessels would be no objection either at Illawarra or at Brisbane Water; and although the proprietor might not realize his expectations by placing her on that course at the very first, we are confident that the rapid advancement of both of these districts, beyond all former precedent would not only be the certain result, but would amply and speedily repay him for all his original outlay. Verbum sat sapienti. The Rev. Mr. Rodgers of the Church of England, and the Rev. Malcolm Colquhoun, of the Church of Scotland, have both recently gone to settle as ministers of the gospel at Brisbane Water. We most heartily wish them both all success. 
Colonial Statistics. (1838, February 28). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31720524 

Accidental Death.-On Friday afternoon, a party consisting of William Morgan, Jame Peiniiell, Joseph Waterhouse, Robert M'Intosh, and Jim Allen Jones, set out on horseback from Lane Cove, intending to proceed to Pittwater. They had proceeded about three miles along the by-road or foot-track, when Jones rode against an over hanging limb of a tree with such violence as to throw him from his horse, fracturing his skull. His companions conveyed him home, where he lingered until about six o'clock on Saturday morning, when he expired. Deceased was a tailor by trade, and until recently was a resident in Sydney.-Herald, Feb. 27.
Sydney News. (1854, March 4). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article686369 

from the Herald, March 2.)
A few evenings ago the sum of £45,000 was passed in committee of supply, to be expended on roads other than main roads of the colony. These roads are divided into five classes, and the amount to be expended on each class is £50 per mile for the first class, £25 per mile on roads of the second class, £15 per mile on third class roads, £10 per mile on roads of the fourth class, and £7 per mile upon fifth class roads. The estimate ia somewhat exceeded, it being proposed to expend on Sydney and metropolitan roads £1961 ; on the northern roads £16,816; on the western roads £10,530; and on the southern roads £16,860 ;-making a total of £46,167. The classification of roads is not made alone with reference to their relative importance, but has been influenced by the state of repair required, and the amount of money recently expended upon them ; and where the road tolls pass to the consolidated revenue, Parliament will be asked to vote the respective amounts for the repair of such roads. The following are the details of the classification and proposed distribution for 1861 :

THE ROADS OF THE COLONY. (1861, March 7). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18680666 

ABSTRACT of REVENUE and EXPENDITURE of the MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF MANLY, for the Halfyear ending 1st August, 1887. (1887, August 30). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 5775. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222093170

(1909). Wise's New South Wales post office directory. Issue 1926, page 641. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-601156679


An inquest was held to-day by the Acting-City Coroner, Mr. H. S. Hawkins, concerning the death of Charles Faulkner, 49, a flower gatherer, at Manly, who was knocked down by a motor-car on the Pittwater-road on February 14 . Andrew M'Kye, master baker, living at the Corso, Manly, said he was travelling In a motor-car to Brookvale on the night of February 13. The car was being driven by Mr. Hodson. Near the Warringah Shire Council Chambers, Brookvale, soon after midnight, he saw a dark form lying on the road, which he took to be a dog. It was then about nine yards in front of the car, which was travelling at ten miles an hour. The driver swerved to avoid the object, which was then seen to be a man crawling on his hands and knees, and coming -'"across the track of the car. " Witness felt a bump, and the car was pulled up in a few yards. He ran back with a light and found the deceased lying on his back, bleeding from the head and mouth. The police were told at once, and medical aid was sought. 
Benjamin Nelson Hodson, a musician, owner of the car, said he was taking a number of friends out to Brookvale. He saw an object on the road, and swerved to avoid it. When within three or four yards the figure on the roadway rose and staggered In front of the car. When he first saw the figure he eased up the car, and had the man not moved he would have passed him three or four feet away. Witness was a licensed driver, and was quite sober at the time of the accident. Dr. David Thomas, of Manly, said he attended to Faulkner at the Manly Cottage Hospital for Injuries to the head and body. He smelt strongly of drink, and must have been saturated with it. Witness nearly ran over Faulkner five years ago. He had a peculiar habit of standing In the middle of the road when he was drunk. He used to live in a cave four miles from Manly, and was often seen about the streets drunk and Incapable. A verdict of accidental death was returned.
CAVE DWELLER KILLED. (1912, February 21). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222002638

SYDNEY, Wednesday.
 In answer to Mr. O'Hearn, in the Legislative Assembly this afternoon, Mr. Bruntnell, the Minister for Education, said that special inquiry was being obtained as to the need for a new teacher's residence at Largs. He was not aware that improvements were needed at Bacrami Creek, but he would cause inquiry to be made. It was proposed to replace the existing building at Gouldsville when funds were avallable. In reply to a question asked last week, Mr. Oakes, the Chief Secretary, said that the custom for the last 25 years had been for a number of police to be on. duty at Parliament House. and it would be inadvisable to release the police from their duties at Parliament at present. Mr. Scott Fell inquired of the Chief Secretary whether he was aware that a' play called "Masses and the Man" had been performed in' Sydney. Was the Minister aware that the object of the play was to assist the Communistic movement, and was he also aware that the "Red Flag" was sung instead f the National Anthem? Further, in view of the fact that a lecture on "Masses and the Man" was to be given in the city in a few days' time, would he arrange for the police to attend such lecture? Mr. Murray asked whether the Chief Secretary was aware that the same company had played "Old Bill." If so, would he take some action in regard to this play? The Chief Secretary said he did not know why Mr. Murray was asking for some action to be taken in connection with "Old Bill,"'' unless there was some reason for interference. In regard to the lecture, he would see that the police attended. In reply to Mr. Goldsteli?, the Chief Secretary said there was no doubt that the motor omnibuses in Sydney were overcrowded, and the same applied to the tramway system. It was a question whether the smoking in omnibuses was a breach of the law, inasmuch as certain compartments were reserved for smoking Mr: Connell asked the Minister for Mines, in view of his statement yesterday that a number of coal-mining comnpanies in the different parts of the State had recognised the desirability of Installing electric lamps, would the Minister introduce legislation for the purpose of making electric lighting universal ? Mr. Fitzpatrick, the Minister for Mines: I am in communication with the coal proprietors in connection with those mines in which electric lighting has not been installed. If I can do without legislation, all the better. That is all I have to say now. The Premier told Mr. Perdriau that he was not yet in a position to state when amending legislation dealing with the Land Valuation Act would be introduced. The Minister for Minos gave notice of his Intention to ask  leave to bring in a bill to give the Balmain Colliery Company power to have new heads, to mine under certain parts of Sydney Harbour and other places. Mr. M'Girr inquired of the Attorney General whether he was aware that recently an ex-official of the A.R.U. issued warrants for'the arrest of two other ex-officials, and after they had suffered indignities, the warrants were withdrawn. If the law allowed persons to have persons arrested, and then withdraw the warrants at his own sweet will, would the Attorney-General have the law amended at once Mr. h Batin, the Attorney-General asked that the question be placed on the business paper. In reply to Mr. Connell, the Chief Secretary said he had been informed that in regard to the arrival of Servians at Newcastle recently the police would give relief if the necessity existed. Answering Mr. Murray, the Minister for Mines said it was his intention to introduce legislation to provide for better bathing facilities at mines. The Minister for Local Government informed Mr. O'Hearn that in the present financial position it was impossible at present to arrange for a further 5000 loan to the Cessnock Shire Council for the completion of the Maitland. road. Mr. Cameron was informed by the Chief Secretary that it would not lie possible for the Government to finance, during the financial year, the work of connecting all country. police stations with telephones. In reply to Mr. Weaver, the Chief Secretary said that, if it were true, it was regrettable that a person who had only been in Australia a few months should be given preference over Australians in the control of the Australian Railways' Union. The Main Roads Bill was further considered in committee. Mr. Bruxner moved an amendment to clause 9 of the bill in the direction of extending the county of Cumberland to include the Blue Mountains Shire and the municipalities of Katoomba and Blackheath for the Purposes of the bill. The proposed amendment was productive of a lengthy debate, members and particularly those 'on the Opposition benches, being opposed to favourtisms being extended to the Blue Mountains. They contended that there were other beauty spots in the State, and if the Blue Mountains were to be fit, then. some consideration should be shown to other parts. Eventually Mr. Loxton foreshadowed an amendment: "That for the purposes of this bill the county of Cumberland should comprise an area within 100 miles radius of Sydney." The Minister for Local Government urged Mr. Loxton to withdraw his motion, and warned him that if the House accepted the proposed alteration the whole bill would have to be thrown under the table and a new bill cast and reintroduced. Mr: Loxton's amendment was favoured by Labour members as being more equitable. Mr. Murphy pointed out that a great portion of the Blue Mountains road was in good order, but the northern road was in an awful state, probably one of the worst in Australia. At present one had to come to Sydney from Newcastle by road via Cessnock, a distance of 164 miles. If a good road was constructed via Wiseman's Ferry, the distance between Sydney and Newcastle would be but 70 miles. Mr. Weaver said the amendment was fundamentally opposed to the principles of the bill, and it was a deliberate attempt at peacocking. He would oppose the bill if the amendment was carried. Mr. Morton contended that the 100 miles limit would kill the bill. Mr. Mutch claimed that the country was being treated generously, and add. ed that if the amendment was carried the bill would be killed, so far as the metropolitan section was concerned. Mr. Bruxner said there were 500 miles of main roads in the county of Cumberland, and 11,000 miles in the remainder of the State. The Blue Mountains country was practically fresh air and scenery, and people who went there should pay. He dirged that country members should not take lying down the attempt of the city members to pit the city against the country, and should see that his amendment was carried. Mr. O'Hearn referred to the agitation on the part of the City Council against being included in the bill. It looked s if there was a desire on the Dart of the Minister to drop the bill. He did not know whether Mr. Bruxner's amendment offered a way for the Government to throw the bill under the table. He would have been prepared to support Mr. Loxton's amendment bet for, the fact that the Erina Shire Council had recently raised a loan, and agreed to a tax of half-penny In the £. Mr. Loughlin said of the two amendments he preferred Mr. Loxton's. The roads as far as Katoomba or Bulli were used more by city people than country people. Therefore, it was more equitable that the cost of constructing good tourist roads to these places should be borne by Sydney and the metropolitan areas. Mr. Dooley said if the House intended to accept either of the amendments Mr. Loxton's was the bestL. He protested against progress associations and such bodies attempting to dictate to members how they should vote on this bill. If the area was to'be extended it should be extended all round, and not in one direction only. After further debate, Mr. Loxton's amendment was overwhelmingly defeated on a non-party division. Nationalits, Progressives, and most of the Labour Party voted against the amendment. Those voting in favour were .Messrs M'Clelland, Scully, Murray, Fitzgerald, Dunn, Lang, Dooley, Clarke, Horstngton, Loughlin, Davies, Flannery, Baddeley, O'Halloran and Loxton. The division resulted: Ayes 15. noes 51. A vote was then taken on Mr. Bruxner's amendment, which was carried on a non-party division by 38 votes to 20, Some Labour members who had expressed opposition to the amendment voted in favour of it.

Immediately the result of the division was announced there were cries of "Resign. resign." Mr. Goldstein asked. the Minister, in charge of the bill whether, in view of the vote Just taken, which represented, in his opinion, the desires of certain elements to destroy the bill, he proposed going on with the measure. (Uproar.) The Minister for Local Government ignored the question. Clause 11, dealing with contributions to be made by the councils, was amended on the motion of the Minister. He explained that the amendment was necessary, as is proposed to make provision later on for a special rate for agricultural lands exceeding five acres within the county of Cumberland. Mr. Loxton moved an amendment that the councils' contribution should not exceed one farthing in the £The Minister said he could not possibly accept the amendment. The bill could not be financed on a rate of one farthing in the £. Mr. Weaver deprecated the Minister's announcement that he would not agree to a reduction in the rate. He objected to Ministers accepting an amendment from the Progressives, and ignoring those coming from members of his own party. Mr. Hoskins strongly attacked the Progressives for attempting to wreck the bill by throwing upon the county of Cumberland the responsibility of financing the tBlue Mountains roads. Other Nationalist mqmbers declared tbat they would support Mr. Loxton's amendment. Mr. Goldstein said he was going to kill the bill if he could. He would not give a vote as a city member to relieve the country of its responsiWilitles. The carrying of Mr. Bruxner's amendment had made the bill useless. They had seen the spectacle of members speaking one way and voting another, simply in an endeavour to kill the bill. Mr. Bagnall hoped that members would not be carried away by a wave of mental inebriation, but would assist the Minister to get the bill through. Mr. Lang urged members not to display such heat, but to deal with these amendment in a proper manner. The trouble was that the Government did not come down with the bill and say, "This is our bill, and we are going to pass It" As the bill was a non-party measure, no one should object to what the majority of the House decided. There was some disorder, and Mr. Fltzsimmons, the Deputy Chairman, warned members that if interjections continued he would pot the Standing Orders in operation. Mr. Mutch described the amendment carried at the instance of Mr. Bruner as extraordinary stupid. According to the bill, £203,000 would be available to spend on main roads within the county of Cumberland. If Mr. Loxton's amendment was carried, it would reduce that amount by £101,500. This would render a programme of road-building practically impossible. The amendment was negatived by 81 votes to 32. (Left sitting.)
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY (1924, September 4). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article137776793

Initially, the only classification was Main Roads, however Sir Michael Bruxner and H.H. Newell (Commissioner for Main Roads 1932-1941) devised a new system which would divide the state’s classified roads into three categories:
  • State Highway
  • Trunk Roads
  • Main Roads
These new classifications came into force on 7 August 1928, with State Highways numbered 1-50, Trunk Roads 51-99 and Main Roads 101-999. With the introduction of Commonwealth Grants for works on “Developmental Roads”, a new classification was then introduced to cover these roads. Developmental Roads were numbered from 1001-1999 and Developmental Works (such as a bridge) were numbered from 3001-3999.

Later, extra classifications were added to reflect changing transport needs and an expanding road network. These included Secondary Roads (complementing the network of Main Roads in urban areas), Tourist Roads (roads serving primary tourist attractions) and Freeways (there was no such thing as a freeway in Australia before World War 2). Trunk Roads were later abolished by the State Roads Act 1986 and those former Trunk Roads became ordinary Main Roads.

After the major review of the classified road system by the Department of Main Roads in 1948, many years passed before another major review was undertaken. The next major review came in the late 1980s, presumably as part of the continuing “corporatisation” of Government departments. A memorandum of understanding was signed by the Ministers for Roads and Local Government, which split all classified roads into two broad management groups – State and Regional. Those unclassified roads made up a third group – Local. The aim of the split was to focus RTA responsibilities on a greater control of expanded network of State Roads (prior to this the RTA only had complete control over State Highways, Freeways and metropolitan Main Roads) and rationalise the administrative overlap with Councils in relation to funding other roads, including the introduction of a block grant of funding for Regional Roads. Following the introduction of the State/Regional/Local system, extensive changes were made to the classified road system from 1991 to 1995 resulting in a large net increase in the length of declared roads. However, even with a change in legislation in 1993 the State/Regional/Local system was not incorporated into law. From and by Ozroads: The Australian Roads Website ; 2004-2006 http://www.ozroads.com.au

Sydney, 17th August, 1938.

I, the Right Honourable John de Vere, BARON Wakehurst, Governor of the State of New South "Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby notify that the roads hereunder described, in pursuance of the provisions of section 18, Public Roads Act, 1902, are hereby declared to be public road, and dedicated to the public accordingly.

WAKEHURST, Governor. 
COLIN A. SINCLAIR, Minister for Lands.


Warringah Shire.

The parts of road known as Bay View road, lying between the existing public roads. 1,475b-1,603, and the present high-water mark of Pittwater fronting portions 43 and 27, parish Narrabeen; county Cumberland, Land District Metropolitan. R. 37-J,012.
DECLARATION OF ROADS TO BE PUBLIC ROAD UNDER PROVISIONS OF SECTION 18, PUBLIC ROADS ACT, 1902. (1938, September 2). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3492. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225072451

Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board, Sydney, 21st July, 1925.
Notice to the Owners of Tenements and Premises is—
Warringah Shire: Pittwater-road, from Narrabeen Lagoon north and north-easterly 5,415 yards; Bay View road, from Pittwater-road to Darley street; Vineyard-street, from Pittwater-road westerly 318 yards; Bungan-street, from Bay -View road southerly 78 yards; Mona-street, from .Ray View road south-easterly 112 yards; Darley street, from Pittwater-road south-easterly 374 yaids; Darley-street, from Pittwater-road north westerly 288 yards, Blythlea-street, from Darley-street to Polo-street; Hill-street, from Pittwater road to Warriewood-avenue; Warriewood-avenue, from Vineyard-street .south-easterly 1,862 yards (80,565). NOTICE TO LAY SERVICE PIPES. (1925, July 24). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3284. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223014691 

Addition to Scavenging Area,
NOTICE is hereby given that the Council of the abovenamed Shire has resolved that the boundaries of the Newport Scavenging Area shall be extended to embrace Mona Vale, Bay View and Church Point, the added area being bounded as follows:—
By Warriewood-road from the junction of that road with Pittwater-road to Macpherson-street; thence by the last named street to Narrabeen Creek; thence by Narrabeen Creek to Macpherson-street; again thence by that street northerly to Vineyard-street ; thence by the eastern boundaries of lots 33 and 14, Rock Lily Estate, to the south-east corner of Mona Vale Cemetery; thence by Emma-street to the south-east corner of lot 43 Rock Lily Estate; thence northerly by the eastern boundary of that lot and by Cahill Creek to Mona-street,; thence by Mona-street north-westerly to Cabbage Tree road; thence again north-westerly by the south-west boundaries of parish portions 30, 28, 27 and 26 ("Brown's Block") to McCarr's Creek; thence generally north-easterly by the high-water mark "of that creek to Church Point Wharf; thence generally south-easterly by the high-water mark Pittwater Bay to The Avenue; thence easterly by the Avenue to Pittwater-road; thence in a direct easterly straight line to the Pacific Ocean; thence southerly by the high-water mark of the Pacific Ocean to the southeast corner of "Black Swamp" Reserve; thence northwesterly by the southern boundary of that reserve to the north-western corner of portion 13; thence southerly by the western boundary of that portion and portion 14 to the junction of Pittwater-road and Warriewood-road, that being the point of commencement.
Shire Clerk. Shire Hall, Brookvale,
24th December, 1926. 
SHIRE OF WARRINGAH. (1926, December 31). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 5517. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223001780 

Declaration of Secondary Roads.

THE Main Roads Board of New South Wales, in pursuance of the provisions of section 18 of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1929, hereby notifies that the roads described in the Schedule hereto are declared Secondary Roads.

Secretary, Main Roads Board.

No. of Road 2,009. Description: Road commencing at the intersection of Boundary-street with the Pacific Highway (Main Road No. 10), via Boundary-street and Babbage-road to Roseville Bridge; thence via Middle Harbour road, Rodborough-road, Beacon Hill road and May-road; thence via a deviation to Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 164) near its intersection with Harbord-road.

No. of Road 2,036. Description: From the Pacific Highway (Main Road No. 10) at Hornsby, via Stationstreet, Jersey-street and Jersey street North to the Pacific Highway (Main Road No. 10) at Asquith.

(This notice is in lieu of notices relating to the same roads published in Government Gazettes Nos. 52 and 46 of 24th April, 1931, and 17th April, 1930, respectively.) (2727)
MAIN ROADS BOARD OF NEW SOUTH WALES. (1931, June 5). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1985. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219917947

Section 264 of the Local Government Act, 1919.
Shire of Warringah: Main Road No. 328—Roseville to Brookvale—From the top of Beacon Hill to Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 164), at Brookvale.
NOTICE is hereby given that the levels of Main Road No. 328—Roseville to Brookvale—from the top of Beacon Hill to Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 164), at Brookvale, within the Shire of Warringah, as shown on plans and sections exhibited at the Department of Main Roads, 309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney, and duly notified in the Government Gazette of the 21st December, 1934, and in the Sydney Morning Herald of the 22nd December, 1934, have been approved by the Commissioner. The levels are now fixed and will take effect as from the date' of publication of this notice.
Ss. R. HENDERSON, Secretary.
309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney, 25th January, 1935.
(D.M.R. 479-184) 
DEPARTMENT OF MAIN ROADS. (1935, January 25). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 363. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224745811 

Section 264 of the Local Government Act, 1919.
Shire of Warringah: Main Road No. 164—From Condamine-street to William-street, including sections of Condamine-street, Old Pittwater road and Pittwater - road.
NOTICE is hereby given that the Commissioner for Main Roads proposes to fix and re-fix the levels of Main Road No. 164, from Condamine-street to William-street, including sections of Condamine-street, Old Pittwater road and Pittwater-road within the Shire of Warringah, and of so much of any side road affected, in accordance with and as shown on plans and sections prepared by the Department of Main Roads. Any persons interested may set forth in writing, addressed to the undersigned, within one month of the date hereof, particulars of any objections they may have to the proposal, together with a claim for compensation for any loss or damage which they may sustain by reason of the property in which they may be interested being directly affected in an injurious manner by reason of the re-fixing of the levels; and in respect of that section of the road, north of the golf links, the levels of which are to be fixed, any persons interested may set forth in writing, addressed to the undersigned, within one month of the date hereof, any claim for the provision of reasonable means of access to the property in which they may be interested. A plan ^)f the proposed levels may be inspected at the Department of Main Roads, 309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney, and at the Shire Office, at Brookvale.
S. R. HENDERSON, Secretary. 309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney,
1st October, 1937. 
DEPARTMENT OF MAIN ROADS. (1937, October 1). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4005. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222028512 

WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL.—Road Levels—PITTWATER-ROAD, North Manly and Dee Why.—Notice is hereby given that the Warringah Shire Council proposes to refix the levels of Pittwater-road, North Manly, from the Manly Lagoon to approximately 900 feet north of Riverview-parade, and Pittwater-road, Dee Why, from Pacific-parade to just north if Dee Why parade. Plans of the proposed levels may be inspected during office hours at the Engineer's office, Shire Hall, Brookvale. All persons interested are called upon to set forth in writing addressed to the Shire Clerk within one month from date of this notice any objection to the proposal and a claim for any loss or damage they may sustain to their property by reason of the re fixing. W. U. GORS, Shire Clerk, Council Chambers, Brookvale, 17th December, 1947.
WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL.—ROAD LEVELS—PITTWATER-ROAD, NORTH MANLY AND DEE WHY.—Notice is hereby (1947, December 19). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2989. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224775119

WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL.—Road Levels—PITTWATER-ROAD, North Manly and Dee Why.—Notice is hereby given that the Warringah Shire Council proposes to refix the levels of Pittwater-road, North Manly, from the Manly Lagoon to approximately 900 feet north of Riverview-parade, and Pittwater-road, Dee Why, from Pacific-parade to just north if Dee Why parade. Plans of the proposed levels may be inspected during office hours at the Engineer's office, Shire Hall, Brookvale. All persons interested are called upon to set forth in writing addressed to the Shire Clerk within one month from date of this notice any objection to the proposal and a claim for any loss or damage they may sustain to their property by reason of the re fixing. W. U. GORS, Shire Clerk, Council Chambers, Brookvale, 17th December, 1947. WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL.—ROAD LEVELS—PITTWATER-ROAD, NORTH MANLY AND DEE WHY.—Notice is hereby (1947, December 19). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2989. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224775119 

WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL.—Road Levels, Pittwater-road, Brookvale.—Notice is hereby given that the Department of Main Roads, acting on behalf of Warringah Shire Council, is reconstructing Pittwater-road between William street and the Shire Hall, Brookvale. Plans showing the new road levels may be inspected during office hours at the Shire Hall, Brookvale. All persons interested may lodge objections or claims in writing (addressed to me) within one month from date hereof. W. U. GORS, Shire Clerk, Council Chambers, Brookvale, 25th August, 1948. WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL.—ROAD LEVELS, PITTWATER-ROAD, BROOKVALE.—Notice is hereby given that the (1948, August 27). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2247. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224781997 

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1954.
Section 264 of the Local Government Act, 1919.
Shire of Warringah: Main Road No. 164—Pittwater-road.
Reconstruction between South Creek road and Collaroy Post Office.
NOTICE is hereby given that the Commissioner for Main Roads proposes to fix and/or refix the levels of Main Road No. 164, Pittwater-road, between South Creek road and Collaroy Post Office and of so much of any side roads thereby affected, within the Shire of Warringah, in accordance with and as shown on plans and sections prepared by the Department of Main Roads. Any persons interested are hereby called upon to set forth in writing, addressed to the undersigned within one month from the date hereof, any objection to the proposal, and in the case of an original fixing of levels a claim for the provision of reasonable means of access to the property in which they are interested and in the case of any refixing of levels a claim for compensation for any loss or damage which they may sustain by reason of the property being directly affected in any injurious manner by reason of the refixing. A plan of the proposed levels may be inspected at the Department of Main Roads, 309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney, at the Department's Metropolitan Office, at Milson's Point and at the Council's Office at Brookvale.
R. S. JOHNSTON, Secretary. 309 Castlereagh-street,
6th May, 1955.
(D.M.R. No. 479-1,423) 

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1963
Section 264 of the Local Government Act, 1919
Shire of Warringah. Main Road No. 164—Pittwater Road. Construction between Gondola Road and Warriewood Road.
NOTICE is hereby given that the levels of Main Road No. 164—Pittwater Road, between Gondola Road and Warriewood Road and so much of any side roads thereby affected within the Shire of Warringah in accordance with and as shown on plans Registered No. 164.G2531 exhibited at the Head Office of the Department of Main Roads, 309 Castlereagh Street, Sydney, at the Department's Metropolitan Division, Milson's Point and at the Council Chambers of the Warringah Shire Council, Brookvale, and duly notified in the "Sydney Morning Herald" on Thursday, 22nd November, 1962, and in the Government Gazette on Friday, 7th December, 1962, have been approved.
The levels are now fixed and/or refixed and will take effect from the date of publication of this notice.
Signed and sealed at Sydney, this 6th day of November, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-four.
I, John Alexander Lachlan Shaw, The Commissioner for Main Roads have hereto affixed the Official Seal of the Commissioner for Main Roads In the presence of—
C. W. Mansfield, IP. (D.M.R. No. 479-1,117)
J. A. L. SHAW.
DEPARTMENT OF MAIN ROADS (1964, December 11). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4021. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220345793 

Sydney, 26th January,. 1944.
I, the Right Honourable John de Vere, Baron Wakehurst, Governor of the State of New South Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby notify that in accordance with the provisions of sections 9 and 11, Public Roads Act, 1902, the lands described hereunder and required for the roads I specified, shall be and are hereby resumed and withdrawn and i dedicated as public road; and in accordance with the provisions of section 18 of such Act, the roads described hereunder are hereby declared to be public road and dedicated to the public accordingly; and also that the roads hereunder specified (intended closing of which has been duly notified), are hereby closed.
WAKEHURST, Governor.
J. M. TULLY, Minister for Lands.
Description of Road opened:—From Church Point up Mc- Carr's Creek (Main Road No. 174), parish Narrabeen, county Cumberland,—as shown on plans deposited in the Department of Lands, Sydney, and catalogued XI. 22,854 and 22,855-1,603 i rolls. R, 41-1,305.  
RESUMPTION AND WITHDRAWAL OF LAND AND DEDICATION OF ROAD UNDER SECTIONS 9 AND 11, AND DECLARATION OF ROADS TO BE PUBLIC ROAD UNDER SECTION 18, PUBLIC ROADS ACT, 1902, AND OF THE CLOSING OF ROADS. (1944, February 11). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 266. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225093640 

Interim Conservation Order No. 180
IN pursuance of section 26 of the Heritage Act, 1977, I, the Minister for Planning and Environment, having considered a recommendation by the Heritage Council, do, by this my order, make an interim conservation order in respect of the item of the environmental heritage specified or described in the Schedule hereto. (H.C. 30431)
Minister for Planning and Environment. Sydney, 3rd April, 1981.
The place known as the former Church Point, Methodist Cemetery, Corner Quarter Sessions and McCarr's Roads, Church Point, as shown edged heavy black on the plan catalogued H.C. 406 in the office of the Heritage Council of New South Wales. (9201) HERITAGE ACT, 1977 (1981, April 6).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2016. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231260489 
'Pittwater. Broken Bay' - Watercolour by M.C. Denison, from Album, 'Views mainly of Sydney, Wollongong, New England, Cook's River, Hawkesbury River, Norfolk Island, Hobart and Franklin Valley, and Moreton Bay, ca. 1846-54.'Image No.: c11829_0029_h, courtesy State Library of NSW
Pittwater (Broken Bay) N.S.W. Circa 1820 by E. C. (Edward Charles) Close, 1790-1866. Image No.: a141024h, courtesy State Library of NSW
Edward Charles Close, who arrived in NSW in 1817 with the 48th Regiment, was transferred to Newcastle in the early 1820s to supervise engineering works there. He resigned from the army in late 1822 to settle on his land grant, Illulaung, near Morpeth where he lived till his death in 1866 -- Reference: Australian Dictionary of Biography, vol.1.
Roads To Pittwater: The Pittwater Road - Threads Collected and collated by A J Guesdon

Previous History Pages:  

Marie Byles Lucy Gullett Kookoomgiligai Frank Hurley Archpriest JJ Therry Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor Bowen Bungaree W. Bradley 1788 Journal Midholme Loggan Rock Cabin La Corniche La Corniche II Lion Island Bungan Beach Botham Beach  Scarred Trees  Castles in the Sand Dame Nellie Melba lunches at Bilgola Spring, 1914  First to Fly in Australia at North Narrabeen  Mona Vale Golf Club's Annual Balls  Governor Phillip camps on Resolute Beach  Ruth Bedford  Jean Curlewis  Mollie Horseman  Charlotte Boutin  May Moore  Neville W Cayley  Leon Houreux   Frederick Wymark  Sir Adrian Curlewis  Bilgola Heron Cove  Mullet Creek  Shark Point  Woodley's Cottage  A Tent at The Basin Collin's Retreat-Bay View House-Scott's Hotel  Bilgola Cottage and House  The First Pittwater Regatta  Women Cricketers Picnic  Filmed In Pittwater   Governor Phillip's Barrenjoey Cairn Waradiel Season The Church at Church Point  Governor Phillip's Exploration of Broken Bay, 2 -€“ 9 March 1788   Petroglyths: Aboriginal Rock Art on the Northern Beaches  Avalon Headland Landmarks  Steamers Part I  Pittwater Aquatic Club Part I  Woody Point Yacht Club  Royal Motor Yacht Club Part I Dorothea Mackellar  Elaine Haxton  Neva Carr Glynn  Margaret Mulvey Jean Mary Daly  Walter Oswald Watt Wilfrid Kingsford Smith John William Cherry George Scotty Allan  McCarrs Creek  Narrabeen Creek  Careel Creek Currawong Beach Creek  Bushrangers at Pittwater  Smuggling at Broken Bay  An Illicit Still at McCarr's Creek  The Murder of David Foley  Mona Vale Outrages  Avalon Camping Ground   Bayview Koala Sanctuary  Ingleside Powder Works  Palm Beach Golf Course  Avalon Sailing Club  Mona Vale Surf Life Saving Club  Palm Beach SLSC Part I - The Sheds  Warriewood SLSC  Whale Beach SLSC Flagstaff Hill Mount Loftus Pill Hill Sheep Station Hill  S.S. Florrie  S.S. Phoenix and General Gordon Paddlewheeler   MV Reliance The Elvina  Florida House  Careel House Ocean House and Billabong  Melrose-The Green Frog  The Small Yacht Cruising Club of Pittwater Canoe and I Go With The Mosquito Fleet - 1896  Pittwater Regattas Part I - Dates and Flagships to 1950  Shark Incidents In Pittwater  The Kalori Church Point Wharf  Bayview Wharf  Newport Wharf Palm Beach Jetty - Gow's Wharf  Max Watt  Sir Francis Anderson  Mark Foy  John Roche  Albert Verrills  Broken Bay Customs Station At Barrenjoey  Broken Bay Water Police  Broken Bay Marine Rescue - Volunteer Coastal Patrol  Pittwater Fire-Boats  Prospector Powder Hulk at Towler's Bay  Naval Visits to Pittwater 1788-1952  Pittwater's Torpedo Wharf and Range Naval Sea Cadets in Pittwater S.S. Charlotte Fenwick S.S. Erringhi   P.S. Namoi  S.Y. Ena I, II and III  Barrenjoey Headland - The Lessees  Barrenjoey Lighthouse - The Construction Barrenjoey Broken Bay Shipwrecks Up To 1900  Barrenjoey Light Keepers  Douglas  Adrian Ross  Newport SLSC 1909 - 1938 Part I Overview  North Narrabeen SLSC - The Formative Years  First Naval Exercises by New South Wales Colonial Ships –The Wolverene at Broken Bay   Bilgola SLSC - the First 10 years  North Palm Beach SLSC  A History of Pittwater Parts 1 and 4 Pittwater Regattas - 1907 and 1908  Pittwater Regattas - 1921 - The Year that Opened and Closed with a Regatta on Pittwater Pittwater Regatta Banishes Depression - 1933  The 1937 Pittwater Regatta - A Fashionable Affair  Careel Bay Jetty-Wharf-Boatshed Gow-Gonsalves Boatshed -Snapperman Beach  Camping at Narrabeen - A Trickle then a Flood Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek' RMYC Broken Bay Boathouse and Boatshed Barrenjoey Boat House The Bona - Classic Wooden Racing Yacht Mona Vale Hospital Golden Jubilee - A Few Insights on 50 Years as a Community Hospital Far West Children's Health Scheme - the Formation Years  The First Scotland Island Cup, Trophy and Race and the Gentleman who loved Elvina Bay  Royal Motor Yacht Club Broken Bay NSW - Cruiser Division History - A History of the oldest division in the Royal Motor Yacht Club   Royal Motor Yacht Club€“ Broken Bay€“ Early Motor Boats and Yachts, their Builders and Ocean Races to Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury and Pittwater  The Royal Easter Show Began As the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales   The Mail Route to Pittwater and Beyond  The Wild Coachmen of Pittwater - A Long and Sometimes Bumpy Ride on Tracks Instead of Roads  The Fearless Men of Palm Beach SLSC's Surf Boats First Crews - A Tale of Viking Ships, Butcher Boats and Robert Gow'€™s Tom Thumb 'Canoe'   Furlough House Narrabeen - Restful Sea Breezes For Children and Their Mothers   From Telegraphs to Telephones - For All Ships at Sea and Those On Land Mona Vale Training Grounds - From Lancers on Horses to Lasses on Transport Courses Fred Verrills; Builder of Bridges and Roads within Australia during WWII, Builder of Palm Beach Afterwards   Communications with Pittwater  Ferries To Pittwater  A History of Pittwater - Part 4: West Head Fortress  Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur  Early Pittwater Launches and Ferries Runs Avalon Beach SLSC - The First Clubhouse Avalon Beach SLSC The Second and Third Clubhouses From Beneath the Floorboards at Hyde Park Barracks Bungaree Was Flamboyant  Andrew Thompson - 'Long Harry' Albert Thomas Black John Collins of Avalon Narrabeen Prawning Times - A Seasonal Tide of Returnings  Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings and Pearl Kings and When Not to Harvest Oysters  Yabbying In Warriewood Creeks  Eeling in Warriewood's Creeks (Includes A Short History of community involvement in environmental issues/ campaigns in and around Narrabeen Lagoon - 1974 to present by David James OAM)   Eunice Minnie Stelzer - Pittwater Matriarchs  Maria Louisa Therry - Pittwater Matriarchs Manly's Stone Kangaroo, Camera Obscura,  First Maze and 'Chute' - Fun Days in Sea Hazes from 1857 On  A Salty Tale of the Kathleen Gillett – A Small Reminder and Celebration of Our 70th Sydney to Hobart  Katherine Mary Roche - Pittwater Matriarch  Sarah A. Biddy Lewis and Martha Catherine Benns Pittwater Matriarchs A Glimpse of the Hawkesbury.(1883) By Francis Myers. Illustrated by J C Hoyte   Pittwater's New Cycle Track of 1901 Manly to Newport  The Rock Lily Hotel  Barrenjoey House The Pasadena Jonah's St Michael's Arch  The First Royal Visitor to Australia: the Incident at Clontarf March 12th, 1868  Pittwater: Lovely Arm of the Hawkesbury By NOEL GRIFFITHS - includes RMYC Wharf and Clareville Wharf of 1938 + An Insight into Public Relations in Australia George Mulhall First Champion of Australia in Rowing - First Light-Keeper  at Barranjuey Headland  Captain Francis Hixson - Superintendent of Pilots, Lights, and Harbours and Father of the Naval Brigade  The First Boat Builders of Pittwater I: the Short Life and Long Voyages of Scotland Island Schooner the Geordy  The Marquise of Scotland Island  Boat Builders of Pittwater II: from cargo schooners and coasters to sailing skiffs and motorised launches  130th Anniversary of Australia’s Sudan Contingent - Local Connections of the first Australians to Serve  The Riddles of The Spit and Bayview/Church Point: sailors, boat makers, road pavers and winning rowers The Currawong: Classic Yacht VP Day Commemorative Service 2015 –  at Avalon Beach RSL Cenotaph: 70th Anniversary   Captain T. Watson and his Captain Cook Statues: A Tribute to Kindness  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern or Wiltshire Parks to McKay Reserve – From Beach to Estuary  Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer  Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks Pittwater Regatta Air Race Trophies: from 1934 and 1935 and The Pilot Who Saved William Hughes  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves:  A Headland Garden  Early Pittwater Paddlers,  Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Green Family  Elanora - Some Early Notes and Pictures  The Stewart Towers On Barrenjoey Headland  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Williams Family  Early Cricket in Pittwater: A small Insight Into the Noble Game from 1880's On  The Pacific Club's 2016 Carnival in Rio Fundraiser for Palm Beach SLSC Marks the 79th Year of Support  Bert Payne Park, Newport: Named for A Man with Community Spirit  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Fox Family  Surf Carnivals in February 1909, 1919, 1925, a Fancy Dress Rise of Venus and Saving Lives with Surfboards  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Paddon Family of Clareville  Mermaid Basin, Mona Vale Beach: Inspired 1906 Poem by Viva Brock  Early Pittwater Schools: The Barrenjoey School 1872 to 1894  The Royal Easter Show and 125th Celebration of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College: Farmers Feed Us!  The Newport School 1888 to 2016  Pittwater's Ocean Beach Rock Pools: Southern Corners of Bliss - A History  The Royal Botanical Garden Sydney Celebrates 200 Years in 2016 The Porter Family of Newport: Five Brother Soldiers Serve in WWI  Church Point and Bayview: A Pittwater Public School Set on the Estuary  The Basin, Pittwater: A Reprise: Historical Records and Pictures  Lighthouse Cottages You Can Rent in NSW - Designed or Inspired by Colonial Architect James Barnet: Includes Historic 'Lit' Days records   Bayview Days Ships Biscuits - the At Sea Necessity that Floated William Arnott’s Success  Mona Vale Public School 1906 to 2012    St Johns Camden: 176th And 167th Anniversaries In June 2016 - Places To Visit  Narrabeen Lagoon And Collaroy Beachfront: Storms And Flood Tides Of The Past  Avalon Beach Public School - A History   Muriel Knox Doherty Sir Herbert Henry Schlink  Shopping And Shops In Manly: Sales Times From 1856 To 1950 For A Fishing Village  Sir Edward John Lees Hallstrom   Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club's 150th Sailing Season Opening: A Few Notes Of Old  A Few Glimpses Into Narrabeen's Past Beauties   Dr. Isobel Ida Bennett AO   Taronga Zoo 100th Birthday Parade: 1000 Reasons To Celebrate  War Memorials: Manly, October 14, 1916  Avalon Beach Golf Links: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  War Memorials - Mona Vale, November 14, 1926  Annie Wyatt Reserve Palm Beach: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II Tumbledown Dick Hill  Waratah Farm and Narrabeen Plums: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Mark Twain, J.F. Archibald And Henry Lawson - Did They Go Fishing At Narrabeen In The Spring Of 1895?: Probably!  Bayview Baths Centenary Celebration in November 2016 hosted by Bayview-Church Point Residents Association  Dr. Jenny Rosen's Historical Timeline  Palm Beach RSL - Club Palm Beach Celebrating 60 Years  Early Years At Narrabeen: The Plane Sailing Day Of 1944 The  Five Ways- Six ways Junction; Kamikaze Corner - Avalon Bilgola  RPAYC Season on Pittwater and coming of Jubilees in Summer of 1938 Local Explorers’ Modern Day Discovery - Governor Phillip’s First Landing site, Campsite and contact with Local Aborigines in Pittwater: The Case for West Head Beach  Rendezvous Tea Rooms Palm Beach: links with 1817 and 1917: Palm Beach Stores  and Fishermen St Cloud's Jersey Stud: Elanora Heights: Pittwater Fields of Dreams  Roderic Quinn's Poems And Prose For Manly, Beacon Hill, Dee Why And Narrabeen  A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists: The Estuary  Celebrating World Radio Day: The Bilgola Connection With The Beginnings Of Radio In Australia  Emile Theodore Argles - champion of all Australians without a Voice - a very funny Satirist, Manly Poet and Pittwater Prose Writer and Litterateur  Sydney Harbour Bridge Celebrates 85th Birthday: A Few Pittwater Connections  Victor James Daley: A Manly Bard And Poet who also came to Pittwater and the Hawkesbury  Let's Go Fly A Kite !: Palm Beach Whistling Kites Inspire sharing How to Make Standard, Box and Whistling Boy Kites - school holidays fun with a bit of Australian and Narrabeen history  Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space, and Of Many Captains  Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I: Coastal Landscapes and Seascapes  The Bayview Tea Gardens 1920 to 1923 When Run By Thomas Edward And Annie Newey (Nee Costello) An Australian and RPAYC Commodore Aboard an America's Cup Challenger of 1908 and 1914   Henry Lawson - A Manly Bard and Poet: on his 150th Birthday  Historic Catalogue and Record of Pittwater Art I: Artists and Artists Colonies  Opportunity To Visit Submarine War Grave Renews Memories Of 75 Years Ago  Early Bayview - insights courtesy Don Taylor and Margaret Tink Retracing Governor Phillip's Footsteps Around Pittwater: The Mystery Of The Cove On The East Side   Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: John (Jack) Ralston and Nora McAuliffe  Patrick Edward Quinn: A Manly Prose writer who gave us A Run To Pittwater (1889) and Songs for the Federation of Australia  Avalon Beach North Headland Indian Face 'Falls': An Everchanging Coastline  Nautical Treasure In Suburbia  Pittwater: Where the Wild Flowers Are 1917 to 2017  Narani, Captain Cook Celebrations At MVPS And Elvina Bay Memories - 1970s  Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: Alrema Becke Queen of Palm Beach  The Beachcombers Surfboard Riding Club: Palm Beach, NSW - 1959 to 1961 Year Dated Beer Bottles Found at Taylors Point  Early Pittwater Surfers: Avalon Beach I  - 1956: The Carnival That Introduced The Malibu Surfboard and Being Able To SurfAcross A Wave Face - Reg Wood Anecdotes    Mona Vale SLSC To Be Completely Renewed + A Few Insights from the Pages of the Past  The Firecracker That Closed Narrabeen Hotel By Ken Lloyd (Savalloyd) + Narrabeen Hotel Licence Transfer Trail  Traces Of WWII Coast Watchers Found On Bangalley Headland - 1942  Early Warriewood  SLSC insights per Norman Godden + Extras  The Macphersons of Wharriewood and Narrabeen: the photo albums of William Joseph Macpherson  Angophora Reserve Avalon 1938 Dedication  Avalon Preservation Association History by Geoff Searl Pittwater Summer Houses: 1916 Palm Beach Cottage and Palm Beach House  Pittwater YHA: Some History  WWI Historian Presents New Film On The Beersheba Charge At Avalon Beach Historical Society Meeting  Newport's Bushlink 'From The Crown To The Sea' Paths: Celebrating Over 20 Years Of Community Volunteer Bushcare Results  Pittwater Fishermen: The Sly Family Narrabeen Exploits and Manly Community Contributors: The First Surfboat at Manly Beach  Women In The Surf Life Saving Movement As Life Savers: From At Least 1910 Locally - Awarded Medals For Saving Lives From 1880 In NSW  Windsor Bridge: Planned Destruction Of Historic Link With A Pittwater Connection The Rise Of The Cruising Season: A Look At Some Early Australian sailers and Local Visitor Beauties     Pittwater Fishermen: Barranjoey Days Polo By The Sea 2018: Over A Hundred Years Of Loving This Game In Pittwater  Australia Day Regatta Began As Anniversary Day Regatta  Black Bakelite Telephone: Early Pittwater Phone Numbers  Hy-Brasil, Avalon Beach - Pittwater Summer Houses  Ferry Names for Emerald Class: The Gibbs-Turner Original Magic Button  Pittwater Summer Houses: A Tent At Palm Beach's Governor Phillip Park 'Neath Barrenjoey  Pittwater Summer Houses: The Cabin, Palm Beach - The Pink House Of The Craig Family  Manly's Early Sand Sculptors: How Pennies Can Become Pounds and Found A New Art   Retracing Governor Phillip's Footsteps Around Pittwater: The Mystery Of The Cove On The East Side by Geoff Searl and Roger Sayers 230th Anniversary Edit March 2018  Black-Necked Stork, Mycteria Australis, Once Visited Pittwater: Pair Shot in 1855  Butter Churns: Pittwater Dairies The Drainage System In Thompson Square, Windsor  Sydney Royal Easter Show 2018 Show Stopper Beer Brewed By Modus Operandi Mona Vale Extends Locals Input Into RAS Annual Celebration Of Local Products Sydney's Royal Easter Show Showbag Began As An Australian Sample Bag   Pittwater Fishermen: Great Mackerel, Little Mackerel (Wilson's Beach - Currawong) and The Basin  Motor Car Tours To And In Pittwater Show Us The Way This Place Once Was  Some Bayview Memories: The Lloyd Family Tarramatta Park, Mona Vale 1904  The Collaroy Paddle Steamer: New Ephemera Added To Public Accessible Records - Her Connections To Pittwater  The Roads And Tracks Of Yesterday: How The Avalon Beach Subdivisions Changed The Green Valley Tracks  Australian Sailing's Barranjoey Pin Program; some insights into this Pittwater Yacht and owner, Sir W Northam who won Australia’s first Olympic sailing gold medal at the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games  Avalon Beach Historical Society’s 9th Great Historic Photographic Exhibition: Thousands Of Stories Made Accessible  The Hawkesbury River Railway Bridge: Timely Winter Anniversaries and Commemorations For A Septuagenarian and her Predecessor  Photographers Of Pittwater Capture Historic Insights: A. J. (Arthur James) Vogan, 1859-1948  Roads To Pittwater: The Wakehurst Parkway Along Old Oxford Falls Track