July 16 - 22, 2017: Issue 321

A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists

Artists and Artists Colonies
CONRAD MARTENS (1801-1878) Entrance to Narrabeen Lake 
watercolour signed, titled and inscribed verso: Entrance to Narrabeen Lake by Conrad Martens 39.5 x 44.5 cm
courtesy The Alan & Margaret Hickinbotham Collection
William Joseph Macpherson on Narrabeen Lagoon - 'Narrabeen' (nos. 45-46, 48-51). Circa 1890 to 1910 - from State Library of NSW Album: 'Box 21: Glass negatives including views of New Zealand farms, Sydney Harbour, Narrabeen, and maypole dancing at the SCG, ca. 1890-1910.' Presented by David William Macpherson, 2014 - Above: c071860040 in this series - courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW. Visit: The Macphersons of Wharriewood

From Conrad Martens to William Lister Lister to Sydney Long 

In these three formative Australian artists can be seen the shift from traditional methods of painting and subjects chosen to suit an established market, to the print and experimental visions that created stylistic works that, in turn, ended up creating their own market and unleashing the concept of art as something which can continually develop and express more.

One of the most intriguing photographs shared with us, courtesy of David James OAM, former Mayor and Councillor of Pittwater, underlines some Artists who have been very successful, and associated with names such as Roberts and Streeton at Sirius Cove at Mosman, such as McCubbin, Longstaff, Alec Colquhoun, Abbey Alston, Fred Williams, from the Melbourne sprung Heidelberg School of Painting members, have created Art that focused on and celebrated Pittwater. Fred Williams, for instance, once lived at Narrabeen.
Heidleberg School of Painting members, ca. 1887-1891 / Grouzelle
Signatures / Inscriptions: "F. M. Williams, Green Hills Narrabeen" -- on verso- Grouzelle / 69 & 71 Swanston Street / Late Royal Arcade / Melbourne: Dated from Photographer's studio.

The photograph is signed on the verso. Signatures include F. McCubbin, Fred Williams, Alec Colquhoun, Abbey Alston, J. Longstaff, Llewellyn Jones
The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century. The movement has latterly been described as Australian Impressionism as the term "Heidelberg" is a reference to the then rural area of Heidelberg east of Melbourne where practitioners of the style found their subject matter, though usage expanded to cover other Australian artists working in similar areas. The core group painted there on several occasions at "artist's camps" in the late 1880s and early 1890s. Besides Arthur Streeton and Walter Withers, other major artists in the movement included Tom Roberts, Frederick McCubbin and Charles Conder.

The term has since evolved to cover painters who worked together at "artists' camps" around Melbourne and Sydney in the 1880s and 1890s. Roberts first visited Sydney in 1887. There, he met the young Conder, and a strong artistic friendship blossomed. The pair painted together at the beachside suburb of Coogee in early 1888 before Conder joined Roberts on his return trip to Melbourne.

When a severe economic depression hit Melbourne in 1890, Roberts and Streeton moved to Sydney, first setting up camp at Mosman Bay, a small cove of the harbour, before finally settling around the corner at Curlew Camp, which was accessible by the Mosman ferry. Other plen air painters occasionally joined them at Curlew, including prominent art teacher and Heidelberg School supporter Julian Ashton, who resided nearby at the Balmoral artists' camp.

 Julian Ashton saw him then as 'a slim, debonair young man … with a little gold pointed beard and fair complexion', who, when he was not painting, 'was quoting Keats and Shelley'. 

Arthur Streeton camp at Mosman 1892 to 1893, courtesy State Library of NSW. Image No.:a4364007h 

Percy F.S. Spence by Tom Roberts, 1896

Tom Roberts, artist, ca. 1893-1920 / photographed by G.V.F, Talma Studios - from photocard, back of which has written on it 'Tom Roberts, Artist'. Courtesy State Library of New South Wales. Image No.:a4443001h 

Spence was a fellow artist and friend of Roberts whom he had known from their time together in 1892 at the artists' colony 'Curlew Camp', in Little Sirius Cove on Sydney Harbour's north shore. Aged 28 at the time of this portrait, he was a frequent illustrator for Cosmos, a general interest magazine of the period, a resident of Manly, about whom we share a little in the A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater - Coastal Landscapes and Seascapespage.

Surf-bathing - girls' life-saving team' by Percy Spence. Australia beach, 1910
CAPTION PRINTED BELOW PICTURE: 'Surf-Bathing-Girls' Life-Saving team at Practice'
Antique colour print from a watercolour painting - Published by Adam and Charles Black, London

Fancy Dress Procession.
The Manly surf carnival yesterday drew an enormous crowd to the village by the sea. A fine, warm day smiled on the proceedings, and surf conditions were good. The southern end of the ocean beach was thronged by holiday-makers, and on the hill overlooking the scene were several thousand persons, clustering on the various points off vantage. 

The proceedings began with a procession, the feature of which was a display supposed to show the arrival of Lieutenant Shackleton and party at the South Pole.'The Amateur Fishermen's Association had a good display, and a good setting was provided in the "Early Settlers' Camp" and the "Surf banner," upheld by a girl in flowing robes, who was surrounded by lusty children in bathing dress. On the banner read, "Health greets the surfer." The local fire brigade appeared in their turn-out, and the various competing surf clubs in costume, with the residents of Manly, in motor-cars and carriages, made up a really interesting procession. 

The procession over, the surf competitions and displays were begun. 

The results were as follow— Alarm Reel Race. — First heat, Thirroul; second heat, Manly; third heat, North Steyne; fourth heat, Maroubra. . Final: Manly, 1; North Steyne, 2; Merubra, 3. Wheelbarrow Race.— Brown and Johnson (Coogee). Surf Race (five competitors).— Cecil Healy, L. Solomons, S. M'Kelvey, T. S. Smith, and l A. Wright. Result:— Cecil Healy jumped in, and was followed by Smith, and then came Solomons. Smith put in a fine effort, and just missed a shoot that might have taken him to victory. It was the only chance. 
Rescue and Resuscitation Competition.— Bondi, 1; North Steyne, 2; Coogee, 3. Cock-fighting.— A. T. Browne and C. Mondel (Coogee). Inter-club race and Resuscitation Competition.— Little Coogee, 1 ; Manly No. 1, 2; North Steyne, 3. 

During the afternoon a fine exhibition of life-saving was given by the following team of ladies:— Patient, Miss Aggie Sly; support, Miss Dorothea Cracktanthorp ; belt, Miss Dot Wessberg; 1st line, Miss Amy Cox; 2nd line, Miss Joyce Wessberg; 3rd line, Miss Flora Glen; reel, Miss Nellie Kuhl; nurses, Nurse Alice Glen and Nurse Jessie Sly

In the surf-shooting R. M'Kelvey made some beautiful runs, but had a board. J. Holland and C. Healy also gave an exceptionally fine exhibition.  The Misses Jessie and Agnes Sly and Miss Lemers were little behind the men in this exhibition. Manned by Stan.. Jones (capt,), A. A. Watson, A. W. Bye, V. Rowlands, and W. A. Kellner the surf boat shot in in the breakers in fine style, and drew enthusiastic applause from the crowd. 

A spectacular feature of the afternoon was a grand display entitled "Arrival of raft with shipwrecked crew, attack by cannibals, and rescue by men-o'-war." It was carried out very successfully, and created considerable amusement. Owing to lack of time many events were dropped, the Iast decision not being given till nearly 7 p.m.  MANLY SURF CARNIVAL. (1910, March 20). The Sunday Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1903 - 1910), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226883634

Streeton, 'From my camp', 1896 - Sirius Cove

Tom Roberts - Smike Streeton age 24, 1891. Held by the Art Gallery of New South Wales

Streeton has a few works whose subject is different Pittwater views - many of Palm Beach over a few decades and from Sunrise Hill on more than oneoccasion:

Gum tree, windy ridge, Palm Beach c.1926 Arthur STREETON

Palm Beach and Barrenjoey Arthur STREETON
Oil on cedar panel, 22.8 x 71.1 cm 

Palm Beach and Barrenjoey, c. 1926
Oil on wood panel, 22.5 x 71 cm
The Collection of Sir Leon and Lady Trout, Christies, Brisbane.
Mr. Arthur Streeton, in his collection of paintings now on view at the Macquarie Galleries, Bligh-street, demonstrates anew that sense of colour and atmosphere, and that fine appreciation of the poetic qualities of landscape painting, which have given him a notable place among Australian artists. One spirited example of this fact is furnished in his oil painting "The Valley," wherein the foreground, cast in heavy shadows, and relieved only by the deep green of a group of trees, is in pointed contrast to the sweeping panorama in the distance, revelling in delicate effects of sunshine until the gaze is carried to the blue of the far-off hills. This is an exceedingly well-balanced and vigorous picture. In "Palm Beach," a great stretch of coast, the artist has not been so convincing, but, nevertheless, this subject possesses many points of merit. There are two effective views of Sydney Harbour, one in particular, No. 5, attracting attention by its spacious adjustment of blue water, head-land, and sky, with the high buildings of the city as an imposing background. The "Last of the Messmates" is a capital rural scene, endowed with strength by Mr. Streeton's ad-mirable treatment of the light of the low sun against the trunk of the huge fallen tree, which dominates the picture.

"Evening," a peaceful countryside, and "The Oatfield," with its harvested stacks of grain in a golden foreground, furnish other typical examples of Mr. Streeton's art in catching the essential qualities of a land-scape, and transferring these with freshness and conviction to his canvas. There are three striking Venetian subjects. The smallest of these is a little gem, depicting the life of the Grand Canal, with the dome of Santa Maria della Salute dominating the scene. Some watercolour sketches, designed by Mr. Streeton during his war service, when he had charge of a recreation hall, and found it necessary to produce arresting colour announcements of coming entertainments, add interest to the exhibition. Among these two charming figures of dancers, and another of a singer and her accompanist, both manifestly intent upon their work, are full of animation.
ART EXHIBITIONS. (1928, March 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16447163

'Palm Beach' — By Sir Arthur Street on

One of the many striking pictures now on view at Sir Arthur Streeton's exhibition at David Jones's George-street gallery. Sir Arthur's work is always attractive, and both in landscape and still life this display is rightly commanding public interest. "Palm Beach" — By Sir Arthur Streeton (1937, April 14).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 25. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160504058

Along with Streeton and Withers, Tom Roberts, Charles Conder and Frederick McCubbin are considered key figures of the movement. Drawing on naturalist and impressionist ideas, they sought to capture Australian life, the bush, and the harsh sunlight that typifies the country.

The works of these artists are notable, not only for their merits as compositions, but as part of Australia's cultural heritage. The period leading up to Federation in 1901 saw an emerging sense of Australian nationalism, and is the setting for many classic stories of Australian folklore, made famous in the works of bush poets associated with the Bulletin School, such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson. The Heidelberg School's work provides a visual complement to these tales and their images have become icons of Australian art. Many of their most significant works are held in Australia's major public galleries, including the National Gallery of Australia, the National Gallery of Victoria and the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

Arthur Ernest Streeton (1867-1943), by John Longstaff, c 1912 (?!!). Courtesy National Library of Australia, nla.pic-an21726482

Mr. Arthur Streeton is regarded as Australia's greatest landscape artist. Streeton has been in England for some years, and, though 52 years of age, he served for two years in France, and was seriously wounded. It is interesting to note that he intends returning to Australia in January, and. "will get-away to the bush and paint." The Commonwealth Government, which possesses fifty of Streeton 's war paintings, has requested him to paint "The Battle of the Hindenburg Line." PERSONAL (1920, January 1). Daily Examiner (Grafton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article195354934


Sir,-As Mr. Fred Leist writes, the tariff makes no discrimination as to "imported works of art," and brand them all under one category, whether Australian or foreign, whether imported by residents here, or merely brought . in as a business speculation by on art dealer, or are genuine samples of work by Australian artists, who are returning home after study abroad. His grievance is a very real one.

Arthur Streeton complained bitterly to me of the large amount of money he lost through the Customs in 1914, when he had the bad luck to be at sea with a load of his canvases, half way out to Australia, and war was declared. He had to go through with it, get his canvases into Australia, and keep them here. He could not reclaim one penny from the Customs. He was lucky to sell "Malham Cove" to the Sydney Gallery, and little else besides, at his exhibition, which barely paid expenses, and left not a penny of profit.

Exhibitions of work from other countries are of a certain amount of value to students here, as their judgment is exercised by com-parison, but their scope of appreciation is limited to the extent of the taste in selection of the dealer who exhibits these works for sale. All ambitious students wish to go abroad to Increase their knowledge and improve their | work by study in the best ateliers of Europe, ! and by visits to the great art galleries of the . world. But many will be deterred from doing so, even If they have the means, as the time and money so spent would be a bad Invest-ment If they have to pay for the privilege of bringing samples of their work back home with them. Is It any wonder that some of our best artists have sought appreciation and a decent living in America?

I am, etc.,
Narrabeen, May 3. ANNA M. REAY.
LETTERS (1930, May 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16671224

PINK roses named after her uncle Sir Arthur Streeton the famous Australian artist will be worn in her hair by Miss Sylvia Streeton when she marries Mr Timothy Eveleigh of Muswellbrook at St Stephen's Church Macquarie Street on Saturday. A bridal veil of Brussels lace 150 years old will be lent by a family friend. Miss Streeton who is the daughter of Mr and Mrs Herbert Streeton of Coogee will be attended by Miss Helen Eveleigh and Leading Wran Shirley Streeton. The bridegroom-to-be is the younger son of the late Mr Thomas Eveleigh and of Mrs E. Eveleigh of Killarney Muswellbrook.
SOCIAL NEWS and EVENTS...Season at Palm Beach... A Zero for a Christmas Gift... (1944, December 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17930465

Memorial Show of Streeton's Works
At the National Gallery, in the Latrobe and North Octagon courts, is being held a memorial show of the paintings of the late Sir Arthur Streeton, who died at Olinda 12 months ago. There are 240 examples of his genius, in both oil and water colors. These make it plain that he is Australia's first artist. His variety was great. He tackled all forms of landscape, but preferred distant views, in daylight; and then, not at its extremes; there are few dawns and sunsets among his paintings. There are no nocturnes in this exhibition, tor the reason that, if any exist, they are hidden somewhere. Only once or twice did he paint the sea as his special subject, though often as incidental to a picture. His best work was done in Australia, which he left for Europe in 1897 (not 1898, as in the catalogue). Abroad his best work was done in Egypt and Italy; the less lucid air and weaker, because humid, light of Britain being not so stimulating to his senses. 

Nevertheless, in both England and Scotland he did some remarkable work; there was no one there either in vision or trade skill to equal him. In England the pressure is great to conform, to what has been agreed upon as correct by the right people, who in art are not the painters but those learned in literature, philosophy or anything but painting, also, the propertied or the titled, though, as here, the university people are putting in the hardest work to get cultural control. To some extent Streeton yielded to this pressure. To get any notice he had to be classifiable. He elected to be in the Constable class: but, really, he was a better painter than Constable ever was, as can easily be seen by comparing any of his sketches with the four owned by our gallery. The time for shibboleths has gone. 

From War to Peace 
For nearly four years of the last war, Streeton served in the R.A. M.C. He was in Wandsworth Hospital, along with Roberts, Coates and other artists. In 1917, when he was 50, he was discharged, and in 1918 given a commission in the A.I.F., for which he did wonderful work, as anyone who visits the war museum at Canberra can see. The bulk of the residue of his paintings, after meeting Government demands, he gave to the R.S.S. I.L.A. and the military clubs. After, the war, on his way back to Australia, via Canada, he painted scenes in British Columbia, and by no one as yet has any part of Canada been so well depleted/ Back: home, he settled for a while in Melbourne, but at last established himself for good in the Dandenong Ranges, where, after his wife's death, he more and more secluded himself. 

He was extraordinarily gifted with senses exceptionally keen and active—sight, hearing, taste, small and touch, the parent of them all. His hands were big and strong, but so competent and controlled that he could work on a 10-foot canvas or a small panel equally well. Apart from the artistry of his work, his dexterity was such as to call forth from very skillful painters exclamations of astonishment. The Roberts Influence He learned accuracy in drawing in the famous lithographic house of Troedel, where another fine draftsman, Charles Wheeler, also learned it. He went to the National Gallery School of Art, but left it when Tom Roberts came back from Europe with principles of teaching which appealed to Streeton more than those which obtained at the gallery' school. The Streeton catalogue makes Folingsby's methods the cause of Streeton's leaving. This is not so; it is as incorrect as the statement that "Roberts brought Impressionism' to Australia." 

Another mistake is to think of Conder as an influence in Australian painting. While Conder was here he took all his complexion from Streeton, and always said so. When he left here he left his Australian brand of art behind and never again painted in the same way. Roberts was Streeton’s only teacher. He preached open-air work for landscape, exact drawing and the painting method of Lepage. In any case, Streeton would have devised a good method of his own; but Roberts's variant of ' Lepage's saved him a lot of trials and errors.  Back„for, 8opd, rooted again In Australia, he painted brilliantly; no better Intrinsically than when left it. 25 years earlier, but with much accumulated knowledge the virtuoso. Time has added and will continue to add, to Streeton's value. Viewed either as to quality or quantity, his is the greatest contribution in the whole realm of Australia s culture. He began at the age of 15 to produce good work, and until he died kept to an extraordinarily high level of artistry. He was knowledgeable in literature and music, and, like Longstaff, always Interested In the Ideals, notions and methods of other painters, let them be never so humble. The catalogue is very well got on but it should have more dates given to the paintings. Many are on the paintings in Streeton's own hand. In the case of the portrait of Marshall Hall, though 1892 is written in paint under the artist's signature, in .. brackets) it is 1889. No. 18, Narrabeen, Streeton says, in his own writing, was done in 1890 but the catalogue has it as 1894. There are several misspellings of proper names, and Lady Streeton has not even been given her right name. All the dates were ascertainable from the canvases and the artist's own exhaustive catalogue… OUR GREATEST ARTIST (1944, September 5). The Age(Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206003565 
Fred Matthews Williams (1855-1929) Australia was born in Chester, England and settled in Melbourne around 1878. He attended the National Gallery School where he was a member of the Buonarotti ClubWilliams showed landscapes at the Club that he painted at Lilydale in 1883 and at Williamstown in 1884. His fellow pupils included McCubbin, E P Fox, David Davies and John Longstaff.

In a student exhibition of 1887 Longstaff's, 'Breaking the News' (now in the AGWA), won a travelling scholarship whilst Williams won an honourable mention.

Around 1891, he tried his luck upon the Coolgardie Goldfields and his sketches of the goldfields were reproduced in local papers. He later moved to Perth, where he lived in Melville Terrace, South Perth. He was instrumental in helping to establish Perth's first art school, the Art Department at the Perth Technical School, becoming its first art instructor. His first solo exhibition in Perth was in 1910.

He moved to Sydney around 1915, where he died in 1929.

His work is represented in the Art Gallery of Western Australia and the Mitchell Library in Sydney. - McKenzie's Auctions, Perth. 

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
In the matter of the will of Frederick Matthews Williams, late of West Lake Side, Narrabeen, near Sydney, in the State of New South Wales, artist, deceased.
PURSUANT to the Wills, Probate and Administration Act, 1898, the Testator's Family Maintenance and Guardianship of Infants Act, 1916, and the Trustee Act, 1925: Notice is hereby given that every creditor or person having any debt or claim upon or affecting the estate of the above named deceased, who died on or about the 7th day of July, 1929, and probate of whose will was, on the 30th day of October, 1929, granted by the Supreme Court of New South Wales to Alexander Robert Macgregor, is hereby required to send in particulars in writing of such debt or claim to the undersigned, on or before the 26th day of March, 1930, at the expiration of which time the executor will proceed, to convey and distribute the property and assets of the said deceased to or among the persons entitled thereto, having regard only to the debts or claims of which he then has notice; and notice is hereby further given that the said executor will not be liable, for the property or assets or any part thereof so conveyed or distributed, to any persons of whose debt or claim he shall not have had notice at the time of such conveyance or distribution.
Proctors for the Executor,
2b Castlereagh-street, Sydney.
2462  £1 12s.
PROBATE JURISDICTION. (1930, January 24). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 423. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223073429 

The above brief bio doesn't really give us much of an insight Mr. Williams temperament - although these kinds of articles, run a little coldly and to sell papers, should also be taken with a grain of salt .  They do give us an insight into the wold and life of a man obscured by time and lack of good records, and one just as obscure photograph of this former Narrabeen resident and Artist:

What promised to be a long-drawn out case was started on Tuesday morning before …Mrs. Anna Williams claimed separation, maintenance and custody of several children, from Frederick Matthew Williams on the grounds of cruelty, desertion and wilful neglect in providing sufficient means of support for his family. Mrs. Williams is a bright little lady, who has apparently done her utmost to make the best of her married life. 
defendant received he used to hand his wife £2 per fortnight to keep the house and that amount, Mrs. Williams' claims, was not sufficient to keep them all in a proper manner, and without doubt, she is quite correct. From her own admissions, however, the defendant has clearly doing much better at some time in the past. Mrs. Williams frequently referred to "my property" at South Perth. The property it transpired consisted of two houses, and the complainant admitted that her husband had paid for the two houses which he placed in her name to provide for the future of herself and the children. Williams himself is an elderly, grey-bearded man, and does not look the fiery person of maniacal temper, which his wife claims he is. Still, as the vulgar proverb has it, it is not wise to judge a sausage by its overcoat. From the statements made by the complainant, it appeared that her life became unbearably miserable during the early months of last year. At this time the defendant put out of employment, and the complainant after her daily and heavy domestic duties were done, at night to the study of  ...'shorthand and typewriting'. Subsequently she secured a position as typist at '20/ per week, working at an office during the day and doing house work at night. 
The defendant stayed home, read novels, growled that he "was not going to mind the baby, told his wife that £1 per week was no good, and why didn't she earn more. He ate eleven hundred eggs a year while the family had bread and dripping, called her vile names, threatened her, and otherwise abused her, etc.. .. . The last straw was placed on the burden early in July last year. The night was wild and stormy, and Mrs. Williams was in a nervous and terrified state. She awakened her husband, and he addressed her fondly as a snivelling idiot. 
On July 4 the complainant left home, arranging for her husband’s sister to attend to the children and a few days later, went to Melbourne, where she pursued a course of study at a business college. In proof whereof she produced a bundle of receipts for fees paid, and a diploma of proficiency. Her sole object in doing so, the complainant averred, was to quality herself to secure a good position where she could earn enough to keep her children. She returned to W.A. at Easter time, and went to South Perth to see her husband and children. The former repulsed her violently, and the latter welcomed her with delight. Mrs. Williams resumed her household duties, but the position was too strained; to stand any tension. A couple of days later she had business in Perth. At the South Perth jetty her husband suddenly pounced upon her and snatched the child from her. She tried to recover it, and he held her by the hands while she reciprocated by kicking him on the shins. Two water policemen came along, and according to Mrs. Williams, they held her while her husband escaped with the baby. Since then she has not been able to see it and has lived apart from her husband. 
In answer to Mr. Downing, the complainant stated she had signed a deed of trust, regarding the property, under conipnKi,.;!. Wi.'i ; she was at Melbourne her husband had tried to ... her to sell low him one-sixth share, but she had firmly refused to do so. Mr. Downing produced an advertisement, printed in June of last year, in which a lady, with £100, was assured of a share... in the sale of "a toilet requisite."' Mrs. Williams enquired into the matter, and thought there might be a chance to make money. It turned out...
Mr. Noel …, a next door neighbor of the Williams' for several months during last year, stated that Mrs. Williams always gave him the impression of being a most womanly woman. The children were always kept beautifully clean and neat. Williams behaved brutally to her. James Townsend and He...Wintel gave corroborative evidence, for the defence, Frederick Williams gave his wife a terrible character. According to him, she was of a discontented, grumbling and dissatisfied disposition, and had a vile, and unreasonable temper. Latterly she appeared to have lost all control of herself, used bad language, and turned the house into a hell. To various accusations made against him, he gave a general denial, and stated that the only time he had touched his wife was about l'J years ago, when she exasperated him so much that he seized her by the wrists, and gave her a shaking. Mrs. Williams, who was sifting ill the Court, interjected, "By the throat." The defendant responded with a sardonic "Ha! Ha'." His wife, he declared, always cursed Western Australia, child-bearing, housekeeping, and everything in Heaven and earth and W.A., in appropriate language. In June last, Mrs. Williams suggested he should agree to mortgage the houses to provide her with funds to enter into the enterprise with, the alleged Doctor Burns. He declined to accede, and more quarrelling ensued until the complainant left home on July 4. He saw her twice in. Perth before she left the State, and sent messages to her, but all advances were ignored. When he left the Government service, Mr. Williams stated he express his desire to exercise his artistic skill, and his wife thoroughly concurred.. Subsequently, he held an exhibition of paintings which was the most successful of its sort held in Perth He worked hard, and it was not true that he had done nothing but read novels. The weekly allowance question came next under review. The defendant admitted having allowed his wife £2 weekly but he paid a number of things himself, including rates insurance, buying boots, butter and fruit and other sundries. Referring to the return of Mrs. Williams, the defendant said he believed she had intended to steal the baby, and he had intercepted her it the South Perth jetty. He had not struck her, but simply caught her wrist, when she tried in hit him. He appealed to the water policeman for assistance and they had kept her while he returned home with the child. As consequence of her behavior, Williams stated his health was shattered i... to in any work profession, if he had aiwa;. eat.d his willed he had always treated her with respect, he ... Hayne his cross-examined. WILLIAMS’S WAYWARD WAYS. (1911, June 3). Truth (Perth, WA : 1903 - 1931), p. 6 (CITY EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article211803777 

The hearing was continued yesterday in the Divorce Court before Mr. Justice Burnside of the action in which Anna Margaret Reay Williams sought for a judicial separation from her husband, Frederick Matthews Williams, an artist, of Perth, on the grounds of habitual cruelty. Mr. R. S. Haynes, K.C., with him Mr. A. S. Haynes appeared for the petitioner, and Mr. V. F. Smith, with him Mr. A. Downing, for the respondent. Cross-examined further by Mr. Smith, petitioner said that before leaving for Melbourne she had made all arrangements for the care of the children, and had written to her husband's sister, Mrs. Barrow, about them. Mr. Smith : Is this the lady you called "an old cat" in the Local Court recently?' Witness: Yes, but I did not know her catlike' propensities before I went to Melbourne. How long have you known Mrs. Barrow? My husband was ashamed to introduce her to me for some years. She is a woman of inferior birth and education. What do you- mean by saying that your husband was ashamed of her. Did you not marry her brother? No, I did not marry her brother, I married Mr. Williams. Witness, continuing, said it was on July 4, 1910, that her husband ordered her to go out and earn her living, and sneered at her so bitterly for earning, as little as £1 a week. It was shortly after that she decided she must get away for a change 'and also 'take the opportunity of studying while in Melbourne so that she could earn more money. 'On' her return from Melbourne she had gone to her house at South Perth, Perth and collected some linen and cutlery for her own use. The property was hers, and were other gifts or something she had paid for out of her own pocket. Mr. Smith: Did you quarrel with your husband's sister, who was staying in your house on your return?"-Witness: I did, because of her endeavours to influence my daughter against me. Did you order her out of the house with her niece?- I did, because of her insulting behaviour. Did you also offer to "pitch out" the niece's little boy?-Of course not, the dear little chap. "Dear little chap," of course he was. 'Mr. Haynes: What's the use of treating the lady in that manner. Witness: He sneers at anything I say. I love the little fellow, I am fond' of all children. Mr. Smith: Oh, how very nice. His Honour: .I think, Mr. Smith, I can follow the case without comment from you. Mr. Smith: Did you say to Mrs. Barrow when you first entered the house: '"The same old chairs, the same old tables?" -Witness: And the same old packing cases. Yes, I did say. that. -Did you say, "I cannot go back to all this after the good time I had in Melbourne and. all, the 'gentlemen I had to talk to? "I did not. Did you not say you had so many gentlemen: to talk to?-I never use the word "gentlemen.". Only uneducated people use it. I speak of "men." After taking the things out of the house you. went-back the next day to effect a reconciliation?-Yes, I did. . I went up to my husband with my arms out with the:-intention of making it up. He repulsed me and roared roared at me and called me approbrious, names " ' Were you not highly, theatrical? ‘I was not.' He himself was the theatrical one In what way?--I think he said, "Avaunt," or some such outlandish word. What else' did he say? - He was inarticulate at first, and then roared' again. And you then made for the baby?-No, I made for the broom to protect myself. When I did try to pick up my baby he jumped in between us. But-I did get baby in the end and she and I spent the night on the floor. The next day you went of to the jetty with the baby?-I did. But he reached the jetty before me and seized me violently by the wrists just as I passed the waiting room. He forced me back, and tried to throw me into the water. Did you not try to strike him first? -Certainly not, but I kicked him in the shins in self-defence. I 'had to' defend myself as I would from any other wild beast: He was like a maniac. -Did you attempt to kick. him about the body?-No. ' If you wore hobble-skirts you would not kick much higher than a man's shin. It was the hobble skirt which saved-him. When the ferry came in did not two policemen get hold of you ?-Yes, because of what my husband, had said.. - At the same time I asked them to protect me from him. Did you threaten to assault the policemen? -Please remember that it was a case of three men to one woman, and that both my arms were held. -Mr. Haynes: Wait until You see the two policemen. Mr.' Smith:. Were you shrieking and foaming at the mouth?-I was crying with grief at having my child wrenched from me and with humiliation at the indignity. Your husband did not strike you?-No, but he held my wrists and as soon as the police had hold of me -he ran off with the baby. If ordinary intelligent people had seen what happened they would have known-who was in the wrong?--I do not think water police come under that category. What-happened next?-I laid an information at the local police station, but did not take out a summons. I also laid 'an in• formation against the water police, but was insulted by Inspector Lappin for my pains. Witness, continuing, said-she had proceeded against her husband for maintenance- in the Police Court, but Mr. Roe had stated that the case was too difficult and complicated for him to deal with and accordingly dismissed it. "Was not one of the bones of contention your dislike for Perth?-The climate does not Agree-with me. 'Perhaps you did not like the work. We all have to work, you know.- But your work is cooler than mine. Not when I meet such ladies as yourself. -I am glad if I can make you feel warm, too. You wanted to go to Melbourne?--Yes, for all our sakes, but I had only to suggest it for my husband to oppose it. Re-examined by Mr.. Haynes, petitioner said that when in Melbourne she studied hard and passed an examination. She felt sure, that if her husband had gone over to Melbourne he would have got on well. She herself would have been prepared to help with her own earnings to the best of her ability. Her brother, the engineer in chief of railways in Victoria, would have helped her too. She did not ask for alimony but merely wanted the custody of her baby girl of 5 years of age. Noel Boehn Helm, residing at South Perth, deposed to having been a near neighbour of the Williams family. In his opinion the petitioner was a good wife and a good mother and brought up her children splendidly. She had heaps to do, and he had seen her cutting the wood, doing the washing, making drains, and doing other hard work while the husband sat on the verandah doing nothing. The respondent in fact had left his wife to do all the work about the place. he had used bad language towards her, and on one occasion he threw a stake at her. Dr. Kenny deposed to the petitioner having come to him once or twice in a very nervous, excitable state. On another occasion she came to him showing injuries to her wrists, which had been severely bruised. Charlotte Dobbin, a married woman, and sister of the petitioner, deposed to having resided at South Perth in the petitioner's home. In her opinion the respondent ever preserved an attitude of studied coldness to wards his wife and did not treat her as a husband should. He would frequently place a book on 'the' meal table 'and read all through the meal. Mr. Smith: surely you do not object to a husband reading a morning paper with his chop?-Witness: I should think it very rude of him if he did it without asking me. But to read a book! It was an insult to his wife and most discourteous. Furthermore, he would never pay her any attention, never wait on her or place a chair for her. It is no wonder his wife was unhappy. 'Alfred B. Mayer said that he and his wife had taken the petitioner in at a time when she was in great distress. Her husband tried repeatedly to blacken her character and had gloried in the fact that he had spat at her in Hay street. He had also gone on to say that if his wife was in a state of poverty I would not lift a hand to save her." Mary Kingsmill, wife of Mr. Walter Kingsmill, M.L.C., deposed to having known the petitioner for over 20 years. The petitioner was a kind, loving mother, and appeared to have the love of her children. 
Mr. Smith : It is not unusual for a wife if the husband is not in good circumstances to do the washing --Witness: No. Or to chop wood?--I suppose not. Mr. Haynes: Not if you have a lazy husband.. -Mr. Smith: Or when you have a nice wife. (Laughter.) . Margaret Reeves, a housekeeper, deposed to having gone with the petitioner one evening to see her children, and to the wife having been refused-admission. Mr. Smith: Did not the respondent call out to Grace that her mother wanted her? -Yes. What did she say?-She did not want to Was anything said about the baby?- The respondent said she was in bed. What time was it?- Nearly 9 o'clock. Mr. Smith: A nice time to wake a baby! Mr. Haynes: What do you know about it? Mr. Smith: In my long experience of you I have learned a great deal. Re-examined, witness ,said that the child was not called in a way that would tend to induce her to go to the door. At this stage the-Court adjourned until 10.30 the following morning. 

Mrs Williams leaving the court     Mr. Williams leaving the court

ARTIST'S WIFE'S PETITION. (1912, April 17). The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article23869997 


A Suit for Judicial Separation-Judgment Reserved
A considerable amount of dirty linen was washed in the Divorce Court last week, when Anna Margaret Reay Williams proceeded against her husband, Frederick Matthews Williams, for a judicial separation. Each of the par-ties is well known in the West, the de-fendant having achieved some distinc-tion as a painter and black-and-white artist. He is an art instructor at the Technical School, and among his pri-vate pupils are the daughters of His Excellency the Governor.


The parties, who were married at Fremantle in 1893, had been concerned previously in proceedings in the Police and Local Courts, and there is no necessity to go over the ground again. It is the old, old story of an unhappy marriage arising from incompatibility of temper. The wife alleges things against the husband, and the latter makes counter-allegations against his better half, and each endeavors to gain possession of the four children of this unhappy marriage, albeit the real bone of contention is a child of five. The principal feature of the proceedings was the demeanor of Mrs. Williams. She appeared in the box handsomely dressed on every occasion, and sustained a severe cross-elimination with imperturbable calm, answering questions with the facility that comes of innate conversational powers, and frequently scoring over learned counsel by ready repartee and epigram-matic force.

The hearing of the evidence and of counsel's addresses-Mr. R. S. Haynes, K.C., and Mr. Arthur Haynes appeared for the lady, and Mr. Villeneuve Smith and Mr. Downing for the gentleman lasted from Monday till Friday. Mr. Justice Burnside has still to deliver his decision. WILLIAMS AND HIS WIFE (1912, April 21). Sunday Times (Perth, WA : 1902 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article57730361

F. M. Williams, A Depiction of Mt Eliza from the Western Side of Mill Point, South Perth
Watercolour, 56 x 89 cm, courtesy Fine Art, McKenzies Auctioneers, Perth.

The result of the five days' hearing of the petition of Anna Margaret Reay Williams for a judicial separation from her husband, Frederick Matthews Williams, on the grounds of persistent cruelty, was on the 28th. inst, announced in the Supreme Court by Mr. Justice Burnside. That the public had got wind of the matter was evidenced by the crowded state of the gallery.
Mr. E. S. Haynes, KC, with him Mr. A . Haynes, appeared for the petitioner, and Mr. V. F. Smith, with him Mr. A. Downing, for the respondent.
In the course of his reserved judgment His Honour said that on the issues which had been raised in the pleadings he had to determine these things-had the respondent been guilty of legal cruelty to the petitioner, and, if so, had that conduct been condoned by the petitioner? If not, was such conduct the outcome of serious provocation at the hands of the petitioner, and. finally, what was the cause of the present separation between the respondent and the petitioner ? In regard to the first point no judge had attempted to define legal cruelty. The essential features of cruelty were, however, well known and understood. These were actual violence of such a character as to endanger life, limb, or health, and to arouse a fear or reasonable apprehension as to personal safety. The ground for the Court's interference, on the question of cruelty was one of safety to the wife and the impossibility of her fulfilling her matrimonial duties owing to her living in a constant state of dread. In considering the conflicting evidence which had been tendered in that instance His Honour had not over-looked the demeanour of the parties as indicated from the witness-box. After making every passable allowance for the exaggeration, which might be expected in such a case he had come to the conclusion that neither of the parties could be regarded as absolutely reliable. Counsel for the petitioner had stated that all efforts to effect a reconciliation between the parties had been fruitless. That such should have been the case did not surprise His Honour. The parties appeared to him to take a special delight in giving their evidence in a manner calculated unnecessarily to give pain one to the other, and it was forced upon his mind at an early stage of the case that the springs of bitterness had polluted the waters of truth. It seemed, too, that the dictates of reason and self-respect might sometimes be overshadowed by uncontrolled passion and a will that refused to be bent. After dealing exhaustively with the evidence, and coming to the time when the respondent lost his position in the Mines Department and the parties had come back to Perth with very little income to live upon, His Honour said that when poverty began to look, in at the door what affection, still remained . on either side had speedily escaped through the window. The petitioner claimed that her husband would not supply her with money for her clothes, while the respondent said it was impossible to supply the inordinate demands of his wife. What appeared to have put the finishing touches upon already strained relations was an advertisement, which appeared in the "West Australian" newspaper in June, 1910. Apparently without consulting her husband, the petitioner communicated with the advertiser. She received a reply from the man and showed it to her husband, whose advice she desired. That advice- appeared to have been summed up in the words. "Tell the advertiser to go to the devil." His Honour thought it was much to be regretted that with -his greater knowledge of the affairs of the World the husband did not see his way to couch his advice in civil terms. He was well aware at that time, of the excitable disposition and imaginative temperament of his wife, and His Honour could conceive nothing more fertile- of disturbances than the want of civility on the husband's part. The petitioner, with equal knowledge of her husband's disposition and temperament, would have done well to have allowed the matter to drop. Instead of that she had an interview with the advertiser, in her house in the absence of her husband, another meeting by arrangement took place between them, and there was also an accidental meeting in the General Post Office. 
His Honour could not help thinking that if the wife desired to put an end to the conjugal relations between herself and her husband she could not have set about it in a better way. The parties accordingly became, further estranged, quarrels and offensive epithets became frequent, and separation one from the other followed. After leaving her home in June, 1910, the petitioner said she asked her husband to let her go to Melbourne on the grounds of ill-health. The husband refused. In July she went to Melbourne with the full knowledge that her husband suspected that the cause of her going, was not entirely due to ill-health. What had happened in connection with his wife's going out to earn her own living did not seem to justify a separation. It could not be suggested that even if the husband had applied an offensive term to his wife and mooted she should go out and work she would be justified in leaving the house without notice or without intimation as to her destination. From the wife's general attitude while she was away in Melbourne anti immediately upon her return, His Honour was forced to the conclusion that, whatever may have been her intentions in returning, living with her husband as his wife was not a primary one. The scene on the-South Perth jetty formed a fitting climax to" the situation, and it was remarkable that the account given by independent witnesses differed materially from that given by either party. The two persons concerned appeared, to have been in such a state as to have had but little idea of what was actually going on. His Honour had .no hesitation in saying that cohabitation between them now was impossible, and that the blame lay equally upon both parties. They appeared to be of a violent and easily excited disposition, and neither seemed to possess sufficient mental balance to counteract their outbursts of temper add" passion. He concluded that if the wife really feared violence and ill treatment her conduct would have been different. It struck him as peculiar that not a single witness bad shown that the husband had laid hands on the wife. With regard to the spitting incident, it indicated the extent to which barbarity yet existed in the minds of people of today under the veneer of civilisation. If the petitioner's version of the incident were true, it did not appear that she resented the insult in a manner that might have been expected. Her subsequent conduct caused his Honour to hesitate before accepting her version at' all, for she repeatedly wrote suggesting that her husband should rejoin her in Melbourne. His Honour had finally concluded that these parties were utterly unfit for each other's society. He could not see that "the one was more to blame than the other. They must carry the blame upon the shoulders of each other. He was not satisfied that the respondent's conduct towards the petitioner was such as to constitute legal cruelty. He was not satisfied that he ever used actual violence or ever Intended seriously to use it or that the wife ever feared or was affected by his conduct. He was not convinced that the complaint of ill-health arose more from her husband's conduct than from her dislike for the city of Perth and her desire to substitute for it the city of Melbourne. She was apparently of an exceedingly excitable and imaginative temperament, and had allowed herself to take an exaggerated view of the conditions of life. The unfortunate disposition of the husband tended to aggravate the symptoms rather than to alleviate them. The disposition of the one seemed to be an irritant for the disposition of the other, the result being that they were both now left with much food for reflection. The law did not justify his Hon-our in separating the husband and wife judicially. They had separated themselves m fact, end so long as each continued to maintain his and her present' attitude towards the other his Honour had no doubt that they would remain apart. He was unable to find the respondent guilty of legal cruelty, and would therefore dismiss the petition. No order was made as to costs. AN ARTIST'S WIFE. (1912, May 4). Western Mail (Perth, WA : 1885 - 1954), p. 35. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37418361 

Is this the unhappy Anna Margaret Reay Williams? Perhaps a daughter? A series of letters appears in newspapers signed by an Anna M Reay, address, Narrabeen, from 1930 on.

If it this is Mr. Williams winsome wife, and they did separate, he never lost this picture, and a lady of the same name resided at Narrabeen, penning very good insights, from soon after he passed away until she moved, back to 'Heidelberg', Melbourne:

Photo courtesy David James OAM

Sir,-In her description of "Country Inns" in the "Herald" of May 10, Miss Gwen Mere-dith mentions a hundred-year-old building at Mittagong, formerly a wayside inn, but now being used as n "guest" house. I crave per-mission to relate an interesting story of this old place, which was Imparted by "mine host" to some of us who were guests at the time.

In the course of conversation he mentioned the "dungeons " We immediately demanded to see them. Lifting a large wooden trapdooi in the floor ol the verandah, he disclosed a flight of old and well-worn stone steps leading Into a large excavated chamber, dimly lighted by small windows, well-baired, high up in the walls, the sills being on a level with the outer ground, where the tennis courts now are. A very large "boker's oven" was set in to one of the inner walls On the other side of the dungeon was a range of semienclosed cells the whole length of the wall, each cell having a strong Iron ring attached to a large bolt embedded In the wall He explained that in the old days when convict« were being transported between Sydney, Parra-matta and Berrima gaols, the coach carrying them used to stop for refreshments, and a change of horses at this old Inn. Ihe con-victs used to be taken from the coach, still manacled and chained, and secured In the cells until It was time to take the road again.

I am, etc.,
Narrabeen, May 12. ANNA M. REAY.
COUNTRY INNS. (1930, May 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16694922

Sir,-It is a serious reproach to New South Wales that its capital city, professing to be the richest and most important in the whole of Australia, should be laid open to attacks such as have appealed in the Press for years past, and which one has to read even to the present. I refer to the frequent complaints of the pollution of the beautiful surfing beaches along out coasts by sewerage deposits and other unwholesome and disease-breeding matter. Our Australian beaches have borne the reputation of being the best in the world for beauty of setting lovely stretches of clean sandy shores, and the finest suiting conditions, all along the thousands of miles of coast-line of this huge island continent.

I have even read descriptions of our wonderfully trained and efficient life savers and of the work of their clubs (accompanied by photographs) in English newspapers, and have wondered whether English people and intending tourists from foreign countries may have seen complaints about pollution of some of the Australian beaches. Such publicity would not be conducive to a large Influx of oversea visitors, whom we should attract to our shores, and so make the tourist traffic as profitable as it should be.

I myself can contribute direct testimony to the pollution of Bondi beach. Not so very long ago I visited this beach with my youngest daughter, with the intention of surfing on a Boxing Day. As we walked along the sand at the edge of the water we were horrified and disgusted by the sight and smell of putrid masses of poultry entrails wishing about in the nearer waves, and being washed up onto the sand with each roller. We now take our sea-bathing on the still unspoiled beaches north of Manly.

The city of Perth, Westerm Australia awoke many years ago to Its responsibilities as regards public health matters. Following upon the large increase of population caused by gold-fields activities, the city instituted a sewerage system septically ticated. Consequently the beautiful waters of the Swan River and its twelve-mile estuary, which is shark-free, and reaches to the port of Freemantle remain unpolluted and retain their pristine, sparkling clarity a joy forever to the people of that enterprising city, who without fear may disport themselves, and proudly take their visitors swimming, fishing, yachting, and boat racing, or, on the Indian Ocean front, at Cottesloe and other surfing beaches, to enjoy the lolling waves of the cleanest surf in the world

Quite possibly, tourists may decide to disembark at Fremantle, and not come any further round the coast, since they are so well catered for.

I am, etc.,
Narrabeen. Jan. 17
LETTERS (1936, January 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17208510

An article by the same lady:
How Sex Can Be Taught by Anna M Reay (1930, June 29). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 3 (CRICKET STUMPS). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224263880

(To the Editor of "The Sun")
May I suggest to your correspondent, "E.M.D.," that she can end all her worries with regard to her daughter in the same way as I did, viz., by simply declining to allow  her to do anyhomewaork at all, and forbid her to carry heavy books to and from school every day. In fact, it would be wise If "E.M.D." kept the girl away from school for a whole month or more, until her health has recovered, and still forbade the homework and carrying of books on resumption. There is no legislation whatever against parents caring for the health and development of their children. In fact, it Is their first duty and of Infinitely greater importance to the children than the results of school examinations are to either them or their teachers. 

This was the action I took for my girls, and I was neither arrested nor imprisoned for writing to the headmistress, stating my reasons for not allowing homework. I also stated to the head-mistress that I would keep the girls at home altogether if the teachers were unable to give them sufficient Instruction during ordinary school hours, and I would resume instructing them myself, as I had done until the eldest was 12 years of age. (And this, In addition to my household duties.) After school hours, the children played In the open air until the evening meal, and later they were joined in games and dancing by their young friends of the neighborhood. Consequently, their bodies were healthy, their minds receptive, and they advanced literally by leaps and bounds through their classes, being moved up two classes at a time. Finally, they gained four scholarships and a bursary.

Narrabeen, May 18.
TOO MUCH HOMEWORK (1936, May 20). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 15 (COUNTRY EDITION). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231324332

Letters to The Editor
Jaggers Bronzes
Sir,-Before any more damage Is Inflicted upon the valuable Jaggers bronzes which have recently been placed In the grounds of the National Gallery a substantial iron spiked fence should be placed round each of these art treasures. Melbourne is fortunate In being In possession of this rare statuary, there being only two of each of these bronzes in existence-the other pair is in England-and there can be no duplication, for the moulds were destroyed upon completion. Perhaps there are few persons other than artists who know that sculptors take particular pride In the degree of "bloom" appearing upon their finished work when It is received from the founders. No hands must touch that "bloom," nothing must brush against It; it must be preserved at nil costs. It is with chagrin that I have noticed the destructive effect wrought already upon these magnificent figures by Ignorant on-lookers, who are not satisfied to stand half-way between the two where the best possible view is to be lind of either; they must go close and handle everything within reach-rub the toes of the boots, pull at the chains of "The Driver," and spoil the appearance of the .."blooming" surface.

-Yours, &c,
ANNA M. REAY. Heidelberg, March 27.
Letters to The Editor (1937, March 30). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11052820

To have such a renowned painter here just prior to WWI, instead of settling at Mosman or Manly, is perhaps a forgotten part of our history of Artists. It is also invites you to wonder how many of this school of Artists 'camped at Narrabeen' - certainly many of them have works named for that place of many moods and many views.

What is also very pertinent here is not only the photographs David James OAM has from an earlier period, and from the same source, of Narrabeen, but also one that a replica the below Williams artwork, which David has (in a very fragile condition - sighted by writer), is a pencil drawing that looks a lot alike the Narrabeen in the background. :

Fred M. Williams, The Landing at Anzac Cove Gallipoli 1915
Gouache, 52 x 76 cm, courtesy Leonard Joel, Melbourne

One of the photos from David's collection of Narrabeen - 1915 or earlier?

One more of F. M. Williams works (?) -  signature - which, in small handwritten script on same, is said to be taken from a photograph
Photo courtesy David James OAM

Arthur Streeton, Manly Beach, 1895

To Herman, Jolly and Murch

Weaved through their own paths are those of artists who chose to live in Pittwater, probably because it was once much cheaper to do so and that freedom from financial stress allowed them to pursue creative ways, never a very lucrative calling unless you are consistently selling works. Those that settled here became artists colonies of sorts as well, especially in suburbs where a few or more artists lived or visited regularly and led to the commencement of locally based exhibitions and shows as much as a great creative conversation being able to take place between these artists and their obviously individual styles or different modalities of creative work, whether in paint, and its many styles and developments in themes, in prints, in ceramics, in sculpture – in act in every established genre of Art imaginable, some of these worked in by just one artist!

How did we get from Artists camping out at Narrabeen after leaving a Lister Lister art class to early Art Shows at Mona Vale and Avalon RSL? 
Improved roads along with the advent of motor vehicles and motor bikes allowed access to and from Pittwater as well as an easier means of transporting all thew accouterments required for painting in the open air. This place remaining somewhere that was peaceful and could be afforded, especially during the Depression years of the 1930's when so many were moving or camping here, as being able to catch a fish meant the family didn't go hungry, and being a place that is an inspiration in its surrounds, beauty and seasonal or even daily moods, all contributed to Pittwater being an early and still constant place for Artists.

There have been so many Artists who have resided in Pittwater areas for a season or permanently that an in-depth study listing all would require several volumes. The website of the Manly Art Gallery & Museum has an excellent list, including allowing you to know what works each created are housed at Manly. Here small insights into those who resided by lagoon, paddock and beach, especially where they overlap as mates, as 'colonies' and 'salons' of sorts, and in investing and changing what is Australian Art itself will allow a picture of these threads to weave the essence of why Pittwater remains a place with a dynamic and evolving Art focus and remains a place where Artists work to support each other's developments and works - The Pittwater Artists Trail or the Offshore Artists Gone Fishing Gallery being just two great examples of the current year round celebrations of creations this community has.

Narrabeen - Camping to Cottages (and Caravans!)
Who were those that were taught by Mr. Lister Lister that went camping at Narrabeen to create 'plein air' works?
Some articles record Mr. Lister working mostly at Freshwater Beach - a spot easily accessible from his home at Mosman via The Spit punt - the 1901 Art Society show including his "Freshwater Beach Near Manly.", one of several works on Freshwater the gentleman completed.

Fed by articles proclaiming the beauty of the place, improvements in tracks and transport to gain access, and affordable to the ever slim Artists' purse, Narrabeen became and remained the place to visit and create works of - here the elements of air, water and earth met in sky, landscape and lagoon combine to offer views ever changing and that suited the ever changing and developing style of each individual Artist.. 

Narrabeen does not, in common with other parts of Australia, possess an everlasting summer; but it is, however, a Paradise for those in search of quiet and pleasure. A more delightful spot for ruralising than Narrabeen does not exist in Australasia. To the wearied and faded business man it affords a haven of rest and retirement such as no other spot within easy distance of the city can. The natural beauties of the district alone are attractions. But added to this there is the best of shooting and the best of fishing and boating, and no finer sport for the artist to indulge his proclivities for sketching, or the young and agile to follow their fancies in the shape of cricket, &c. As a holiday resort it abounds in every essential to pleasure. For those fond of aquatics and fishing there is a magnificent lake, and for those fond of these beauties and excitement of the ever rest less sea there is a beach, unrivalled in New South Wales for wild and romantic scenery, stretching from Long Reef to near the far-famed Barrenjoey, with a most beautiful view of sea and coast. There are also salt and fresh water bathing, and boating parties who make the easy trip up the gorge at the head of the lakes will not soon forget its beauties — the waterfalls, the mountainous banks, with every kind of ferns and wild flowers, and tall palms, some 40ft or 50ft high. A visit to Mount Ramsay will also repay the visitor the trouble of climbing to the top, from which a most delightful panorama of coast, sea, and lake scenery is obtained. Now that the steamboat fares to Manly are reduced so liberally, a trip to Narrabeen is within reach of all classes, and a day spent at that quiet, secluded, and most beautiful of our watering places should be a great benefit to a number of people during the holiday season. Narrabeen. (1893, December 23).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112936347 

In the Sydney Artists' Colony.
By Alfred R. Coffey.
The artists' life may be regarded as a decidedly pleasant one notwithstanding the drawbacks from a monetary point of view, for buyers are scarce in Australia, and most of the colonials have been too busily occupied up to the present to pay much attention to art. A From his first start as a student, however, the artist finds a keen enjoyment in his work.

Take the ordinary life of one of our principal Sydney artists, W. Lister Lister, President of the Art Society. He has large classes for landscape painting, and is very much liked by all his pupils. 'Uncle' (as he is called by some of those who have been longest with him), followed by a dozen or more lady students, is a familiar sight at Freshwater Beach, and other sketching places. Of course, he is always tied down to the city, and goes away on several painting tours during the year. Occasionally some of his pupils get up a party, and stay at Narrabeen for a month or so, and have a delightful time, painting all day, and then boating on the lagoon or impromptu musical programmes at night.

Lister is a hard worker, as shown by his contributions to the annual exhibitions, many of his pictures having been purchased for the National Gallery, including 'The Ever Restless Sea.' (1892)....In the Sydney Artists' Colony. (1897, December 25). The Catholic Press (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1942), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104407228 

f.9 - Lister, William Lister. Narrabeen Lake, From: Farewell presentation album to Mr. and Mrs. Robert Brough from the playgoers of Sydney, 1897, Item No.:e00345_0013_m, from the collections of the State Library of New South Wales.

Emily Rowena Sharp, Narrabeen Lagoon - signed 'Emily Rowena Sharp' lower left; inscribed and dated 'Narrabeen Lagoon / June 17 1892' 

Emily was born 1862 in Sydney to Jonathan Plowright Sharp and Ann Sharp, the eldest of three daughters and two sons. Her creative life was cut short, perhaps a victim of the Bubonic Plague which hit Sydney in January 1900 and claimed victim after victim in Burwood during June. The Sharp's second born, a son, Cecil - born 1863, died a few months after Emily. As soon as it was apparent the disease was arriving through ships, in mid January 1900, discussions took place to place some suburbs and streets in quarantine, prior to people being moved to the old Quarantine Station at Manly. That this daughter and soon passed away at home is wondered at as when someone died in a house from the disease, the whole family was moved to the Quarantine Station - more under Extras. 

The above early Winter painting, created by a woman now mature at 30 years of age, captures some of the darkness this season reflects, while its title shows the lady knew the place is tidal, a lagoon, not a lake. What may she have created years on?:

SHARP. — May 15, at Brentwood, 38 Norwood-street. Petersham, Emily Rowena, eldest and dearly-loved daughter of J. P. and A. Sharp. Family Notices (1900, May 16). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229380726 

SHARP. — The Funeral of the late Mr. CECIL EDWARD SHARP will leave his parents' residence, "Brentwood," No. -38 Norwood-st., Petersham, THIS (MONDAY) AFTERNOON, at 2 o'clock punctually, for Petersham station, and thence to Necropolis. Family Notices (1900, August 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14330115 

Bubonic Plague.
Up to date 214 persons have been quarantined. There have been 32 cases of plague and 11 deaths. Eight hundred people have now been inoculated. Two further cases of plague were reported up to late on Sunday night, one from Annandale and one from Leichhardt; both victims are young men. Bubonic Plague. (1900, March 26).Wellington Times (NSW : 1899 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139001819 

THE NARRABEEN LAKES-A PICTURESQUE HEALTH RESORT NEAR MANLY. (See letterpress on page 19.) Manly to Broken Bay. (1893, November 11). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 30. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71191632

John W. Tristram hangs his "Looking South at Narrabeen" rather unfortunately close to W. Lister Lister's "Freshwater Beach Near Manly."The two pictures (treat of the same seaboard, bout the pupil , hals in' this case outstripped the master. One seems to see the paper through 'Mr. Lister's production, while Mr. .Tristram's rocks,: waves, and sky appear actualities.THE ART SOCIEY OF N. S. W.—TWENTY-SECOND EXHIBITION. (1901, September 7). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71471959

Mr. Tristram became a resident of Mosman in 1899 until he passed away in 1938. His 'Looking South at Narrabeen' was followed by more paintings on this subject:

Cliffs at Narrabeen 1918 - Watercolour on paper, signed and dated lower right: J. W. Tristram - 1918, 25.5 x 36 cm

Narrabeen Heads, 1927- Watercolour, signed 'J. W. Tristram' and dated lower left, 22 x 27.5 cm
Courtesy of Leonard Joel © John William Tristram or assignee

Perhaps the hardest test of the artist is afforded by the production of the cabinet picture. The faults of a large canvas may be and often are overlooked by reason of a general effect -which is pleasing to the eye being achieved, and, unless the drawing is distinctly bad. or the coloring crude, it will pass muster in an exhibition. Particularly, is this. the case when the big picture of a striking or popular subject is 'skyed' in a favorable light. Cabinets, on the other hand, challenge criticism by reason of their moderate dimensions and their proximity to the visitor. The distance which lends enchantment to the view is lacking, and such, errors of craftsmanship as have been committed reveal themselves readily. Even minor faults of technique seem to...
The president of the society, Mr. W. Lister Lister, shows two seascapes, 'A Summer Day' and 'Freshwater Beach,' which, though charming in their way, are not up to the quality of the artist's similar work in water colors. Old friend, Mr. Dattilo-Rubbo has several examples of his cultivated industry. The heads of an old man and an old woman are admirable specimens of portraiture, and the sketches of 'Shelly Beach' and 'Blue Fish Point at Manly' have a special interest for all who have seen the originals. CABINET PICTURES. (1909, March 13). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113350145

Tristram, Cliffs at Narrabeen, 1918
Mr. John W. Tristram
Mr. John W. Tristram, the well-known artist, died last Thursday at the age of 67. Mr. Tristram, who was born at Old Brompton Castle, in Kent, arrived in Sydney when he was 10 years old. He entered the Education Department as an architectural draughtsman, being the last man to enter the service by warrant under Governor Loftus, and he remained in the service for 45 years. He retired a few years ago. Among the buildings erected under his supervision are the Sydney Conservatorium and the Armidale Public School. Apart from his skill as a water colourist, Mr. Tristram was a gifted musician, though he never published any of his compositions. He is survived by Mrs. Tristram, two sons, and two daughters. MR. J. W. TRISTRAM. (1938, August 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17489942

In fact, spending time in Pittwater to create woks features in many Australian Artists portfolios':

Recently Mr. W Green, Tamworth’s well-known water color and black and white artist, spent a fortnight’s boating around the Hawkesbury and Newport and as the result of sketches made he has painted a fine collection of water colors which are on view at his Book Arcade, Peel street, thepictures include views of Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury, Cowan Creek, Lovett's Bay, Refuge Bay, Pitt water, Putty Beach Brisbane Water, Lion Island Barrenjoey, Bilgoela Head, Wagstaffe Point, and Palm Beach. TAMWORTH ARTIST'S PICTURES. (1921, May 17). The Northern Daily Leader (Tamworth, NSW : 1921), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104817511 

Exhibition at Turramurra
The veteran artist Mr. George Collingridge is exhibiting at the Masonic Hall, Turramurra, a large collection of paintings in oils and water' colors. The display was opened last night by Mr. Fitzsimons M.L.A., in the presence of a large gathering. In the oil section there are many attractive landscapes. A great deal of attention was given to "Australian Bent Tree," "The Basin, Pittwater," "Upper Mangrove Creek," "Balmoral Beach," and "'Upper Warara Creek," nil of which are treated sympathetically. But the best of the pictures are in the water colors — a versatile collection. There are many drawings of old Sydney — "Argyle Cut," "Lower Fort-street," "Blue's Point in 1880," and "The Oldest House." Among the landscapes those receiving attention were "Solitude," "The Moon is Up." "Hornsby," "Kendall's Narara," "From Berry's Buy," and "Mangrove Creek." The show remains open until Saturday. VETERAN ARTIST'S DISPLAY (1924, May 22). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 10 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223385607 

George Collingridge had a home at Berowra, stone cottage 'Capo di Monte', at Collingridge Point from around late 1881/1882. He recalls in many of the articles he wrote and that were published in various newspapers and periodicals, that he enjoyed walking. He also has a skiff, so would have had access to Pittwater, the Central Coast, and other inspirational views along the Hawkesbury.

George was winner of 1st Prize for engraving at the 1879 Sydney International Exhibition and co-founder (with his brother Arthur) in 1880 of the Art Society of N.S.W., now the Royal Art Society of N.S.W. 

A few extracts about, from and by the 'Hermit of Berowra':

George Alphonse Collingridge De Tourcey, Mosman's Bay
Watercolour, signed lower right 1889, 34 x 24 cm

George Collingridge, of the Art Society, N. S. W.
GEORGE Collingridge was born at Codmington, Oxfordshire, England, in 1847 ; went to Paris 185^ where he became a pupil of the French, master Hapigny. In 1867 he went to Renae, and served as a soldier under Pius IX., fought at Mentana, and the siege of Rome. While in Italy, Mr. Collingridge studied the old masters at the Vatican, walked from Borne to Naples to make studies in the Roman Carapagna/and returned to Paris., during 1869, but was obliged to leave again for, London on account of the siege of Paris. He left by the last train available for the departure of strangers In London he became associated with the art department of the, " Graffic" and ‘Illustrated London News," but returned to Paris after the Commune. There he found- his nice studio riddled with shells, and pillaged by Communists. 

During 1875 he went on a tour of Scotland, on foot, and filled many sketch books with views from Edinburgh to John o' Groats. Visited the Orkney and Shetlands in 1878. Went to Spain to make sketches of  the marriage of Alphonso for the of Monde Illustre," also to study the architectural beauties of old Spanish towns, such as Toledo, Fontarabu, &c. He came out to New South Wales in 1879, to cultivate art under a sky brighter even than those of Italy or Spain. 

With his, brother Arthur, who is also an artist, he has taken an active part in the progress of the Art Society, of which these gentlemen are the founders.

Before the formation of the Art Society of New South Wales the scattered elements of artistic genius might have striven in vain to .emo to the front and command the attention of lovers of art in the colony. The second annual exhibition of the society has proved how combination gives power. Pictures have been sold to the amount of nearly  600, and the society is not two years old. It was therefore a happy thought on the part of Messrs. G. and A. Collingridge on their arrival in Sydney to suggest a scheme for the launching of the new organisation. The society was formally constituted at a meeting held on July 16, 1880, when a council and officers were elected for the ensuing year. Mr. E. Combes, C.M.G., M.L.A., is the actual president, and the work of the society has received a fresh impetus since his accession to office. r. J. C. Hoyte, the late president, is now the vice-president of the society. From the success achieved in so short a time we  may augur well of the future progress, of .the, Art . Society of New. South Wales. 

George Collingridge, of the Art Society, N. S. W.
George Collingridge, of the Art Society, N. S. W.(1882, January 21). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70964565 

It would seem impossible that any of the water frontages in the County of Cumberland had not been mapped, yet Mr. Collingridge was responsible for rectifying rather a big mistake in the chart, showing the shores, creeks, and gullies In the Berowra district, north of Hornsby. The mistake consisted in the omission of four or five miles of water frontage from Still Creek to Calabash Bay. The error, however, was soon rectified. 
"I took up a selection on Berowra Creek in the early eighties," he says, "and was there for five years. There was no North Shore railway line or any other railway then, and to get home from town I took the Parramatta boat to Ryde, and rode or drove to Berowra —a matter of three or four hours, and then pulled about five miles up the creek to Collingridge Point. My selection was always considered as cut off from the outer world, except by approach on the water. Once, coming home, I was lost In the bush, and wandered about for 10 miles, discovering in my wanderings a long road on the top of a ridge, which I have never been able to find since. I judged the distance by the ruins of an old mill which I came across, and which I know was 32 miles from my selection on Berowra Creek," Mr, Collingridge breaks away from his reminiscences of the early. Berowra days and says he was born at Codington Manor, Oxfordshire, In October, 1847, and that In 1853 his father and mother, with the five children, went across to France....71 YEARS YOUNG (1919, May 18). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221452709 

Old Peat's Ferry Road
By George Collingridge
IF our new members of Parliament wish to show that they really intend to do some good for their country, one of the first things they will attend to will' be the reconstruction of the Old Peat's Ferry road and the replacing of the punt across the Hawkesbury River that many years ago caused Newcastle and Sydney to be in closer touch by a ..-mile shorter route than nowadays. Peat's Ferry forty-five years ago was an important place, coming down from Berowra Creek in my light cedar skiff, I often used to call in for my letters the did Peat's Ferry post-office, and I made the sketch given here in the year 1882. The place has changed a lot since then, and is now crowded with houses. There was 'good accommodation at the old-fashioned hotel on the Mooney-Mooney side, and ....— 'Globe Trotter.' Outdoor Australia. (1925, July 8). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160084951 

Mr. George Collingridge.
MR. GEORGE COLLINGRIDGE, The veteran artist and author, had an exhibition of his pictures at the Masonic Hall, Turramurra last week. They consisted chiefly of landscapes in the Hawkesbury and Hornsby district. Mr. Collingridge has been identified with art so many years that the high quality of his work is well known. His absolute sincerity reveals itself in a pleasing way. He has the sure touch of a sound draughtsman, the atmosphere of his pictures is restful, and regarded as a collection they have special value. Such remarkable changes are taking place on the northern side of the harbour that a number of his works might well be purchased for their historical importance. In a period when young artists are "expressing themselves" sometimes somewhat weirdly, It is refreshing and satisfying to visit and exhibition of an artist whose mind is fixed on Nature's beautifies rather than upon an ambition to use Nature as a background for some freakish interpretation that is supposed to represent "personality". For sincerity we have to look to artists like Mr. Collingridge. Mr. George Collingridge. (1924, May 28).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 16. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166151542 

Reviews of the Week Hermit of Berowra
'Round and Round the World,' by the Hermit of Berowra (George Collingridge). Published by the author, Hornsby, N.S.W.
Mr. George Collingridge has just published Part I. of his work, 'Round and Round the World.' It is a dainty little brochure containing many picturesque illustrations of his art in word-cutting. There intrudes in his work many references to that detestable, make-belief language, Esperanto, better named a lingo, and his subject-matter is at times amusing, if not ambitious in design. But it is not as an author we review his work, but as an artist whose talents might have taken him far along the road to success had he concentrated oil his subject. He was born in Oxfordshire, England, in 1847, but spent the greater part of his early days in France. He began as a student in architecture under Viollet de Due, but he abandoned this for wood-engraving, and he has some beautiful work to his credit. He has executed some of the finest work in France, and possesses many medals in world competitions for 'wood engraving. Mr. Collingridge was a pupil under Corot, and also took landscape lessons from Harpignies. His wood cuts are really a delight to the eye, and when placed under the magnifying glass the lines look almost perfectly executed. BOOKS AND WRITERS (1925, August 23).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128160877 

George Collingridge, 1847-1931. Title [The home of the hermit] [picture] / Geo. Collingridge- circa 188-?, wood engraving ; 13.8 x 8.5 cm. Courtes National Library of Australia. Image No.: nla.obj-136199872-1 

Vanishing Gum Trees
By George Collingridge
THE elevated plateau that extends towards Cowan, between the Lane Cove River and Middle Harbour, is fast becoming populated, and the magnificent gum trees that lend such charm to the scenery in these parts are gradually disappearing, but giving place, however, to beautiful homes. Not long ago this extended region of the north side of Sydney Harbour, comprising Turruamuura, Warrawee and Wahroonga, away back on the high -rough tablelands beyond the little settlement that fringed the shores of Port Jackson, was a terra incognita to Sydney folk. The country, being broken and sleep, was considered too difficult of access for settlement. A rough track meandered through a deep forest of gigantic cum trees, and along that track, on certain days, and at certain hours, one might meet with the carts and drays of the few pioneers whose main occupations were timber getting and the culture of fruit and vegetables, which they brought down to the shore to be ferried across to Sydney by the successors of Billy Blue and Benelon. 

TURRAMURRA GUM TREES. From a woodcut by George Collingridge.

ONE fine day, the idea occurred to somebody that a railway might be constructed along the track which had gradually wore for itself the title of Lane Cove-road. After many delays the idea was put into execution, notwithstanding the great outlay caused by the nature of. the country traversed and the tunnels that had to be pierced through the hills in order to reach by convenient slopes the high lands which command such magnificent views of the harbour, Sydney, and .Blue Mountains in the far off horizon. No sooner was the railway finally opened from Milson's Point and connected with the northern line at Hornsby, than a sudden transformation took place, and now all along the railway line new suburbs have been called into existence. Of all these, none. I think, can vie with Turramurra, Warrawee and Wahroonga for all the manifold requisites of model suburbs. In the silent glens and deep forests, where a few years ago the hardy sportsman tracked the wallaby, possum, and native bear, happy homes, cosy and artistic, have been carved out of the primeval forest, and occupy almost every available hillcrest in this elevated and healthy region. From the railway line between Turramurra and Wahroonga, turn on which side you may, you catch sight of the red tiles of those up-to-date residences modelled on the early English style of architecture, peeping through the greenery of the balmy eucalypti. Vanishing Gum Trees (1926, October 27).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 40. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166522578 

George Collingridge, 'Patonga. Broken Bay.' 
Watercolour, 30x21cm - Royal Art Society of NSW label verso.

Twisted Gums near Gosford from - Wood-Engraving and Wood-Cutting by George Collinridge. (1928, October 10). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 47. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158402548

Mr. George Collingridge, artist and litterateur, who some years ago was associated with this district, died at the Coast Hospital on Monday, June 1, aged 84 years. Mr. Collingridge was born at Godrington Manor House, in Oxfordshire, but spent his youth in France. He received his education from an English-man resident in Paris, and attended the Ecole des Jesuits de Vangirard. In 1863, he became a student in architecture under Viollet-le-Duc and an apprentice at wood engraving. He also attended classes at the Ecole dee Beaux Arts. There he became acquainted with Corot, and was the great artist 'b only pupil. He also took lessons from Chapeu, for the figure, and from Harpignies, for landscape. With Vierge and others, who subsequently won their way to fame in the world of art, he illustrated with woodcuts "L 'Histoid du Consulat et de L 'Empire de Thiers," "Gil Bias," "Don Quixote," and other important works of the period. His studies and work were interrupted by events in Italy, where Garibaldi bad taken the field. Mr. Collingridge enlisted in the Papal Zouaves and served in nineteen engagements. Then came a tour through Italy and a return to Paris, from which the members of his family got away just in time to escape the siege by the Prussians, and the Commune. In London he worked for the "Graphic" and the ''Illustrated London News." With his brother Arthur, he came to Sydney in 1879,. and .with his brother he founded the (now Royal) Art Society. In addition to painting pictures, he worked for the "Sydney Mail" and other illustrated papers. His activities, however, were not confined to . art. He investigated records "and literature on the early navigators of the Indies and the Pacific, his familiarity with the French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish tongues giving him a great advantage in that respect. He wrote a number of books dealing with the subject, these including the "First Discovery of Australia and New Guinea," and the "Discovery of Australia." Still later, he followed la the footsteps of Lewis Carroll and brought out "Alice in One Dear Land" and "Through the Joke in Glass." Mr. Collingridge was not without honor in his own day, in recognition of his work. He was made a fellow of the Royal Historical Society, a member of the Royal Geographical Society, and of various geographical societies in other countries, and was a member of the Spanish Order of Isabela la Catholics and a Knight of the Portuguese Order of Santiago. He was also keenly interested in the study of Esperanto. ' 

For some years he was an art teacher at the Technical College, and he held a similar post at Barker College, Hornsby. Mr. Collingridge married a daughter-of the late Mr. T. C. Makinson. She predeceased him. He is survived by three sons, Messrs. Austin, Wilfred, and Joseph Collingridge, and one daughter, Miss Catherine Collingridge. Mr. justice Heydon and Mr. J. M. Watkins, barrister-at-law and Parliamentary draughtsman, are brothers-in-law, and Mrs. A. Collingridge, of Ryde, is a sister-in-law. The funeral took place on Tuesday from St. Charles Roman Catholic Church, Ryde, the remains being interred in the Field of Mars Cemetery in the presence of a large gathering of relatives and friends. The officiant was the Rev. Father Gell. BEYOND THE VEIL (1931, June 11). The Gosford Times and Wyong District Advocate (NSW : 1906 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163888181 

The Late Mr. George Collingridge.
The death of Mr. George Collingridge at the Coast Hospital on June 1, fortified by the rites of Holy Church, removes a name well known in Catholic art and literary circles. Mr. Collingridge was one of the two remaining men in Australia who had fought with the Papal Zouaves in Rome. The deceased gentleman was born at Godington in 1847. At 21 years of age he was professor of English at Arceuil College, Paris. For three years he taught a variety of subjects. During a long and honorable career of interesting and exciting events, it would be difficult to particularise any special feature. He was two years in the Papal Zouaves and fought in nineteen engagements. He came to Australia in 1872 on the 'Lusitania.' His brother, Arthur, also come to Sydney, and was one of Sydney's leading artists. He died in 1907. Mary Collingridge, a sister, was a noted teacher of French at Hunter's Hill, and died some years ago at Chatswood. Charles Francis became a priest and accompanied the Soudan expedition in 1885. He was a splendid chaplain and wrote many works of interest. He returned to England and joined the Jesuit Fathers. Another son, Alfred, Papal Zouave, was killed at the battle of Mentana on Nov. 3, 1867. 

The Collingridge family is one, of the oldest Catholic families in England, and has given many priests, nuns and Bishop to the Church. The family dates from about the time of William the Conqueror in England, and has always been Catholic. During the last two centuries there have been the following men of note in the family: Right Rev. Peter Bernardine Collingridge, born in Oxfordshire, 1757, became Vicar Apostolic of the Western District, etc. Dr. Collingridge died on 3rd March, 1829. The Right Rev. Peter Bernardine Collingridge was 72 years of age. The Rev. Peter (Canon) Collingridge, Rector of Holy Trinity, Bermondsey, died June 17, 1866. His brother, the Rev. Ignatius Collingridge, was born June 30, 1807, died June 11, 1889, aged 82\ and during his 58 years in Holy Orders he had many parishes. The Rev. Thomas Collingridge was born on July 3, 1771, died' Nov. 11, 1854, aged 83. He was Prefect of Stonyhurst, and afterwards 40 years at the Society's old mission at Hooton, Cheshire. William Collingridge, of Godington, Oxon., married Louisa Maguire, a cousin of the Rev. Alfred Maguire, who. built the church at Hethe and had charge of the mission there. William Collingridge's sister Frances Collingridge, entered the convent of Beaulieu at the Rue d'Enfer, Paris. The Late Mr. George Collingridge. (1931, July 2). Freeman's Journal(Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 26. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118076229 

As one reviewer stated of the 1900 Art Society Exhibition:
Three landscapes next attract attention — 'The Lagoon, Narrabeen' (what would our artists do without Narrabeen?) by Daplyn; 'Showery Weather,' by the same artist; and Lister's 'South Coast.' THE ART SOCIETY. (1900, August 25). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112589488

There are so many paintings and etching and woodcarvings of Narrabeen Lagoon from as soon as people put brush to canvas here until current days it would be a large task to find and list them all. Some have been Finalists and one claimed the Wynne Prize. A few examples: 1935: Edith C Horrocks -Narrabeen, 1966: Elizabeth M Hegarty - Still waters, Narrabeen and Lilie Lowe - Sunlit Path at Narrabeen and that which won the prize in 1940, Sydney Long's, The Lake, Narrabeen.

The Art of the Year: (1907, August 28). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 550. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163662643

Mr. Long spent a lot of time on the Northern Beaches. He became involved with a group of artists, writers and thinkers (including Christopher Brennan) who met at Newport in the 1920s. Later, his own students (including Bim Hilder, Donald Friend, Cedric Flower and Richard Ashton) were invited to weekend camps on his land at Narrabeen [1]. Frank Hodgkinson maintains that his understanding of the process of painting was due to Long: ‘It was Sydney Long who gave Hodgkinson the first taste of what real painting could be, when he visited Long at his caravan on Narrabeen Lake’ [2].

Sydney Long was also a huge supporter of the Manly Art & Historical Collection and his name is on the Founders’ Roll, a testament to his support for the establishment of the Gallery, to which he donated this painting Green and gold when the gallery opened in 1930. The Gallery also has one of his etchings, The old Customs House, Palm Beach, c.1928.

Sid Long
An artist at work.
Should you take it into your head to go for a walk round Narrabeen Lakes during the week-end you will probably see a rowing boat with a curious-looking addition to it and should you be accompanied by one of the local inhabitants, boat and
' rower will be pointed out to you with some pardonable pride.
“SEE that boat' that’s Syd Long rowing ".
“He paints round here."

Sometimes the rower in his boat gets a more Imposing title from the onlookers. Impressed with The dignity of art, they refer to him as "Sir Sydney Long," or even as a sort of combination personality, “Sir Sydney Longstaff."

Sydney Long likes to take the foreshores as his subject and paint them from the water, and that is where the skiff comes in handy. The addition to the boat is a sort of portable easel, a most satisfactory arrangement should the day remain calm, but not so easy to manage when an irritating wind arises.
Indeed, getting the placid fore-shores of the creeks and bays of Narrabeen Lakes on to canvas is not always plain sailing. As, for instance, the occasion when Mr. Long picked out a most delightful scene spent a day's work on it, and returned the following weekend to go on with the study, only to find that a horse had, most inconsiderately, died there, making the place quite unapproachable for even the most enthusiastic of artists.

"That picture is still unfinished," he remarks sadly, but he thinks that the skeleton of the horse will be very useful some time to teaching students the anatomy of the noble animal. So in this case the present, very ill wind is later on going to bring the students some thing. 

The day's painting finished, Mr. Long returns to his week-end residence the grounds of which run from Lagoon-street down to the lake. It is probably inaccurate to apply such a permanent-sounding word as residence to the brilliantly painted caravan which stands on the allotment, but the fact that the caravan has what estate agents would call "all mod convs," including electric light and radiators and water laid on, would almost entitle it to be called a cottage.

The caravan has quite a history of its own. Built originally for an Englishman, who had his own ideas of seeing Australia in comfort, the wooden caravan was fitted with all sorts of elaborations, including a large wine-bin. But either the Englishman saw all he wanted to of Australia or else the horse that pulled the caravan lay down on the job. Anyhow, the touring days of the vehicle were soon declared over, and it was left abandoned in a field at Springwood, where its gipsy-like aspect attracted Mr. Long, who promptly bought it.

Probably the horses In that district all belong ' to the same horses' union, for the one hired to bring the caravan down from the Mountains likewise objected strenuously and also lay down on the Job. The caravan, therefore, arrived somewhat inappropriately at Narrabeen on a lorry.

Sid Long recto: (The artist's caravan at Narrabeen) verso: (studies of a boat) late 1920s. Copyright © Estate of Sydney Long. Courtesy Ophthalmic Research Institute of Australia and NSW Art Gallery.

The Artist's Wife.
Mrs. Long does not very often go down to Narrabeen. She is not able to, for demands are made on her time by her hobby. Perhaps hobby is too slight a word to apply to Mrs. Long's love for animals. She spends a good deal of her time taking in poor waifs and strays of the feline world and finding homes for them if possible. Mrs. Long is a member of the R.S.P.C.A., and was an ardent worker for the London society before she arrived in Australia.

The artist's wife.
The present guardian of Syd Long's studio is a very lucky tabby cat, who made a thin living from the dust-bins of George-street before Mrs. Long found it. A fat, purring animal, this cat is very conscientious about its duty of scattering the rats that used, before its arrival, to chew the books and papers in the Attic Galleries. -S.W. AN ARTIST AT WORK. (1934, September 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 21 (Women's Supplement). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17134155 

Another interesting, though rather uneven painter is Rhys Williams. "Narrabeen Lakes" and "Stately Gums" display his sense of balance and his quiet command over colour and atmospheric effect. But "Middle Harbour" is a little harsh, with its flare of metallic blue, and the large canvas, "Camden Pastures," seems rather featureless, as though a small subject were being seen in an elongating mirror. H. C. Hadley's pictures are also predominantly pleasant, though they Include one or two less happy efforts. The best of them are "Morning Haze," "A Pastoral," "Lengthening Shadows," and "After the Storm"-all clear and definite, yet marked by an inherent delicacy of treatment. AUSTRALIAN ART SOCIETY. (1934, June 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17091129

Boat Shed, Narrabeen
Oil on board, signed lower right Sydney Long, 40 x 31.5 cm – taller version

Left: The portrait of Dr. J. Forbes McKenzie, of Melbourne, painted by Max Meldrum, which yesterday was awarded the 1940 Archibald Prize by the Trustees of the National Art Gallery. The same artist won the prize last year. 
Right: Sydney Long's landscape painting, "The Lake, Narrabeen," which was awarded the Wynne Art Prize. Mr. Long won the prize in 1938ARCHIBALD AND WYNNE PRIZE PAINTINGS — NEW GUINEA EARTHQUAKE — VISUAL EDUCATION COURSE. (1941, January 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17730191 

William Lister Lister's Wynne Wins:
1898 The Last Gleam
1906 The Golden Splendour of the Bush
1910 Mid Song of Birds and Insects Murmuring
1912 Sydney Harbour
1913 Federal Capital Site
1917 Windswept Marshes
1925 Track through the Bush

Alvah Earlington Rosebray

ROSEBRAY.- December 4, 1943, at Manly Hospital, A. Earlington Rosebray, late of Narrabeen. Family Notices (1943, December 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17890171 

MANLY DISTRICT HOSPITAL will benefit from the sale of 150 watercolours by the late Alvah Earlington Rosebray, some of which are on view at the Tourist Bureau window, Martin Place. Rosebray was a well known Sydney black and white artist, but had largely lost contact with artistic circles for many years. What is Happening in Your Home State (1944, June 8). Army News (Darwin, NT : 1941 - 1946), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47695294 

Sydney artist wins recognition —six months after his death
AN artist who spent most of his life in Sydney struggling for recognition has been brought prominently before the public during the past fortnight six months after his death. '
He was A. Earlington Rosebray, a contemporary or the older art school, whose Illustrations appeared in Sydney weeklies 30 or 40 years ago. Resenting commercial work and aspiring to paint for the love of his art, Rosebray cut himself off from most of his friends and retired to a beach Most of his former colleagues thought he had drifted, and said he wouldn't be heard of any more In the art world. But Rosebray was painting things as he saw them and, like that famous artist, Turner, putting them away in drawers. 

His collection of paintings and drawings has attracted lively attention in windows at the Tourist Bureau, and in a room on the fifth floor of Challis House, where they are being sold to provide a memorial to the artist — an endowed cot in Manly Hospital, where he died. Many of his bright watercolors have been sold. The remainder will be disposed of this week. The display closes on June 23. Among the collection left in the artist's will to Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Rashley, of Narrabeen, is a portrait of the artist, which Mrs. Rashley Intends to offer to the NSW Art Gallery. Sydney artist wins recognition --six months alter his death (1944, June 18). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231696038 

Alvah Earlington Rosebray  - Untitled (Beach Bathers) 23 x 30cm - courtesy Lawsons, Fine Art Auctioneers

Mr. A. E. Rosebray’s Work.
'An Australian artist, whose work should meet with the Instant appreciation of local art lovers, is Mr. A. Earlington Rosebray, who will hold an Impromptu exhibition of water color drawings in the Hall of the Muses, George-street, City, to-day, at 2.30 p.m. The display has been arranged by the management of the "Muses' Magazine," and will Include landscapes, seascapes, and depletions of wild life In New South Wales. The artist is a native of that State, and is represented in the National Gallery there.

Mr. Rosebray for some time resided in the bush, and has happily caught the atmosphere in a series of colorful and clear-toned pictures.Some of his studies are notable for the grace of their conception, and the rare poetic feeling revealed. "Solitude," an exquisite pastel-tinted Impression of a wind-tossed tree against a dim haze of sea and sky, has an ethereal and mystic qualityThe same Indefinable charm is convoyed In "Nocturne, Hawkesbury River," In soft blue tones, and In "Softly Steals the Night," with the faint silver of the moon perches the blue shades above a dwelling on the dark hillside.

"Lengthening Shadows," Is another enchanting low-toned study, with a faint, luminous quality. Distinctly light treatment is evidenced in the soft glow of "Misty Dawns," while "Wind Swept Saplings," has a note of unrest, deepened by the vibrant color in the foreground. Free, flowing treatment is shown in the unusual bush subjects, "The Glow of Eventide." and "Evening Mists," with their soft, but subdued color: A luminous sky, and fine gradations in the tones of sea and shore, distinguish "The Cliff Shadow," while "Summer" has a delightful glow. 

Typically Australian is the contrast of clear light and faint shadow In "Sunlit Gums, Cootamundra," and the same characteristics are revealed In "Morning Light, Hawkesbury River," "Evening Glow," with the depiction of wallabies In a secluded space, Is a line nature study. Entirely different In treatment Is "The Revellors," a fantastic Impression of figures In fancy dress, playing In a moon-silvered glade. "Evening Sea," the one oil painting, appeals with its delicate tones and grace of line. The black and white work, chiefly live sketches of birds and animals, reveals the artist In happy and humorous mood. DISTINCTIVE PICTURES. BY AUSTRALIAN. (1928, June 13). Daily Standard (Brisbane, Qld. : 1912 - 1936), p. 9 (3 p.m. EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article178951784 

Mr. Rosebray judged this Hawkesbury River (Show) annually 

Judge — Mr. A. E. Rosebray.
Original sketch in crayon by boy or girl under 16 years — Neale Burcher 1, Miss V Charley 2; Miss V Gurney 3; head in crayon, original, by amateur — Miss M A Jones 1, Miss F Gurney 2, Miss D Huggins 3 ; original, watercolor, landscape— Miss V Charley 1, Miss D M Watkins 2, W F G Hope 3 ; oil painting, landscape — Miss I 0 Brown 1, Mrs. A Broadhurst 2 ; Miss M M Woodriff 3 ; ditto, flowers — Miss I Dunston 1, Miss F Gurney 2, A Pereival3 ; ditto, figure, Miss M M Woodriff 1, Miss R Mayne 2, Miss I (3 Brown 3 ; ditto original landscape, amateurs — Miss M M. Woodriff 1, F Biddle 2, Miss B E Day 3 ; ditto flowers, amateurs — Miss M. M Woodriff 1, Miss I Dunafcon 2, Miss B Burcher 3 ; ditto figure— Miss E Jones 1, Miss M M Woodriff 2, Miss B E Day 3 ; hand painting, on silk or satin — Miss F Gurney 1, Miss S Perry 2, Mrs. E J Dyer 3 ; map of Australia, by boy or girl not over 15 years — Miss S Gurney 1, Miss Pearlie Prosser 2, Miss E Gurney 3 ; map of N, S. Wales, showing roads, railways and telegraphs, by boy or girl not over 15 years — Miss P Pt'osaer 1, Miss E Gurney 2, Miss S Gurney 3 ; be3t drawing by pupil attending any school — Miss F Aylwin 1, Neale Burcher 2, Miss A Sharp 3 ; best specimen handwriting by boy or girl under 11 years attending any school — Miss A Sharp 1, Aubrey Kilduff 2, Jack Bourke 3. FINE ARTS. (1906, May 12). Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article85668968 

Manly Shooting Tragedy
SYDNEY. Monday.— A retired commercial artist, who gave £418 to a friend at Manly last night, was found shot through the head a few minutes later.The dead man was Frederick William Pears, 55, an ex-serviceman, Taiyul Road, Narrabeen.

A friend of Pears, Mr. George L.  Jones, told police that Pears called at his home at 9.30 p.m. yesterday. 
Pears, he said, gave him two wallets containing the money, and told him: 'I have mucked things up — I am going to say good-bye to the world now.' 

Jones said that Pears then took what looked like a revolver, from his pocket, and walked down the road. As Jones watched, Pears bent over on the roadway. Jones heard a report and rushing over, found his friend shot through the head. Jones called Manly Ambulance, but Pears was dead on arrival at Hospital. ARTIST'S DEATH (1950, April 25 - Tuesday).National Advocate (Bathurst, NSW : 1889 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161200289 

Lance Vaiben Solomon

Lance was born in Liverpool, New South Wales, a son of Edwin Arthur Vaiben Solomon on the (20 September 1877-), a cabinetmaker, and his wife Jessie Elizabeth Solomon, née Black (1874 – 13 May 1951). Vaiben Solomon (1802–1860) an emancipist transported in 1818, was a grandfather. He studied at the East Sydney Technical College and the Royal Academy School in London.
He married and moved to Narrabeen, New South Wales.

He won a New South Wales travelling scholarship in 1939. He presented one of his works to HM the Queen Mother during her visit to Australia, won the Wynne Prize twice; in 1946 for January Weather, and again 1953 for The River Bend.

Archibald Prize Won By SA Artist
Sydney: A South Australian artist (Ivor Hele) today won the £500 Archibald Prize-Australia's highest art award-with a portrait of Sir Henry Simpson Newland.
It was the second time Hele had won the Archibald Prize.
Lance Solomon (51), of Narrabeen (N.S.W.) won the £40 Wynne Prize for landscape painting, with "The River Bend."
Eric Smith won the £90 Sir John Sulman Prize, with a mural--"Convicts," Berrima, 1839; The Old Courthouse." Archibald Prize Won By SA Artist (1954, January 22). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49413434 

He also won Royal Agricultural Society Easter Show 1961, 1962 and 1965. His work is shown in the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra and several State galleries.

In A Tribute to Lance Vaiben Solomon (1913–1989)including a Foreword by Sir William Dargie and Biographical Notes, includes many references to Norman Lindsay, who was a sincere friend of Solomon. 

Jennings, Eddi and Benkendorff, Robin. A Tribute to Lance Vaiben Solomon (1913–1989). ill. SOLOMON, Lance Vaiben. Kenthurst, Sydney: Dekiki, 1990. Includes a Foreword by Sir William Dargie and Biographical Notes, inc. many references to Norman Lindsay, who was a sincere friend of Solomon.

Lance Solomon - Narrabeen Artist - (1913-1989)

His works of his home, Narrabeen, and surrounds are numerous, he was prolific, talented and clearly immersed in his environment. He was also a rather lovely gentleman according to those who knew him!

Long Reef
Oil on canvas laid down on board, 59.5 x 75 cm,  -Spring Auction of Australian & International Paint, Leonard Joel, Melbourne.


MELBOURNE. May 14-The judges of the £1000 Dunlop art contest unanimously agreed that no picture entered In the competition deserved the first prize of £300.The second prize of £200 was won by Mr. L. Solomon, of Narrabeen, Sydney, for his painting of "TheYabbies Pool." DUNLOP ART CONTEST. (1951, May 15). Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article40371251 


Little Narrabeen
Oil on board, signed lower left L. Solomon, 24 x 29 cm

Narrabean Lakes, Study
Ink & wash, signed lower right, titled lower left, 17.5 x 13.9 cm

'Pittwater Blue,' 1952
Oil on board, 24 x 29 cm - courtesy Australian & International Art, Davidson Auctions, Sydney.

Oil on board, 14 x 19 cm courtesy  E. J. Ainger Pty.Ltd., Melbourne.

Down by the Creek
Oil on board, 45 x 40 cm courtesy Fine Art, Jewellery, Decorative Arts & Antique Furniture , Lawsons, Sydney.
Elanora Heights and Warriewood - A Valley of Misty and Mystical Dreamers
On the verge of Mona Vale, and backing on to Warriewood, is a little place once called 'Rock Lily' due to the abundance of the same little flower that once grew there. This in turn became the name for the Rock Lily establishment founded by Leon Houreaux, now where there entrance to the village centre of Mona Vale is in 1880-1881. 

Mr Houreaux liked a mural, in fact he liked a mural so much he covered the interior walls of the Rock Lily 'hotel' with his artworks and these became an added attraction to the great food Charlotte Boutin was serving up to those visiting by coach. 

Picture of Leon Houreux from: The Black Giant at Cremorne. (1893, November 25). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 3. Retrieved from nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63672406

The place became so famous, or infamous according to some in reference to what was purported to go on there, that the Lindsay family visited in the Spring of 1907. Norman Lindsay's brother Lionel, another great Australian Artist, took some of his wonderful photographs of Monsieur's creations - with his daughter and her husband in the frames:

From State Library of NSW Album: Portraits of Norman and Lionel Lindsay, family and friends, ca. 1900-1912 / photographed chiefly by Lionel Lindsay. Image No.: a2005209h and below: a2005210h

Justine Leontine and Auguste Briquet - 1907. One of Leon's murals i son the wall behind them.

When the whips cracked in city streets
THERE must have been something incurably magnetic and romantic about the whip-cracking days of horse bus transport In Sydney some 50 years
One of the out-of-town , coach-bus services had some colorful touches. It was Black's on the Manly-Rocklily run, which branched at Mona Vale, one service going on to Newport and the other to Church Point. 

Inn-keeper was rival
Fred White used to go with his father as far as the Rocklily Hotel, where Monsieur. Leon Houreux could do justice to the gourmets.Houreux was an artist with the brush as well as the meat-chopper. And he was not above running a coach service of his own when Black's refused to run on account of bad weather. The coach was Houreux's business lifeline: no coach, no customers. 

"To force Houreux to run;" recalls Jim Shaw, still at his farrier's forge at Bayview, "Black sent his son as a decoy passenger when the weather was bad, but Houreux's coachie wouldn't accept him. 'Go in your father's' he said. Black's franchise for a feeder service to Church Point was dependent on the provision of a daily service, and resenting the keen opposition of the Frenchman, he retaliated by charging 1/6 from Church Point to Rocklily. A small court action settled Black, and from that time Houreux was given a free hand. 

Picturesque route 
These affairs of the parish didn't concern the Whites who continued along the bush track in a smaller coach, past Brock's La Corniche, a white elephant of the first order, past the "racecourse" where Brock's horses exercised, and up the steep grade to the west side of Bushrangers Hill, overlooking Newport and Pittwater. Now let us return to town and see how the buses are faring in the new days of a new century. ...
When the whips cracked in city streets (1954, May 19). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 31 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230782798 

Rock Lily 1893 picture: A Christmas Holiday Trip. (1893, November 25). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63104125 - 

For more visit; The Wild Coachmen Of Pittwater - A Long And Sometimes Bumpy Ride On Tracks Instead Of Roads

The Rock Lily visited by the Lindsay family in 1907 – who may have returned to visit friend of the Norman Lindsay, Lance Solomon, in Narrabeen.

Rock Lily Hotel [Narrabeen] from State Library of NSW Album: Portraits of Norman and Lionel Lindsay, family and friends, ca. 1900-1912 / photographed chiefly by Lionel Lindsay. Image No.: a2005211h - Auguste and Justine Leontine Briquet are on front entrance way

Mona Vale, Waterview-Streets 'Mad Mile' - the 1920's to late 1940's
Mona Vale became a very popular area following the Halloran sales at Warriewood, so much so that a public school was opened to meet the demand of people settling here. George Brock was losing his wonderful Brock's Mansions at this time, with grounds filled with statuary and a rather grand fountain, which French couple Henri and Hedwig Rainaud later renamed 'La Corniche' to signal to their avid connoisseurs they had moved from Drumtochty, (Figtree Flat) Bayview to the Mona Vale beachfront.

The sleepy little village was becoming a 'go to' place for weekend visitors and those who settled brought their love of Art with them:

In addition to the pictures purchased by the National Art Gallery, further important sales have been effected. The committee of the Millions Club have purchased, as a nucleus to a collection they intend to instal in their rooms, the following works: "Sand Dunes, Mona Vale," by W. Lister Lister, and "Summer Idyll," by John Banks. ROYAL ART SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION (1922, August 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16017822 

Members of the Royal Art Society and other artists are busy designing the black and white and coloured screens which will be a feature of the Black and White Artists' Ball, to be held in the Paddington Town Hall on July 29. To augment the proceeds of the ball, which will be given to the Picton Lakes T.B. Settlement, a motor treasure hunt will be held on Sunday, when cars will leave the Art Gallery at 10.30 am. for Mona Vale. Mr.Grant Hanlon is In charge of arrangements.
NEAR AND FAR. (1929, July 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16571375

The appeal fund of the T.B.  Sailors and Soldiers' Association will hold one of its final activities before the fund is closed, a combined motor picnic and treasure hunt at La Corniche, Mona Vale, on September 1. The party will start from the Art Gallery, Sydney, at 10.30a.m., where clues will be given out. For those who do not wish to take part in the hunt a special programme of amusements will be provided at Mona Vale.
NEAR AND FAR. (1929, August 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16577706

In 1936 the Hawkins’s family moved to Waterview Street, Mona Vale living there for the next 23 years.  This area was affectionately named ‘The Mad Half Mile’ for the great number of artist and writers living there, including at one period, Arthur Murch and Raymond Glass. Here that he established his working routine and began painting on masonite which he thought was better suited to the Australian climate than canvas and it was cheaper.   
Family life and the environs of Mona Vale became important motifs of Hawkins’ work. Then Mona Vale was an area of natural bush, tropical vegetation, market gardens and semi rural suburbs. The peaceful and verdant rendition of the area in A view of Newport, 1943 does not give insight into the harshness of the Australian climate or into the war time austerities that Hawkins was living under at the time.  His fixed British war pension did not take into consideration the high war time inflation and the family had to rely on their garden to provide them with fruit and vegetables and chickens! 
Weaver wrote to his brother in 1943 that his wife ‘Rene sticks to her gardening courageously, but it was a heart breaking job this year with almost continual drought. The earth is everywhere crying for rain, rain, and more rain’[3]. .  As a practitioner of different artistic styles, this work contrasts sharply with his bleak, moralistic modernist works, sometimes mural size, concerned with war fare and over population.

His love of his new home is shown through his works and working - including being among those who would protect the natural bush in Mona Vale as an honourary ranger:
The Contemporary Art Society was an important part of his life, exhibiting his work from 1944 -1970, and for which he was Vice President and President.  He also lectured and reviewed exhibitions promoting contemporary art.

Weaver Hawkins, Citrus above Pittwater, 1943
oil on masonite 61.00 x 71.00 signed l.r. Exhibited: Modern Australian Painting 2010 (2010)

Weaver Hawkins, 1950 Wynne Finalist for - In Mona Vale

WILD Flowers and Native Plants Protection Act, 1927:— The undermentioned persons have been appointed as honorary rangers for the purposes of this Act:—
Brammer, John Kyneton, Bassett-street, Mona Vale; Collins, Edmund Henry, Ocean Grove, Collaroy; Gould, Charles Sidebottom, Daintree, Salvation-street, Mona Vale; Gould, (Mrs.) Margaret Irene, Daintree, Salvation-street, Mona Vale; Hawkins, Harold Frederick Weaver, Waterview-street, Mona Vale; Hawkins, (Mrs.) Irene Eleanor, Waterview-street, Mona Vale; Kentwell, Graham Harold, Elimatta-street, Mona Vale; Kentwell, (Mrs.) Eunice, Elimatta-street, Mona Vale; Myers, (Mrs.) Enid, 29 Lueretia-avenue, Longueville; Savage, (Miss) Ethnee, Bayview-road, Mona Vale; Savage, (Mrs.) Fanny Stephney, Bayview-road, Mona Vale; Toovey, (Miss) Roslyn Phyllis, Hillcrest-avenue, Mona Vale; Young, (Miss), Annie Lawson, The Tropics, Crescent-road, Mona Vale.
J. J. CAHILL, Minister for Local Government. 
APPOINTMENT OF HONORARY RANGERS. (1945, June 15). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1032. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225482291 

Charles Sidebotham (Strom) Gould was born August 1910. He was also known as Charles Sidebotham Gould, Strom Gould. He was an Artist (Painter), Teacher and Cartoonist / Illustrator. Gould came to Australia from England in 1937. Employed as the Sydney Morning Herald's first art director, Gould also drew its first comic strip in 1944. Cartoons signed 'Gould’ appeared in Australia: National Journal and in Australia Week-end Book 1 (1942), e.g. “What be a’goin’ on around 'ere?” (German parachutist about to land on head of farmer while rest of farm people and animals flee), and others in vol.2 (1943). Gould drew the SMH 's first comic strip, an untitled gag sequence first published in December 1944. (It was followed by an English strip called 'Mr and Mrs’ and the US 'Penny’ by Haenigsen in January 1945.) Gould returned to England in 1946-51 and was succeeded as art director on the SMH by William (Nick) Nicholas (1946-50), et al (listed Souter, 630).

John Coburn’s lithograph Garden was printed by Strom Gould at Sydney c.1960 (NGA) when both were teaching at East Sydney Technical College. His abstract painting, Sundrenched Bush 1966 (Manly AG), is reproduced in Therese Kenyon (ed.), The Studio Tradition: National Art School 1883-2001(Manly AG catalogue, 2001, 32). He died at Port Douglas, Queensland, on 31 July 1992.

Roslyn Toovey is a sister of Dora Toovey – wife of James R Jackson Jackson, 1924 to 1947. 

James R Jackson, Summer day, Mona Vale (1937). Bequest of Roslyn Phyllis Toovey 1991 – to Art Gallery of NSW 


Photo May Moore.
FOR some years past the paintings of Mr. James R. Jackson have been a notable feature of the Royal Art Society's exhibitions. This year his panel (he has no fewer than 12 pictures on view) is the principal one in the show. His bright and pleasing colours attract the general public; the sterling technical qualities of the works secure the admiration of artists and critics. Mr. Jackson is now regarded as one of the few Australian painters who really count.
There are some Sydney art-lovers who saw in the first work exhibited at the Art Society's exhibition of 1910 by Mr. Jackson the factors which make for success. His colour sense was unusually good from the outset, and it has since been trained and improved. Rejoicing in the brilliant display of colour harmonies which Nature makes in Australia, Mr. Jackson set himself to reproduce them. His early impressionist landscapes and his bold treatment of the figure in the open air gave a note of gaiety to his exhibits which contrasted agreeably with the graver and often stodgier pictures near by. Colour is, after all, the most important element of a painting. The selective sense is shown in the theme and fundamental training in the daughtsmanship, but neither good drawing nor interesting subject will compensate for lack of beauty in colour. One might grade artists by their ability to render colour in its true tonal values and in its less obvious and vulgar appearances. And one might almost say that if a person is endowed with a fine colour sense all other requirements of artistry will l:e added unto him. Mr. Jackson's progress as an artist is indicated by the increasing subtlety of his handling of paint and his treatment of more difficult aspects of the figure. Figure painting is more exacting than landscape, and less saleable; so that fewer artists attempt it seriously as compared with those who 'go in for' landscape. 

JAMES R. JACKSON virtually began his artistic career with drawings and paintings of the figure. At the age of 8 he came to Sydney from New Zealand, where, in the town of Palmerston North, he was born on the 3rd July, 1886. While a youngster he amused himself considerably with a few coloured chalks. His father saw some of these drawings, and then showed the boy a small painting made by one of his employees. James said that he didn't think much of it. The father, amused at his assurance, said: 'The day you can do anything as good as that you will be somebody.' James replied that if he had a box of colours he could do as well as that very quickly.

'ALONE.' This striking work attracted a good deal of attention when it was exhibited at one of the Royal Art Society's shows.

A box of paints was given to him, and he set to work with them enthusiastically. After leaving school he obtained employment with a firm of decorators in Sydney, and made use of any spare time in painting for his own enjoyment. One day his employer found a clashing sort of painting on the wall, and said: 'What does this mean? Who did this?' James proudly confessed that alone be did it. 'Well, you've used up a lot of valuable paints. If you want to take up this sort of thing, I'll introduce you to an artist I know, and he'll teach you.' Shortly afterwards young Jackson was introduced to Frank Mahony, who was then instructor at the classes of the Art Society of N.S.W. He studied with Mahony for some seven or eight months, and when the latter went to England his last words to his pupil were: 'Stick to it, Jackson; I think you’ll get on all right.

JACKSON did stick to it, and studied at the Art Society's classes for about, seven years altogether. Like most of the students, he wanted to go to London, and fixed a date ahead by which time he thought he would have enough money for the trip. At first the date was 1909, but afterwards he altered it to 1907. However, he left Sydney in 1906 for Melbourne with the intention of studying for a while under Mr. Bernard Hall at the National Gallery there. He was notable to join Mr. Hall's class, but received a good deal of encouragement from the late Mr. Fred McCubbin, and after three weeks in Melbourne decided to go on to London. He secured a passage for a moderate sum via Cape Horn, and arrived in London early in 1907. Two days after his arrival in the great city, and without waiting to see the sights, Mr. Jackson applied for admission to Messrs. Brangwyn and Swan's New Art School. Applicants generally have to wait some time for admission, as the number of pupils is limited; but luck was with Jackson, as there happened to be a vacancy that day, and he began work in the school next morning. Both Brangwyn and Swan were much liked by their pupils for their geniality and practical advice. They used to call Swan 'Old Tones,' because he was always telling them that tone values were the; things that mattered — 'tones, my boy, tones.' 

When Brangwyn first saw Jackson's painting he said: 'Too hot — too hot!' and passed on. Next time he looked at Jackson's work for a few minutes, took his brush, and started to paint in some grey tones to reduce the warmth. He asked Jackson where he came from. The pupil replied: 'Australia, where we have a very good thing of yours, sir, in the Sydney Gallery— 'The Scoffers.' ' Brangwyn said: 'Oh, yes; and you have a very good thing of Madox Brown's the — 'Chaucer Reading his Poems Before John of Gaunt.' ' He also said that he had for some time wished to go to Australia, but was afraid he could not get away from his work. He now had opportunities for painting the things he liked, and unless there was pleasure in one's work it could not be much good. SIX happy months were spent at the New Art School, and then Jackson went on to Paris, where he joined the Academy Colarossi. For twelve months he worked there, with Renard and Gorgia as the principal teachers. At the end of the year they told him that he had made such good progress that he should try for the Salon in the following year. However, he could not finance a longer stay, and had to return to Sydney. 

While at the Colarossi one of the students, an American, came to Jackson and some others and said: 'Look here, you fellows, my Dad is coming over from home, and I have to put up an exhibition of marine paintings in a devil of a hurry. He is a shipowner, you know, and all he thinks of is ships. I am supposed to be here to learn how to paint ships, and I've none to show him. For goodness' sake help me to knock some up in time.' They all agreed, an. I set to work, so that by the time Dart arrived his son had quite a creditable collection of marine paintings to show him. Dad was pleased, and allowed his son to continue his studies, which he did — but studies in the nude, not of ships. Mr. Jackson used whatever spare time he had in Paris in studying the masterpieces in the galleries or in walking expeditions into the country, and once in Belgium. He was much impressed by the paintings of the Impressionists, especially Manet and Degas, and his handling of light shows their influence. Some Algerian scenes by Morot — horses on dusty roads under strong sunlight and similar subjects reminiscent of Australia — also appealed to him.

NARRABEEN LAKE,' One of Mr. Jackson's pictures at the Royal Art Society's Exhibition now in progress.

In Paris he saw a good deal of the work of Phillips Fox, who had been for some years in Australia, and whose fine treatment of human figures out of doors had already strongly appealed to him. 
FOR the most part Mr. Jackson paints in the open air on the coast near Sydney. He has spent some time painting inland at such places as Sofala and Hill End, but he can find all the landscape subjects he wants near at hand in Sydney. Already he has covered a fairly wide range of subjects. The opinion of many of his friends is that he has been most successful in painting the figure in the subdued light of an interior. Such a canvas as 'Morning in the Studio,' which many of our readers will remember, in which a simply dressed and attractive girl is posed against the studio wall and beside a small mirror which reflects her face, is somewhat of a triumph over technical difficulties. His open-air studies are, however, more generally popular. The picture purchased last year by the N.S.W. National Gallery is a seascape of particular fine quality. Mr. Jackson is never content In rest at any stage of accomplishment he has reached, but endeavours to go higher and further.
'DREAMING.' This fine example of Mr. Jackson's work was purchased some time ago by the trustees of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales. A CLEVER LANDSCAPE AND FIGURE PAINTER (1921, August 10). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162034626 

James R Jackson, Beach Scene at Narrabeen
Oil on wood panel Signed and dated '26 lower right

Dora Toovey

TWO ARTISTS—at home and at large.
If you call on the James R. Jackson couple — he is the well-known landscape painter and she is known for her painting as Dora Toovey — you will find their delightful home perched on a cliff above The Spit, and you will sit on a sun-drenched terrace and let your city. Weary eyes enjoy an unsurpassed view of harbour and headland — or roam into the two comfortable, spacious studios the house contains and sigh with satisfaction that artists can have such a glorious place to work in. This, you feel, is the place for masterpieces!

Right: On the Fish River. — Mr. James R. Jackson takes his ease at the camp luncheon table with a camp guest while Mrs. Jackson works the camera.

BUT then you discover that the bulk of their work is done in much less comfortable — though not less happy — circumstances. For the Jacksons roam far afield for their subjects and leave the house on the cliffs for weeks on end, pioneering per car and camp through thinly settled districts for Australian beauty that is not to be captured on canvas in a comfortable studio. Art isn't as easy as all that. 'It is sometimes difficult to find individual and truly Australian scenes,' says Dora Toovey. 'The easily accessible places are so quickly painted out, and then there are districts that have been so splendidly treated by certain artists that they seem peculiarly these artists' country. And so we have formed the habit of pioneering the country, looking for fresh material. We have to consider the contours of the land, the light and colour, and there is no golden rule to work by. You can tell nothing from maps, and even a distance of a mere twenty miles can deceive. I remember on one camping trip we were making for a certain district, and at a distance of twenty miles my husband decided the location just couldn't offer anything, and we turned away from it. Two years later we passed through the part we had scorned, only to find it offered scope for weeks of work.'

The Jacksons set out in a car with a camping body, which they have dubbed 'The Pack-hard' because by the time everything is on, including the baby's bath, the bedding, and the meat-safe perched precariously on top, it seems the best name for the conveyance. Their camping trips over the last few years have led them into some odd adventures and experiences, and they have come very close to being flooded out once or twice. On one occasion they pitched camp late at night, and woke to find themselves camped in the bed of a river, the river being the kind that runs in two courses, one dry at the moment. A rise higher up might have prevented, them telling the story! incidentally, they have devised a fine flood-warning. They place a kerosene tin on the water with a cup tied to a string hanging into it, so arranged that if the water rises during the night the contraption will set up a din and wake them in time to shift camp if flood threatens. In one camp on the Fish River they had quite a scamper, with the car sliding in and out of the water, as the bank was giving, in spite of their haste. Camping on the Gloucester River, the tree-lizards made off with the frying-pan, probably for the sake of a little fat left in it, and, seeing what a vital thing is a frying-pan in a camp, that was no small disaster.

Jacqueline Jackson with Dusty at the rose-hung doorway of the lovely home of Mr. and Mrs. James R. Jackson, on a Seaforth cliff above The Spit.
Left: Magpies outside the Jackson camp on the Murrumbidgee, in the Federal Capital Territory. They were tamed with gifts of food, and soon became regular callers.

Mrs. James R. Jackson (Dora Toovey) at work in her sunny studio.

Banana-palms grow in this little porch on to which Mr. Jackson's studio opens. (A Cazneaux picture.)

SOFALA proved interesting. During the depression the district was full of mining camps of both amateurs and old hands. One day they were taken by an old miner to see his mine. He called down to his mate in the depths of the earth, 'I've brought a couple of people to see the mine, and one's a lady.' 'Gee! Then you'd better shy down me pants,' came back the homely rejoinder. By night at Sofala the old miners would collect round the Jackson campfire, and many a tale of old mining days was told. These were in poignant contrast with some of the amateurs. One day, walking miles from nowhere, the artists were amazed to meet a woman dressed in Sunday calling clothes, complete with gloves, and when they later visited her camp they saw such un-camplike refinements as sheets being dried in the weekly wash. Yet, making an unexpected call another day, they found this same woman hauling up buckets of earth from the digging being done by her husband. They took a hand in a matrimonial alliance on the Paterson River. Asked to paint a portrait, they offered to take a photograph instead, and Mrs. Jackson remarked flippantly to the subject that 'she might turn him down.' 'She comes from the city, but she is guaranteed used to country life,' was the surprising rejoinder, and it transpired that the picture was for a matrimonial agency. The gratitude of the prospective bridegroom was expressed in gifts of cabbages and pumpkins and evening visits to the camp-fire, and two years later when they were in the same district they heard the sequel. The bride-to-be came up from Sydney, but as she turned out to be a widow with two children she was returned unclaimed. And for a final example of the Jackson camping propensities take their occasional jaunts on Narrabeen Lakes. They take a boat, and when night falls they fill it with gum-leaves to sleep on, hoist a tarpaulin on an oar — and there you are. But here Mrs. Jackson registers a complaint. Her husband will fish at night, and when he caught an eel which got loose in her bed of gum-leaves and just couldn't be caught she thought that was going a little too far. What would most of us give to exchange our daily grooves for a share of the joyous adventuring of these artists to and from their cliff-side home at Seaforth? But then we can't paint! 
TWO ARTISTS—at home and at large. (1935, September 11). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160501105 

James R Jackson, Narrabeen Lakes
Oil on board, Dimensions: 29 by 39 cm, courtesy Sotheby's/Invaluable (The world's premier auctions and galeries).

Mr. Jackson's Exhibition.
MR. JAMES R. JACKSON has painted so many of the more easily accessible beauty spots near Sydney that the pleasure of those who attended his exhibition yesterday was considerably enhanced by the familiarity of many of the subjects. The artist's home Is at The Spit, so naturally this locality figures in the show. Yesterday afternoon, Mrs. Jack-son was present with her husband, and received many congratulations on his work. 

(Left to right.) ]MR. JAMES R. JACKSON, MRS. WILL ASHTON, and MRS. JACKSON discuss a picture at Mr. Jackson's exhibition which was opened by Mr, J. B. Waterhouse yesterday afternoon at David Jones's George-street store.

She is also an artist, painting under the name of Dora Toovey, and formerly accompanied her husband on caravan tours, on which they took their small daughter, Jacqueline, now aged eight. A little son, now eighteen months old, has prevented further caravanning for Mrs Jackson, as she finds the young man's energies dynamic. "He succeeded in driving two nails into a power point, the other day," Mrs Jackson said, "and then managed to turn on the current without getting electrocuted.'' Among those present at the exhibition, which was officially declared open by Mr J B Waterhouse, were Dr and Mrs Sinclair Gillies, Mr and Mrs Will Ashton, Mrs H Metcalfe, Mrs Norman Burdekin, Mrs J Sheils, Mrs G Murray, Mr and Mrs M T Cowan, Miss Jeanne Cowan, Dr and Mrs Huff Johnson, Miss Ruth Pearce Jones, Miss Lute Drummond, and Mr. Alfred Stephen. From Day to Day in Sydney. (1937, June 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17374501 

Dora continued to visit Pittwater as well, teaching students. From Joshua Smith Artist (1905-1995), published and written by Yve Close 1998, p. 144-145: 

"One of the painters Josh and I met with each Wednesday to paint landscape was Dora Toovey. She knew the northern peninsula from South Head to Palm Beach in intimate detail, the best beach to paint on a dull day or when the sun shone, where we could find shelter from the blast of fierce winds, whether or not convenient toilets were available or a shop for hot food - a fount of useful information. 

People, living in houses clutching the cliffs of our coastline, knew her well. Sometimes they trundled heavy trays of afternoon tea up steep drives or stairs to refresh we three.

They provided semi-nude studies as they bared their breast to the elements. She neither flinched nor deviated from her course of action if she caused embarrassment to her unwitting subjects. Dora just worked on. 

One day, after we had spent the morning painting boats at anchor on Pittwater, a body of water cradled by Sydney's northern peninsula, we moved into the nearby beer garden of the Newport Hotel, intending to carry on with more work. People sat drinking at small tables in the dappled afternoon light; interesting subjects, according to Dora. Josh and I, too embarrassed to work openly, made small figure drawings in sketch books concealed beneath the table top. Not Dora! She nonchalantly set up her easel and gear, in full view of everyone, then commenced painting bare-chested young men and their companions. Before long they realised what she was doing, and gathered behind her to see the work. Totally unruffled, she ordered them back to their positions, saying 'otherwise you won't be in the painting'. They returned to the table like lambs, allowing Dora to finalise an appealing canvas. 

After working all day in the open, we retraced our steps to Dora's home high above Chinaman's Beach, where Josh and Dora often provided a musical interlude. Dora played the piano, while Josh sat beside her singing, both still wearing their hats."

Dora Toovey, Old Wharf, Newport, Pittwater,1975

Dora Toovey, Old Wharf, Newport, Pittwater,1976 (?)
Oil on canvas, 60 x 75 cm     

Another lady artists associated with Mona Vale:


ESME FARMER, of Mona Vale, who studied in Sydney with Fred Leist, and at various art schools and galleries abroad, will hold her first exhibition of pictures at the Macquarie Galleries. The exhibition will be opened by Miss Jeanie Ranken next Wednesday. Mrs. Farmer is the wife of F. Rhodes Farmer, who published his first novel, "Thirsty Earth," a few years ago; they have a three-year-old son, Bill. TO HOLD HER FIRST ART EXHIBITION. (1940, January 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17651053 

 Finalist in Wynne Prize 1941 - Esme Farmer: Title Old Bakehouse, Mona Vale

Mrs. Farmer's Exhibition.
Among all the centres of population along the coastal road to Palm Beach, Mona Vale has been least spoiled by tourists. Half a mile from the beach are rows of tiny, picturesque farms, inhabited by simple rural people.
In her exhibition at the Macquarie Galleries, Esme Farmer has depicted the Mona Vale district with singular directness. Her style is as fresh and unsophisticated as the scenery. She joys in the growth of trees and vines and bushes, and she communicates that enthusiasm to the beholder.
Yet, although Mrs. Farmer places her colours and forms on canvas with such youthful liveliness, she has a solid record of academic study behind her. She won the figure painting competition at the Technical College, and, having gone to London, continued her researches at the Royal College, South Kensington, and at the St. John's Wood Art, School. The exhibition will be opened this afternoon by Miss Jeanie Ranken.
MONA VALE SCENES. (1940, January 10).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17663134 

EVERY contribution, good, bad or indifferent, was accepted for the first exhibition of arts and crafts arranged by the Mona Vale Community League.
Secretary of the League, Mr. Graham Kentwell, Sydney commercial artist, believes the exhibition to be unique, in that it is not intended as an ordinary art show. "We believe that any artistic effort justifies itself," he said yesterday.

"No attempt will be made to criticise the work, or to draw comparisons. The exhibition is merely to provide a meeting place for people whose aims are similar. "Standards will automatically rise as time goes on,".
The exhibition, which is housed in the recreation hall of the La Corniche building at Mona Vale, includes hundreds of works contributed by 60 members of the League. THIS ART EXHIBITION REJECTS NOTHING (1945, March 18). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231710108 

MUCH travelled Londoners, Mr. and Mrs. H. Weaver Hawkins, who have made their home in the bushland at Mona Vale, between Pittwater and the sea, are on the executive committee of the Mona Vale Community League, which will hold its second annual arts and crafts exhibition at "La Corniche" from March 16.
Well-known professional artists living in the district, as well as amateurs, will exhibit. Mr. Hawkins, who paints under the name of "Raokin," the Italian interpretation of his surname, given him when living there, is planning an exhibition of his own water colors, drawings and oils at the Macquarie Galleries on February 27. His canvases bear the imprint of his sojourn in many lands. He has painted in southern France, Italy, Spain, Malta, Tahiti, Wellington, NZ, and, lastly, in Australia, where the Hawkins' have made their longest stay— 11 years. 

Mrs. Hawkins, who says she paints only for her own amusement, has decorated the inside doors of her home, the beams, and the kitchen furniture with peasant designs. The eldest of Mr. and Mrs. Hawkins' three children, Roleena, is in her fourth year of medicine at the Sydney University, Nigel sat for the recent Leaving exam., and hopes to do Medicine, and the younger boy Laric is still at high school. Community art and craft show (1946, February 3). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228799054 

Artist H. Weaver Hawkins, in his studio at Mona Vale, examining a landscape painted by him at Burragorang. Right: His wife, Irene, with the fascinating murals painted by her in the dining room of their home. THE SUNDAY SUN Pages for women (1946, February 3). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228799055 

VERY much an artists' gathering is the opening of exhibition of the late Frank Medworth's paintings by sculptor Lyndon Dadswell at Macquarie Galleries. Chatting with Mrs. Medworth and daughter Diana are Joshua Smith, Roland Wakelin, and Sali Herman. The Weaver Hawkins come up from Mona Vale, the Oscar Edwards, sculptor Paul Beadle, Italian artist Bissietta, and Justin O'Brien form interesting group. Also see director of Edge-cliff Design School, Mrs. Harold Sweetapple, and wife of American Consul, Mrs. Harold Hall, who manages to find some time for painting between official engagements.  Intimate Jottings (1950, September 16).The Australian Women's Weekly (1933 - 1982), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article51600647 

AN exhibition of paintings by Mr. Maximilian Feuerring will be opened by Mr. H. Weaver Hawkins, at David Jones' Art Gallery on Monday.Social News, Gossip (1954, March 11).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6 (Women's Section). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18414022 

The engagement is announced of Miss Pamela Walker, only daughter of the late Mr. Gordon Walker, of Surrey, England, and of Mrs. John Toller, of Elizabeth Bay, to Flight-Lieutenant Terrence Friend, R.A.A.F., youngest son, of Mr. Leslie Friend, of Carrington, Jerry's Plains, and of Mrs. G. Leslie Friend, of Mona Vale. Miss Walker is training as a nurse at Manly Hospital. Her fiance, who has recently returned after 3½ years in England, is spending a 60-day leave on Glendon station, Warialda, of which he is part owner with his two brothers and sister.

As a bomber pilot Flight-Lieut. Friend, who is a brother of Donald Friend, the artist, has taken part in many raids over Germany. Returning from a raid he crashed over England after flying right through the balloon barrage unharmed. Since then he has been attached to the Air Transport Auxiliary in England, flying all types of planes to operational aerodromes. Social News and Events (1945, March 14).The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27929818 

Please note, Ria Murch states in her book,  R. Murch, Arthur Murch: An Artist's Life 1902-1989 (1997- Ruskin Rowe Press), that 'The Mad Half Mile' was in fact in Waterview Street, Mona Vale and a name given to that area by Sydney Ure Smith in his Australia, National Journal as part of an article run in 1945. 

BRIGHTEST spot of colour in town this week is the strange jumper worn by Sydney painter and sculptor, Arthur Murch. An exhibition of his paintings is at present showing at the Moreton Galleries, and he is staying with the director of the galleries, John Cooper. Reason f
or his visit to Brisbane? He is painting a portrait of one of our loveliest younger set members.On Thursday Murch will return to his Avalon home in what is known as the 'Mad Half Mile.' In and Out of Brisbane with Annette (1949, May 19). The Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 - 1954), , p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49672833 

"AUSTRALIA, NATIONAL JOURNAL" - Variety is the keynote of "Australia, National Journal." edited by Sydney Ure Smith and Gwen Morton Spencer. The May issue, just to hand, provides entertainment and interest on every page. The witty drawings by Wiz, Wall, Missingham, Molnar and others are evidence of the high standard of Australian humorous artists. Missingham sketches a gentleman "spook" carrying his head (blushing) under his arm who encounters a naked lady ghost. The caption reads, "Boy, was my face RED!"

Right: Michaelis, Margaret - circa 1945 - SYDNEY, C 1945. WWII OFFICIAL WAR ARTIST ARTHUR MURCH WITH HIS CAT. Image No.: P00933.005, courtesy Australian War Memorial.

A few insights into what else was going on at Mona Vale and surrounds that year:

MANLY and Warringah District Ambulance which patrols, with six waggons, 150 square miles of country, including 80 miles of surfing beaches, has been refused permission by the Commonwealth Directorate of Housing to build a sub-station, costing £3700, at Mona Vale.
RAISED by subscriptions from an appreciative public the ambulance already has the money to proceed with the building and would not require a Government subsidy.

Charles Le-Gallion

Last year the six ambulance waggons travelled 87,865 miles to treat 8009 cases, as against a mileage of 40,007 by four waggons in 1941-42 to treat 4317 cases. The establishing of a substation at Mona Vale would provide a quick service from Collaroy to Palm Beach and inland to French's Forest and St. Ives. Control of building operations passed from the Commonwealth to the State on October 31, and the situation is now up to the State Department of Labor and Industry. Last week 14-years-old Charles LeGallion lay on the roadway for an hour and a half at Palm Beach in agony and with ants crawling over his wounds. Trouble was experienced in contacting the local telephone exchange, but after the ambulance was notified a waggon covered the 21 miles from Manly to Palm Beach in less than 30 minutes. MANLY AMBULANCE DILEMMA (1945, November 4).Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169361356 

The death occurred at his residence, Darley-street, Mona Vale on Sunday night of Mr. Robert Leslie, a partner in the once well-known Lithgow building firm of Short and Leslie. Mr. Leslie was 85 years of age and on retiring from the building trade some 20 years ago, he moved to Mona Vale. His wife predeceased him nine years, ago. Mr. Leslie was a staunch Labor man and always endeavored to return to Lithgow each year for the Six Hour celebrations, but failing health prevented him from doing so for the past few years. He leaves a family of four sons and three daughters — Richard Leslie and Mrs. J. Hammonds being residents of Lithgow, Jack (Wollongong), William (Enfield), Hector (Mona Vale), Mrs. F. Walton (Oatley) and Mrs. J. Gunn (Mona Vale). DEATH OF MR. ROBERT LESLIE (1945, December 20). Lithgow Mercury (NSW : 1898 - 1954), p. 2 (TOWN EDITION). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219732319 

Naval Men As Waiters 
When 15 members of the CENEF paid a visit to the CENEF All Services' Canteen at King's Cross yesterday, the "waiters" at afternoon tea were a number of British Naval servicemen, visiting the canteen. The men had previously visited the canteen last Christmas, and decided to do it as a mark of gratitude for the splendid time they had had there during the festive season The Mona Vale branch, of which Mrs. A G. Batten is president, has contributed regularly to the upkeep of the canteen since it opened three years ago, and the visit was In the form of an Inspection "to see where their money was going." NEWS for WOMEN (1945, June 7). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230445716 

Arthur Murch - later to move to Avalon and become a core member of Art there - teaching in Avalon Public school, as well as ensuring the school was funded through helping his wife Ria with exhibitions at the newly fledged school for youngsters - had a lady who frequented Lovett Bay and gave Australia one of its most famous poems, is stepping up to speak a few more words of praise - about him!

The art of Arthur Murch has lately undergone several curious transformations. After he had visited Central Australia, Mr. Murch began to paint with a full, rich palette of colour, in which red was an important element. Then, at the Archibald Prize show a few months ago, he exhibited two portraits of almost funereal darkness. One went yesterday with some interest, therefore, to see what his latest series of pictures at the Macquarie Galleries would offer.
The actual Impression created by this exhibition is a mixed one. There are undoubtedly some fine pieces of painting. Especially In delineating the nude human figure. Mr. Murch achieves modelling of a rarely delicate and individual sort. But, as a rule, the pictures seem fragmentary-a series of sketches for more important works, rather than self-contained compositions. Again and again, the visitor finds .himself wishing that the artist had carried his subjects further, Instead of leaving them so vague. The reason why this feeling of discontent is so strong is difficult to analyse. The lack of contrast in colour contributes to it. But. another factor is Mr. Murch's occasional failure to seize the essentials of form. The weakness is best exemplified in a drawing of a recumbent figure. Only on looking closely at the faint patches of light and shadow does the spectator realise the nature of the subject.
Yet, as already Indicated. Mr. Murch has in him the power to do really beautiful work, in a series of aboriginal heads, he sets forth with conscientious and meticulous skill, the character of the sitters. Then there are various still-life studies, headed by the gracious "Still Life in Sunlight," and ft large and rather gloomy portrait. All these pictures are in oils. "Hermannsburg Mountain" is a clear, fine example of work In watercolour.
The exhibition will be opened this afternoon by Miss Dorothea Mackellar. 
ART EXHIBITION. (1936, May 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17326468 

Painting By Theory
Among the younger artists of Sydney, Mr. Arthur Murch impresses one with a sense of earnestness and individuality. His exhibitions are always Interesting, and his present one, held at the Macquarie Galleries, Bligh-street, Is worth a visit. With this painter theory takes the place of Instinct, and, up to a certain point; his theory is successful. ...
—a thing which the modern painter Is far too willing to forget. Mr. Murch while his outlook is sincere and his technical ability much to be admired, certainly escapes from any charge of over-sentimentality, but at the expense of lyric sense of delight which is not the least of the artist's gifts to the world.ARTHUR MURCH (1936, May 21). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231316760 

Arthur Murch's exhibition of paintings at the Macquarie Galleries betrays a decided and interesting paradox.
Each aim in turn seems to result in the exact opposite. A simple conception is over-elaborated, heavy forms and a laborious technique seek to give lightness; a mildly, sun-drenched quality barely disguises a cold temperament.
He loves atmosphere, but his flavescent paintings are airless: he is a careful builder, yet seems to like the frivolous and cheerfully vulgar, which in turn appears studio-made.
The roguish look of his chalk head "Study" has the charm of a rococo cherub floating on a pink cloud, yet the drawing in his paintings is over-worked and occasionally badly pro-portioned. This work gives the impression that the artist puts his faith in his great technical accomplishments, and that he believes rather in the dictates of his head than those of his heart.
A purely logical mind in art is always dangerous.
In his "Squirrel," a painting of a voluptuous reclining nude with madame holding the animal, the luminosity of the girl's firm body invades every part of the picture to dissemble the shapes and blend the colour-tones. Each shape in turn Generates lights of its own, and all becomes over-laden and Indistinct with several bright colour patches adding to the confusion.
The passage of the bent head and swelling breasts of a young woman busily engaged in search is absolutely Boucher. This painting. "The Flea." is in some ways the best work.
However, the sugar-daddy plus chorus girl in "The Connoisseur." is pure Hollywood.
Among' other paintings of interest are: "Josses Mountain," "Capri,'' "The Bath," and "Rock Pool." ARTHUR MURCH (1944, June 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27939002 

George Lambert and Arthur Murch at work on the sculpture "Recumbent warrior" - photo by Harold Cazneaux, 1920, courtesy National Library of Australia http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-140194071

Mr Arthur Murch, the Sydney artist, who has been staying with Mr and Mrs John Cooper at Clayfield, left by plane this morning to return to his home at Newport Beach. Mr Murch will return to Brisbane early in the New Year to carry out three portrait commissions. PERSONAL (1945, November 13). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), p. 3 (CITY FINAL LAST MINUTE NEWS). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article188759807

The Murch family lived there from 1940 on in a house called 'Dellwood' and returned in 1945, noting that it had become a 'mecca for artists'.  Mrs. Murch states in Chapter 8, 'The Mad Half Mile, Avalon and Other Places' that a photograph taken by Margaret Michaelis for the magazine article from which the phrase comes shows all of them at this property. 

Another, circa 1945, from the Australian War Memorial archives (above) was also taken by the same lady with a description of 'SYDNEY, C 1945. WWII OFFICIAL WAR ARTIST ARTHUR MURCH WITH HIS CAT', so that is 1945 Mona Vale in the background!

Ria states in the opening phrases of this chapter that although these houses had been largely empty in 1940, by 1945 artist Weaver Hawkins and family lived near by as did American Indian artist Raymond Glass, and writers such as poet John Thompson and his wife Pat whose adopted son is well known Jack Thompson, the actor.

Monolith Wins George V Memorial Prize
Plans for a 30ft monolith finished in Australian red granite and with engravings representing aboriginal life have won first prize in the competition for a design for the King George V Memorial. The memorial, is to be erected in the Botanical Gardens, at the cost of about £6,000, which has been sub-scribed by the public and the State Government in equal parts.
The winning designs selected yesterday at the Town Hall by the King George V Memorial Executive Committee of New South Wales are:
First prize of £200, and the com-mission to execute the work: Dr. H. Epstein, of Australia House, Carrington Street, City; and L. R. Dadswell, 21 Trelawney Street, Woollahra.
Second prize of £100: Arthur James Murch, Waterview Street, Mona Vale, and Frank H. Molony, 186 Queen Street, Woollahra.
Third prize of £75: A. H. Mack and A. D. Leary, architects, and Arthur Boqthroyd, artist, city.

The official description given of the winning design is that it is a monolith, which grows from the soil as part of the landscape. It bears an engraved design representing aborigine life, lt will have a cement core, and a highly polished veneer of Australian' red granite and a concrete foundation. The designers estimate its cost at £5,989.

The second prize design is described as a wall decoration symbolising events and phases in history associated with the reign of King George V. The main feature is "a wall enclosing one end of an elliptical arrangement of path and garden.

The third prize design provided for a swelling facade, carrying a frieze of bas-relief in bronze depicting historic scenes in his Majesty's life. A plaque of his Majesty would occupy the centre of the frieze.

Announcing the awards, the Town Clerk, Mr. Roy Hendy, said the com-mission to execute the work by the winners involved a provision that if it were not. gone on with within two years .the winner would be entitled, to three per cent, of the estimated cost, not exceeding £6,000. The second and third prizes would involve no further obligations.

The judges were Mr. Cobden Parkes, Mr. Hal Missingham, the Lord Mayor, Alderman Bartley, and Mr. John D. Moore.
When the report of the adjudicators was received yesterday nine of 29 executive members were present.
They were: Alderman Marks (representing the Lord Mayor), Mr. K; F. Coles (president of the Retail Traders' 'Association), Mr. Langker (president of thc Royal Art Society), Mr. Turner (president of the N.S.W. Chapter of the Institute of Architects), Mr. H. A. McClure Smith (Editor of "The Sydney Morning Herald"), Mr. E. Kennedy (Associated Newspapers), and Messrs. Hendy and J. W. Ferguson, Premier's Department, who were joint secretaries of the committee. Monolith Wins George V Memorial Prize (1946, November 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27909499 

Arthur Murch Wins Archibald Prize
SYDNEY,- Friday. — Sydney artist, Mr. Arthur Murch, was this afternoon awarded the Archibald Prize for his portrait painting. The portrait was of fellow artist, Mr. Bonar Dunlop and the prize is worth £500. 
The Wynne Prize for, landscapes or sculpture, worth about £40, was awarded to Mr. George Lawrence for an Industrial scene entitled 'Two Rivers.' The Sir John Sulman Prize for mural decoration, worth £90, was won by Mr. J. Carington Smith for his cartoon and sketch of the proposed mural for a new State building in Tasmania. It was entitled 'Bush Pastoral.' Arthur Murch Wins Archibald Prize (1950, January 21). Illawarra Daily Mercury (Wollongong, NSW : 1950 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136542181 

Another Sculptor/Painter associated with Mona Vale is Lucien (also spelt Lucian)Bruno Michalski:

While in a Displaced Persons camp in Europe sculptor Lucian Michalski scrounged stone, gypsum and bronze, scraped together painting materials.
Thus he started patching up the canvas of his life as an artist, ripped by the war in 1939 after he had spent four years studying at a Polish academy of arts. Now Michalski is in Graylands migrant camp, waiting to be assigned the labouring job at which he will serve his 'apprenticeship' in Australia. Hard work is nothing new to him. In 1944 he was taken, from Poland to Germany in a forced labour gang, worked on airfields, roads and other construction jobs. Now 30, Michalski wants to continue his art studies here when he gets the chance. He would like to set up his own studio. WAR MAKES SCULPTOR A LABOURER (1948, October 23). The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 - 1950), p. 16 (FIRST). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article80804398 

Contemporary Art Society
This year's exhibition of the Contemporary Art Society is being held at Parmer's Blaxland Galleries. One searches in vain for vitality in many of these pictures. The spirit of exploration is to be seen best in Maximilian Feuerring (The Golden Sheaf, In the Bathroom),  L. Michalski (Self Portrait). and Edward J. Sackey {The Petrified Forest). At Sydney Galleries (1951, June 1). Le Courrier Australien (Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 2011), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166976654 

Contemporary Art
There is enough material of high quality at this year's Contemporary Art Society show at the Education Department Gallery, Loftus Street, to hold one's interest through a very large number of exhibits.
Individual talent is emphasized in a Society that does not impose any tradition on its members—some of the members of the Contemporary Art Society have created their own traditions over the years and we see them exhibiting just the paintings we have come to expect from them. But within the frame of their own achievement, they have many interesting things to tell us. First of all, to mention a few of the paintings: Charles Salisbury's Moon Above, Bruce Armstrong's Trees in France and Tree, London, Maximilian Feuerring's The Steak, Carl Plate's Inside a Rose, and Edward Sackey's Low Tide attract attention. Armstrong's, pictures have plenty of vigour and clear colour; M. Feuerring's The Steak is spirited In colour and construction. Others are Ronald Steuart's Dying Rose, F. A. Booth'.-- The Academy Piece and Michael Kniit's Chess Players.
In the sculpture section, the work of Anita Aarons, Robert Klippel and L. Michalski deserve mention. Pure abstract painting is especially represented by Josef Albers' "Basic Design forms", one of which is reproduced on the cover of the Catalogue to the Exhibition.
There is a fine group of architectural studies, where the designs and photographs of the work of Harry Seidler are outstanding. His "House at Northbridge" and "House at Turramurra" appear to be practical, completely modern and admirably combine comfort with art.
The exhibition closes on November 19th.

Drawings and Lithographs
Margaret Olley has caught the spirit of France neatly and with more than superficiality in her drawings now at the Macquarie Galleries. I would suggest that the best is the Back of Notre Dame, just a little sombre, but that is in the nature perhaps of the season and location. It captures the built and dignity of the building without clumsiness.
At the same-Galleries is a selection of English lithographs. In general, these are the assured compositions of confident artists, conveyed with deft strokes and exquisite colouring. There are John Piper's Stone Wall, Anglesea; Edwin La Dell's All Night Cafe, Ceri Richards' Woman at Piano, Vanessa Bi-il's Woman with Book and Frances Hodgkins' Arrangement of Jugs.
The exhibition closes November 19th.

Sculpture in the Open Air
It is very pleasant to walk around an exhibition like the one organized by the Society of Sculptors and Associates in the Sydney Botanic Gardens. There has been a feeling that the exhibits are too widely spaced but I think it aids the appreciation of the exhibition in seeing each piece so completely on its own, and so considering it without being disturbed by other objects close by. One can thoroughly enjoy the exhibits in an encouraging atmosphere. 
The simplest of forms in an interesting material like a curiously grained sandstone or granite fit in well with the gardens and gain rather than loge sculptural value. Even the more experimental forms are at an advantage here. From the 34 pieces exhibited, I would select at the moment Nancy Draffin's Seated Figures, Bim Hilder's Flexible Farm, Alison Duff's Balancing Boulder. F. Lewer's Birdbath and Tom Bass's Tea Drinkers.
The exhibition closes on December 31st. At Sydney Galleries (1951, November 16).Le Courrier Australien (Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 2011), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166977633 

Archibald Prize 1961
Finalist 1961 
Lucien Michalski
Self Portrait

NOTICE of intended distribution of estate.—Any person having any claim upon the estate of the late LUCIEN BRUNO MICHALSKI (otherwise known as Lucian Bruno Michalski), late of 98 Elimatta Road, Mona Vale, sculptor, who died on 6th January, 1986, must send particulars to the executor, Perpetual Trustee Company Limited, at 39 Hunter Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 2000, within two (2) calendar months from publication of this notice. After that time the executor may distribute the assets of the estate, having regard only to the claims of which at the time of distribution it has notice. Probate was granted in New South Wales on 29th August, 1986.—Dated this 12th day of September, 1986. O'BRIEN, CONNORS & KENNET, Solicitors, 685 Pittwater Road, Dee Why, Proctors for Perpetual Trustee Company Limited. (2310) NOTICE of intended distribution of estate.—Any person having any claim upon the estate of the late LUCIEN BRUNO (1986, September 12). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales(Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4561. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231526062 

CANBERRA, Monday-Mr. Frank Norton, of Mona Vale, NSW, has been appointed official naval war artist in the Korean area, the Minister for the Navy, Mr. W McMahon, announced today.
He said Mr Norton would hold the rank of Lieutenant-Commander (special branch) in the R A N V R for temporary ser vice and would leave for Korea by air soon.
Mr Norton was a war artist in the 1939-45 war and the Australian War Memorial had reproduced several of his pictures of naval incidents in its series of naval books. NAVAL ARTIST (1952, May 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18265319 

Gay farewell before trip

ARTIST Raymond Glass and his wife photographed in their studio home at Mona Vale.

ARTIST'S wife Mrs. Raymond Glass looks for her husband's approval in hanging a painting over the fireplace.

A PARTY which began at 5 pm yesterday and lasted until 5 am this morning was given at Mona Vale by artist Raymond Glass and his wife.
More than 200 guests attended the party and previewed the artist's paintings which will be exhibited in Melbourne before the Glasses leave for Mexico in March.

Some of the guests, most of whom stayed to the end of the party bought paintings. Guests included Consul and First Secretary for the Israeli Legation Mr. Ayre Lapid and Mrs. Lapid, Mr. and Mrs. John Wiltshire, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Hammerman, Mr. and Mrs. Sali Herman, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Clune, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Hinder, Mr. and Mrs. Weaver Hawkins and Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Annand. The garden was lit with fairy lights and supper was served on tables outside. 

Film with puppets 
Mrs. Glass said, "The easiest thing to do when people are coming all night is to prepare food like smorgasbord, mock hams, pickled fish, salads and pufferies." Mr. and Mrs. Glass are returning to the Mexican village of San Miguel where they lived for a year after the war. They will take their two children, Raymond, 7, and Terry Bligh, 3. "When we were in San Miguel last, my husband painted and I wove rugs," Mrs. Glass said. "Ray wants to return there because conditions are ideal for film-making and painting. "He wants to experiment in making films with three-dimenional puppets "Now he is making a film with hardboard puppets called The Wild Colonial Boy. Met during war "We will probably go to New York first, and then work on the film in New Mexico or Arizona before we leave for Mexico." Mrs. Glass met ner American husband while he was stationed here during the war. They were married in Brisbane in 1944 and two years later went to live on Bedarra Island in the Pacific Ocean Friendly Group for a year. "From there we went to the US," Mrs. Glass said, "and then on to Mexico. "We lived in the little village of San Miguel de Allende, 250 miles north of Mexico City. "It's hot and quiet and life is so unhurried." They're off to Mexico (1952, September 7).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 45. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231008312

Raymond Glass, The Blue fish, 1951

Art master found shot
Well-known artist and Shore art master, John Ward Lipscomb (32), whose 'sudden death' was announced this week, was killed by a rifle bullet last Sunday.
His body was found in bush country at Mona Vale, with a service rifle near it. A note was discovered on the floor of a nearby station waggon. The City Coroner will hold an inquest early next month. J Extraordinary precautions were taken to prevent details of Lipscomb's death from becoming known this week. The official police report of the discovery of his body was marked 'Not for Press.' Several of Lipscomb's friends, who attended the funeral on Wednesday, said they had understood he was the victim of a car accident. Lipscomb was a competent artist, ex-president of the Contemporary Art Society, and a lecturer to W.E.A. and Sydney University tutorial classes. A student at Sydney Church of England Grammar School (Shore), North Sydney, from 1934 to 1939, he served in the A.I.F., and was arts master at Shore from 1951 Shore headmaster (Mr. L. C. Robson) said yesterday: 'Mr. Lipscomb was held in the greatest respect and affection, as a man of high character and complete integrity. 'As a teacher he had quite unusual gifts. He will be remembered by everyone here as a man with a most stimulating personality.' Art master found shot (1954, August 15).Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168411393 

Any reference to Mona Vale must of course include such Sculpture Artisans as Harry Squire, whose work still features at Bayview Golf Course:

A flagrant act of desecration occurred at Mona Vale Cemetery within the past few days, a symbolic statue, the creation of Mr. H. Tristram Squire, having been stolen from the grave of the late Mr. Henry Moncur Atkinson. About four months ago Mr. Atkinson, a resident of Mona Vale, died at the age of 92, and, as he was an ardent bird-lover, his niece, Mrs. O'Reilly, of Pymble, thought it would be appropriate to perpetuate his memory by a drinking vessel for the native birds with which the Mona Vale district abounds. Mr. Squire, who during recent years has specialised in statuary representing birds, animals, and aborigines, was commissioned, and a fort-night ago he placed on the grave a handsome statue of a stork, five feet high, standing over 
a large bowl. The latter, which was inscribed with grape leaves, was filled with water for birds to drink from.

Apparently the statuary was only in position a week when the stork disappeared. The bowl was carried a few yards, turned upside down, and smeared with mud, the thieves apparently intending to disguise its beauty pending an opportunity to return for it. One evening at dusk a man was seen from a distance in the cemetery staggering under a heavy load, with which he drove off in a car. This was evidently the stork, which, being constructed of concrete and reinforced with iron; weighed about a hundredweight. The police, who are investigating the robbery, are puzzled as to the motive of the thieves, since the stork is signed with the sculptor's name.

Mr. Squire's work is familiar to tourists who pass along the road to Bay View and Church Point. His group of elephants is conspicuous at the Bay View golf links, and a family group of aborigines encamped about a natural pond in his grounds causes many a motoring party to stop. STATUARY STOLEN. (1935, April 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17157874

Children standing by elephant fountain at Bayview Golf Course. Courtesy Phil Lipscombe and Mona Vale Library Local History Unit

Mr. H. Tristram Squire, of Mona Vale, died this week, aged 69 years. Mr. Squire was a native of Victoria, and as a youth studied art with Sir John Longstaff and Sir Arthur Streeton. He developed especially as a portrait painter and sculptor, and in recent years devoted much time to modelling of life-sized figures and groups of animals in the garden of his home at Mona Vale are several groups of aborigines one of which depicts black-fellows spearing fish in a natural pool. Mr Squire was a lover of animals. His garden is the home of opossums, wallabies kookaburras and aviary birds many of which would perch fearlessly upon him. He is survived by Mrs Squire, who is also an artist. OBITUARY. MR. H. TRISTRAM SQUIRE. (1938, May 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17469079

As can be read below, Newport, alike every other place in Pittwater, attracted its share of permanent resident Artists - many of them the best in Australia during their era who all, despite successful sales, still needed to live somewhere that supported their craft, both as a peaceful place filled with views and an atmosphere conducent to creating and as a place that was affordable.

A place accessible from earliest dates, due to steamers dropping off 'excursionists', Newport has inspired poets, writers, photographers, painters, workers in sculpture and ceramics - in fact every kind of Artistic Creation there is.


Rest, and be thankful. On the verge
Of the tall cliff, rugged and grey,
At whose granite base the breakers surge,
And shiver their frothy spray,   
Outstretched, I gaze on the eddying wreath
That gathers and flits away,
With the surf beneath, and between my teeth
The stem of the "ancient clay."

" Here you are," said our guide, " here's where the bushrangers used to come and hide in the old days."

The bushrangers showed good taste, truly, in their selection of a retreat, though it is hardly likely that artistic considerations influenced them in their choice. The knowing old hands - the men who had run the old gamut of villainy and were now being hounded down again by the law - only chose the resort because of the commanding view of the country all about. Lying perdu here they could keep their eye on the whole coast from Port Jackson to Broken Bay ; the track to Newport ran almost under their nose, and, given a proper watch, a surprise was impossible. So the bush- rangers' hill became famous in the convict days, and from all parts of the country the men who had taken to the bush drew toward the lonely eyrie. Then, when the place began to get unwholesomely crowded, the troopers would make a rush; but long ere they could reach the hill its occupants would be gone, and nothing but a smouldering camp fire left to mark the spot. Some old hand, doubtless, standing where the trigonometrical cairn now makes a black mark against the sky, had seen the heliograph-like flash of the troopers' swords hours before; had watched the little band as it forded the Narrabeen Lagoon, and long before it could even reach the track which leads up to the foot of the hill, had given the alarm signal which had once more scattered his mates all over the bush.

The process must have been repeated many times, and so, years after, when a scanty fringe of settlement began to creep up and around Pittwater, and to dot its indented shores with little flower-covered homesteads, the place kept its name. And then in later days a man, armed with a theodolite and a compass, and various other mathematical instruments, struggled up the top of the mass of rock. He also found the commanding position of the hill of value, though he acted from motives far different from those which guided the old bushrangers. Ho simply wanted a prominent point to form the apex of one of his primary triangles, a point which could be looked up to and its angle measured for miles around. So, to make sure of the point, and to prevent any blundering surveyor measuring the angle subtended by the wrong piece of rock, he planted a stout pole, having a pyramidical cairn of stones by way of foundation. Then he put a couple of discs, like railway following signals, on top of the pole, and went away quite contented with his work.

No one goes to the place much now ; a few city visitors sometimes find their way up the hill, and after saying "how pretty, " remark that it must be time for lunch, and so find their way down again. Even the little black-and-tan hotel dog has got tired of the hill. He wagged his tail joyfully when he saw that we were going for a walk, and even condescended, in his patronising way, to accompany us along tho dusty road. But when we commenced tho ascent of the hill he protested. "Can't see what you stupid people want to climb   the hill for on a hot day like this. There's nothing at the top except some ugly rocks, not even a 'possum or a wallaby to chase. Besides I've been there before." So he wagged his little tail and set out on his own account. When we came back to the hotel a few hours later he was quietly resting in the shade of the doorway. "I told you so," he   said as he gave us greeting. " Hope you'll take my advice next time."

The absence of the dog, however, did not prevent us toiling steadily up through the tangled masses of fern and flannel flower, till we reached the cairn at the top. It is a pleasant place to sit and think whilst the dull boom of the breakers makes muffled music right under your feet, and the kingfishers flash brightly to and fro in the branches all round. There is a grandeur about the shore line as seen from this bird's-eye point of view. From Barranjoey to the Heads the coast stretches, not straight, but in a series of noble curves fringed with a shining line of yellow sand, and a glistening white circle of breakers. Here and there the reefs jut (with long finger-like points) provokingly out into the blue waters, and the sea lashes at them impotently, sending up clouds of white mist over and around those immovable rocks. It is an old story, as old as the world. For ages the sea, lazily sending in its breakers one after the other, has been striving against those rocks, and for ages the rocks, secure in their position, have declined to move out of the way. The sea is in a quiet mood today. The long blue Pacific rollers are gentle, almost languid in their movements, and they break on the rocks with a deprecating could'nt-help-it kind of an air. They are no longer angry with the rocks, a truce has been patched up, a truce which may last for a day or two at the most, until Mr. Russell sends along another storm, and all is again commotion. The water inside the narrow sand line which forms the lagoon has undoubtedly the best time of it. Nothing makes much difference in this sheltered quarter. Whether it be storm or calm outside, the lagoon remains smooth and peaceful. At intervals, indeed, the sea forces a passage through the sandy barrier, but beyond agitating the water inside a little, no great harm is done. It is curious, indeed, the habit which this Narrabeen Lagoon has of opening and closing its own entrance, sometimes shutting itself off entirely from the sea, as if it aspired to become an inland lake, and at other times admit- ting the great waters freely until it becomes little else but an arm of the sea. Further on still, one can just see the great white college at Manly clearly outlined against the black background of the North Head, and beyond this again the houses of Vaucluse shine out on the southern side of Sydney Harbour. All is clear and bright and distinct as it ought to be on such a day, when the southerly gale of the last week has consented to leave off blowing for a while, and all nature is taking a well-earned rest.

But to leave the ocean and turn round. There is water on this side as well. Not the rough blue heave of the ocean, but the quiet calm of an inland lake. It is Pittwater, that highly-favoured arm of the sea, sheltered in such a way as to be a lake in all but the name. The narrow peninsula slopes sharply down to the water's edge, and the little blue lake extends before us for miles, until at last it seems to turn the corner and disappear, going far away north to meet the ocean again in the stormy Broken Bay. There are tiny ships on this lake -small coasting schooners, which come round here at intervals and load firewood for Sydney. You can see piles of this wood stacked along the bank, waiting until it can be taken off in a primitive fashion to the vessels which are anchored a short way from the shore. The houses are few and far between, and for the most part have a comfortable old settled look, hidden away as they are beneath the masses of almost tropical vegetation. And behind, the orchards slope chequer-board fashion up the green hillsides. At the far end of the bay, where one sees two or three cottages grouped rather closely together, an attempt is being made at settlement on a new plan. The owner, by subdividing his property and selling it in allotments, is trying to gather round him a little artistic colony. Here he hopes the men who wield the brush and the pen will make for themselves homes and create a new art centre. The idea is a happy one, and nature, as if in accord with it, has done her best to make the place of settlement beautiful. She has provided picturesque gullies, full of ferns and palms, and has even laid on a waterfall a couple of hundred feet high. All that is wanted now are a few red-roofed chalets, peeping out from among the foliage, and these, I suppose, will come in time. One artist, indeed, has already built himself an ingeniously designed dwelling - something between a Norwegian hut and a Swiss chalet. Others will doubtless follow, when the public learns the value of local art and extends it a full measure of patronage. For this sort of elegant rusticity, though very pretty and pleasant to look upon, requires a good deal of money, the very thing which artists, as a rule, are lacking in. So the settlement - for the present at any rate - progresses but slowly, and artists, when they want a spell in the country, have to be content with the old- fashioned log hut, leaving tiled roofs and gable ends to the capitalist who can afford to indulge in such luxuries.

There are plenty of other things to be seen from the top of the hill, and though the view at present lacks animation, one can easily pardon this fault for the sake of the peace and quietude all around. Some day, perhaps - one can only look forward with dread to the time - Pittwater, now such a happy smiling inlet, will be the centre of a rushing, bustling, commercial activity. The banks will be covered with wharfs, and the smoke of factories will pollute the pure air of the bush. At present one little steamer weekly suffices to take away all the produce grown in the neighbourhood, and to bring up all the supplies needed by the few fruit-growers who have settled around the shore. But as time goes on this must alter. There is abundance of rich land available, there are miles of deep- water frontage, and there is a harbour practically unlimited in size, and unrivalled for safety. So that, as far as one can see, there is nothing to prevent Pittwater from going ahead, and the hill which the bushrangers loved to frequent may one day overlook a busy city. ON BUSHRANGERS' HILL. (1891, November 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13868244

Bushranger’s Hill, Pittwater c1923. by John Barclay Godson (British/Australian, 1882-1957).
Etching, editioned 14/50, titled, signed and annotated “ARCA Lond.” in pencil in lower margin, 24.4 x 18.9cm. 
courtesy of, currently for sale at, JOSEF LEBOVIC GALLERY

Water maze, Newport , ca. 1900-1910, Images No.: a116496 and a116495, ca. 1900-1910 by Star Photo Co. (possibly by William Livermore) - Unmounted views of New South Wales, [chiefly 1900-1910] courtesy State Library of NSW

This little story by Manly resident Agnes Littlejohn required some artistic sketching by Mick Paul. A quaint short story, a romance, this perhaps indicates the beauty of place attracting those who would interpret such beauty - as well as some of the time reflections of societal mores. We're not sure the item that follows this, regarding Mr. Paul, stems from the Newport sketch- although he does seem to have some accuracies to his profile of the south Newport headland, and, being a resident of Dee Why at one time, possibly did his black and white sketch 'plien air' style on the spot. 

The article is yet another prime example of the newspaper 'Truth's selling papers by publishing other's misfortunes, especially when they can have a go at another publication as part of the 'bargain' :

IT was a sunny day, and, the Manly coach had just arrived at Newport, where the passengers alighted. One of them was a girl with light and portable luggage and a paraphernalia of sketching articles. She was soon standing on the front, verandah of a homely-looking old boarding-house which faced beautiful Pittwater, the garden extending to its very banks. Miss Maggie Scott met her expected lodger, and took her to the room prepared for her reception. . After a light lunch the new arrival invited some children to accompany her to the sea. Their path lay across a large enclosure of rough scrub at the back of the house, where they had to avoid the inquisitive advances of an interested bull, and climb a fence or two. Arriving in sight of a fine view of richly-coloured cliff, with a wide beach on which the sea waves foamed and tossed, Maggie found a suitable position near a charming clump of trees growing on the high sloping bank, and soon she was busily sketching. 

The children watched her for a time delightedly, but, tiring of it, raced down to play together on the sands. On returning home that evening Maggie met a man, who was just pausing at the garden gate. He raised his felt hat courteously, and stood aside for her to enter first. He appeared at the tea-table that evening, but left the room soon afterwards, and did not show himself again that night. When the girl approached the clump of trees next morning she saw with dismay that the newcomer had annexed her chosen nook, where he was already painting busily in oils. She uttered a suppressed exclamation of surprise, and he looked hastily around. He glanced at her sketching things, and sprang to his feet. 

'Ah! You're an artist, too, I see. I'm afraid I've appropriated your sketching-ground. Well, you've first claim, I'm sure.' His- voice was a pleasant, friendly one; his face was young and frank. 'Nature, of course, is free to all,' she answered shyly, colouring. 'Well, why should we not join forces?' he asked, smiling, as the girl stood hesitating. 'Then I needn't be evicted from your territory?' And, taking Maggie's silence for consent, he unstrapped and placed her easel for her near his own. 

'By-the-way, I don't know your name. May I ask the favour of it, as we're fellow-workers, and are likely to meet often? Mine is Stewart Thompson. I've come here for a clear three weeks.' 'My name is Margaret Cleeve,' said Maggie, frankly, displaying perfect teeth and a charming little dimple as she smiled, 'and I've come here for a fortnight.' Then he criticised her picture with good-natured interest and candid tolerance. They were soon on the best terms with one another, talking pleasantly, with occasional long lapses into silence when absorbed in some engrossing bit of their own work. 'There's nothing like the Australian winter,' Stewart said enthusiastically in reply to a remark about English scenery, 'for misty effects and the haze. Our scenery, then, is equal to that of the English summer, to my mind. It is the haze that does it: On the brighter days we'vi still in winter here the summer colouring and sunshine plentifully; and we can paint comfortably out of doors all the year round.' They returned to the house chatting merrily together like old friends. Luncheon parties arrived at the house sometimes, when they were out; and stray visitors occasionally stayed here for the night, but did not interfere with them. On sunny days Maggie painted on the river-side, whilst Stewart absented himself mysteriously on private sketching expeditions. On grey, days they often went together to the sea. On wet days they remained in the cosy sitting-room, where they had many, a pleasant chat. Stewart was busy with some drawings in black and white, and once he sketched Maggie's portrait as she sat reflecting, half-forgetful of his presence and her own surroundings. ,'Jean 'Jean see the difference between my work and yours,' she said one day, after gazing earnestly at Stewart's picture and then back at her own. 'I 'hang fire' in all I undertake, though I love my work. I can't convey my .own impression.' j,;, 'You're attempting to take the citadel of art by storm, -I,. see.' He smiled good-naturedly. 'There's always a .'but' for everyone; there always will be one,' he added 'soberly. * ? .'?May I ask for your opinion of my work?' . 'Your work has originality, a charm and grace, about it of its own— but it is not strong work: You don’t mind my candour?' he added slowly, after a slight pause, glancing keenly at the girl's attentive, downcast face. ‘I know my limitations,' she said frankly, 'and sincerity is the one thing in life that binds true friends together.' 
'Then we are friends?' he asked. . with . a quick look. 'Thank you for saying that,' he added softly, with an appreciative glance at her bright, speaking eyes. This time he was quite certain that her delicately heightened colour was not merely due to the fresh breeze that swept by them across the sands. . 'You see, I have to depend upon my own exertions,!' Maggie said. 'I am at last an exhibiting member of the Sydney Art Society, and I take pupils in .my little studio.' 'Well, I, too. have had to struggle. It has been like this with me: ' 'To grasp the skirts of happy chance, and breast the blows of circumstance, And grapple with my evil star.' 'I simply got an opportunity, and took it; and, thank God, I am successful now!' The next day there seemed to Maggie to be a difference in him. He was very silent with her now, she thought. Silence sometimes seemed to Maggie to mean remoteness — separation from him. But sometimes she felt it stood for a secure and strong road leading to a better friendship — a better knowledge of him. One day they had. been working hard and. silently for a long time, when a change came in the weather. A little rain began to fall, and they looked round at the blurred landscape. .'We've had fine days enough,' said Stewart, as it began to drizzle steadily. 'Now there'll be a decided -change. We must hurry home, or you'll get wet.' , They moved beneath the trees for shelter whilst they packed. The rain was pattering fast now, on the leaves. . 
'You'll be leaving here the day after to-morrow,' Stewart -said. 'I have another week to stay. Afterwards may, I look, you up at your own home?' 
'Yes; certainly!' she answered eagerly, a glad note in her voice. 'My mother will be very pleased to see you.' 'And you?' he asked in a low voice. 
There was no answer for a moment but the music of the rain as it pattered on the leaves. 'I will be glad, too,' she . answered, colouring, after one swift, shy glance up at his earnest face. 'Thank you; I'll rely on that,' he said softly, as he took, her hand in his, and held it very gently for a moment. 

A gusty wind had risen, and was blowing across the sands.  'The wind is rising now. We'd better hurry home; the weather can't improve, and it may get worse, I see the children have already gone.' A soft wave of her hair was blown gently against his cheek. At the touch he turned suddenly to her. He looked at her wind-tossed hair and sparkling eyes. ''You are wet through,' he said. He felt her coat with a caressing , gesture. His voice was a caress'. She gave a musical little laugh of pure happiness. 'I am warmly clad.' At his gesture of possession she had looked shyly up at him, with a soft, new happiness on her bright face. 

The gusty wind died down across the sands. Stewart looked now at the girl's transformed, fresh, delicately coloured face with a new expression in his own. 'I'll speak to-night,' he murmured softly to himself as they turned homeward, unconscious that she heard. She laughed again out of pure happiness. When they reached the house she found that the ' day's mail had brought a letter for her from her mother. As she read it over hastily she turned pale. 'What has happened to you? No ill-news, I hope?' remarked Stewart.' She hesitated. 'I will tell you by-and-bye, if you'll please wait.' He said no more, and she went quietly to her room to think. The creeper waved gently at her window-pane as she stood, and her eyes travelled thoughtfully over the wet garden outlook.
That evening she told him.' 'An uncle whom I never knew has left' us all his money. We shall not be poor any more. Aren't you pleased?' for Stewart had turned from her in silence. She looked after him perplexed arid hurt. : He moved over to the fireplace, arid stood by the mantel-shelf, his elbow resting on it, holding one hand over his eyes. She fancied she heard something like a sigh, so faint that she could not be sure she heard it. As he removed his hand at last the girl looked wistfully at him. 'Are you not glad that we're no longer poor? I thought you would be pleased.' Tears rose suddenly unbidden to her eyes. She forced them back. A sudden wintry look went over her fresh face, and she looked pitifully at him, for his face was strangely hard and stern. There was a sudden crashing sound without, and Maggie hastily put down her book, and went to the window. 

'There! Look at that!' A small, tree had been blown down. The verandah blossoms from the creepers came all a-flutter to the ground, and the wet wind went sighing through the gum tree tops beyond the garden to the sobbing accompaniment of rain. Stewart had not moved, and Maggie returned to her seat with an unhappy and impatient gesture. 'You seem so different,' she said. 'Can we not be friends?' . 'How can we be?' he demanded passionately in return, as he suddenly raised his head. 'How is it possible? If I had only done it yesterday before the letter came it might have seemed alright to me to-day.' . 'Done what?' she asked him, flushing. 'Asked you to be my wife! But it is different now.' -She looked at him wonderingly: 'Why should it be different?' she asked indignantly.
'When I believed you to be poor, and struggling at your art, you seemed within my reach. Yesterday,' he said, not heeding or not noticing her indignant gesture, as Maggie flushed and started, 'you and I were equal— I a poor, although not unsuccessful, artist-you an earnest and hard-working student with your way to make. Today I remain the poor artist still, and you — -' , . 'I,' she answered him, indignant tears starting to her eyes, yet with that proud uplifting of her charming head, 'have had a fortune left me. I suppose that's what you mean? ' Oh, you're too proud! But is it fair to me?' 'Don't be unjust to me!' 
She looked hesitatingly at the young man as she marked the firm line of his lips. After one quick, comprehensive look at him she pleaded softly: 'Oh, you're too proud to own it, but I know that's what you mean. You let the money weigh against my happiness. I was far happier when I was poor. What good, can this money do for me if I may not pass it on to you? It was chiefly that which made me glad to have it. We've been very happy working here together. I can't see what difference it makes. And I'd rather lose the money than, lose you.' 
Suddenly, with an impulsive movement he came quickly to her, dropping on one knee beside her.; 'Do you mean it, dear? You care more for me, my love, than comfort and affluence?. You would prefer even poverty with me to wealth without me?' As his lips touched her fresh check in full surrender her arm stole gently round his neck. ...
 'Why should we not join forces?' she asked softly. 

'He criticised her picture with good-natured interest.' 
AN ARTISTIC IDYLL. (1912, June 19).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160341806 

Paul's Penchant.
A well known Sydney "black and white" artist, named Mick Paul, had his matrimonial conduct under review at the Sydney Divorce Court recently, when his young wife, Emily Annette Paul, formerly Patrick, sought a divorce because of his adultery with an unknown woman. Mr.' Fraser appeared for -petitioner, and the black and white 'un was non est. Petitioner, who was married by Rev. A. Rivett at the Whitfield Congregational Church, Pitt-street, on 6th. Septemper, 1908, said that her Mick was a freelance artist, and used to work for "Fairplay," the "Bulletin," and other journals. He was a son of Lieut. Colonel Paul, who died recently, and at the time of his marriage his mother was travelling on the Continent. Hubby told her that he was born in Paris, and would some day return there to live, but meanwhile they put up with life at Deewhy, Maroubra, and other romantic spots, until October, 1915, when something caused her to leave him. In December of last year, while along with her mother in George-street she saw hubby in the company of a woman, and this woman very much resembled the delineations of a dame appearing in some "Bulletin" sketches. His Honor said this .particular evidence was useless. Mrs. Paul, continuing her brief recital, said she one night later followed hubby to a house in Elizabeth-street, and saw him enter it with the same woman about 7.30. Outside she maintained a vigil for two hours, but no Mick or flaxen-haired Flossie emerged whilst she waited. It was evidently no while-you-wait shop. The succeeding Friday, with her another and a private detective, she again spotted hubby arm-in-arm with the same tart, and entering the same house about 11.30. 
Ernest Vane, private detective, told how, toeing put on the scent, he met Mrs. Paul and her mother in Elizabeth-street, and afterwards tracked the respondent, Paul) to 4he "Worker" office. Prom there he followed him to T H Tate's Chambers, where shortly Paul came forth with a woman and went to W the French cafe for an hour, and then T to a house in Elizabeth-street, near the railway. He waited till 11.30, but neither Paul nor his donah came out. At 7 a.m.. next day he -watched again, and about 9 o'clock saw Paul's chivvy at a window on the first floor. He shortly left for a shave, said returned to the house, where a woman could be seen dressing at the same window. Later Paul and this fairy came out together, and after visiting a cafe for breakfast they entered an hotel. Sad to say, the woman later came out sprawling in the street, and Paul magnanimously took her away in a taxi, which returned in half an hour. The spotter said that while he waited outside the house in Elizabeth-street into which Paul and the woman had disappeared, he saw no fewer than four couples enter, and noticed one woman picking up men in the street and lugging them into the house, which in his opinion was not of sanctimonious reputation. Later still, on passing the house, he beheld the very dame who was Paul's companion, standing in the doorway, as though she lived there. Petitioner's mother added her evidence. The suit was stood over for a certificate, and this being forthcoming later - the usual decree nisi was granted, with costs against the black and white 'un. Paul’s Penchant. (1917, April 21). Truth (Perth, WA : 1903 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article210481767

The coach was replaced by buses, and, for those who could afford them - motor vehicles:


It is a very pleasant run from Sydney to Newport, and will be much more enjoyable when the Spit, bridge is a reality and the wearisome wait for the punt is a thing of the past. Motoring (1924, January 2). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 37. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166151463

Will Ashton, Near Newport, 1930
Sir John William "Will" Ashton OBE, ROI (20 September 1881 – 1 September 1963) was an English-Australian artist and Director of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales from 1937 to 1945. Born on 20 September 1881 in Clifton, York, England, the son of James Ashton, an artist. The Ashtons migrated to Adelaide, South Australia and was educated at Prince Alfred College from 1889-1897. Upon graduating Ashton entered the life of an artist. In 1900 he left for England to work and spent several years from 1902-1903 at the Académie Julian in Paris.

Ashton had some of his works accepted by the Royal Academy of Arts, London, and the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français and returned to Adelaide in 1905. The sale of his work, "Boulevard Montparnasse, Paris", to the National Gallery of South Australia enabled him to marry May Millman, on 31 January 1906 at Christ Church, North Adelaide. After holding exhibitions in Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Adelaide, in 1908 he won the Wynne Prize for landscape.

In 1912-14 he painted in Britain, Europe and Egypt. He was back in Australia for a year, but returned to London with his family in 1915 to 1917. Others of his subsequent frequent overseas trips were in the company of Lionel Lindsay or Charles Bryant. The impressionist oil paintings he made on these trips always sold well on his return to Australia. He advised the National Gallery of South Australia and private collectors, and supported his family by examining for the Royal Drawing Society of which he was a member. He won the Godfrey Rivers Bequest prize in 1933 and 1938. Ashton also won the Wynne Prize for a second and third time in 1930 and in 1939.

In 1937 he became Director of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales, and almost immediately had to organize the sesquicentennial exhibition of Australian art. During his tenure he improved the gallery lighting, but other plans were postponed because of World War II. From 1944-1947 he was also Director of David Jones Art Gallery. A member of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board from 1918, Ashton was chairman in 1953-1962. He was a member of the Royal Institute of Oil Painters, a Vice-President of the Australian Painter-Etchers' Society, and a member of the Society of Artists in Sydney, being awarded its medal in 1944.

He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 1 January 1941 and was made a Knight Bachelor on 11 June 1960 for his service as Chairman of the Commonwealth Art Advisory Board.

Ashton at his home at Mosman on 1 September 1963 after a battle with cancer. He was survived by three sons and by his second wife Winfreda Isabel Hoggard, whom he had married on 6 February 1961. On 9 May 1989, Lady Ashton was murdered in the Sydney North Shore suburb of Mosman by serial murderer, John Wayne Glover.
Portrait in text of Will Ashton. Dated 1921. Courtesy State Library of South Australia.

National Art Gallery of New South Wales.
31st January, 1944.
Director and Secretary. Salary, £850 per annum (subject to deductions under the Superannuation Act). The appointee will be required to carry out usual secretarial and administrative duties. Applicants must have had art training and possess general knowledge of works of modern artists (British Commonwealth, American and Continental) and preferably have travelled abroad. PUBLIC SERVICE BOARD NOTICES. (1944, January 21).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 99. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225093175

The Adelaide Art Gallery has acquired two lino-cuts by Miss Ethleen Palmer, of Sydney, The two chosen were "Farrell's Shed at Newport,"and "Finches and Gumblossom." Miss Palmer is fond of animal subjects, so that the Zoo is the home of many of her models, and her love of birds is also expressed in her work.
ACTUALLY, she took up lino-cut work as an experiment. She first came to Sydney from South Africa as a schoolgirl, and attended Sydney Girls' High School. Winning an art scholarship at the East Sydney Technical College meant three years of intensive study, in addition to evening work at the Ultimo Technical School. Next came a commercial art post, as well as the evening studies, and after two years Miss Palmer suffered a breakdown in health. It took four years for her to regain her strength, but this time was not wasted, for, as she explained: "It gave me time to think and digest all that I had been taught so thoroughly. Then, one day, I read a book on 'Lino-Cuts,' and thought that I should like to experiment in that medium." After that she abandoned commercial art and turned all her attention to lino-cut fine art.

LINO-CUT work has been christened "the grand-child of the wood-engraver," for it was evolved from wood-engraving as used by the Chinese and later adopted and improved by the Japanese. Linoleum was substituted for wood, and proved a highly successful medium. At first linocut work was carried out in black and white only, and to an Austrian, Professor Cziek, of Vienna, goes the distinction of introducing colour, in the European manner, to linocut work. Another Viennese, Bressler Rothe, has achieved fame for her mastery of the medium.
Miss Palmer has worked out her method according to the "trial and error" theory. She believes that although it may not be so economical, her practice of completing one print straight through gives individuality and freshness to her work.
Lino-cut work is a branch of art in which, perhaps more than in any other, complete accuracy is required. When the subject is chosen, it is first sketched in charcoal or pencil, and then a very clear tracing is made. Close study reveals how many blocks will be needed, since a separate block is required for each different colour. Six, and often eight, blocks will be used. Each part to be coloured black is numbered one, and everything black is worked out on one block, and so on, each block having its own numeral. The artistry is in the balance and rhythm between colour and form the whole making a harmonious pattern.
Being her own handy-man, Miss Palmer saws a plank of wood into blocks, and then linoleum is cut to match and "fixed" to the blocks with glue.

MISS ETHLEEN PALMER at work in her studio.
This must be arranged with the greatest accuracy to fit a special frame which Miss Palmer has in-vented. As one colour is superimposed upon another, a millionth part of an inch out of "plumb" would spoil the whole effect. When the linoleum is mounted and in its frame, the tracing of the subject is transferred to It, and then all is ready for cutting it out. This is the most difficult and delicate of all the operations, as the slightest mistake would ruin the whole block.
Art is not Miss Palmer's only interest, for she is an excellent cook, loves gardening, and collects books. She is also fond of adopting sick and injured birds or animals, and her "hospital" includes a beautiful large cat, which was once a kitten with a broken back, and her dog, "Winky," is minus an ear.SYDNEY WOMAN ARTIST'S SUCCESS. (1936, July 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4 (Women's Supplement). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17255589 

"Farrell's Shed at Newport," 1935 - 19 x 29 cm - 20 from an edition of 20, courtesy Mutual Art, Artists, Auctions, Exhibitions and Analysis. Compare colour difference with National Gallery of Australias copy - Impression: 5/20 Dimensions: printed image 19.0 h x 29.3 w cm sheet 26.8 h x 36.6 w cm Acknowledgement: Purchased 1976

Ethleen Palmer, The Homestead, 1937- linocut 17 X 21.5 cm, 6 from an edition of 50, 

Max Dupain
One of Newport's regular residents, who has given us images of this place we wouldn't have without him, is photographer Max Dupain. In this gentleman we move from thee wonderful images of Pittwater wrought by Kerry et al to photography becoming an artform that captures the human spirit and its characteristics of a more modern Australia.

Max Dupain (1911-1992) was one of Australia’s great modernist photographers, credited with changing Australian photography from Pictorialism to Modernism. He took up photography as a teenager and studied at the East Sydney Technical College and Julian Ashton School. From 1930-34 he assisted Cecil Bostock, before establishing his own photographic studio in Sydney. Throughout the 1930's and 40's Dupain was best known for his fashion illustrations, advertising and social portraits which were regularly published in ‘The Home’ magazine (Sydney Ure Smith) until it ceased publication in 1942. 

During World War II, Dupain served in the Royal Australian Air Force and worked as a photographer in the Department of Information, Canberra. After the War, he aligned himself with the documentary movement in photography. His later work subjects capture architectural and industrial work.

Max Dupain, 'Nine Mile Store', Newport, circa 1930 

Reconstructed Eleven Mile Store (Porters Store) - courtesy Guy Jenning's The Newport Story 1788 - 1988

Why did Max have such an insight into the human form, and its communion with Nature - these few articles regarding his father may lend insight:

Polynesien, French mail steamer, 7120 tons, Captain L. Boulard, Lieut, do V., from Marseilles May 3, Port Said May 8, Suez May 0, Aden May 18, MahG (Seychelles) May 17, Albany May 28, Adelaide 1st instant, and Melbourne 3rd instant. Passengers— From Marseilles for Sydney: M. Dupain,SHIPPING. (1891, June 13). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1308. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163657248 

Illustrated Booklet, now in press, descriptive of Psycho-Physical Culture by Principals Dupain-Cox InstituteAdvertising (1907, November 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14879699 

DUPAIN—FARNSWORTH.—April 30, at St. John' s Church, Ashfield, by the Rev. A. Yarnold, George Zephirin, eldest son of George Zephirin Dupain, of Charenton, Ashfield, to Ena, only daughter of Susan and the late Henry Farnsworth, Rothsay, Ashfield. Family Notices (1910, May 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28142722 

DUPAIN.-April 22, 1911, at Symington, Parramatta-road, Ashfield, the wife of George Z. Dupain, jun.- a son. Family Notices (1911, April 29).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15228010 

Here is a circular from a 'Physical Culture Expert' which appeals to me very much. It shows what can be done with the human frame, when an expert takes it In hand. City life leads to decadence and deterioration, and men are learning that something has got to he done to stop the spread of the deadly blight which affects the city-bred physique. Here is a man who is showing how it can be done, and what can be done, and It is quite wonderful. His place is at Royal Chambers, Castlereagh street, and it's worth going to see. PHYSICAL CULTURE. (1909, October 8).The Sydney Stock and Station Journal (NSW : 1896 - 1924), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article125758566 

Physical culture magazine.
The "Dupain Quarterly"— "a magazine for those seeking better health, greater strength" — has been Issued. The editor is George S5. Dupain, of the Dupain Institute of Physical Education, and the co-editor is Miss Muriel Cadogan. There are articles on chest development, the carriage of the head and improvement of the contour or the neck, physical culture for women, mountaineering as an ideal sport, and the art of boxing. Many excellent photographs are reproduced. Including several of art statuary. The artistic cover design is by Harry J. Weston, and there are also a number of drawings by the same artist. Messrs. Arthur Smyth and Sons, advertising experts, of Jamieson-street, city, are responsible for this highly creditable production. PHYSICAL CULTURE MAGAZINE. (1912, September 24). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228814090 

Write for particulars. SYDNEY UNIVERSITY.  Advertising (1913, July 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15437598 

Is this one of Max's first published pictures?:

Mr. George Z. Dupain, of Newport, has forwarded to the Editor a photograph of a young penguin, which was washed up on the southern end of Newport Beach. The bird was about 15 inches long. Mr. Dupain asks to be informed where the bird came from.
Mr. J. R. Kinghorn, zoologist at the Australian Museum, Sydney, stated yesterday that the bird was a fairy penguin, which bred at this time of the year on parts of the eastern coast. These penguins do not usually travel north of Port Stephens, there being only one instance on record of the fairy penguin being found north of that part of the coast. In the winter time the birds migrate to the islands of Bass Straits. The king penguin, a much larger bird than the fairy penguin, does not come out of the Antarctic regions. FAIRY PENGUIN. (1928, January 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16435515 

Of course, many Pittwaterians know that fairy penguins frequent our beaches - there's a colony, of another sort - no pun intended, on Lion Island that has resided there for generations - currently protected and monitored by the NPWS:

Lion Island reservation
A suggestion to have Lion Island, at the mouth of the Hawkesbury River, declared a bird sanctuary was supported .by last meeting of the Gosford Fauna and Flora Protection Society.

In asking tor this support, the Royal Australian Ornithological Society said that colonies of two species of shearwater gulls had been found on the island representing one of the only two known nesting places of the breed. There were also some fairy penguins. In view of what happened at Terrigal and Avoca, Lion Island Sanctuary could have distinct value. "I  am not certain that the Terrigal incidents are due to human misbehaviour," Mr. R. Wallace commented. Lion Island reservation (1954, November 23). The Gosford Times and Wyong District Advocate (NSW : 1906 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162872258

Using motion pictures and slides to illustrate his theme, Mr. George Z. Dupain, (director of the Dupain Institute of Physical Education), will give a health lecture in the sports department at Anthony Hordern and Sons, to-morrow, from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. ILLUSTRATED HEALTH TALK (1931, October 15). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 13 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223665899 

Max Dupain with his parents at Newport, 1940's. Image No.: nla.obj-146283059-1, courtesy National Library of Australia

Exercise and Physical Fitness,
by George Dupain. Shakespeare Head Press, 20/.
THE bone - shaking, muscle-pulling jolts which often pass for physical culture, the practice of hard long-distance running for schoolboys, the advent of women into the strenuous exercise field are rated most unfavourably by George Dupain, Sydney physical educationist.
And by way of good measure, he disparages the crack-of-dawn exercise habit, and the fetish of the massive muscle bound man. "There is no further need for highly developed muscles," he says. "These belong to the primitive past."
He states a perfectly clear case in rather technical terminology for a more selective approach to physical exercise, basing his premise on a carefully worked out analysis of the human respiratory system, cardio-vascular system, and the muscular and skeletonic structure.
His aim is to have physical education classified as a science and treated as a university subject, a reasonable ambition in the light of the evidence he submits on the general haphazardly of PT in Australia.
Not that he visualises a nation of club-swingers giving mass health and beauty displays. He is firmly in favour of "free impulsive natural exercise.". THE SCIENCE OF PT (1949, January 15).The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article22696564 

Value Of Wholemeal
Sir,- In reply to Miss Geach's defence of wholemeal ("Herald," August 23): Cereal chemistry has revealed that grains can only function as a supplementary food in any scheme of dietetics which aims at optimum nutrition for the individual.
Nutrition studies in India showed the meat-eating peoples to be stronger and better developed than the grain-eating ones.
The Danish Cereals Commission proved that during 1946 amongst Copenhagen workers there was a 30 per cent. daily loss of calcium due to the war bread then used. The evidence is endless against the seed diet.
GEORGE Z. DUPAIN. Sydney. Value Of Wholemeal (1950, August 25).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27570124 

Australian Posture
Sir,-Your article of Jan 18, "Australians are not an Up-standing Race," was highly commendable Mr. Maegraith (' Herald " January 21) has completely misunderstood the data it contains
It was a dissertation on posture, not physical development. The two need not be synonymous. Many a man has a well developed physique but an atrocious posture, and this is quite a common phenomenon amongst any modern population.
Our occupations to day from factory work to indoor clerical pursuits make us continually bend forward. Our bodies are always more or less flexed Unless this is corrected by adequate physical education, in time various "stoops" develop
Newport Beach. 
Australian Posture (1954, January 26).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18406375 

DUPAIN (nee Illingworth)-November 22 at Crown Street Hospital to Diana and Max-a daughter.  Family Notices (1950, November 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18188131 

The Dr. Cotton, working with Max's father, was a relative of the gentleman whose daughter Olive later married Max. Why is the Cotton family likely to have been an influence on Max's appreciation of the human body in his photography?:

Their  father, Frank Cotton, who lived in a Von Hagen built house at 45 William Street, Hornsby. Frank Cotton, journalist, who wrote under the nom-de-plume ‘Porkibidni’ was father to Leo, Frank and Max Cotton. 

Death of Frank Cotton
Labor lost one of its pioneer stalwarts by the death of Mr. Frank Cotton, which occurred in Sydney recently at the age of 85 years. He was probably the oldest Labor journalist in Australia. Born in Adelaide, he travelled much over this continent, following such occupations as droving and grazing, before entering into journalism, which was truly his metier. The greater part of his serviceable life was spent in New South Wales.

During the maritime strike of 1890, Mr. Cotton edited a newspaper which was run in the interests of the seafaring workers against the shipowners.
He was one of the first batch of Labor candidates who were elected to the N.S.W. Legislative Assembly in 1891. He sat in several of the then colonial Parliaments, but was engaged in journalism for the last three or four decades.

As a writer Mr. Cotton was sincere, convincing, and logical. He performed great work for the anti-conscription cause in the two campaigns that were waged during the 1914-18 war.

Mr. Cotton is survived by three sons and three daughters. The eldest son is Dr. Leo Cotton, Professor of Geology and Dean of the Faculty of Science at the Sydney University. Another son, Dr. Frank S. Cotton, is Professor of Physiological Research in the Medical School at the same University. Death of Frank Cotton (1943, January 1).Westralian Worker (Perth, WA : 1900 - 1951), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148421028 

Yes, that Dr. Frank Cotton - widely considered to be the 'Father of Sport Science' in Australia. Te Marriage between these childhood freinds did not last unfortunately:

The Lady Behind the Lens
Young Sydney Artist Discusses A Hobby for Women.
SIX women are represented at the Sydney Photographic Society's International Exhibition which opened in Sydney on Wednesday.
Among them is Miss Olive Cotton, a local amateur photographer, who has twice exhibited at the London Salon. The pictures on this page are examples of Miss Cotton's work.

In an interview yesterday, in which she discussed photography for women, Miss Cotton said that the woman's viewpoint can be captured by the woman behind the camera. She believes that women are doing photographic work comparable with that of men.

"How many women," she said, "say at one time or another that they are bored? Yet they could find endless enjoyment with a camera assisted by eyes that are not inartistic".

"I consider that here is a field where women could do good work – work which has its reward in the production of a good picture."
MISS COTTON Is an attractive young woman with a penchant for art in several forms and a firm belief in women expressing themselves through an art medium. She was precipitated into photography at thirteen years of age when she found that an inclination towards graphic art was in her case handicapped by an apparent lack of talent with brush and pencil. Her first camera was of a box type, but she now uses a more involved reflex camera; her first enlarging apparatus was made from a biscuit tin operated from an electric iron contact; and the laundry draped with rugs was her first dark room. Now she has at her disposal one of the best-equipped photographic dark rooms in Sydney.

The Right Spirit.
Women who potter about with a box camera photographing any landscape that appeals to them have the right spirit because they are expressing themselves rather than merely making tourist bureau records of beauty spots, Miss Cotton said. Those who want to express themselves and have no talent for painting or drawing will find as I did that photography is an excellent medium. It is a universal art form comprehensible to every-body within the reach of all.

The names of women are appearing more and more in the photographic annuals of the world and some of the important Continental exhibitions have included the work of as many as a dozen amateur women photographers. I believe that photography will soon be used as a medium for design. It will provide a field for women who have mastered the technique of modern photography.

Some Advice.
"ONE thing that women who wish to become good photographers should remember", Miss Cotton continued, "is that the camera can do more than merely record an unchanging picture of a subject. A landscape, for instance, is there for everyone to photograph - an apparently change-less combination of earth, and trees, and grass; but it can be photographed in a hundred different ways".
"The lighting, the relation of the various objects to the shape of the picture, and many other factors can be changed by the individual, and this is where discernment and personality come into the picture, as it were".

"I noticed at the exhibition of English pictures in Sydney a few weeks ago that a series of landscapes by a well-known woman photographer was obviously the work of a woman. One, in particular, was a picture of snow with a pattern of shadows. The approach was essentially feminine.
A man could never have seen that landscape as she did".

In the Dark Room.
"EVEN the casual hobbyist", Miss Cotton declared, should develop and print her own pictures. Otherwise, it would be an expensive hobby and in any case, the treatment during these processes can always make or mar a picture.
To become efficient at developing, printing and enlarging, experience over a number of years and constant practice are needed to make the most of one's opportunities.
"One of the commonest and most serious mistakes made by the inexperienced photographer is the tendency to take a dozen pictures of an object in the hope that one will be good. I find it much more satisfactory and less expensive to take one carefully considered and planned picture".
A study of MISS COTTON by Max Dupain. 
Miss Colton believes that more women should employ the camera as a hobby.
The Tea Cup Ballet
At the left is a study by Miss Cotton of the Budapest String Quartet. The other pictures on this page are examples of this talented young woman's work.

The LADY behind the LENS (1938, March 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13 (Women's Supplement). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17452916 

Olive Edith Cotton, born on 11 July 1911, was the eldest child in an artistic, intellectual family. Her parents, Leo and Florence (née Channon) provided a musical background along with political and social awareness. Her mother was a painter and pianist while Leo was a geologist, who took photographs on Sir Ernest Shackleton’s expedition to the Antarctic in 1907. The Cotton family and their five children lived in the then bushland suburb of Hornsby in Sydney's north. Despite the reference above, many biographies on the lady state she was given a camera at age 11.

Cotton joined The Sydney Camera Circle and the Photographic Society of New South Wales, gaining instruction and encouragement from important photographers such as Harold Cazneaux. She exhibited her first photograph, "Dusk", at the New South Wales Photographic Society’s Interstate Exhibition of 1932. She exhibited quite frequently, her photography was personal in feeling with an appreciation of certain qualities of light in the surroundings. After university she pursued photography by joining Dupain at his new studio, 24 Bond Street, Sydney. Her contemporaries included Damien Parer, Geoff Powell, the model Jean Lorraine and photographer Olga Sharpe, who frequented the studio.

Olive Cotton - Tea cup ballet, 1935 - held by the Art Gallery of New South Wales

Her most famous image is Tea cup ballet (1935), photographed in the studio after Cotton had bought some inexpensive china from Woolworth's to replace the old chipped studio crockery, shows her use of a technique of backlighting to cast bold shadows towards the viewer to express a dance theme between the shapes of the tea cups, their saucers and their shadows. It was exhibited locally at the time and in the London Salon of Photography in 1935.  Called Cotton's signature image, the Modernist image was acknowledged on a stamp commemorating 150 years of photography in Australia in 1991.

Olive Cotton, The patterned road, 1937
Gelatin silver photograph 24.6 h x 28.8 w cm. inscribed in pencil l.l.: The Patterned Road '37
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. Purchased 1983

Max Dupain [picture] by Olive Cotton, 1938 - Image No.: nla.obj-136348086-1, courtesy National Library of Australia.

The marriage was quietly celebrated on Saturday morning of Miss Olive Cotton, elder daughter of Professor L. A. Cotton, of Hornsby, and of the late Mrs. Cotton and Mr. Max Dupain, son of Mr. and Mrs. George Z. Dupain of Ashfield. The ceremony took place at the bride's home. 
Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), Monday 1 May 1939, page 5 SOCIAL AN PERSONAL. (1939, May 1).The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17588638 

Damien Parer with two models on Bungan Beach, [N.S.W.], 1930s (probably 1939)  By Max Dupain. Image No.: http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-146284802

The Australian Dictionary of Biography (Damien Peter Parer by Neil McDonald -2000) states 'His employers included Max Dupain, who was then married to another photographer Olive Cotton; the couple became his friends and collaborators.'

Business As Usual
But Not On Home Front!
A STRANGE state of affairs in the matrimonial lives of Maxwell Spencer Dupain (32), well-known Sydney photographer, of 49 Clarence Street, and his pretty wife, Olive Edith Dupain (30), was revealed in the Divorce Court last week, when Dupain sought a decree for restitution of conjugal rights. Dupain, who is at present engaged in defence work, told Mr. Justice Edwards that although Mrs. Du-pain has left him and refuses to return, she is managing his studio and, in addition to a fixed salary, is receiving a share of profits. "I don't love you any more," his wife said to him when she walked out on him in August, 1941, Dupain declared. Mrs. Dupain, daughter of Sydney University Geology Professor L. A. Cotton, was married to Dupain at the home of her father at Hornsby in April, 1939. 

Job In Country 
Dupain said that before he married her Mrs. Dupain was employed at his studio. After 12 months of married life she returned to her old job at the studio, but six months later she told him she wanted to live an independent life and get a job in the country. Despite his protests she took a position as mathematics mistress at a country school. For some time she came home at weekends, but in August, 1941, she told him she did not propose to come home for any more weekends. 
"Please don't do that," he appealed to her. 
"I am afraid I must do it. I don't love you any more." she replied. Telling of repeated but unsuccessful efforts to induce his wife to return, Dupain said that in May, 1942, he wrote to her in this strain:
"It was good to see you again the other day after so many months. You fairly shone with your new blue frock and buff coat. The difference this strange separation has made to me is so apparent that life has never been the same since you left me — it has lost its fullness completely. I do want you to come back. Dick and Rosie were over last week and they missed your funny little ways." Dupain explained that Dick and Rosie were mutual friends. He received no reply to the letter, but one day he met her by appointment and took her to lunch. She was very friendly towards him, but rejected all his entreaties to return home. Mr. Justice Edwards ordered Mrs. Dupain to return to her husband within 21 days. Mr. E. Little for Dupain.
Max Dupain
Business As Usual (1943, February 21).Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168980706 

Max remarried in 1946 (some sources state 1947), this time with happier results, including children - a daughter and a son,  Danina and Rex, who also became a photographer

His second wife, Diana, was an artist too who took up social work after their marriage.  Friend Damien Parer replies to Max in February 1942, while on a voyage back to Australia from New Guinea:

From Kokoda Front Line, by Neil McDonald. Published by Hachette Australia, 2012. (Footage shot by Damien Parer in Papua New Guinea was subsequently edited to make the Academy Award winning documentary film 'Kokoda Front Line!')


In 1949 the couple commissioned architect Arthur Baldwinson to design their home in The Scarp, Castlecrag. They moved into their new home in 1953 and Dupain remained there for the rest of his life.:

DUPAIN (nee Illingworth)-November 22 at Crown Street Hospital to Diana and Max-a daughter.  Family Notices (1950, November 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18188131 

His perspective on photography is best told by him of course:

You are Photogenic, really...

June Dally-Watkins, one of the outstanding models in Sydney for photographic illustration. Max Dupain says that she possesses the characteristic features required—facial symmetry, fine skin, eyes clear and wide spaced, good teeth—and a naturalness of expression.
DO you believe it is the mysterious "something" in other girls' faces, lacking in your own, that ensures their photographs always do them more than justice?
Is it this "something" that helps them, while your own photographs do not reproduce even the humble but passable beauty your mirror reflects to anxious scrutiny?

You think, most probably, that it is a matter of the balance of features—eyes large and widely-spaced, nose not too prominent, mouth symmetric-cal and neither too large nor too small. You have heard that a gauntness of feature, high-cheekboned and hollowed beneath, so that there are marked highlights and shadows, is important, and that an oval-shaped face interests the photographer more than one which is round.

Your ideas are not altogether right. It is true, enough that the term "photogenic" means, loosely, that which has the quality of photographing well, but Sydney photographer Max Dupain will tell you that any face can "photograph well."

'"It is not a matter of high cheekbones or physical characteristics," says Dupain. "If the photographer understands his medium any person is photogenic. There is a tendency to confuse the term with the word glamour, which is a thing of fashion, subject to change, and which may, of course, be related to physical characteristics. That is not photogenic.

"Character," says Dupain, "is what I am interested in. I like to think of the camera as a machine to render a thing clearly.
"Motion picture photographers endeavour to fit all types in with their own idea of beauty. Their purpose is not simply to clarify, and quite wrongly the term photogenic becomes tangled up in the popular understanding with questions of make-up and facial characteristics."

AND Dupain goes further. "Corrugated iron is photogenic!" he says. "In fact the term has a much closer application to the qualities to be found in architecture, say, than it has to glamour girls.

"In complete definition the word photogenic means 'eminently suitable for being photographed; especially from an aesthetic point of view,' and the camera, itself a machine, is best suited to the portrayal of those other things mechanical thrown up around it by the machine age."

Dupain will hurry on to quote from G. H. Saxon Mills to illustrate his point: "Photography is as essentially 'modern' in its character as it is modern in its time . . . Its forms are mechanistic rather than naturalistic . . . But its beauty is only for those who themselves belong consciously and proudly to this age, and have not their eyes for-ever fixed wistfully on the past."
THAT," says Dupain, "points clearest to where the photogenic can be found.
"If you must get back to the photogenic qualities of women—balance of features, fine skin texture, high cheekbones: Yes, perhaps.
"But what is more important is the naturalness, but what is this subtle quality people call ''photogenic" ... ? the animation of the model—the extent to which she can co-operate with the photographer; her sophistication perhaps.

Any face can photograph well—but so can a piece of corrugated iron.

The photogenic illustrated in the abstract shapes found in functional machinery, and in the variety of texture in the metallic surface.

"Some girls look stiff and awkward. They merely stare at the camera without expression, or their eyes have a tendency to close when they smile.
"They photograph poorly — not because they are not photogenic, but because they are self-conscious and they react against the camera."
All photographs by Max Dupain

The exciting and dramatic aliveness of glass-ware in its reflected light, subtlety of tone, and mechanical symmetry. You are Photogenic, really... (1949, March 20). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 3 (Magazine Section). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18465378 

It is his images capturing the human form in the outdoor world, communicating much through little, as only a great photograph can, that we remember Mr. Dupain for - and for all who think he is outdated - we beg to differ - his 1937 the 'Sunbaker' remains the most widely recognised of all Australian photographs. A copy of Sunbaker from the Dupain family's own collection sold for AUD105,000 in June 2016. Explore his prolific and wonderful works by visiting: http://www.maxdupain.com.au/

Mr. Dupain's iconic captures of our lives, that's why everyone knows them and people still want a copy for their own walls. His repertoire included landscapes, beaches, nudes, still life and architecture. He was regarded as the pre-eminent photographer of Australian architecture for more than 50 years, but Dupain remains best known for his photographs of Australians, particularly our beach culture:

A show of outdated images
Images of Work and Leisure. Parliament House, Canberra, daily till April 17.
ONE OF the central artists in the mixed-media exhibition Images of Work and Leisure is photographer Max Dupain. His At Newport is featured on the exhibition poster and brochure.
Dupain's love of Australia was constantly reiterated in his professional and personal lives. But his images of Australia now seem more stereotypical than real, an impression reinforced by this exhibition.
Images of Work and Leisure presents a predominantly Anglo Celtic, male view of Australian culture - one that might have had currency in Dupain's lifetime but does no longer. Leisure, for example, is oriented towards the beach and what have been the predominantly male sports of cricket, golf and horse racing. The concern is with public rather than private forms of leisure.
Dupain's photograph of the start of the Surfrace at Manly, 1945, is charged with excitement. Dupain was standing in the water as the eager participants rushed in. The physicality of the lifesavers attracted him; they were fit, healthy men who were at home in the great Australian outdoors .
This veneration of lifesavers belongs to another era. There is no irony in Dupain's depiction: the image of the lifesaver was yet to become a cliche. ....
A show of outdated images (1994, March 26). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 11 (Saturday MAGAZINE). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118160501 

 Sunbaker, (first version with clenched fist) by Max Dupain, 1937-1948 silver gelatin print, from 1937 negative, album:'Camping trips on Culburra Beach, N.S.W., 1937 / Max Dupain and Olive Cotton' courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. Image No.: a9668019h

At Newport 1952; printed (c. 1975)  Max Dupain
39.8 × 44.7 cm (image), inscribed in ballpoint pen on support reverse u.l.: At Newport / - Max Dupain '52 
Courtesy National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. Purchased with the assistance of the Visual Arts Board, 1976

In mid-1947 Olive Cotton went to live in the bush 35 km from Cowra, New South Wales, with her new husband Ross McInerney, brother of one of the Dupain studio models, Jean. They lived in a tent for the first three years, then moving to a small farm where their two children grew up. She taught Mathematics at Cowra High School for five years until 1964 when she opened a small photographic studio in the town, taking many portraits, wedding photographs, etc., for people in the surrounding district, where her work became well-known and much appreciated.


It would come as no surprise that place so beautiful would attract visiting Artists and Artists as residents.


Mr. Percy Lindsay reveals his breadth of style with telling effect in his exhibition of oil paintings at the Australian Fine Art Gallery of Mr. W. R. Bennett. There is remark-able variety in these pictures, all of con-spicuous attainment in colour and atmosphere. Mr. Lindsay has studied nature in varying moods, and has caught her spirit with manifest fidelity. His treatment of sunshine in "St. Augustine's, Balmain," "Morning Light, Berry's Bay," and "Winter Afternoon, Bay-view," is singularly graphic. In the first of these he skilfully shows the morning sun sweeping over the green slope of the fore-ground, and catching the points of the scene in the middle distance as it struggles with the early mists, which still obscure the back-ground and throws into deep shadows the lofty tower of the building. The second subject exhibits similarly deft handling of light and shadow beneath the advancing sun, and in "Winter Afternoon, Bayview," the foliage of the slopes, with the light streaming through, is admirable.

Mr Lindsay has imparted full life and movement to "The Bridge Builders," one of the features of the exhibition. This subject, painted from a height immediately above the works now proceeding at Dawes Point, gives a vivid impression of the magnitude of the harbour bridge enterprise in the big spaces he has managed to include in his canvas, for the spectator gazes from above at lofty structures of masonry and steel, with the earth at a vast distance below, and in the distance the opposite shore of the harbour. All is spacious, massive, and full of movement. The suggestion of busy life and industry is unmistakable. This is, indeed, one of the best pictures yet shown of the bridge works. The artist who has painted this could hardly have shown his versatility more effectively than in painting also the peaceful and charming "Morning from Ball's Head," a beautiful parorama of harbour and shore seen in the luminous grey tones, against the sun, with the jutting point in the middle dis-tance thrown into shadow. This is another feature of the exhibition. But there are several examples of this variety of moods. In contrast, for example, to "Morning at Ball's Head" there is the severe brilliancy of "Ship Yards, Berry's Bay," formal, and almost cold in its realism; and then, to furnish another phase of Mr. Lindsay's artistic study of earth and sky, there are the three rural scenes, companion pictures, "Watering Tomatoes," "The Market Garden," and "Planting Cabbages," all genuine composi-tions, happy in design and colour. Such studies as "Riddle's Boatshed," "The Grey Cottage," and "The Hayshed" fitly exemplify in further degree the artist's diverse style, and sound technique. "The Mountain Road," a bit of landscape cast into deep tones be-neath a storm-laden sky, through which the sun is fitfully breaking, is another excellent piece of work. ART EXHIBITION. (1927, July 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16370289

Not the only work Percy Lindsay did of Andrew Riddle's boatshed it seems:

"Morning, Riddle's Jetty" is distinguished for its bright, sunny treatment, and for the skill with which the artist has man-aged the water reflecting the brilliancy of the sun. The effect would have been better, however, without the clothing hanging out to dry on the boat at the pier, as this falls directly into the line of sunlight. There is moreover, some smudginess in the vessel's rigging. ART EXHIBITION. (1929, March 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16539540

Visit The Riddles Of The Spit And Church Point: Sailors, Rowers, Builders

Percival (Percy) Charles Lindsay (17 September 1870 – 21 September 1952) was an Australian landscape painter, illustrator and cartoonist, born in Creswick, Victoria. Percy was the first child born to Jane Lindsay (née Williams) and Dr Robert Charles Lindsay. His siblings included the well-known artists: Sir Lionel Lindsay, Norman Lindsay, Ruby Lindsay and Sir Daryl Lindsay.

Percy first began painting while at school and further developed his skills during the late 1880s. Tuition from Fred Sheldon and Walter Withers saw him develop his painting skills to a professional level.

Lindsay moved to Melbourne in the 1890s and worked as an illustrator and cartoonist. During his time in Melbourne. he was at the centre of the city's bohemian art community. In 1918 he moved with his wife and child to Sydney, where he continued to paint landscapes while working as a cartoonist on The Bulletin magazine.

Percy is the least known of the five Lindsay artists and is best remembered for his fine landscape paintings and his happy carefree personality. The artist had a retrospective exhibition of his work at the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery (BFAG) in 1975. 

Edward William Searle - Potrait of Percy Lindsay at the National Library of Australia - Percy Lindsay. (2017, April 23). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Percy_Lindsay&oldid=776775670

Death Of Percy Lindsay
The death occurred in Sydney yesterday of Mr. Percy Lindsay, the distinguished landscape painter. Percy Lindsay was the eldest of a remarkable family of artists, three of whom-Sir Lionel, Norman, and Daryl-survive him.
His only son, Peter, is also a well-known Sydney artist.

He showed considerable talent with a pencil in his early teens. His father encouraged him and he was taught to paint by Frederick Sheldon, an English painter who had a studio at Ballarat. Sheldon saw that Percy was sent to Melbourne for advanced tuition. By the beginning of this century, Percy Lindsay was earning a somewhat precarious -but wholly enjoyable living as an artist in Melbourne.

He came to Sydney in 1918 with his wife, who died six years later. He had since lived a bachelor's life at his North Sydney home.
Lindsay's outstanding characteristic was his extrovert warm heartedness. No one could ever make an enemy of him. He was one of Australia's best listeners and always surrounded by people ready to talk. 

He was an outstanding black and white artist, while his landscapes, recording the quiet day to day beauty of the surroundings in which he placed himself, have a felicity and tranquillity unrivalled in Australian art His favourite problems were two: painting in to the light in the manner of Grüner, and catching the delicacy of light tones at the edges of trees.

Mr Lindsay will be cremated at the Northern Suburbs Crematorium this afternoon. Death Of Percy Lindsay (1952, September 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18282937

RUINS of Angkor Wat, the great temple built in the 12th century by the then flourishing Cambodian Empire. The walls have reliefs depicting gods, people, and battles. The temple was built of sand-stone without the aid of cement.
KNOWN internationally for her paintings interpreting Aboriginal mythology, Australian artist Helen Lempriere has returned after 16 years on the road and produces a new collection with a new inspiration - Cambodia's Angkor Wat.
Happily settled in her new home at Bayview, N.S.W., which commands a magnificent view of Pittwater, Helen Lempriere (Mrs. Keith Wood) has sat for hours in her secluded studio reflecting on her visit to Angkor Wat and producing soft, dreamy visions of the 12th century temple in paint.
The 47 paintings are being exhibited at David Jones' Art Gallery from July 14 to August 2-the second time Australians have had the opportunity to see her work in the past 16 years.
Helen Lempriere is a dedicated artist, absorbed with her work since early childhood.

A farm
"I have always drawn, all my life," she said. "I still have some drawings I did when I was five. I can never remember a time when I did not paint."
She was born in Melbourne and her father had a farm at Yea. At school, she "never learnt a thing, just sat and sketched."
Then came her real education. She studied art at the British Academy, in Rome, in Paris with Fernand Leger, and with Dutch artist Fred Klein, who taught her about color.
Gradually, she realised what she was aiming for: To express the relation of man to his environment. This led to her interpretation of Aboriginal mythology.
"Any mythology would have done, as mythology is an expression of man's attempts to understand his environment. I chose the Aboriginal because it was from my country," she said.

The international Press approved her choice. A London reviewer wrote:
"The paintings of the Australian Helen Lempriere weave delicate spells around one, like a beguiling incantation echoing in the memory."
A German critic wrote: "Helen Lempriere's style has originality; the colors reflect the earth and the dust with individual objects vaguely arising out of them. The mood of the country is conveyed with great artistry."
Miss Lempriere has held one-man exhibitions in London, Paris, New York, Amsterdam, and her work is represented in many museums throughout the world.

She has lived abroad for the past 16 years, first in Paris, where her husband worked for UNESCO, and in the South of France, then in London. Before returning to Australia, they made the trip to Cambodia.

ARTIST Helen Lempriere with paintings inspired by her visit to the ancient temple Angkor Wat.
"I had read about Cambodia years ago, when I was quite young," Miss Lempriere
said. "It left an extra-ordinary effect on me, and I always hoped to go there."
Angkor Wat, the ancient galleried temple adorned with scenes in relief of religious and military epics, made a tremendous impression on the artist.
"From the outside it doesn't seem so big, but once inside there is an impression of enormous distances," she said.
"It is an overwhelming place, with a wonderful antique feeling and at the same time a feeling of life you can feel that the people depicted in the carvings are still living there.
"The detail in the carvings is fascinating, and as you wander through you find each temple has a different mood."
Artistically, Miss Lempriere felt these moods in terms of greens and blues, and her paintings of Angkor Wat are mainly in these tonings.
"Outside, the stones are old and blackened, but also change in mood. In the morning they are yellow, in the evening scarlet."
Miss Lempriere spent two weeks absorbing the atmosphere of the famous ruins.
"I would dodge the tourists and go into the surrounding bush, sit on the stones, and just listen-twigs crackled, monkeys fought, birds called. It was an exhilarating place."
One day, when she was sitting a little way from the ruins, she suddenly heard "the most marvellous noise" - it was a little Cambodian boy playing a reed flute. It was all that was needed to perfect the experience. She bought the flute from the boy as a memento of that moment and keeps it in her studio.
While it was a very lovely and mysterious place, Miss Lempriere admitted it was also a little scary.

"There are panthers in the area, and one of the tricycle boys would always come with me when I wanted to wander through the bush," she said.
Miss Lempriere sketched and also took color slides of Angkor.
"In the old days, an artist would travel by horse and carriage and stay in one place for a couple of months, painting. These days, every-thing moves so much faster. We could stay only two weeks, because fighting broke out nearby."
Not that Miss Lempriere uses the slides for painting.
"I just have a slide evening, to recall it all, then put them away and think about everything for a couple of weeks, until I have worked out my own interpretation of what I have seen.
"This is the important thing, to express your own feelings, to say what some-thing has meant to you. If other people like what you have said, that is all right, if not . . ." she shrugged it off as unimportant.
Miss Lempriere has striven for years to perfect her technique and now paints in what she describes as "mixed media." 
She makes her own paints and her own paper.

A secret
"It took me three years to make a paper which would withstand tropical climates. Now I have it, and I am keeping the formula secret," she said.
Her own paints give a special quality to her work.
"I have told people what I use, and they have tried it, but it never looks the same."
Miss Lempriere has worked on her Cambodian paintings at Bayview for two years.
"We are settled in Australia now, apart from making more trips," she said. "I love travelling, and I hope to go back to Cambodia again.
"Keith and I love living in Australia, though, especially here. Keith designed this house while we were still in London, then we had to find a block of land to fit it on."
The site they chose is one of the loveliest I have seen. High on a Pittwater hill-side, it seems to have captured a tiny comer of Paradise. A very fitting setting for an artist. The house embraces the view in a three-sided hug, with the studio forming one arm of it The large, central patio is the natural entertaining area for the Woods. The garden climbs up and down around the house, and it is there Helen Lempriere likes to relax from her painting.
"Apart from painting, my other two loves are gardening and travelling."
She has been fortunate enough to indulge all three, and the fulfilment shows in the serene happiness of her face, the warm satisfaction of her voice.ARTIST WAS INSPIRED BY AN ANCIENT TEMPLE (1969, July 16). The Australian Women's Weekly (1933 - 1982), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article43738280 

Geoffrey Myers. Church Point [Boatshed, Pittwater, NSW] 1945. Watercolour, titled, dated “10.11.45” and signed lower left to right, 26.7 x 36.7cm. Slight tears to right edge. Item #CL183-125 Price (AUD): $880.00   From:

Our Offshore Idylls
As can be read, The Basin, Lovett Bay, Morning Bay, Elvina Bay, in fact every little nook and cranny of our offshore areas has been etched, sketched, made into a woodcut and when photography came along, recorded in all its pristine beauty - the early work of Mr. Kerry capturing the newly sprung Ku Ring Gai Chase - visit Pittwater’s Parallel Estuary: The Cowan ‘Creek’ and Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years Of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase And The Men Of Flowers Inspired By Eccleston Du Faur for a few examples.

Pittwater, N.S.W., ca. 1887-1890 / photographer unknown Photograph No.:  a4367001h of Towler's Wharf published in: Maybanke Anderson's story of Pittwater : 1770 to 1920 / Maybanke Anderson ; edited by Jan Roberts ; Avalon Beach, N.S.W. : Ruskin Rowe Press, 1996. The little oil launch here is was used by to ferry people to and from the entrance to the park via the Pittwater shores: 

Embarking on an oil launch, which forms part of the limited property of the trust, the party proceeded down Cowan Creek for about a mile and a  half to a point on the western shore, where Mr.  Thomas and his officers inspected a landing site. After returning to lunch on the trustees' houseboat, Kuring-gai, in Kuriug-gai Bay, the party again took to the launch, and ran down for several miles, when there was excellent opportunity of viewing the beauties of the Chase. IN KURING-GAI CHASE. (1902, September 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14506310

Trustees oil launch, Kuring-gai Bay, 1899. Image No.: d1_08775 and d1_08776, courtesy State Library of NSW

...with a subsidy of only £1000 and a small income from a few cottages on the Chase at Pittwater the trustees have to do all maintenance work on the roads and paths, run and  keep in order an oil launch at Cowan and another at  Pittwater, the houseboat, and a few pulling boats.  Out of that, too, come the wages for a launch engineer at Cowan and at Pittwater, with a substitute man at each place who fills in time on the roads and paths, and a man engaged in similar work at Colah. It is urged that such an allowance is already insufficient, and that if the Government carries out a proposal to reduce it nothing will re-main but the closing up of at least one of the central establishments. With a grant of £1000 for Cowan and £500 for Pittwater each place could be well maintained, and with careful management there might be a slight balance with which to keep moving the system of facilitating approach. Various little schemes, such as the construction of dams and the conservation of fresh water, which it carried in pipes to Bobbin Head and other points, have been effected without the aid of skilled labour, and there are many indications that economy is closely observed.

Another work which is being pushed forward is that of forming walking paths which skirt the edge of the different watercourses. Their cost of making is comparatively slight, and they enable the excursionist to wander over miles of otherwise inaccessible virgin tracts, and to enjoy delightful gems of scenery. Already several of these paths have been completed, but many more are needed. It is pointed out that a small expenditure in this direction would connect Coal and Candle Creek on the Cowan side with McCarr's Creek at Pittwater, or Refuge Bay with the Basin, and thus make these points within easy walking distance.

The work of protecting the flora is one of difficulty, and could be much assisted by the judicious construction of a little fencing so as to mark the points of egress from the Chase. In their endeavours to establish a native animal reserve the trustees meet with equal trouble, and point out that by the  erection of a line of fencing from Duffy's wharf to the head of Smith's Creek some five or six thousand acres could be made absolutely secure for that purpose. Generally speaking it appears that a small expenditure would place Kuring-gai Chase in a fairway to accomplish all the aims for which it was intended.  IN KURING-GAI CHASE. (1902, September 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14506310


Dr. Richard Arthur, M.L.A., writes to "The Daily Telegraph" (Sydney).—"When visiting Pittwater the other day with the Premier and some other gentlemen, we had the opportunity of seeing a swallow's nest placed in an almost Incredible position. "The trustees of the Kurin-gai Chase have a launch driven by an oil engine, which is enclosed In a small glassed-in cabin. On the top of the lamp in this cabin two swallows have built their nest, which now contains two swallowettes, three days old. 

"Mr. Willmott, who is in charge of the launch, informed us that he destroyed the nest twice. The launch was then laid up for a week, but a small port-hole was left open. When he again entered the cabin he found a fully-formed nest, which contained three eggs. The female bird stuck to the nest, and either ignored his presence, though his head, while he was cleaning the engine was within a few inches of her, or would make a pretence of flying at him.

"Now, when the launch goes on a trip, the parent birds perch themselves on the bow. If they leave the boat they will turn up some hours later, even though it has travelled five or six miles in the meantime, and fly straight into the cabin. Mr. Willmott believes that the swallows have chosen this extraordinary position for their nest to escape the iguanas. He is speculating how the parents will teach the young ones to fly." THE AUDACITY OF THE SWALLOW. (1906, December 15).The World's News (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 1955), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128277180

Wood's Point: Arturo Steffani / Arthur Steven

Born Arthur Stevens c1852 in the UK (Hinckley) – “an aristocratic Englishman” – Italinised his name for professional reasons (see article in Freeman’s Journal 3 September 1898). He changed his name for the purpose of tutoring, his professional name became Signor Steffani. He studied art as a student in South Kensington but also took up singing. Studied in Milan and sang in London – “Mr Gye Covent Garden Opera Company” (Illustrated Sydney News 14 November 1889).

He arrived in Victoria (likely) March 1877 aboard the vessel “Assam”. Listed as an “adult” but does not appear to have been accompanied. He was an opera singer with the Sam Lazar Italian Opera Company. He became a singing teacher in Sydney – continued to paint and exhibit with Art Society of NSW and was on Committee for several years. During this period, he lived on Hunter Street Sydney and was affiliated with the Italian Impressionists, Rubbo, Nerli etc. (Sydney Morning Herald 26th December 1909- Memoirs of Phil May).

He also had a place at Rocky Point, Pittwater, where apparently many Artist and Literary friends were entertained, forming a very early 'Artists Community' or Colony, in our offshore areas. It may be many of those who formed an Art Society by Artists were visitors and this could also account for the many 'views' of Pittwater that became part of these very early exhibitions. The home was and remains on the point of Elvina and Lovett bays; and was built in 1891 by the Stefani family. As one member was a pianist it came with elevated music room. It was bought by the Mark Foy family in 1926, who changed its name from the Red House to Trincomalee – meaning 'a view from three points' – after they holidayed in Ceylon. It was sold when the Macorisons paid $135,000 in 1978 to the executors of the estate of the late Neil Smith, the father of Juanita Nielsen. 

Delightful House Party. Mrs. J. J. Smith and Mr. Neil Smith are entertaining a large party of friends at 'Trincomalee' Pittwater, these latter weeks. Mrs. Smith will not return to her flat at 'The Wellington,' Woollahra, for another month or so. She is a charming hostess, and is particularly good to the younger set. SOCIAL NEWS AND GOSSIP. (1925, December 31). The Catholic Press (NSW : 1895 - 1942), p. 22. Retrieved from  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114740613

The home was then placed on the market again in 2011 and listed as having a self-contained cottage, studio, boatshed, jetty, sandy beach and rock pool, all in a pristine bushland setting and as an 1890s stone and timber house on 4,300 square metres at Lovett Bay, Pittwater.

Trincomalee, 2015

A description of the Pittwater home from an advertisement of 1901:

(1901, February 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page1343859

Several text books documenting this period of Australian impressionism, have indicated that Steffani was Italian. In August 1898 Steffani and his wife left for Europe with the young Queensland singer, Florence Mary Schmidt (later married to the sculptor Derwent Wood) who Steffani had tutored. They spent time and Florence studied in Italy, Paris and London. 

Steffani and his wife returned to Australia then returned to London several years later. An Illustration of Steffani is in article he wrote about Australian singers in London – 3 August 1902.

One was found, a photo, in this extensive interview conducted after his return - an extract:
The Dangers They Encounter and the Triumphs They Achieve
'How the prima donna is made' was the i title of an article which appeared in the last issue of the 'Sunday Times.' In the course of an exceptionally interesting interview which I had with Signor Steffani, who has just returned after a lengthened stay abroad, and who has undoubtedly given more Australian singers to the world than any other teacher, reference was made to the terrible price to their womanhood which many song birds have to pay, even after the trials of the student days, if they wish to attain the highest pinnacle of fame. Signor Steffani also tendered some valuable advice to those who seek a musical career, and talked entertainingly of the doings and achievements of Australians abroad.
TO THOSE GOING ABROAD. 'To anyone going Home,' commenced Signor Steffani, 'a certain amount of money is absolutely necessary, as much as will cover three years comfortable living and sufficient to go to the theatres, etc. The first thing for her to do would be to listen to everything, see everything, listen to all that is said amongst students and artists about the art and the profession generally, and not adopt any course of study until she has thoroughly sifted all she has listened to. For the first year there should be nothing in the way of study. In most cases, however, I consider that those who have been well taught here — well enough to please an Australian 'audience — need no tinkering with the voice when they reach Home. 

AUSTRALIAN SINGERS. (1906, June 3).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 3 (The Sunday Times Magazine Section). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126554597 

An earlier sketch:

Signor Steffani is one of our public men who worship at the shrine of two sister arts. A student at South Kensington, and devoted to the brush, he simultaneously developed a gift of song, and a tempting offer led him to Italy and to stage life. After some experience as an opera singer he came out to Australia, ten years ago, in Lazar's Italian Opera Troupe, but left the stage some three years later and devoted himself permanently to his favourite art. Signor Steffani still trains singing pupils, but his chief time and energy are spent with the brush. He is keenly alive to the pecu-liarities a.nd atmospheric attractions of Australian scenery, and for the last four years he has been an energetic exhibitor on the Art Society's walls. 

OUR SYDNEY ARTISTS. (1889, November 14). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63622269

Steffani died in London in March 1931 at the age of 79 (born circa 1852). Arthur Stevens was born 4th Quarter of 1852 at Hinckley and an Arthur Stevens died 1st Quarter 1931 (Age 78) at Hinckley. This is likely Arturo Steffani (1852 – 1931)

Second Performance of Sir Michael Costa's
to initiate a Fund for Building a Music Hall.
Principal Singers :
(the Tasmanian Prima Donna)
who have offered their gratuitous services in view of the object ;
Chorus and Orchestra, 120 performers,
under the conductorship of
Tickets : Front seats, 5s ; balcony, Ss ; back seats, 2s ; to be
bad at the principal music warehouses, and at the doors. -
Tickets for the 5th will admit on the 11th. 
Advertising (1878, September 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13417736 

An Artist's Reminiscences.
The home of Mr. and Mrs. Donald Commons at Narelle-avenue, Pymble, with its courtyard partly covered with trellised wistaria, its white roses, and its noble trees, where magpies still find a sanctuary, was built years ago, when there was nothing but bush all round. The house as well as the street is called Narelle, the aboriginal for "song bird," which was also the name of the last queen of the Wallaga Lake tribe. I found the artist sitting beside an open fireside, smoking an old briar pipe and dreaming perhaps of the days long past, when he and other congenial souls foregathered in a Bohemia of their own. His old friend B. E. Minns is the last of the group to make an occasional call.

It is nearly eighty years since Mr. Commons was born at Auckland, New Zealand. Engaged as a cadet in a large construction work for a few years, he came over here as a young man to join the Board of Works. That was in 1878, so his memories of art In Sydney go back farther than most of our painters. At that time, the Royal Art Society and the National Gallery had not yet been founded, and Julian Ashton had not settled in Sydney. The one institution was the Academy of Art, which had lived up to its name by establish-ing classes for painting and sculpture and by holding exhibitions at which it bestowed medals for meritorious works.

"The International Exhibition at the Garden Palace in 1880," said Mr. Commons, "was a far-seeing conception of Sir Henry Parkes. It gave a small band of artists a rare opportunity of studying the works of various European schools. A number of these were retained for Sydney, "The Sons of Clovls" being acquired for the Gallery. As the years followed, we had the benefit of seeing exhibitions of contemporary works from London; among the many excellent examples being the seascapes by Henry Moore, R.A., and W. L. Wyllie, R.A., and the water colours by John Bromley and many others. Then the idea arose, that protection would prevent the flooding of cheap and inferior stuff, and it certainly saved the local artists from almost extinction. Of course, since then artists have been well supported by the public."

The eighties and the nineties marked a progressive period In Sydney; It saw the rise of the Australian school started by Roberts and Streeton, and Mr. Commons knew all the leading artists of that time. "Julian Ashton, who had studied at Julien's in Paris," he continued, "brought a fresh, uplifting and sturdy vigour upon the scene, inspiring the struggling painters with confidence in them-selves. There were men of decided ability and their work was not fully appreciated; but Ashton, in upholding their alms, did away with a lot of humbug as far as the public was concerned. The relations between fellow painters were very friendly, and other artists like Frank Mahony, A. J. Fisher, Charles Conder, Henry Fullwood, B. E. Minns were fine comrades. At the Sketch Club, connected with the Royal Art Society, we usually exchanged sketches, and if you look round you will see some souvenirs of these pleasant meetings."

The advent of Tom Roberts and Streeton who came over from Melbourne and settled at Curlew Camp Little Sirius Cove he resumed had a marked influence on the Sydney group. The fact that Roberts was elected the first president of the Society of Artists showed that he was recognised as a leader while Streeton influenced his brother artists in looking for sunlight and painting with a freer brush. It may not be generally known that these two painters started a school in an upper floor of the Commercial Union Assurance Company’s building at the corner of Hunter and Pitt streets. Mr. G V F Mann afterwards Director of the Sydney Gallery being one of the students. Streeton used to stay with us from time to time, he was a rapid painter and wasted no time in selecting a subject.

“I had lunch with Archibald and Phil May the day the latter arrived in Sydney he continued, “There was not much talk as May seemed anxious to get away and start on his new job He was very unassuming and quite modest about his work Yes I knew Conder well he was a wonderful colourist but no one at that time regarded him as a good draughtsman. 

Another old friend was Signoi Arturo Steffani the operatic bass and teacher of singing he was an aristocratic English man named Arthur Steven, who Italianised his name I fancy because plain misters in music were not thought of so highly as signors. He had a charming home at Pittwater where he royally entertained his literary and artistic friends.

The reason why the work of Mr Commons is not so widely known as it deserves to be is that he has not exhibited for years His predilection for seascapes may be traced to the fact that his father owned a number of vessels and as a youth he had the opportunity of cruising about aboard them While he cannot be grouped among the moderns there is nothing old fashioned about his work and at nearly 80 he appears to have kept abreast of the times.

Some reference may be made to family connections Mr. Commons is a descendant of the Grants and the Gordons. The father of Mrs. Commons Mr. J T Hobbes who was a food linguist was a devoted friend of John Ruskin with whom he travelled on the Continent and corresponded with him till his death He kept a diary during his association with Ruskin one of the three manuscript volumes being in the possession of Mrs. Commons. While abroad with Ruskin Turner was with them and the diarist used to carry water to the artist as he drew his famous studies depicting the mighty grandeur of the Alpine scenery Eventually Mr. Hobbes came out to Australia and for some years he was police magistrate at Port Macquarie. BACK TO THE 70's. (1935, November 2).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17223440 

Arturo Steffani, Coast of New South Wales 1888
44 cm x 79 cm, Oil on canvas
Signed A Steffani lower left corner
Exhibited at the Royal Art Society Exhibition September 1888 Catalogue number 135.
Extracts below from the Evening News and Sydney Morning Herald September 1888: 

No. 135, by Arturo Steffani— ' Coast of New South Wales.' One of the most naturally colored exhibits in the gallery. The Art Society of N.S.W. (1888, September 21). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107323449 

Signor Arturo Steffani has seven pictures bearing his name in the Exhibition this year, and amongst the number are some showing remarkably good work. Most of Signor Steffani's marine studies contain clever touches and the results of close observation, and among the best on the walls this year may be named his " Coast of New South Wales " (No. 135). This rather comprehensive title probably refers to a view near Coogee or Bondi. It is a most careful study from nature, we should say, and is remarkable for the excellent effect of that peculiar emerald-green tint in the curling roller of which the end breaks against a rock in the left foreground, and the pearly tint of the wave after it has crested and broken into foam. The manipulation of the effect of distance is excellent; perhaps the colour in the rooks is a little low intone, and their effect lacking in variety.
In "Milson's Point at Evening" (No. 126) the same artist shows good grasp and composition, and in his " Ben Buckler" (No. 150), "Head of Careening Cove" (No. 145), "Neutral Bay" (No. 87), " Careening Cove " (No. 102), and "Head of Mosman's Bay " (No. 122), there is shown a good deal of the same artist's careful and characteristic work. One of those harbour sketches, showing a hulk lying up on the shore, and the pools of water among the rooks reflecting the blue sky, is remarkable for its very pretty harbour distance showing the ships riding at anchor, and the hazy outline of the distant shore.
Mr. Fullwood contributes some good studies besides his more ambitious picture. "Prince Rupert's Glen" (No. 96), is a pleasing view taken on the mountains at Wentworth Falls in this conscientious artist's characteristic style, and his "Sketch near Newport" (No. 30), is a charming bit of watercolour painting. Both Mr. Fullwood and Mr. Frank Mahoney have worked together to produce the picture catalogued as No. 107, called "A Drink by tho Wayside." We recognise Mr. Mahoney's touch in the cattle that stand in natural attitudes drinking at a stream. The fresh tones of colour in the water and in the foliage here are cool and natural, and the picture is one that takes a very prominent place among tho canvases on the walls. It is novel in conception, and vigorous and original in its, manner, and though striking the eye with a certain sense of incompleteness and haste, has all the elements of a very fine picture in its treatment and composition. 
ART SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION. (1888, September 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13697098

ATTENTION is directed to the notification in the Government Gazette of this date of applications made for Special Leases as hereunder mentioned.
 ARTURO Steffani, for Wharf and Boat Sheds, Rock Point. Pittwater. Advertising (1892, September 13). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 1 (SPECIAL EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227281722 

Manly to Broken Bay.
(See illustrations on this page, and pages 22 and 31.)
Sydney and neighborhood abound in lovely scenery, a harmonious blending of land and water, embellished by art, a mingling of many colors and tints that is always pleasing to the eye and charming to. the senses. So numerous indeed are the beauty spots of the metropolitan districts, and so various in their scenic beauty, that one is sometimes at a loss from, which to choose as the most agreeable to spend a holiday. To the lovers of nature, and to those who love to gaze on everchanging scenes, perhaps Manly, and the road along the beach past the Narrabeen Lakes and on to Newport, Bay View, and Broken Bay affords as agreeable and instructive, an outing as any. At all events the route has the charm of comparative newness, because for some unexplained reason it has only been of recent years that the magnificent harbors of Pittwater and Broken Bay, with their lovely scenery and fertile lands have received even passing attention from the great body of tourists, holiday-makers, and settlers, who are ever on the outlook for something new. The district may be easily reached by land via Manly, or by water via Broken Bay. From Manly two lines of coaches are in active running, and make several trips per day to suit the running of the Manly ferry boats and the Post Office schedule time. The distance from Manly to Bay View Post Office is only about 11 miles, and to Newport Post Office the distance is not much longer. The road is a most picturesque one throughout.
For a great part of the distance the road follows the beach, and although at present the whole face of the country is mostly in a state of nature, yet it is easy to see how vastly it could be improved by planting rows of Norfolk Island pines (Araucaria excelsa) and sand-binding grasses as at Manly. Occasionally a lot of green pasture land is passed, and one of the sights of the road is the Salvation Army Home, as it stands on a bold, rocky hill, commanding a fine view of the cultivation patches and a wealth of gay colors. At length the Rock Lily Hotel is reached, and here is refreshment for man and beast. A few yards beyond here the road branches, one to the town of Newport and Barrenjoey Lighthouse, and the other to Bay View Post Office arid Telephone Office and Church Point. At Bay View the expansive waters of Pittwater and Broken Bay in all their glory lie disclosed to view. Our illustration gives a very good idea of the scene. In the foreground is Bay View House, vine-yard, orchard, Post and Telegraph Office, the property of Mr. J. J. Roche. In the near view is Pittwater, extending its broad and deep arms to the right and to the left, and in the distance is Broken Bay, with Lion Island barring the passage way, so named because of its resemblance to a lion couchant. Only half the scene described is represented in the picture, but the varied panorama of headland jutting out beyond headland, with the intervening bays and arms as they sweep inward between the wooded head-lands, gives a good idea of what the other side is like. Broken Bay is, as is well known, one of the most magnificent harbors in Australia, with plenty of deep water and ample scope for the largest ships that sail the ocean. Its vicinity to Port Jackson has, up to the present, destroyed its chances of becoming a commercial centre, but no one can doubt that the day will come when it will be the seat bf a prosperous population with cities and towns within its borders, and railroads and ships bringing goods to its marts. At present it is merely used as a haven of shelter by storm-tossed ships, yachting parties, and an occasional excursion steamer from Sydney. At present its population is mostly com-posed of private gentlemen, who have residences among its beauty spots, the summer residences of business men from the metropolis, a few professional fruitgrowers, with a scattering of business men and fishermen.

From Bayview the road, a very good one, winds around the beach, disclosing as every vantage point is gained new beauties of land and water. Around here are some very good orchards, with trees laden with fruit, and the homesteads peeping out from masses of evergreen foliage, with an extensive vista of land and water. In a charming spot on a sloping hillside, with such a fore-ground and a craggy background Professor Anderson Stuart has a summer residence and orchard. Mr. W. G. Geddis has a neat residence on a pleasant point. Mr. W. Baker has an orchard with some magnificent trees, while on a commanding bluff is Mr. John Poster's residence and orchard. Mr. A. McIntosh's residence is also hard by.

This road ends at Church Point, a lovely spot commanding a view of Pittwater; the town and hotel of Newport at the head of Navigation, Broken Bay, and Barrenjoey directly in front; Scotland Island and Towler's Bay right across the water, with the long and deep arm known as McGarr's Creek on the left. On the Towler's Bay side there are several residents who pull across the water to the wharf at Church Point and meet the steamer from Sydney or the coach from Manly, as the case may be. The dynamite powder hulk is moored in Towler's Bay, with residences on shore for the officers in charge. Mr. Robert Robinson has his residence of Raamah at the same place. Mr. Robinson informs me that he can grow to perfection such tropical fruits as bananas, guavas, ginger, mangoes, pineapples, Brazilian cherries, &c. This fact will demonstrate that there can be little or no frost in this locality. 

'RAAMAH, ' TOWLER BAY, PITTWATER, VIA BAYVIEW.'. It has a message on the front and the address on the undivided back, which is postmarked 21 Feb 1908. Courtesy National Museum of Australia. 

Other residents of this side of the bay are Mr. F. Chave, Woodlands, who has a very nice orchard, mostly summer fruit; Mr. E. C. Johnstone, who has a nice residence and orchard; Mr. A. Steffani is another prominent resident, while the residence of the firm of Flood and Oately occupies a lovely peninsula in the quiet waters of the bay. Mr. Geo. Brown has a residence and an orchard in the neighborhood, and there is also a small church and cemetery at Church Point. THE NARRABEEN LAKES-A PICTURESQUE HEALTH RESORT NEAR MANLY. (See letterpress on page 19.) Manly to Broken Bay. (1893, November 11). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 19. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71191632 

A. Steffani, Palm Beach North & Kilcare
Oil on canvas, 60 x 100 cm, courtesy Australian & International Art, Davidson Auctions, Sydney.

A. Steffani, The Hawkesbury River
Watercolour on card, 33 x 50 cm
Estate of Lewis Morley, Davidson Auctions, Sydney.

A choice collection of tho oil and water-colour paintings of Signor Steffani will be sold by auction at 61 Elizabeth-street, near King-street, this morning. Some of this artist's moat admired works are to be disposed of, notably, amongst the oils, the fine view of "Barrenjoey," with its green headland and wind-swept bay. IN PARLIAMENT. (1893, May 12). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13928448

Mr. Steffani, a gentleman well-known in musical' circles as a voice expert, purposes giving at the Town Hull next Thursday evening, a farewell concert. The shortness of the notice is to be accounted for by his not wishing to interfere with his pupil Miss Florence Schmidt's concert' last Saturday. On this occasion Miss Schmidt will appear positively for the last time before an Australian public, as, together with Mr. and Mrs. Steffani, she sails for Europe next Monday. Miss Hetty Holroyd, another of Mr. Steffani's accomplished pupils, will .also appear, and the names of other artists will shortly be announced;' Al. though the gentleman in question has now been twenty-two years in Sydney, during which time he has rendered very great service to' .the vocal' art, this' is. the first occasion on which he has given' a concert on his own' account; Prior to coming to the colonies he occupied a prominent position in the late Mr. Gye's Covent Garden Italian Opera Company. Full particulars will appear in a day or so. MR. STEFFANI'S CONCERT (1898, August 29). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113251309 

Freshwater head of Lovetts (sic.) Bay, Kuring Gai Chase ca. 1900-1910 by Star Photo Co. (possibly by William Livermore)- Unmounted views of New South Wales, [chiefly 1900-1910] Image No.: a116505, courtesy State Library of NSW

The freedom from economic stresses places not so accessible, especially during the 1930's when people came to Pittwater as they could fish and feed families if work and income was not available, and their once cheaper land market value, as much as being a place that inspires people to create, ensured these beautiful waters and great green hills, turning blue in season, or by day and mood, have always and will always attract and then make, in the very nature of those who chose to live beyond the madding crowd, into a community of Artists that in itself becomes an artists Colony. This example illustrates an 'across the ditch' connection carried forward by generations;


MRS. MAUD SHERWIN in her Sydney studio.
Top: MRS.' ADELE YOUNGHUSBAND taking a print from one of her lino-cuts.
MISS HELEN STEWART, painting MISS ROSEMARY MUIR, of New Zealand, who was recently invested with M.B.E. by the Governor-General
(Lord Gowrie.)
MRS. VIOLET BOWRING photographed in her studio.

Top -- MRS. ADELE YOUNGHUSBAND touches up one of her canvases.
Caravans and Attics.
There is quite a colony of New Zealand artists in Sydney-in fact, an Australian artist admitted the other day that many of the outstanding Australian artists turned out to be New Zealanders!
NEW ZEALAND, unfortunately, is inclined to recognise talent only after it has been proved in another country, and most of her own artists have to graduate overseas to gain any recognition.
The Australian atmosphere seems to attract the artists particularly. There is something in the colour and breadth of the country that appeals to them, and there arc a number of New Zealand artists in Sydney who are doing a great deal of interesting work. 
Children's Portraits.
MRS. VIOLET BOWRING came from Wellington some years ago. She has a charming little home in Double Bay, with a lovely view from the verandah across the boat harbour to Seven Shilling Bay. It is here Mrs. Bowring does a great deal of her painting. Nowadays she specialises in children's portraits, many of which she executes in their
own homes.
"Sometimes it is rather difficult," admitted Mrs. Bowring, "for smaller members of the
family come and make faces at the sitter, and want to play with my paints. I do lots Of portraits of dogs, too," she said, showing me a fine crayon sketch of a borzoi, "but I rather draw the line at family cats," she added. "I'd rather do portraits than anything else. I showed a portrait of Joan Beere, the Wellington dancer, as well as pencil sketches and water colours in an exhibition of work by New Zealand artists In Australia recently."
In Mrs. Bowring's cosy little sitting-room are several other portraits, too, including the well-known pastel of A. B. ("Banjo") Paterson, which she did In 1935, and the Infectiously-smiling portrait of Burlakoff singing to a Russian instrument, while opposite this is a picture of a ballet dancer.
Political Cartooning.
"I HAVE done all kinds of art work," Mrs. Bowring told me, "including political cartooning "or the 'New Zealand Free Lance and book Illustrating, but since my marriage, when I came to live in Sydney, I have concentrated chiefly on portrait painting. I studied first of all under Mrs. Maud Sherwood in Wellington, where I won three scholar-ships and a medal at the Technical College. Then I went to England for further training at the Chelsea Art School and the London School of Art."
Caravan Tour.
MRS MAUD SHERWOOD was busy packing up her pictures before leaving for a caravan tour when I arrived at her studio in Dalley Street. The studio is in a building rich with artistic tradition, for there Sir John Longstaff and Sir Arthur Streeton used to paint. Mrs. Sherwood's studio is gay with cushions, pottery she has collected during
her travels, and her own bright water-colours.
Mrs. Sherwood left New Zealand many years ago, and only recently returned to Sydney after seven years abroad, during which time she was never in an English-speaking country.
"I always meant to go to England, but I never did," she admitted, "though I am a member of the Royal Academy. There always seemed so much to do in the other countries Italy, Spain, North Africa, and France. I spent practically all my time amongst the peasants living in primitive villages."
Recognition as Water Colourist
MRS. SHERWOOD studied in Wellington under James Nairn before leaving for Paris, and since those days she has won recognition as one of the foremost watercolourists of to-day, exhibiting at various salons in Paris, the Royal Academy in Lon-don, and the principal exhibitions in Rome. Since returning to Australia, Mrs. Sherwood has held exhibitions in Sydney and Melbourne, and she has been invited to become one of the founders of the Australian Academy of Art.
Mrs. Sherwood has other interests besides painting, for she has been made a member of the women's auxiliary committee for the 150th birthday celebrations. But at the moment she is concentrating on her caravan
tour, and she Is off for a two or three months' holiday in the Bathurst district.
Miss Helen Stewart has chosen Bligh Street for her airy and cheerful studio. At th6 moment the centre piece is her portrait of Miss Rosemary Muir (formerly matron of the public hospital In Christchurch), who was In-vested with the M.B.E. by the Governor General (Lord Gowrie) recently. Hung round the walls are lovely Javanese sarongs of brown and green and crimson, but Miss Stewart's special treasures are two vases of Chinese porcelain, which she brought back from the East last year.
The Way of Lhote.
MISS STEWART had her first art lessons from Mrs. M. E. R. Tripe, the well-known Wellington portrait painter, but most of her training has been done in London (at the London and Grosvenor Schools of Art) and In Paris (under Andre Lhote and Yaclav Vytlacyl, a Czecho-American).
Mrs. Adele young husband is amongst the New Zealand newcomers to Sydney's artist world, for she has been here only about eight months. But already she has absorbed much of the atmosphere of the country, as was very evident from the picture of New South Welsh scenery at her first one-man show which has just concluded.
Mrs. Younghusband has been lucky enough to find a real "artist's" lodging in Potts Point with an atmosphere as congenial and conducive to creative work as any in London. So "realistic" is it, it might have been designed for a stage set. Everything is there-the steeply slanting ceiling, tile dormer window looking out over trees and house-tops, and
the feeling of its being a real artist's horns and workroom. 
Correspondence Lessons.
"I STUDIED first under the late Horace Moore-Jones in Hamilton," she said, "and later on under George E. Woolley at Whangarei, and the Elam School of Art in Auckland, but my greatest encouragement came from W. Page Rowe, an eminent art critic from London, who lived for some time in Auckland. He took a great interest in my work, and for some years he taught me composition and colour by correspondence."
Mrs. Younghusband visit to Australia is her first out of New Zealand, but her own country she knows well, and she has sketched wherever she has been. She showed me three' pencil and chalk sketches for pictures she made during last week-end at Elvina Bay, where she was staying with Miss Alison McDougall, the novelist. COLONY OF NEW ZEALAND WOMEN PAINTERS IN SYDNEY. (1937, December 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 26. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17436499 

The Basin, Little Mackeral, Mackeral, Coasters

Some of the earliest etchings ever published in Australia are depictions of this northerly reach of the western offshore areas of Pittwater, as too, are some of the artworks mentioned, by some of our now famous early Artists, all amateurs!:


The Third Annual Exhibition of Works of Colonial Art will be open THIS DAY, at Clark's Assembly Rooms, Elisabeth-street North, from 9.30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Admission to non-members-One Shilling. Members admitted Free on producing their tickets, which will also entitle them to introduce two friends. E. DU FAUR, Hon. Sec. Rialto-terrace, 8th April, 1874.


NEW SOUTH WALES ACADEMY OF ART. EXHIBITION. Persons desirous of purchasing any Paintings, at the prices named in the catalogue, are requested to leave a memorandum to that effect, addressed to the Honorary Secretary, with the doorkeeper. E. DU FAUR, Hon. Sec .Rialto-terrace.


OIL PAINTINGS.SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDAL (TO ARTIST). No. 5. " Dandenong Ranges," a morning's glimpse from the Upper Yarra track. J. W. Curtis, artist, Victoria.

SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDAL (TO AMATEUR). No. 8. .''Bream Creek, Adventure Bay, Brune Island, Tasmania." W. C. Piguenit, amateur, Tasmania,

SOCIETY'S EXTRA SILVER MEDAL. No. 44. " The Dessert." Mrs. Alfred Williams, artist, Tasmania 

SOCIETY'S CERTIFICATE OF MERIT. No. 2. " Stranded." W. Andrews, amateur, N. S. W. N.B.-A silver medal would have been awarded to this exhibit, except for the sameness of the subject with those exhibited in the last two years by this artist. No. 3. " Showers and Steam." Thomas Wright, artist,. Victoria. No. 4. " Myrtle Tree Gully." Isaac Whitehead, artist, Victoria. No. 7. " Track on the Mitta Mitta River." Eugene Von. Guerard, artist, Victoria. No. 11. "Checkmate." Miss Livingstone, artist, Victoria.

WATER-COLOURS. SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDAL (TO ARTIST). No. 58. " Castle Hill, Cragieburn, Canterbury, N. Z.  J. C. Hoyte, artist, New Zealand.

SOCIETY'S SILVER MEDAL (TO AMATEUR). No. 59. " On tho Dart," near Blackmore, South Plain, Woods. Charles E. Hern, amateur, N. S. W.

SOCIETY'S CERTIFICATE OF MERITNo. 61. " View in Middle Harbour." Miss R. Martens, amateur, N. S. W.  No. 64. "The Basin'" Refuge Bay, Pittwater G. P. Slade amateur N.S.W. and No. 65. "On the Mulgoa Creek," Fernhill With general commendation of other works by same artist-Nos. 62.72, 82. Nos. 63. " Gully at Narrabeen Lagoon." 83. " Creek on Lane Cove River." 88. "The Oak Tree Avenue," Parramatta. With general commendation of other works by same artists-Nos. 60, 69,73, 92, 93. Nos. 77. "Flowers and Fruit…


"We do not see any exhibits sufficiently meritorious in High Art to justify the award of Gold Medals." (Signed) JAMES BARNET, J. S. MITCHELL,  J. L. MONTEFIORE, } Judges Clark's Assembly Rooms, 7th April, 1874. Advertising. (1874, April 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13334459

George Penkivil Slade- G.P. Slade was a student of Conrad Martens and exhibited with him at the New South Wales Academy of Art during the 1870s.

1, Bar Island, and Chapel, at the entrance to Berowra Creek. 2. Barrenjoey, from Blind Cove. 3. Mooney Point, and Ruins of the Old Inn. 4. View on Cowan Creek. 5. Our First Day: taking it quitely. 6. The First Rocks In the Gorge, overshadowed with Weeping Willows. 7, The Great Northern Road. 8. Our First Camp. 9. Wiseman's Ferry, and Ruins of the Old Church. 10. Wiseman's Ferry and the North Shore Ferry. SKETCHES TAKEN DURING A TRIP TO THE HAWKESBURY. (1880, December 25). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 24. Retrieved  fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70950994

This beautiful little bay shown in our illustration, formerly private property, has been made a reserve of by Government, and is now practically a cruising ground for the yachting community of Sydney. A more useful and delightful sheet of water could not have been chosen, situated as it is at the entrance to the Hawkesbury River, just opposite Barrenjoey. To the north is the broad expanse of water known as Brisbane "Water, and to its south Pittwater, which is now connected with Sydney, Newport, and Manly by means of a coach running daily. Blind Cove, also called The Basin, is a safe refuge in the very worst of weather. It owes its name of Blind Cove to the fact of its being invisible to the incomer until he has almost reached its entrance, which is very narrow and hidden from view by a low stretch of sand; but inside this narrow passage there is deep water, and the height of the hills surrounding the basin (some 6OOft) so thoroughly shelter it from heavy winds that it might well be called Looking-glass Bay. It is on account of this, and also the beauty of the surrounding scenery, that has made it one of the principal rendezvous of yachtsmen.
Blind Cove, Pittwater, N.SW. (1883, March 10). Australian Town and Country Journal (NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 26. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70996783

Enlarged section - lower left-hand side, of woodcut's artist

Similar signature on:

VIEWS ON THE HAWKESBURY. 1. Bar Island. 2. The Bar and Melvey's. 3. Crumpton's and Entrance to Brerowra Creek. VIEWS ON THE HAWKESBURY. (1888, January 7). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 21. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164357419

No title (1883, March 10). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70996772

PITTWATER BASIN, HAWKESBURY RIVER. No title (1885, August 22). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), , p. 400. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162822900

By the death of Mr. John Clark Hoyte,  which occurred at his residence, 141 Avenue-Road, Mosman, on Friday morning, the art world of Sydney loses one of its oldest identities. Mr. Hoyte was born in England in 1835, and received his early artistic training there, but  some years of his early manhood were spent in the West Indies. Returning to England about 1860, Mr. Hoyte married, and shortly  afterwards decided to go out t0 New Zealand, where some time after his arrival he joined the teaching staff of the Auckland Grammar School.        
It was about this time that Mr. Hoyte's artistic work began to bring him into prominence. It was not long before he occupied a leading position in New Zealand art circles, and it is as a portrayer of the scenic beauties  of the Dominion that he will be long remembered. Right up to the time of his death his work found keen appreciation there.  About 1877 Mr. Hoyte left New Zealand, and settled in Sydney.        
He was one of the founders and the first president of the Royal Art Society, among those associated with him at the time being Mr. A. J. Daplyn, the present secretary of the society. Of late years Mr. Hoyte had been but little before the Sydney art public. He was one of the old school, and found it difficult to adopt his ideas to the conventions of the newer artistic cult. The deceased has left a widow and two married daughters (one  daughter having died some years ago), and  several grandchildren and great-grandchildren
.  A VETERAN ARTIST. (1913, February 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15400595

Mr. Hoyte is an Englishman, born in London,1837. He was sent out in 1856 by the firm of Denoon and Co., to Demorara, as bookkeeper and head overseer on their estate, but after three years' residence, on account of ill health, he returned to England, and came out to Auckland in 1860. He remained there 16 years, being for some, time engaged as second master in the Church of England Grammar School, and as a private tutor. He was also an officer in H.M. Customs. 

In 1869 he determined to devote himself to art solely, and was appointed secretary to the Auckland Society of Artists, which post he retained till his departure for Dunedin in 1875. He was also about the same time elected as a member of the Academy of Arts, Melbourne. In Dunedin he was a member of the council of the Dunedin School of Arts; after three years residence there he left Kew Zealand and came to Sydney. In July, 1880, a society was established here, the promoters being Messrs. A. and G. Collingridge, and at the general meeting for election of officers, etc, Mr. Hoyte was unanimously elected president. This office he held for one year, and used his utmost endeavours to promote the welfare of the society, but feeling that his being a comparative stranger in the colony might prove detrimental to the society, he resigned in favour of the Hon. E. Combes, being appointed vice-president for the current year, which office he now fills most satisfactorily.
The art society with which these gentlemen are associated, is gaining public confidence and esteem, and we gladly welcome it as one of the permanent institutions of New South Wales. THE VICE-PRESIDENT, JOHN C. HOYTE, ESQ
. (1882, January 7). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70964090 


There are more than a few sketches, paintings and photographs charting this little beach bay change from a grove filled with cabbage palms to a lace you'd definitely want to live

Bilgola – Ure Smith friends with Watt (pilot)
Kookaburra Club camping there from 1913:

This club has made an important move recently by securing a site for a permanent clubhouse at Newport, where 7 ½ acres of land have been purchased by the camping section at Bilgola, having easy access to the beach. The property purchased is described as picturesque, and possessing many attractive features for those motor-cyclists who have a leaning towards Nature, and its extent will permit of its being made particularly valuable in the future. It is intended to erect a bungalow club-house at once, the building having two rooms and a kitchen, as well as wide verandahs on each side for 'sleeping out.' In addition there will be a smoke room, separated from the main building, in a position where Nature has already almost provided a room. The dining-room and outdoor kitchen are also to be situated a little distance away from the club house, in a beautiful palm grove, close beside the banks of a creek of pure, freshwater. Besides these buildings, the plans include these of a garage with, a suitable; work bench to permit of members overhauling their motorcycle engines on wet days. The club-house will no doubt be the rendezvous of the Kookaburras during the Summer months. The Kookaburra Club's committee has decided, on account of the bad state of the roads, to make a centre to which the majority of club runs will be hel'. The plan selected, has not been divulged at present, but it is stated it offers facilities for football, cricket, or other outdoor games, as well as motorcycle frolics; and two out of every month's week-end runs are to be to it. The other runs will include a week-end tour and a visit to such old motor-cycling haunts as Windsor, Appin, Springwood, etc.- 
The migration of Kookaburras from their present Summer quarters is promised for April 13 and once again the birds find themselves connected with mystic 13. It has frequently been commented on how this club flirts with the supposedly unlucky number.  The club will hold the opening run of its touring season on April 19 and 20.  
ON TOUR. Messrs. A. G. Biden and R. Readford are away at present on a holiday, at Oberon. They rode up on their motor-cycles, and report having found a 'teaser' of a new hill on the way up.  At present they are enjoying great relaxation among the rabbits and other game.
At a meeting held on Wednesday evening, a new motor-cycle club, called the Britannia, was formed successfully, about 25 members being enrolled. Mr. A. A. Levi was appointed Hon. secretary, and Mr. d. A. Zink Hon. treasurer/ both pro 'tern. A further meeting is to be -held on Wednesday evening at the Volunteer Hotel, George-street, when other office bearers will be elected. The club's opening run is to take place to-day, leaving the Glaciarium for Newport via Manly at 9.30 a.m. KOOKABURRA MOTOR-CYCLE CLUB. (1913, April 6).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 21. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126462062 

Bilgola Headland, Newport, 1921 / Sydney Ure Smith - Image No.: a7065001, courtesy the State Library of NSW
Signed on plate 'S. Ure S., March 1921' and below it in pencil 'Sydney Ure Smith'.

Below plate to right written in pencil: 'It was here that Colonel Oswald Watt met his death. Drawn from Col Watt's seaside residence 'Bilgola' when I was staying a weekend with him - a few months prior to his death'. 

Caught in the Undertow. COLONEL OSWALD WATT DROWNED.SYDNEY, Sunday.  Colonel Oswald Watt, late of the Australian Flying Corps, and of the firm of Gilchrist, Watt, and Sanderson, lost his life in the surf at Bilgola Beach (a little beach a mile north of Newport) on Saturday morning, through being caught in the undertow.  Caught in the Undertow. (1921, May 23). Examiner(Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954), p. 6 Edition: DAILY. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article51126044

The sale of Bilgola, at Pittwater, formerly the residence of the late Colonel Oswald Watt, which will take place on December 8, ought to attract much attention. The land, which comprises some very attractive week-end sites, issituated beyond Newport, and before reaching Palm Beach. 'HAPPENINGS OF IMPORTANCE IN REAL ESTATE WORLD. H. (1921, November 27). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article123244094


from left: Sir Philip Game, Mr. S. Ure Smith, president of the Society of Artists, and Sir John Longstaff. GOVERNOR AT ART EXHIBITION. (1931, September 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28037765 

Careel Bay and Clareville

Robert Johnson
Painter of ' Palm Beach to Barrenjoey, 'The Picture Selected as the Supplement to the' Sydney Mail ' Annual .'
ROBERT JOHNSON'S rise to prominence has been unusually rapid. Belonging originally to New Zealand, when not much more than a student he left to join the Anzac forces, first in Egypt and then until the end of the war on the Western Front, from which lie brought back mementoes in the shape of watercolours done behind the lines and one large oil painting of the famous Cloth Hall at Ypres, now included in the official war records kept at Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin. Some eight or nine years ago he took up residence in New South Wales, and from that time has exhibited with the Society of Artists and smaller group exhibitions. For five or six years he was yet comparatively unknown beyond the small circle of art enthusiasts, since he occupied only his leisure in painting. His cognoscenti, however, had their eye on this promising young painter, and when he had once decided to devote himself entirely to an artist's career his reputation was quickly established, and with an ever widening public. His first one-man show at the Grosvenor galleries in Sydney in the latter half of 1927 had most gratifying results; practically all the pictures were sold out in the first two or three days, one example belonging to the National Gallery of New South Wales, the other to Lady Stonehaven. His second one-man show1 the same galleries a year later, equally successful the point of view of sales, marked a distinct advance in the standard of accomplishment. He was hailed on every hand as 'the coming Streeton,' and his position among the first half-dozen painters in oils of Australian landscape was secured beyond question.
Since that time his work has gained still more in breadth and sureness. There is every reason to deduce from the steady consistency of his development hitherto that he will maintain and improve upon his own standard, and that along the line he has marked out for himself he will go from strength to strength.

THOUGH he included some very agreeable still-life compositions in his exhibition last year, Robert Johnson has revealed himself so far as primarily a painter of landscape and of the harbour and the coast. In landscape he seems equally attracted by the wild grandeur. of rocky hillsides, by the gentler beauty of rolling pastures and of fruitful farmlands with homesteads and cattle, and by the domestic charm of the countryside on the fringe of the metropolis. Turning to the harbour he seeks for preference those smiling reaches and unspoiled foreshores not sullied by the city's touch. His treatment of the gum-tree, one may say, breaks down Heysen's monopoly. Like Gruner, he has been fascinated by problems of landscape-painting against the light. He is, of course, a pure realist, not over-much concerned with theories and the latest dicta of the pundits. His aim is first and foremost to transfer to his canvas the scene as it appears to him, expressing to the full its natural beauty, but playing no tricks of heightening or distortion to make a striking pattern. And the genuineness and sincerity of feeling in his painting is always apparent, conspicuously free as it is from all suspicion of being worked up in the studio from slight sketches and memoranda made on the spot. His pictures are rounded harmonies in which there is successful elimination of unnecessary detail; there are clarity and definition, but no hardness. His colour is full, yet mellow, avoiding on the one hand stridency and on the other anaemia or a muddy dullness. Particularly admirable in many cases are his distances; and he knows how to paint water as translucent. IN the example of his work reproduced for the supplement to the 'Sydney Mail' Annual Johnson's special characteristics are shown to advantage. This noble prospect, looking from the rocks and sandy scrub of Palm Beach heights beyond Barrenjoey Lighthouse and Lion Island to the further shores' of Broken Bay, is one on which the eye loves to dwell. The artist in his presentation of it has captured no small proportion of its glamour. BEATRICE TILDESLEY. Robert Johnson. (1929, October 9). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160392391 

'Mona Vale Trees' -  Robert  Johnson

Three Art Exhibitions in Sydney
Landscapes by (Robert Johnson
It is easy to understand why Mr. Johnson has quickly won such popularity among picture-buyers' in Sydney. There in little doubt that the exhibition of his oil paintings, nearly forty in number, now opening at the Grosvenor Galleries will be as successful as his first one-man show, held there last year, when practically all the pictures were sold out in the first few days. 
THIS artist is freely lipped as the coming Streeton. And those who make that claim for him have much to support their view. It was Streeton who first, as a painter, really discovered Sydney Harbour. There are pictures of Middle Harbour in tin's collection that are entirely individual, and yet call to mind Streeton. They are not as brilliant in colour as many of that artist's harbour scenes, but the deeply glowing blue of the water, with no rawness in the tone, helps the suggestion. On the other hand, Mr. Johnson runs Heysen pretty close in his paintings of gum-tree boles and foliage. But he is no copyist of Heysen, any more than of Streeton. Altogether one would have small hesitation in placing him in the first half-dozen Australian landscape painters in oil. Mr. Johnson's rise to the prominent position he now holds has been almost meteoric. In New Zealand, where he was born, he had already painted landscapes and figure compositions before the war, which removed him to far distant scenes. On his return from France he came to settle in Sydney, but did not at once devote himself exclusively to an artistic career. It is on his paintings of New South Wales landscapes during the last two years- or so that his reputation mainly rests, though he demonstrates by two charming still-life studies in the present exhibition that he can paint other subjects. He is a realistic painter, and, like Streeton, not over-much concerned with theories or novel methods of presentment and technique. Painting landscape always in the open air, he finds a subject which attracts him, and be sets out to convey upon canvas the pleasure he has felt in it himself. There is an impression of complete sincerity given by all his work, and in his best examples a seeming effortlessness because of their success. He has a notable mastery in rendering the effects of reflected light in shadows, as, for example, in the bare stony heap which balances the moss - grown rocks of one of the Middle Harbour pictures, entitled 'Rocky Foreshores.' The same picture provides an illustration of the fact that this artist never scamps his foreground . or leaves the less significant portions of his landscape meaningless and indeterminate. Like some of the other harbour and Pittwater scenes, it shows, too, his ability to give the effect of translucence to water to the shadow of a steeply rising shore. Another beautiful example of his capacity in this direction is the picture called 'At Castlecrag,' looking across to the heights of Mosman opposite. Here the blue water lies under a deep shadow -.beneath the further, cliff, above, which there is a stretch of- pale blue sky with hazy clouds. lying on the horizon, and against this background there stands out boldly in front 1o the right a; tree. and pile of stones. Equally beautiful is 'Middle Harbour.' ' 'Trees at Mona Vale,' painted against the light, like 'Ermington,' a view in the district towards Eastwood, contains not only a conspicuously fine, handling,. . of a white gum tree-trunk seen against a' pale blue sky, but is remarkable for its rendering of reflected light, iii shadow. 'Sunshine and Shadow,' with glimpses of houses between straight-up. tree-trunks, is a successful painting of a quite different effect of light. Amid the variety of other subjects, one pauses with pleasure at the picture of the old cottage, with later additions and an iron roof replacing its original shingle, entitled 'The Eighties,' and at 'Milking Times,' where the cattle are collecting round the farmstead. The biggest picture in the exhibition is the spacious 'Valley of the Hawkesbury. 'This could already have been disposed of several times over at the very beginning of the exhibition. The artist, has also painted a fine view of the 'Valley of the Wollondilly,' looking down from a height upon the winding stream. 'Flame Tree' is a delightful small picture, showing the tree on the left next to a cottage behind a tumbledown fence, through which white fowls are straying.
: 'MOUNTAIN PASTURES,' By Robert  Johnson.
'MILKING TIME,' Another example of Mr. Johnson's art. Three Art Exhibitions in Sydney (1928, August 29). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158403628 

- Painted in 1927, Robert Johnson

Whale Beach
- circa 1927, Robert Johnson

Robert Johnson's holiday home 'Ashlar', Clareville, Pittwater, New South Wales, ca.1938. Courtesy National Library of Australia. Image No.: nla.obj-144083149-1

Robert Johnson, 'Lake Narrambeen

Robert H Johnson, North of Avalon

Artist Accused Of Murder
David Little, 58, was charged at a special sitting of the Manly Court yesterday with having murdered his wife, Ada Adeline Little, at their home at Taylor’s Point, Avalon. 

Mr M J D Austin, S.M , remanded Little to the Central Court on August 27. Little was refused bail, and was taken to Long Bay Gaol. Police described Little as an invalid pensioner. Little, an artist, frequently sold oil paintings for substantial amounts
Earlier yesterday police went to the Littles' home, Treetops, a small galvanised iron and wooden house, on a ¡Aide above Taylor's Point
They found Mrs Little's tody there. She had been battered to death with a wooden mallet
The head had five wounds. A tea towel was clutched in Mrs. Little’s hands
Yesterday morning Little walked to Messrs Strahan and Blackwell in Hudson Road. They telephoned Narrabeen police station after he had a conversation with them
Detective Sergent Garlick and Detective Besnard arrested Little.
He told the detectives that he had been nnrricd for 22 years. The couple had no children
Before moving to Treetops, the couple lived in Palm Grove Road, Avalon Previously they lived on a farm in the Lower Burragorang Valley.  Artist Accused Of Murder (1951, August 19). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18495947 

Elaine Haxton

Sydney Artist lives In Boathouse
Life in a boat house is a mixture of the primitive and the luxurious for versatile Sydney artist, Elaine Haxton , who is holding an exhibition of her recent work at a Melbourne gallery. Completely isolated, her home is built out over the water at Pittwater, just south of Broken Bay, and is far below the nearest road. It takes 20 minutes to walk along the bush track that leads to the main road and bus route at Paradise Beach. There are no telephone, no delivery service and no postman. "Mail," said Miss Haxton, "often takes four days or more to come less than 30 miles from Sydney." She shops by dinghy and rows across Pitt-water to the tiny village of Clareville to collect her mail or strolls along a bush track to Avaion. At low tide she can take a short cut across the rocks to the beaches at either side. The boathouse has a hot water service and refrigeration, a private swimming pool and great, wide doors that open over the sea to let the sunlight straight into Miss Haxton's studio. With curtains and furnishings especially designed by Frances Burke, the converted boat house, although unusual, has become an extremely comfortable home.

Although Miss Haxton is fond of dogs she has no pet to tie her to her home. She has always travelled wherever she wished and likes to combine her painting trips with the thrill of seeing new countries. Her most recent trip was to Italy, where she found both the art and the people "exciting." Other favorite countries are Mexico, which she visited not long ago, France and England. She has lived in New York and has painted in most parts of the world. Her work Is hung in the National Galleries both in Sydney and Melbourne, at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and in private collections in England, the United States and Italy. 

During her last visit to England Miss Haxton was commissioned by the P. and O. Steamship Company to design their four sets of playing cards — the packs typifying England, Australia, India and China. She also designed the children's menus creating the story of the P. and O. pups and their tour around the world with a ship's cat to help to interest the children in their food. "Everyone," she said, "seems to write letters to me on the backs of these menus. It is one job I will never be allowed to forget." Among the many books she has illustrated are Margaret Lord's work on interior decorating and the two books on flower arrangement compiled by Sydney socialite Mrs. Gregory Blaxland.

Miss Haxton is also a popular illustrator of children's books and her name is familiar to most readers of Australian magazines, for she does numerous illustrations for short stories and articles. Miss Haxton won the Sulman prize for the intriguing farmyard murals she designed for the Coq D'Or restaurant in Sydney. Mural work was, for some time, her favorite medium and quite a lot of her work has been done for city restaurants. The main difficulty with mural work is. she said, its temporary nature. Walls, particularly in restaurants, must be frequently repainted and often an artist's work is distorted by the painter's efforts to retouch the design. HOME TOWN Soon after their arrival in Melbourne last week. Miss Haxton and her mother, Mrs David Haxton drove up to Ballarat to see the painting which, in 1941, won the Crouch prize for her. She was most impressed by the Ballarat Gallery and the number of recent English paintings it contains. She admired too, the glorious antique furniture which has been presented to the Gallery from old homes in the district. Although Miss Haxton was born in Ballarat, her family left the township when she was far too young to remember or to make comparisons when she revisited her birthplace.
ELAINE HAXTON.  Sydney Artist lives In Boathouse (1950, May 31). Weekly Times (Melbourne, Vic. : 1869 - 1954), p. 40. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225448844 

Pittwater, 1949 Oil on board, 50 x 60 cm - Visit previous page on Elaine Haxton HERE 1950 Wynne Finalist for Elaine Haxton - King Tide

Whale Beach

Above: [Livintonia Australis ] Whale Beach, Pitt Water, N.S.W. by A. J. Vogan (Arthur James), 1859-1948, photographer. [ca. 1910 - ca. 1915] - courtesy State Library of Victoria - Image No.: 0_306842 - Below - camping on Whale Beach 1930's
Each year, as regularly as Easter, Mr. W. Lister-Lister's art show comes round. For some time now, Anthony Horderns' - Gallery has been the locale. There, the public may see 48 examples of oils and water-colour of the kind which, in earlier times, made Mr. Lister Lister well known in the art world, and finally raised him to the eminence of president bf the Royal Art Society. The wheel of taste has spun; and the faithful artist's offerings no longer look so vivid or original as they once did. But visitors who take the trouble to examine these pictures closely will find a number of excellences behind a sober, rather unvaried -exterior. To take canvas No. 1, on the catalogue, as an ambitious example, there is genuine delicacy of perception in the re-presentation of foliage bending over a stretch of calm water. The detail is set forth with loving care, obviously by one who has ob-served nature keenly over a long, artistically laborious life. The whole canvas takes on r» cool, flat, soothing quality, as of finely-worked tapestry. In a few instances, there are flashes of geniality, not to say gaiety; and in these Mr. Lister-Lister hos achieved the high points of his exhibition. "The Cloud Shadow" leads the way. Small in dimensions, this canvas reproduces an effect of florid, radiant sky, which catches and holds attention. Other pleasant oils-for in the oil section practically the whole interest of the exhibition is concentrated-are "Bilgola Beach," "The Rock-Bound Coast," "The Coast Near Whale Beach," and "Mount Kembla, South Coast." 
The exhibition will be opened this afternoon by Mr. B. J. Waterhouse. ART EXHIBITIONS. MR. W. LISTER-LISTER. (1936, April 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27991498

The exhibition of pictures by members of the St. George Art Society in Barters' how windows, Hurstville, Is of considrabk-local interest, most of the subjects are many well known beauty spots. It will come as a surprise to many of us that how so much beauty at our very fingertips. ..."Whale Beach" by A. J. Dowd calls for special mention. Here the artist has rendered a coastal subject In water colour, using prismatic colours in a manner remlnescent of Cezanne—pure blues and greens in the sea and a gum tree with a bright pink trunk, sink Into the general scheme, producing a general overall effect almost neutral.ST. GEORGE ART SOCIETY. (1947, September 26). The St George Call (Kogarah, NSW : 1904 - 1957), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article233610437

Visiting artist is a former Queenslander
INTERESTING visitor is artist Ainnie Wienholt — a former Queenslander who, after winning a New South Wales travelling scholarship during the war went to the United States to further her studies and continue her artistic career. 
THE only daughter of the late Mr. Arnold Wienholt and of Mrs. Ivan Lewis, formerly of Whale Beach, New South Wales, but now of Palm Beach, New South Wales, Miss Wienholt has come out chiefly to visit her mother. From the little she had seen of Australian art, in Sydney, she said when interviewed she thought the American was more representational. Her own art is chiefly graphic. Whether, a young artist would find greater opportunities in the United States or in England would, she considered depend wholly upon the individual. Miss Wienholt, who in private life is Mrs. M. Takashig, lives in New York. She is accompanied on her present trip to Queensland by her infant daughter, Janet. After a visit to her old home at Kalbar, where her parents lived for many years, the visitor is now spending a day or two with her uncle and aunt, Mr, and Mrs. H. L. Kent, at Graceville. Woman's Interest (1951, March 12). Brisbane Telegraph (Qld. : 1948 - 1954), p. 17 (LAST RACE). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212779657

MRS. ANNE WIENHOLT TAKASHIGE, of New York, with her daughter, JANET, sorts out some of her etchings and engravings at the home of her mother, Mrs. Ivan Lewis, of Whale Beach. Formerly Sydney artist Anne Wienholt, she is spending a painting holiday in Sydney. Artists' Out-Of-Town Homes (1951, February 4). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18498795 

The Students' Union has decided to purchase one of the paintings entered in the recent Art Exhibition. The exhibition was held recently on the northern side of the balcony in the University Union, and featured displays of paintings, sketches and photographs. Three sculptures were also submitted, but were not exhibited. The Art Director, Mr. Tomaszewski, stated that the likelihood of theft had persuaded him not to display the sculptures. Reporting to Students' Union Council at their last meeting, Mr. Tomaszewski said, "The exhibition was of a standard better than I anticipated." He went on to state that entries had been rather sparse, and attributed this to the short notice of four weeks given for entries. The adjudicator of the photographic section, Mr. Taure^ said that "the photographs were quite .bearable." while the judges of the paintings said that "the art work was very good . . . some people knew how to hold the brush." Discussing the paintings, Mr. Harant stated at the Council meeting his opinion was "the standard was not worthy of awarding any prizes.'' 1 He later said, "Ï don't think any of the paintings should be purchased for display in the Union or Students' Union." Council decided, however. to purchase a painting, and also agreed to the Art Director's suggestion that a similar competition should be held in 1964. He advised Council to publicise the exhibition two or three months in advance by displaying posters. Council accepted Mr. Tomaszewski's report and congratulated him for his efforts. Twelve paintings will be selected from those exhibited here, and will be included in a travelling exhibition around Aiistralia. The prizes were awarded as follows:— Section 1: Oil or Water Colour. (a i Representat i o n a 1 : Mr. D. L. Turner—"Moore Park." (Adjudicated by Mr. Georee Finey.) (b) Non - representational: Alex Popov—"Fallen Rocks, Whale Beach," and Karl Romandi—"Experience of Perisher Valley."...Art (1963, July 26). Tharunka(Kensington, NSW : 1953 - 2010), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230411545

Palm Beach

Palm Beach has attracted the pens, pencils and paints of Artists since these first came here. Prior to these sketchers making 'visible maps' of this place,  as seen in the Pittwater Estuary Art. These Artists were preceded by Sacred Artists:

Rock Carvings at Palm Beach
(By W. M, Sherrie)
In recent years there have been discovered from time to time some rather remarkable examples of the artistic bent and capacity of the 'coastal tribes of blacks which held possession of the eastern shores of Australia before the advent of white melt. As a general thing the art of the blacks seemed to find expression almost entirely in the form of drawings of fish, with an occasional variation towards men, native animals, or birds, such as the kangaroo or the emu. The "Art Gallery" chosen by the blacks in this connection was certainly durable. As a general thing they made their drawings on large fiat-faced rocks. ; Most of the carvings to be found in the vicinity of Sydney have been recorded by Mr. Campbell, engineer and surveyor, but lately a couple of new and altogether excellent drawings have been discovered at Palm Beach, Pittwater, some few miles beyond Newport. 

The discoverers in this case were H. A. Wilshire, the Sydney architect, and Mr. Booth, of Palm Beach. Though presumably the work of some aboriginal artist who lived in bygone centuries, the drawings show a clear and well-preserved outline. They have been cut on a very large fiat rock en the top of the hill between Sand Point, Pittwater, and Cabbage Tree Boat' Harbor, Palm Beach, near Barranjoey. The drawings represent two kinds of fish— one being apparently a groper and the other a shark. One is 22ft. long, and the other just 6ft. Within the first is the figure of a man of medium height. Whether the tribe to which the artist belonged had any knowledge of the legend of Jonah and the Whale, and intended the inclusion of the human figure within that of a largo fish to illustrate that legend, Is a matter which may be left to conjecture. The probability is that the drawing of the man in that position was due to considerations of convenience. 

The Hawkesbury sandstones, by reason of their comparative softness, offered exceptional facilities to the coastal tribes to display their art. At all events there are many of these drawings in the Port Jackson and Hawkesbury districts. Mr. Wilshire regards the one hero depicted as an exceptionally good outline, and of better shape than any yet recorded. These drawings might he considered clever, in the matter of skilful portrayal of the creatures depicted, even if they had been done with suitable implements. When it is remembered, however, that the work must have been done with the most primitive of stone implements, it will be realised that infinite patience and labor, as well as some considerable artistic ability, must have been brought to bear. In this case a very ' line, clear, and unmistakably expressive outline has been traced of the fish forms in the solid rock. There is nothing to denote the age of these carvings, but it may be surmised to be very great. In all probability they were made many centuries ago. They were discovered by Mr. Wilshire and Mr. Booth in August. Some of the stone excavated in this locality, it may be mentioned, is of very fine quality and beautifully marked, the coloration generally being pink, reddish brown, and grey. The stripes of color stand out as clearly as if hand-painted, and present a very pretty and artistic effect when used for house-walls. The drawings, being the concrete and enduring expression of the artistic ideals and aspirations of a tribe of human beings now extinct, possess both personal and historic interest, if not value; and it is the intention of Mr. Wilshire to have the carvings fenced in and protected.The drawing of the carvings here presented was made by Mr. Wilshire
ABORIGINAL ART (1917, September 16).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221408011 

Palm Beach, 1875 (?) by George F. (aka F. Halstead) Halstead 
Watercolour heightened with bodycolour, 32.5 x 63.5 cm
George F. (aka F. Halstead) Halstead (Working 1860s-80s) Australia, courtesy Fine Australian Paintings, Sotheby's, Sydney.

George F Halsted was a watercolour artist, active in the Sydney area in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Works signed by 'F Halsted' of the same period are believed to be those of George F Halsted. Halsted exhibited with the Art Society of New South Wales from its first exhibition in 1880. His work is represented in the Mitchell Library.

The portrait of a young girl and the view of a forty.gun frigate of Malta reflects great credit of their artist, Mr. G. F. Halstead. ....Mr. G. F. Halstead, artist, contributes two splendid pictures, being views of this Sydney Harbour from the Free Public Library, and of Rushcutter's Bay from Darling Point. They are very promising specimens of art, and well worthy the notice of connoisseursN.S.W. ACADEMY OF ART EXHIBITION. (1873, April 16). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63229338

Arthur Streeton, another of that changing it all innovative group, was lauded and applauded for his Palm Beach works (see above) - but it is the ladies associated with spending the 'season' at Palm Beach, as well as year round residents, who extended the canvas to print works that may be worn or featured woodcuts, like those of Mitty Brown's mother - Mrs Ailsa Allen:

Ailsa Allan's lithograph 'Pittwater' from 1937, Courtesy State Library of NSW 

Ailsa Allan was among those artists led by Margaret Preston, Thea Proctor and Adelaide Perry who were central to the promulgation of modernism in Sydney in the inter-war years, through their wood and lino-block prints. Her work emphasised design, surface patterning, flattened forms and decorative detail, typical of Sydney modernism at the time. 

Born in Sydney, daughter of Maria Graeme Connon and Robert Gordon Craig, a Sydney surgeon and one of those for whom 'Pill Hill', Palm Beach was named, due to the amount of doctors who bought blocks of land and built homes there early on - this term has been applied to the houses on Pacific road at Palm Beach - where the Craig home,'The Pink House' stands still. The hill opposite, Sunrise Hill, was once dubbed 'Spinsters Hill' due to the amount of single women, all professionals and many the first in their fields, purchasing blocks of land and building holiday homes there.

MISS Thea Proctor, the artist, is spending a week with Mrs. Gordon Craig, at Palm Beach. She left her paints and crayons behind, but at the last minute could not resist slipping in her pencils to do some drawing. IN THE NEWS (1930, January 13). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 17 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226023899

Dr. R. Gordon Craig's Death
Dr. Robert Gordon Craig, one of the most distinguished of Australian surgeons, and a noted figure in the medical world, died early yesterday morning at his station, Ulinda, Binnaway, where he was on a visit when he was taken ill.

Dr. Craig crowned a brilliant career with munificent gifts to the University of Sydney, of which he was a graduate, for the advancement of medical education and of research work in the treatment of diseases. To him the University and medical students, and through them the community, owe an incalculable debt for his public-spirited benefactions and services.

The board of directors of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, on the retirement of Dr Craig last year as an honorary urological surgeon, placed on record its deep and lasting appreciation of the eminent and untiring ser-vices rendered by him to that institution over a long period of years.

Dr Craig was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, on May 24, 1870, and was the eldest son of Captain Robert Craig, who settled in Sydney in 1878. Educated at the Sydney Grammar School, and later at George Watson's College Edinburgh, he entered the University of Sydney in 1888 and graduated MB, Ch M in 1894. During a distinguished academic career, he gained the John Harris scholarship, 1893, and won the University gold medal awarded to the student who exhibited the greatest proficiency at the MB examination (1894). He was elected as honorary assistant surgeon to the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in 1901. Relinquishing general practice in 1908, he removed to Macquarie-street where he practised as a surgeon until the end of 1930 After a serious illness in that year, he retired from active practice and went to live on the station property Ulinda.
He served during the war as Lieut-colonel in charge of the Australian hospital ship Karoola.

During practically the whole of his medical career he had been in some degree associated with the work of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital He was a resident medical officer of the hospital for one year, before entering private practice at King-street, Newtown. In 1911 he became honorary surgeon, a position which he held continuously until January 1926 On hi- own suggestion it was then decided that he should take over the post of urological surgeon To this branch of surgery he subsequently devoted himself entirely In his hospital work until his retirement In May last year His personal knowledge of this branch of surgery of which he was one of the pioneers in Australia, was widely acknowledged He was then elected an honorary consulting urological surgeon Dr Craig thus held important positions at the hospital for more than 30 years He gave his services unstintingly to build up the urological department at the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, and also, by his own bequest, founded a Fellowship in Urology at the University of Sydney, to enable selected graduates from that seat of learning to attain to special knowledge In this subject He also acted as honorary urologist to the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children.

He conferred a great benefit on medical education by gifts to the University of Sydney for the advancement of education and re-search work in the treatment of genito-urinary diseases Included in his gifts to the University was his own private laboratory, fully equipped. This has proved of the greatest service.

In 1928, Dr Craig gave £10 000 to the University of Sydney supplementary to his previous gift of £4300 for research work in urology This was apart from the gift of his private laboratory The significance of these benefactions was that it served to bring into closer association in a common humanitarian aim university medical schools and hospitals These gifts, and others on a generous scale, were practical proof of Dr Craig's faith in the value of research In subjects of which he himself was a master In 1926 he gave to the University £300 to cover the cost of establishing that year a post-graduate fellow-ship In urology and further sums in succeeding years totalling £20 000.

Dr Craig was a distinctive figure at a number of medical congresses and allied assemblages The annual congress of the International Society of Neurology at Madrid last year elected Dr Craig, among other prominent medical men to the Australasian section of that body One of the foundation Fellows of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and a member of the council of that body, he was nominated as a representative of the University of Sydney at the third Imperial Hygiene Congress in London in 1927, and took the opportunity, while abroad to make a comprehensive study of hospital organisation on behalf of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital He was for some years on the council of the New South Wales branch of the British Medical Association being elected president in 1917 He was one of the 25 surgeons in Australia and New Zealand who were made honorary Fellows of the American College of Surgeons in 1924.
Dr Craig's munificence in the humanitarian cause of healing is his most enduring memorial.

A few years ago. Dr Craig was the central figure in an operation which was unique because of Its unusual setting A youth had been accidentally shot while hunting for rabbits Tile bullet entered his back, and a desperate fight for his life followed He was so weak that it was impossible to carry him up the rough tracks of the country in which the accident occurred, and an operation had to be performed in a primitive little cottage at the bottom of the rugged Burragorang Valley Specialists were hastily summoned and it was to Dr Craig that the task of performing the delicate operation was entrusted, without the facilities of the ordinary operating-room The youth's life was saved.

He won his "blue" at the University as a long-distance runner Dr Craig devoted much of his leisure time to golf, being a member of Bonnie Doon in its early days, and later of the Australian Golf Club. For many years he was a prominent yachtsman, and owned and raced successfully many craft of different classes as a member of the R S Y S , the Prince Alfred Yacht Club, and the Sydney Amateur Sailing Club. He was an active Rotarian, and acted in an honorary capacity on many public committees and was a member of the Australian and University clubs.

Dr Craig is survived by Mrs. Craig, who before her marriage, was Miss Connon, of New Zealand, and two daughters-Ailsa wife of Dr R K Lee Brown of Sydney, and Helen, wife of Dr J F Chambers, of Melbourne Dr F Brown Craig, of Macquarie-street, and Mr. J B Craig, a director of Prescott, Ltd, are brothers, and Mrs. A Davidson of Sydney, and Mrs. H C Hamand, of Devon, England, sisters of Dr Craig. NOTED SURGEON. (1931, September 3).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16809295 

Ailsa earned an economics degree from Sydney University. Her first husband, Dr Lee Brown, a surgeon in partnership with her father and a keen aviator, died in 1934 when he crashed his plane; their daughter, Mitty Lee Brown , was born on October 22nd 1922 in San Francisco. 

LEE-BROWN--CRAIG.—September 3, 1921 at San Francisco, Robert Kingsbury Lee-Brown, son of Dr. and Mrs. Lee-Brown, Graystanes, Vaucluse, to Ailsa, elder daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Gordon Craig, The Crossways, Centennial Park. Family Notices (1921, November 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15986259

The marriage took place in San Francisco last month of Miss Ailsa Craig, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Gordon Craig, of Sydney, and Dr. H. K. Leo Brown, son of Dr. Lee Brown, of Sydney. Dr. Lee Brown, Junr., has joined the California University, and will undertake special research work. SOCIAL GOSSIP (1921, November 6). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223486262

A Farewell Party. 
To say good-bye to Mrs. MacCallum before her departure for Europe, Mrs. MacLaurin and Mrs. Gordon Craig gave an at home in the drawing-room of the Queen's Club yesterday afternoon. Beautiful pink roses made an effective decoration. The guests included Lady and Miss Fairfax, Mrs. Harvey. Mrs. T. R. Bavin. Mrs. Ralph Worrsll. Mrs. Cecil Purser, Mrs. Andrew F. Davidson, Miss Jaxvie Hood, Mrs. Reginald Davles, Mrs. Sinclair Gillies, Mrs. Lightoller, Mrs. M. MacCallum, Mrs. Dodos, Mrs. Bullmore, Mrs. Julius, Miss Curnow, Mrs. Richardson-Clark, Mrs. R. K. Lee Brown, and Miss David. Lady Cullen and Lady David, who are both absent from Sydney, were unable to be present. For Women (1924, November 29).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119970313

A Flying Thrill 
HAD a great thrill during the week when I went out to Mascot, met Major de Havilland, and was taken for a flight over the city by the gallant major himself. The first person I struck upon relanding (I think that's the term) was Madge Lewis, who is piling up her hours of "solo" work with constant practice and bids fair to be an excellent flier. From Major de Havilland I learned that two of the most enthusiastic pupils at Mascot are Dr. and Mrs. Lee Brown (she was Ailsa Craig, you know), and both bid fair to become good pilots. SOCIAL SIDELIGHTS (1932, April 3). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229884784

From 1927 to 1932 Ailsa studied with Thea Proctor and Adelaide Perry at Julian Ashton 's Sydney Art School and contributed to the student magazine, Undergrowth
Her work was exhibited with the Society of Artists in the late 1920s and early 1930s.

The boat house. 1931. 
Linocut, printed in black ink, from one block.Impression 4/50: Sydney Harbour scene of a boat house with dinghys inside, palm trees and a man carrying oars.. Held in the collection of thhe National Gallery of Australia

MOST of the well-known women painters of all the States will be represented at an interesting exhibition, arranged by the Women Artists of Australia, which is to be held during July at the Education Buildings. Mrs. A. Stephens and Miss Myrtle Innes, are the organising secretaries, and the committee includes Misses Ailsa Lee-Brown, Juanita Job, and Valerie Lazarus. ALL FOR A GOOD CAUSE (1934, June 3). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229214540

In 1935 Ailsa married, for the second time, her flying teacher G.U. (Scotty) Allan, a flying ace, and thereafter signed her work 'Ailsa Allan’. They lived in Brisbane for two years (1935-36), then returned to Sydney and set up house at Palm Beach. 

A FLYING honeymoon has been planned by Mr. and Mrs. G. U. ('Scotty') Allan, who were married at Ulinda station, Binnaway, last Saturday. Mrs. Allan was formerly Mrs. Ailsa Lee Brown, daughter of the late Dr. Gordon Craig, and Mrs. Craig at whose home the quiet ceremony took place. A frock of daffodil-yellow was her choice for the wedding, and she was attended by her sister, Mrs. J. Chambers of Melbourne. Of Social Interest (1935, June 26). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166109416

Air-minded Honeymooners
AN interesting wedding took place at Binnaway last Saturday. The bride was Mrs. Ailsa Lee Brown, widow of the late Dr. Lee Brown, who was killed in an aeroplane smash last year. The bridegroom was Mr. G. U. Allan, better known as "Scotty," who pilots a Quantas Empire plane on the Brisbane Singapore route.

Mrs. Allan is the daughter of the late Dr. Gordon Craig and Mrs. Craig, and she chose her old home, Ulinda Station, Binnaway, as a setting for the ceremony. She wore a fur coat over a daffodil yellow frock and a soft felt hat. The bride's sister, Mrs. J. Chambers, of Melbourne, was matron of honor, and Mr. A. Baird, chief engineer of Quantas-Empire Airways, was best man.

After the ceremony, the bride and bridegroom motored to Tamworth, from whence they left on a honeymoon that will be spent flying. Mrs. Allan, too, has an A. flying- license.WOMAN'S POINT OF VIEW Off the Sheep's Backs (1935, June 28). The Land (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1954), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article116275426

In 1938 Proctor praised her wood engravings, reproducing two of them to accompany her article 'Modern Art in Sydney’ (whic some state was simply a justification of the Contempory Art Society). Ailsa Allan, she said, had begun wood engraving 'three years ago’ and by then had produced 'hardly more than a dozen, so that her technique as yet shows some weakness. Wood engraving is a branch of art in which technique is of great importance, but still not as important as the idea expressed … she has an original vision. Engraved lines in the modern woodcut are not used merely to give tone, but … to assist the general rhythm of the design, and Mrs. Allan has this strong feeling of rhythm. “Open, Please”, is an example of the importance of the idea. Of what value is an assured technique if it is only camouflage for a barren mind?'

Thea at Palm Beach, in her friend's mother's home:
MISS Thea Proctor, the artist,  is spending a week with Mrs. Gordon Craig, at Palm Beach. She left her paints and crayons behind, but at the last minute could not resist slipping in her pencils to do some drawing. IN THE NEWS (1930, January 13). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 17 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226023899

Her linocuts were reproduced in Manuscripts in the early 1930s, including Waiting 1933 (man at dance waiting for partner), issue 4 (February 1933, p.19: ill. Sydney by Design [ SBD ], 32) and The Mother 1934, published in issue 8 (1934), National Gallery of Australia (ill. Butler SBD , 14). 

She abandoned linocuts in favour of wood engravings in 1936, making several in the latter years of the decade. - AUSTRALIAN ETCHINGS & ENGRAVINGS 1880s – 1930s FROM THE GALLERY’S COLLECTION, NSW Art Gallery and Design and Art Australia Online Ailsa Allan webpage.
Ailsa died on February 9th, 1943, when on her way home from a coast watching duty during WWII.

Second Red Cross Appeal Day
Beach Wraps Sold Well.
MRS. ALAN COPELAND was justifiably proud that the two dozen beach wraps she made for the Palm Beach, Whale Beach, Avalon, stall sold early in the morning. "They could have sold twice as many," she said. For Women. UNUSUAL MOUNTS: CHRISTENING (1940, December 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27949201 

Roy de Maistre

The contrast between the first Artists here and a man like Roy de Maistre further state the development of Australian, and Pittwater, Artists.
Roy De Maistre CBE (27 March 1894 – 1 March 1968) was an Australian artist of international fame. He is renowned in Australian art for his early experimentation with "colour-music", and is recognised as the first Australian artist to use pure abstraction. His later works were painted in a figurative style generally influenced by Cubism. His Stations of the Cross series hangs in Westminster Cathedral and works of his are hung in the Tate Gallery, London and in the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney.

He went by the name of Leroy Leveson Laurent Joseph De Maistre, but had been born as Leroy Livingstone de Mestre at Bowral, New South Wales on 27 March 1894 into a home of high social standing in the then Colony of New South Wales. He was the youngest son of Etienne Livingstone de Mestre (1832–1916), the thoroughbred racehorse trainer of the first two Melbourne Cup winners; and the grandson of Prosper de Mestre (1789–1844) a prominent Sydney businessman from 1818 to 1844.

De Maistre was educated, together with his brothers and sisters, by tutors and governesses at the family home near Sutton Forest. In 1913 Roy was sent to Sydney to continue his music and art studies. He studied the violin and viola at the New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music, including playing the viola in the Sydney Orchestra. He studied painting at the Royal Art Society of New South Wales under Antonio Dattilo-Rubbo who encouraged interest in Post-Impressionism, alongside fellow students Norah Simpson, Grace Cossington Smith and Roland Wakelin. He produced works inspired by reproductions of European post-impressionists, such as van Gogh, Gauguin and Cézanne. He then studied under Norman Carter and also at Julian Ashton's Sydney Art School.

In November 1916, as Roi de Mestre, he first exhibited, showing Impressionist paintings concerned with the effects of light.
In 1917 he met Dr Charles Gordon Moffit from the Kenmore Hospital at Goulburn, with whom he was to work devising a "colour treatment" for shell-shocked soldiers by putting them in rooms painted in soothing colour combinations.

De Maistre developed an interest in "colour-music", his theory of colour harmonisation based on the relationship between colours of the spectrum and notes of the musical scale. With his ordered, analytical mind, he applied the theory of music to his painting. He worked with Adrian Verbrugghen, and then Roland Wakelin to devise a "colour-music" theory. In 1919 he held a joint exhibition with Wakelin titled Colour in Art to expound his theories. In this (at the time controversial) art exhibition the musician-turned-painter had chosen colours to harmonise like the notes in music. The exhibition showcased 'colour orchestration', an experiment on the interrelation between different hues on the colour spectrum and notes on the musical scale. For example, the note A was matched with the colour red.[4] The only existing example of this experiment is Rhythmic composition in yellow green minor (1919), which visualises music slowly unravel through the flow of colours. This "colour-music" exhibition became part of Australia's art-folklore as "pictures you could whistle". Influenced by earlier exponents of "colour-music" theory in Europe and America, this exhibition has since been identified as the earliest experiment in pure abstractionism in Australia. His colour charts, showing musical notes corresponding to different hues, are now owned by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, with "colour music" gaining a permanent place in Australian art history.

de Maistre was also interested in interior decoration and the manner in which the colours within a room could impact upon the human psyche. While exhibiting traditional pieces of fine art in the Colour in Art exhibition, he also included a 'Colour Organisation in Interior Decoration' segment. In this part of the exhibition, de Maistre displayed domestic interiors based on his 'colour music'. Discs and scales to help home-owners integrate colour music into their own homes were made available for purchase. In 1924, this colour harmonising chart was further developed by Grace Brothers and placed for sale in their stores.

After 1919 de Maistre virtually abandoned colour-music and abstraction, though in London in 1934 he reworked some of those same ideas. His paintings of 1921–22 are experiments in impersonal, unemotional tonalism, and from the 1930s he turned to a more recognisably figurative style of work generally influenced by Cubism. 

In 1922 he had his first painting purchased by the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Still Life.

In 1923 he went to Europe on a travelling Art Scholarship by the Sydney Society of Artists. He spent three years abroad, studying in London, and in France in Paris and Saint-Jean-de-Luz, where he created Sea piece, St Jean de Luz (1925), a landscape painting featured a mild semblance of his earlier practice with colour and abstraction. He also visited Italy, Spain, Belgium, and the Netherlands. In 1924, while abroad, he patented the "De Maistre Colour Harmonising Chart", which was produced and marketed by Grace Brothers, a Sydney department store.

On returning to Sydney, he held one-man shows (1926 & 1928); contributed to annual exhibitions; conducted classes in modern art to private pupils from his studio in Burdekin House, Macquarie Street, Sydney; and organized in his house an exhibition of modern interior design (1929). From his family's prominent position in society, he helped to make modern art fashionable in Sydney in the late 1920s, or at least as fashionable as it could be. The anti-modernist criticism he received following his first one-man exhibition in Sydney convinced him that his art could not flourish in Australia.

Roy de Maistre, Woman with parasol at Palm Beach, 1927 held by and courtesy of the Art Gallery of NSW
Among Painters.
Sydney's newest art alliance, 'A Group of Modern Painters,' which 'is registering its first kick at the Grosvenor Galleries, is showing work by George Lambert, A.R.A., Thea Proctor, John D. Moore, Margaret Preston, Roland Wakelin, Roi de Mostre, Elioth Gruner, Kenneth MacQueen, and Vida Lahey. Mr. Hugh McCrae tells me: 'Prejudices of- taste and education are bound to come in the way of any just- decision as to the .merit of this adventure; .particularly when an adherent trips and  strikes an attitude, which is serious, without being dignified. Only a few of the exhibitors have evolved pictures of original conception; while the majority, responding to the influence of the European modernist cult, offer glimpses of nature, cut into slices . . . like sandwiches .. . . dropped in paraffin paper. 'When Roland Wakelin paints a yellow jug, No. 10, quite bent under the weight of  his sincerity (?),' says Mr. McCrae, 'I feel certain that he makes it both crooked and yellow, out of politeness towards the critic, so as to give him grounds for something sensible to say. This whim for courtesy is noticeable even by his behaviour towards still-life models, where ho has given- up his chair to a beer bottle. Roi de Mestre's 'Palm Beach' has dramatic qualities but his 'Indian Rug' made my last hairs stiffen at the approach. Elioth Gruner's view of Bathurst is meagre in perspective, and I only understand the foreground. Thea Proctor draws grandly, with assurance, and signs of plentiful reserve.
From the Notebook of a "Sunday Times" Man (1926, December 5). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128135288

Roy de Maistre, Landscape at Palm Beach, 1926

                    Roy de Maistre, Palm Beach house,  (Illustration) 1927                             Roy de Maistre, Dangar Island (Colour Sketch)

In March 1930 he left Australia to live permanently in London. He held one-man shows at the Beaux Arts Gallery, London (1930); in the studio of his colleague Francis Bacon (1930); at Bernheim Jeune, Paris (1932); Mayor Gallery, London (1934); and at Calmann Gallery, London (1938). His work was also illustrated in several editions of Herbert Read's influential book Art Now. In 1931–32 he returned to Saint-Jean-de-Luz. In 1932–34 he visited Compiègne. In 1934 he conducted a painting school with Martin Block. In 1936 he set up studio at 13 Eccleston Street, Westminster.

In 1936 De Maistre met the 18-years-younger novelist Patrick White. The two men never became lovers, but firm friends. In Patrick White's own words "He became what I most needed, an intellectual and aesthetic mentor". They had many similarities. They were both homosexual; they both felt like outsiders in their own families (for example De Maistre's family disapproved of his painting and described it as 'horrible'); as a result they both had ambivalent feelings about their families and backgrounds, yet both maintained close and lifelong links with their families, particularly their mothers. They also both appreciated the benefits of social standing and connections; and Christian symbolism and biblical themes are common in both artists' work. Patrick White dedicated his first novel Happy Valley (1939) to de Maistre, and acknowledged de Maistre's influence on his writing. He even went to Saint-Jean-de-Luz during the writing of the novel under encouragement from de Maistre. In 1947 De Maistre's painting Figure in a Garden (The Aunt) (1945) was used as the cover for the first edition of Patrick White's The Aunt's Story. Patrick White also bought many of de Maistre's paintings for himself. In 1974 Patrick White gave all his paintings by de Maistre to the Art Gallery of New South Wales. [5]

Mr. de Maistre allows us to look into a fellow 'colourist" - Grace Cossington Smith, who also frequented Pittwater while developing her voice in imagery.

Grace Cossington Smith

Although not a Pittwater resident Artist Gace certainly grew her craft here and was clearly a habitue of our environs, many of her fellow 'Colourists' creating works here. Grace was born near the water, had access to bush and water at Turramurra, and access to Pittwater down Mona vale Road - which was also a subject in one painting the lady did.

SMITH.—April 20, at Cossington Neutral Bay, the wife of Ernest Augustus Smith, of a daughter. Family Notices (1892, May 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13862661 

Bay View [sic] Pier, 1943
Oil on board, 49 x 41 cm, courtesy Fine Australian Paintings, Sotheby's, Melbourne.

View from Pittwater
Oil on board, 28 x 30 cm, courtesy Australian & International Paintings, Lawsons, Sydney.

Sea Coming in 1945
Oil on composition board, 34.5 x 40 cm, courtesy Fine Australian and European Paintings, Sotheby's, Melbourne.

PROFESSOR RADCLIFFE BROWN will open an exhibition of pictures by  Miss Grace Cossington Smith at the Grosvenor Galleries to-morrow afternoon, when Brigadier-General Anderson will  also speak. Miss Smith is a memberof the Turramurra Wall-Painters' Union, a story of which appears on page 1 of "The Women's Supplement." Social Interests (1928, July 22). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 31. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222167147 

A curious article that underlines the late 1920's passion and sponsorship and spread of Art:

The Wall Painters of Turramurra
Vice-Royalty at the Paint-box
ABOUT eighteen months ago fifteen girls, who were all fond of drawing, but who had never (with one exception) done any serious work before, decided to meet every Thursday afternoon in the garden at "Ball Green," Turrnmurra; the home of General and Mrs. A. T. Anderson, and draw each other. After a few weeks when everyone was tired of saying, "Do I really look like that?" 'and the messages from various fathers and brothers became too insulting, the girls decided to give up portrait painting and ‘tackle something on a larger scale'. So the Turramurra Wall Painters' Union came into existence, and with Gaugin as its example, and Mrs. Anderson as its leader, the members accomplished the first wall frescoes (apart from painted ceilings' or friezes) to be done in Australia.

The original members were Miss Elaine de Chair, daughter of the Governor, and Lady de Chair, Miss Ailsa Cullen, daughter of Sir William and Lady Cullen; Miss Bethra Anderson, daughter of General and Mrs. Anderson; Misses Gwen and Jean Ramsay, Claire and Jean Macpherson (Sir John Macpherson's two daughters, now in England), Olga Bruche, (General Bruche's daughter, now in India), Mrs.. Eric Campbell, Mrs. Norman Cowper (daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Mc-Crae), Miss Betty Lindner (who is on her way to England), Mrs. Badham-Jackson, Miss Rose McCrae, Miss Marian Russell, and Miss Grace Cossington-Smith, who held an exhibition of her work at the Grosvenor Galleries recently, and is now one of the leading members of the recently-formed new Sydney group. 

Distinguished visitors who came to see the pictures were always asked to paint in this way. Lady de Chair did a landscape panel, and Miss de Chair, St. George. The dragon was painted by Miss Ailsa Cullen; and Captain Curtis, military secretary to Lord Stonehaven, was responsible for the serpent in the dragon's mouth; The Hon. Ava and Ariel Baird, daughters of the Governor-General and Lady Stonehaven, painted a snowdrop and a crocus respectively, it and Mrs. T. R. Bavin tried her ability on a palm tree. Miss Shirley Bavin contented herself with palm fronds. 

The girls commenced work one Thursday in the spring, when the squat little two-roomed shed, 'crouching beside the gum trees, which they were to paint,  'was filled with flickering sunshine, and the scent of the last violets and the first roses came in through the broken windows. Scaffoldings were erected in front of each panel, with two ladders, three tables, and towers of chairs, modelled on the Three Bear system , —Big chair, Little chair, and Tiny chair — one on top of the other. In the middle of the room, on a bench, was a box full of brushes, with long handles and short handles, and square points and round ones. There were a few wooden palettes and some china ones, but for the most part soup plates and saucers were used, and beer bottles full of turpentine were scattered about everywhere. 

The paints used were riot of the aristocratic kind; there were no subtle distinctions in colors. Instead of choosing between rose madder, vermillion, dragon's blood or desert lover, the girls used either dark red or else red, and on some shelves there were masses of bottles marked "light blue"' or "brown" or "orange." 

The artists naturally give a great deal of attention to overalls; perhaps they feel that if the overall doesn't make the artist, what does? So Honey wore pink gingham, while Betty chose a pale blue shepherd's smock;'. Olga's green overall was covered with cow's jumping over innumerable moons, and Gwen had "Where are you going to, my pretty maid?" printed in red, all over her Victorian pinafore. In fact, the Wall Painters, sitting at lunch under the apple trees in the orchard, looked like a bed of Darwin tulips. 

As for the paintings themselves, they were even gayer than the artists. Here a white horse, drank (foolishly) of sea froth. There, magnolias dipped over waves of limpid chrysophrase, or saffron crocus stippled a hillside, where honey-colored men and; women lived a life as mysterious as the exotic leaves about them. There were, too, a-winged Saint George, a monstrous dragon, ducks, a white goat, a nun, a band of gypsies, a wooden, god, a bulldog, and a black horse straight from the Apocalypse. 

There are now 15 painting members and 15 associate members of the union, and their ambition is to paint a church, Two offers have come from country districts, but owing to the impracticability of distance, the girls are hoping that a church will be offered them closer to town. Some idea of the work these girls are doing can be obtained from the accompanying Illustrations. The top picture was painted by the Misses Jean and Gwen Ramsay, and is done from a design of Gaugin's. These two artists are now doing their own original designs for a bedroom, showing Incidents in the lives of the first Australian settlers With Misses Ailsa Cullen, Bethra Anderson and Betty Chisholm they are studying with Mr. Roi de Mestre. 

The color scheme of the central picture is carried out in tones of pink, and shows Miss Betty Lindner's idea of the angel and two pilgrims in the fields of heaven. 

The lower picture, with Miss Anderson seated on one of the painting tables, shows panels, by Miss Marian Russell, Mrs. Norman Cowper, and Miss Anderson. 

An original design by Miss Grace Cossington Smith is on the extreme right. 

The Wall Painters of Turramurra (1928, July 22). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 44. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222167287 

An Ethel Anderson article on Grace runs below. Ethel Anderson championed Artists - another example being Roland Shakespeare Wakelin, who at one time lived at Dee Why near fellow artists James Muir Auld and Lawson Balfour. Balfour is credited with being one of the first to discover the possibilities of the Dee Why area as a sketching ground. These gentlemen made works of north of this once green and salt-air idyll and all three were proponents of the 'Post-Impressionist plein air painting' this area was well suited to:

Farmer's Art Gallery is aglow at present with the delicate atmosphere and the beautiful tints of Mr. J. Muir Auld's latest collection of watercolor paintings. It comprises a charming lot of local landscapes, that offer ample scope for this artist's rare gifts as an advanced watercolorist.

A gratifying feature of the exhibition is the steady stream of visitors that patronise it daily, among whom are to be noticed not a few buyers and connoisseurs.

Among the pictures that are prominent may be mentioned "Morning, Dee Why," "Beach and Headland, Newport," "A Summer Day," and "Afternoon, South Creek," the two latter marked "sold."
Our photo, of Mr. Auld is by May Moore, Sydney. 

WATERCOLOR ARTIST. (1925, May 30). The World's News (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 1955), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article130620629

Miss Grace Cossington Smith's pictures (now on exhibition at the Grosvenor Galleries) have the cool elegance of hail, or cherry blossom in a spring shower. They are high pitched and clear, like sheep-bells heard on windy heights. And they are all happy pictures. Miss Cossington Smith seems to paint for no other reason than to express her pleasure in life. And out of this pure joy of hers she is able to make works of art that will reflect her joy, and communicate it to others. For this reason, and because they are full of the artist's own experience, her pictures should please many people who do not care for pictures, but who do care for the beauty of everyday, human experience.

Shelley was sad because the moment of fruitful vision which he called "the spirit of delight" came so rarely. Arthur Clutton Brock has pointed out that the poet Herbert rejoiced when "once more he smelt the dew and rain and relished versing." He quotes, too, Christina Rossotti's saying:
It seems an easy thing
Mayhap one day to sing, 
Yet the next day
We cannot sing or say.
With artists, as with poets, the moments of vision, of inspiration, are rare. So that many artists are tempted to exercise their craft without inspiration. But in this exhibition of Miss Cossington Smith's she seems never to have painted except in such moments of creative vision, and her wholly original technique seems to have grown quite naturally out of her efforts to give these moments their adequate expression in paint. The sleeping dog; the aluminium saucepan and green tea-pot, jugs, glass bottles, on the iron tray on the floor; the gullies, airy depths and heights, in the picture called "Bush near the Waterfall," the larder window; growing lilies; drooping, bucolic, pumpkin leaves, have all been painted in such moments of illumination. The spirit of delight is in them.

In these pictures, and in all Miss Cossington Smith's deft and rhythmic compositions, pattern is always rightly resolved Into a just relationship of form with form. And character is never lost in mere design. "White Dahlia"—one white and one maroon-red dahlia in a black jack—is entirely successful in its truth and beauty of form, its suave, alluring colour, and jewel-like quality of pigment. "Trees in Blossom," "Roses in a Bowl," "Morning Glory in a Glass Jug," are also successful pictures. In "Lily Growing in a Field by the Sea," and in the sylvan trespass of wind and sunlight in the landscape seen be-yond the "Bottles on a Window Sill," there Is a slightly literary and tonatic quality. Mr. Roger Fry's latest dictum, however, allows "psychological interest" to plastic art. It appears in these two pictures with the charming irrelevance of clouds, seen in a pond. HAPPY PICTURES. (1928, August 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16485913 

Grace Cossington Smith
More and more the influence of the modern schools of painting is being seen among Sydney artists. An extremely interesting representative of the advanced group of painters here is Miss Grace Cossington Smith, whose first "one-man" show is now being held at the Grosvenor Galleries.

MISS COSSINGTON SMITH studied in Europe some years ago. Latterly since her return to Australia she has shown with the Society of Artists and the Water-colour Institute, and also at the small exhibitions of still-life modernist paintings, to which Lambert has contributed, held at the Grosvenor Galleries. The present exhibition of her work is com-posed of nearly 40 oil paintings and nine water-colours of still-life, landscapes, and interior and figure pictures. Glancing round one's first impression is of lightness and gaiety. This artist, along with her vivid colour sense and feeling for design, has obviously a joy in the life about her. Take, for instance, the oil painting "Krinkly Konks Sleeping." Here we have a picture to delight dog-lovers— a bulldog, puckery-faced like all his tribe, curled up on a pink rug and mauve cushion. As in most of her work the artist has treated her design with breadth and simplicity, leading the spectator by just sufficient indications to share her impression. The effect, as well as being a satisfying composition, is wonderfully true. One realises the contented sigh with which the animal has sunk to rest, and also that, like every other dog, however profound his slumber he will open an eye at the slightest sound. Kinkly Konks is as much of a personality as any successfully drawn dog in literature, such as the youthful mature fox-terrier in Denis Mackail's "The Flower Show" or the liquid-eyed spaniel in Gals-worthy's "The Country House." Or, again, look at "Pumpkin Leaves Drooping." These bright green umbrella shapes are unmistakable; but the imagination of the artist, giving them universality, makes them transcend what they appear to ordinary folk. Look, too, at '"The Exeter Road, from Curtis's Corner." It is a grey, fur-rowed road bordered with green, flanked on one side by slanting telegraph posts and on the other by leaning trees. But it is also the complete suburban and country road we all know and that we wish, as we hump along it, to bring to the notice of the Main Roads Board. 

The faculty Miss Cossington Smith possesses of expressing movement comes out in this picture and in another one of a road, the water-colour entitled "The Eastern Road, Turramurra." where the vegetation snatches at you as you whizz down the hill to breast the further slope; and also in the oil painting "Trees in Rain and Wind," where the two trees of different greens against the dirty grey sky make you feel the force of the stormy gust. The largest painting, "The Gully," is a strong and beautiful design, full of the feeling of the bush down in the hollows. It has a hint of sub-tropical undergrowth, though it was painted not far from Sydney. On this picture a visitor from Melbourne was very emphatic: "It should certainly he bought by the N.S.W. Gallery; it would be visited with pleasure whenever the trip over from Melbourne was made." There are many other beautiful compositions of flowers, among which must be mentioned "Christmas Lilies Growing," where the white flowers and their green stems are seen against the horizontal grey slats of the fence; the unnumbered "Australian Fire Wheel," with red-striped blossoms and brilliant, green leaves in glass jars against a white-draped background; and "Convolvuli," a very decorative pattern. And there is humour in "Choir Boy," a regular little imp putting on with his surplice the superficial saintliness that the human boy is accustomed to wear in such circum-stances, as in "Boys Drawing," showing in the foreground two boys in class-room desks, smug and interested and with the laborious twist of effort and concentration, and in the background other small boys off the chain. "People," too, is an absolute expression of a church interior, congregation, pews, and choir; while the water-colour "Harvest Festival" is full of thanks-giving and Sunday clothes. 

MISS COSSINGTON SMITH has a talent for naming her pictures unusually. "Things on an Iron Tray on the Floor," a rather uncomfortable picture, is a truth-fully comprehensive description and "People," above described, is eminently expressive; while the lovely water-colour "Morning Glory in a Glass Jug" is admirably suited by its title. The smaller water colours, mostly soberer in tone than the other work, are drawn with meticulous detail. It is as if in these finely-finished little pictures the artist had set out to prove that she can draw indeed, though she considers that in other instances the spectator should be willing to collaborate intelligently. "Wamberal Lake, No. 1," with the cliff, and "Wamberal Lake, No. 2," with the skeleton tree and the wiggly telegraph pole against the pink sunset sky and the curves of water, supply enough to the imagination. A word about framing. Many artists have their fancies in this direction. Heysen prefers his water-colours to be framed in heavy, old-fashioned gilt, as if they were oils; while in J. Salvana's recent exhibition oil paintings had a broad white mount, almost as if they were water-colours. Miss Cossington Smith has had nearly all her pictures, oils, and water-colours framed in white. A few have narrow, brightly-coloured frames. This idea of framing adds to the effect of lightness and freshness in the paintings themselves. —BEATRICE TILDESLEY. Grace Cossington Smith (1928, August 1).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 32. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158402591 

SOME interesting colored drawings of the Bridge in its various stages will be included in Miss Grace Cossington Smith's exhibition of drawings in chalk and colored pencils, to be opened by Mrs. A. T. Anderson in the Macquarie Galleries, Bllgh-street, on March 2. Sir HughPoynter will also speak at the opening. Topics for Women (1932, February 26). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 15 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230524370 

Miss Grace Cossington Smith's Exhibition.
An exhibition of pictures by Miss Grace Cossington Smith was opened yesterday at the Macquarie Galleries, Bligh-street, by Mrs A. T. Anderson, of Turramurra, in the presence of a large gathering. The catalogue, which contained 38 exhibits, consisted chiefly of pastel drawings and water-colours.
Miss Grace Cossington Smith is one of the foremost exponents of the new movement in art which has many followers in England and France, and is making some headway at Turramurra, helped by the energetic advocacy of Mrs A T. Anderson. The artist whose drawings are now on view at the Macquarie Galleries, if estimated by her best work, reveals qualities of draughtsmanship and design that go a long way towards compensating for her disregard of perspective values and faithfulness in representing form and colour. Her drawings in pastel of "The Bridge Curve" and "A Bridge Pillar" convey most forcefully a dominant impression of the weight and solidity of the structure. These drawings of the bridge and some of the drawings of flowers are the most significant specimens of the artist's work. She handles the difficult medium of pastel very deftly in her flower drawings, which also disclose a notable feeling for graceful design. Half a dozen water-colours, chiefly of flowers, are examples of the artist's skill in handling that medium. Other exhibits are less satisfying. The picture, "Great White Ship at Circular Quay," depicts a notable vessel that recently visited Sydney, resting on a green surface as solid as marble. Landscapes and houses around Turramurra, Bulli Pier, and Thirroul Sands are conceived as subjects of decorative design, and the drawings make no pretence of revealing natural or architectural beauties. But that is the avowed aim of the artist, so those who expect to find beauty reproduced as it is disclosed to normal vision must not be disappointed.

Mrs. A. T. Anderson, in opening the exhibition, said that those who, like Grace Cossington Smith identified themselves with the new movement in art, did not care to reproduce the exterior forms of things. They sought rather to express an individual impression from their own personal viewpoint. Personality was what they sought to express in any artistic work that they created. The new movement in art, as expressed in the work of Miss Grace Cossington Smith, whose pictures had received high commendation when exhibited recently at the new English Art Club and the Bond-street Galleries, was an influence against the rising tide of Communism. It stood for the life of the spirit, and this should be remembered at a time when even young children were taught to deride God and revile religion. NEW MOVEMENT IN ART. (1932, March 3).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16845187 

In opening Miss Grace Cossington Smith's exhibition yesterday at the Macquarie Galleries, Brigadier-General A. T. Anderson protested against the attitude which required art to be an exact copy of nature. In poetry, he said, the average man had reached a higher level of understanding. There, at least, people would admit more than a mere statement of fact. He hoped the time would come when a corresponding liberty would be allowed to the art of painting. ART SHOW OPENED. (1937, July 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17385845 

Miss Grace Cossington Smith 
THE exhibition of paintings and drawings by Miss Grace Cossington Smith at the Macquarie Galleries now is the third held by this artist. Her most recent pictures are some lovely wildflower studies, a type of work in which she is especially inter-ested. The wildflowers of Australia she considers excellent subjects because of their clear though subdued and subtle colour-ing and their wonderful design. Miss Cossington Smith said that she has no fixed formula for her work, and believes it essential to approach each subject differently, allowing it to suggest its own treatment. She tries to express the laws of rhythm in Nature, "Sea at Thirroul" being a particularly good example of this idea. "The Ballet," reproduced on this page, was painted during the visit of Spessiva and her company, and is a striking example of her work. Miss Cossington Smith was a student of Senor Rubbo, and later studied in England and Germany. In 1932 she sent pictures to London, where an exhibition was held simultaneously with one in Sydney. She hopes to go abroad again to study contemporary work in England, believing Australian artists should be ready to receive influences from abroad. For all that, she feels our isolation here should have the good effect of permitting us to develop our own distinctive contribution to art. Miss Cossington Smith's exhibition will remain open until August 2. It was opened last week by Brigadier-General A. T. Anderson.
"The Ballet," by Grace Cossington Smith.

Miss Grace Cossington Smith with one of the pictures in her current exhibition.
"Sea at Thirroul," by Grace Cossington Smith. TWO ARTISTS (1937, July 28). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 17. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160497156 

Grace Cossington Smith's Style.
Grace Cossington Smith's style has under-gone a decided change. As recently as three years ago, the artist was proclaiming her adherence to the post-impressionist movement by painting in metallically brilliant colour. But her present exhibition at the Macquarie Galleries shows her as a colourist of quite another sort. Her hues have a soft glow, a characteristically feminine charm.

This newer manner seems to be truer to her inmost artistic self. Although her pictures, which are all oils, do not achieve a uniform standard, they hit the mark much oftener then they used to do; and at their best they achieve something unique In Australian painting.

Miss Cossington Smith is much more interested in colour than she is In form. Her brush-work Is impetuous. It freely disintegrates natural contours into a series of small planes in order to introduce streaks and dashes of clear, unexpected reds, blues, and yellows. Once the spectator can adjust his viewpoint to this romantic approach to landscape, he will find it stimulating and revealing. For, when seen far off, these spirited canvases suggest the Australian countryside with a peculiar, lively Intensity. One recognises these colour schemes as concentrating into a small space authentic effects of light and colour and contrast which in actual fact would be spread over a widely-scattered vista. The general impression Is the thing, and not the pettifogging details. To this degree, Miss Cossington belongs to the same school as Monet, Sisley, and Pissarro. The work Is varied, and it repays close study. There are attractive figure and still-life pieces, as well as landscape subjects. A COLOURIST'S SHOW. (1939, November 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17622640 

With "primitive" art the work of Grace Cossington Smith shares an unexpected simplicity, of vision a love of line and order.
Such paintings in her exhibition at the Macquarie Galleries as "Studio Window," "Evening," "Cottage In-terror," and "Figure in the Window" show such artlessness of presentation as to disguise their real architecture. They are felt however with intensity.
Yet there is a contrary undertone, a nervous element which occasionally dominates the mood. Her whole way of expression calls for an inner peace for rich and sparkling joyfulness. Joy is eagerly striven for, but the conscious and almost desperate way in which this quality is sought seems to defeat its purpose.
This underlying restlessness appears in certain passages—clusters of confused shapes and small and un-absorbed forms—in such paintings as "Still Life with Mignonette" and "Gumleaves and Bush Foliage." It is also evident in the forced colours of "Still Life with Waratah."
Moreover although Miss Smith paints in a high key of luminous colour, the quality of mosaic in which yellows predominate, the atmosphere is arctic.
This mixture may seem strange but is an interpretation of the struggles and aspirations of a tempermeant, these paintings are extremely interesting. Does not the fulfilment of a conception also proclaim its limitation and exhaustion?
These paintings have the faculty of stimulating the mind; they gene-rate a certain power. If their articulation is somewhat halting and lacking the easier graces, they do reveal some harmonies and fluctuations of great beauty particularly in the rectangular "Through a Cottage Window," and the rhythmical "Gum Blossom with Jug."
The exhibition will be opened by Miss Thea Proctor at 1.30 pm to-day. PICTURES BY GRACE SMITH (1945, June 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17935181 

Artist's Sunlit World
Life, reflected in the paintings of Grace Cossington Smith, is a golden morning. By her manipulation of color, light drenches and saturates orchards, permeates lawns and trees, and vibrates with equal brilliance in kitchen and living-room interiors. A door is open wide upon a sunlit, airy world. The first "one-man" exhibition for some two years, by this Sydney artist, who, with Wakelin and de Mestre, was one of the first Australian artists to feel the impact of Cezanne and Van Gogh, is now on view at the Macquarie Galleries. In much of her present work, one is Immediately aware of assimilation of the former's organic structure, as in the "Morning Landscape" and "Golden Morning," and the latter's simple honesty of statement in, for in-stance, "Door into the Back yard," and the small "Interior with Sewing Machine." Although others may be more important, in these last two pictures one especially feels a gaiety of heart. This, as in all her work, is a happy, loving and spontaneous impressionism to which one quickly, if not always lastingly, responds because of her own per-sonal and obvious enjoyment in paint itself. Stress of so much sun how-ever, asks eventual relief in a greener thought in a greener shade, and one wishes a depth into which one may penetrate and enter. Warmth and pleasure, if they are to be keenly felt, experienced and expressed heed the counter-balance of shadow, of pain. But Grace Cossington Smith, in such of her paintings as the shimmering "Orchard in the Morning," which is animated and filled with vitality, and one or two of the small interiors, with a richer color, would voice something of Bonnard's song. "Still Life with Banksia" holds a subtle formality of arrangement beneath its natural appearance. The interesting exhibition will close on September 29.—TATLOCK MILLER. Artist's Sunlit World (1947, September 17).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 13 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228969329 

Grace C. Smith
In the paintings of Grace Cossington Smith at the Macquarie Galleries, art is used as a safety valve.
The emotions thus released impart the force to painting which they have generated.
One finds the most vivid art in painters who are beset with such a chained energy. Whatever their technical accomplishments, their work will have a conviction far in advance of a more conventional expression. One feels almost tempted to say that only such art is worthwhile which springs from an urgency not to be denied.

In the paintings of Grace Cossington Smith there is a discipline and a great simplicity of vision but underneath it all one can feel the throbbing of the dynamo. This throb may change with each mood. Sometimes it will illuminate whole passages in icy lights, as in "Figure in the Window." Then it will flicker into the barest life as in "Dry Bush."

There is a forbidding Arctic exterior which fears the betrayal of the senses in "Still Life". An enforced order, which tries to defy the chaos of the emotions, in "Sitting-room Interior "; a pedantic consciousness of forms born from an original vision in "Vase in the Window"; and a gaunt primitivism which holds the fire of religion and a lyricism which obscurely recalls Blake in "Corner of the Room" and "Kitchen Interior."
But in all there is a strength and a pride which refuses to beguile the beholder. it is a remarkable show, in spite of its graceless, defiant attitude.
The exhibition will be opened by Mr Roland Wakelin at 1.30 p.m. today. Grace C. Smith Exhibition (1947, September 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18047663 

Old lighthouse cottage now sculptors studio - Art student has lease of ruin on lovely Palm Beach headland for 5'- a week

by BETTY WILKINSON, staff reporter. Pictures by staff photographer Ron Berg.

A spirit of adventure and plenty of enterprise have enabled a 26-year-old Sydney sculpture student to solve housing and studio problems by leasing a lighthouse-keepers' abandoned cottage for 5/- a week. The student is Bruen Finey, son of well-known artist George Finey. The house is a six-roomed cottage at Barrenjoey, Palm Beach, N.S.W. For years it has been ravaged by rats during the week and vandals at week-ends.

ALL that is left of the once snug dwelling is a stone shell with an iron roof.

Bruen, who is at East Sydney Technical College under the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme, is in his last term and wants somewhere to live and work. He has found in some fellow students equally ardent spirits, who will share the back-breaking job of making the house comfortable and form the nucleus of a small community with the arts as their great common interest.

The idea of taking the house first came to him when he was spending a day at Palm Beach in 1947. Enchanted by the position, more than 300 feet above the Pacific, with a magnificent view in all directions, Bruen was ready to tackle anything to make it his home. His first step was to find out which Government department controlled the house. It proved to be the Department of the Interior.

Barrenjoey headland, once the 400-acre farm of Larkfield, granted to an early settler in 1816, is now Commonwealth land reserved for use by the Army when it is required for defence, but at present administered by the Department.

Young Finey immediately applied for a lease, but it was not until January, 1949, that the transaction was complete, and Bruen received his passport to paradise-an official letter notifying him that he had a five years' lease of No. 1 House, Barrenjoey. Since then he has sweated and toiled week-end by week-end to make the house habitable. To make it so you would need what Bruen has-youth, enthusiasm, an undaunted spirit, and plenty of muscular strength-or a bottomless purse.

From the water's edge he and his friends carry on their shoulders every piece of material used. The only road is a narrow, steep track, strewn with big boulders and cut by deep gutters. It would be impassable for any vehicle except a jeep with a four wheel drive, or a horse and dray, such as the former Lighthouse keepers' furniture was brought in. One glorious day, with the pleasure-seeking Palm Beach week-end crowd forming a background to the hard slogging of the Barrenjoey boys. I joined the working party. David Hain and John Giles, two other members of the group, were with Bruen.

WADING waist-deep into the water, boys bring ashore two launches laden with materials for repairs. Old jetty was once busy scene when Broken Bay was port.

First scene of operations was alongside the golf links. Each lad in turn trundled a barrow, laden with materials, from the roadway to a nearby beach, where two launches were loaded to the Plimsoll line.
Cargo varied from huge doors to chair legs, and included an iron bedstead. It was a job lot the new tenants had picked up from a city hospital, and it had been stripped from an outpatients' section.
Working hard in the sun, the boys aroused the interest and sympathy of Mrs. E. Silverton, who brought from her home beer and biscuits to give them fresh heart.
It was a gesture you would expect from Mrs. Silverton, who remarked: "Well, dear, what I say is a little kindness never hurts you and I can't tell you all the happiness that has come to me because
I've been kind to people."
When I asked Mrs. Silverton how I would address something she asked me to send her she replied: "Just sent it to 'Auntie, Palm Beach.' Everyone here knows me.
"Auntie"' Silverton has a special interest in Barrenjoey, for the house next to Bruen's was once her home. She came from New Zealand, and brought with her some beautiful furniture made of a prized New Zealand wood. Mrs. Silverton and a friend used0 run a tea-room in the house, but they were driven out by snakes, although the business brought in £5 a week.

Snakes have not daunted them, David has already stood on two.

When they were fully loaded the launches chugged off down the bay; io the beach at the foot of Barrenjoey Headland. Bruen stores all his materials in a roomy, ramshackle boatshed near, the old jetty on the Pittwater side.

"Every time we climb to the top we carry something," he said.

First job Bruen did was to fill in the great windows from which even the frames had been taken, and to make a strong door for at least one room so that tools and materials would not "go off."
As everything is on the spacious scale of last century, the shutters for each window measure seven feet by three. That means a lot of carrying and a lot of carpentering. The shutters will be painted yellowand the wooden posts around the long stone-paved verandahs white.

Picture left: HOMEMADE FURNITURE in the kitchen is the work of Bruen. Although primitive, it is solid. Defaced walls are typical of the vandalism in the old house, but the boys are confident that they will restore it in time. Each will have a room to himself.

Big rooms
On the first floor, which is the level on which the house is entered, are six beautiful big rooms, each with its own fireplace, and a fines hallway, 33 feet long and six feet wide.
 Old sandstone steps, worn into hollows in the centre, lead down to the kitchen and bathroom, on the floor below. So far the bathroom is still a shambles, and the bath is still on the beach.

Opening from the kitchen is the courtyard, surrounded by a 12ft. wall of solid stone, where the boys “hope to have a vegetable garden," sheltered from the winds that sweep around the solid old house. In this courtyard is a huge well, more than 15ft. deep, which was filled with junk when the boys took over. They had to siphon out the water, then climb in, and remove; all the oddments that had been- thrown in, including galvanised iron pipes and bedsteads.

An eager volunteer loader and unloader on the day of my visit was John Arblaster, grandson of one of the lighthouse-keepers. She recalls settling into the fine six-roomed house. All her furniture, brought from Newcastle, where her husband had been stationed, was landed on the jetty, and taken by horse-drawn lorry up the steep slope.

Picture right: WATER SUPPLY for No. 1 House, Barrenjoey, is a huge underground well in the courtyard. David Hain lowers one bucket, fills it, and then pours it into a second one.

There was a light on the headland as early as 1855, but it was only lit in rough weather. The first permanent light was established in1868, at a cost of £300 for the tower and £85 for the light. In 1880 the foundation stone was laid of the present splendid tower, which is 38 feet high, and whose beam can be seen 25 miles at sea. It gives four flashes every 20 seconds.

The last of the keepers left the house in 1932, when the present unattended light first operated. In the lighthouse visitors' book there is this rather wistful record: "On the night of 13th August, 1932, no person was on the station for the first time since the light was established in 1868."

Bruen showed us, near his house, the gravestone of George Mulhall, who died at his lighthouse job in1881. His grave bears this message: "All ye that come my grave to see, Prepare in time to follow me, Repent at once without delay, For I in haste was called away."
The jetty, with its solid stone base and old loading gear, is a reminder that from 1843 until 1900 this quiet little spot was the landing stage for a customs house, used as long as Broken Bay ranked as a port.

There is a firm belief among the residents' of Barrenjoey headland that the first big thefts from Bruen's house took place overnight in a well organised raid. One theory is that the thieves lowered their loot on ropes from the cliff to a great flat rock below, where it is possible for a sea-going boat to pull alongside. The thieves left all the nails in neat piles when they stripped it of fixtures.
To the fishermen and their families who live in the shelter of the great cliff, the activities of the Barrenjoey Boys are a source of much interest.

Said Bruen, standing on the huge stone wall of his courtyard, and looking round: "There's only one trouble here-you're working away at some job or other, and you lookup, get lost in a dream, just looking, and looking, and before you know where you are you've wasted ages."
But I doubt if Bruen regards that time as really wasted.

Picture left: WELL-EARNED REST for David Hain, Bruen Finey, and John Giles after carrying materials from the beach to the house they are making livable. It had been stripped by vandals.

Old lighthouse cottage now sculptor's studio. (1950, May 20).The Australian Women's Weekly (1933 - 1982), p. 32. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article46455535

Bruen Finey seems to have given away sculpture and is well known for making surfboards for Dunlop as well as more boards through is own business ‘Crest Surfboards':

Bruen left the army after 1945 and studied sculpture, funded by an ex-war service grant, and took up working with fibreglass and foam in the 1950s, building chemical vats and shop displays, based in Brookvale where land was cheap and other fibreglass companies were located. He recalled sourcing polyurethane chemicals from a sugar refining company in Waterloo, but couldn’t remember the name. His contract with Dunlop to supply large numbers of boards every week meant hiring itinerant shapers, finishers and polishers. Bruen did all the glassing himself. ‘When the surf was up, no one wanted to work’. Profit was small and output of boards was slow so he decided to develop standard molds and ‘pop-out’ a generic shape. Not surprisingly, this proved a flop as surfers were a ‘fussy breed’ and wanted unique features and characteristics – so decided to sell business to Dunlop, who moved the board making operation to St Mary’s, far from the surf.

Working in Brookvale, on the northern beaches, Bruen remembers Scott Dillon, who sometimes sold him resin, Gordon Woods, a hard working scruffy bloke, Greg McDonagh, who built beautiful boards with clear resin over faultless foam and, or course, Barry Bennett. Bruen rode a large board he made himself although didn’t hang around with surfers who were a ‘close clique’ and didn’t take kindly to outsiders. He mostly surfed around Manly and could take off 40-50 feet outside everyone else and run through the crowd like a tanker. No wonder they cursed him. Big thanks to Bruen for the info and support. Written by Gary Crockett, June 20th, 2011 and retrieved from:  http://blogs.hht.net.au/surfcity/?p=2044

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LEASE OF COTTAGES NOS 2 and 3 AT BARRENJOEY. Offers closing with the Chief Property Officer Department of the Interior 5 Hickson Road Millers Point at noon on the 1st September 1952 are invited for the lease of the old Lighthouse Cottages Nos 2 and 3 at Barrenjoey for a period of 5 years with an option of renewal. The lease Is terminable at one month s notice without compensation should the premises be required for Commonwealth purposes and subject to the usual conditions Including Insurance of premises and past rent of oil rates and taxes etc by the lessee. The premises ore to be let as they stand and no expense In connection with renovation or repair will be borne by the commonwealth. No offer necessarily accepted WS KENT HUGHES Minister for the Interior . Advertising. (1952, August 23). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18278568

Paintings Of Wesley Penberthy


The artist's dream, the poetic idea wafted on to canvas to tell of sweetness and of hope through the moist eyes of nostalgia, is not the ephemeral thing some painters believe it to be. The Venetian school, or the best of the Rococo, though dewy on occasion, is not of such stuff a dreams are made of. They only achieve that effect through the hardcore of reality, of formal strength, and cold deliberation.

These clement are lacking in the work of Wesley Penberthy, at David Jones' Art Gallery. Yet one is only too pleased to see paintings by an artist who is conscious of the fact that poetry exists.

Penberthy is obviously a young painter-young in this trade, any-way. He is also, thank heaven, an enthusiast, feverishly searching for his idiom. This is, perhaps, not the time to tell him that there is no hurry, that he has a lifetime of search in front of him; the enthusiast is rarely a man of patience. Still, his work at present is in rather a dangerous position, for in the matter of taste he is as yet unstable.

When one sees an interest in ElGreco fighting with a desire to be-come the latest member of the pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, something must give-and evil is so often the victor.

Meanwhile, those other loves, Royal Academy portraiture and Norman Lindsay, sit on the fence and watch proceedings.

As a busybody bystander one can only suggest to Penberthy that if he wants to be taken seriously in time to come, he should develop the strain found in such landscapes as "The White Horse," "The Yarra at Hawthorn," "Trees in Pacific Road," "Pittwater," or "Palm Beach From Barrenjoey," and learn to add some substance to it. In his next show, also, one trusts that he will not hang everything that he has ever done.

The exhibition will be opened by Mr. Lindley Evans at 2.30 p.m., to-day.

Paintings Of Wesley Venberthy. (1950, November 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18184436

Born in Broken Hill in 1920, Mr. Penberthy studied at Perth Technical College and under the tutorship of Norman Lindsay. He was the first post-war rehabilitation student at the Melbourne National Gallery School. He has exhibited widely since 1940 and has executed several industrial murals. He was awarded the Sulman Prize in 1955.

The Sir John Sulman Prize is one of Australia's longest-running art prizes, having been established in 1936. It is now held concurrently with the Archibald Prize, Australia's best-known art prize, and also with the Wynne Prize, at the Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW),Sydney.
awarded each year for "the best subject/genre painting and/or murals/mural project executed during the two years preceding the [closing] date", and as of 2008 is valued at $20,000. Media may be acrylic, oil, watercolour or mixed media, and applicants must have been resident in Australia for five years.
The definition of the terms as given by the AGNSW is:
A genre painting is normally a composition representing some aspect or aspects of everyday life, and may feature figurative, still-life, interior or figure-in-landscape themes. A subject painting, in contrast to a genre painting, is idealised or dramatised. Typically, a subject painting takes its theme from history, poetry, mythology or religion. In both cases, however, the style may be figurative, representative, abstract or semi-abstract. A mural is a picture that is affixed directly to a wall or ceiling, as part of an architectural and/or decorative scheme

1955 – Wesley Penberthy – Oriental Mural (mural design);

(The Examiner) August 9 2013: HE may be 92 years-old but Yamba artist Wes Penberthy believes he still has many wonderful pieces to create before he hangs up his brushes. Mr Penberthy is without a doubt one of the country's greatest artists, and despite his age still paints every day - sometimes up to 15 hours in a sitting. He has sold paintings for up to $100,000 each. Mr Penberthy was first inspired by art at age five when he saw a portrait of Rembrandt's mother, but it wasn't until he was 15 he began getting serious about his art. … 

Jean de Courtenay Isherwood OAM, FRAS, AWI, (1911–2006), was an Australian watercolour and oil painter, and teacher, renowned for her colourful depictions of the Australian countryside. Bborn in Marrickville, Sydney in 1911. At the age of fourteen she won a scholarship to the National Art School at East Sydney Technical College. In the dramatic architectural surroundings which had previously comprised Darlinghurst Gaol, Isherwood learned an appreciation of linear perspective and accurate draughtsmanship which she later applied with great skill to her rural landscapes.

In 1929 she commenced work as a fashion artist with an advertising agency, continuing her studies for a further five years at the National Art School and Royal Art Society as an evening student. She later worked as a freelance artist and illustrator. Isherwood's first exhibited work with the Australian Watercolour Institute in 1934 was a small painting of a building site. From that time she became a frequent exhibitor in major art exhibitions. She was a student of Antonio Dattilo Rubbo.

She became part of Sydney bohemian art scene, and met John Dabron whom she married in 1940. They moved to Springwood in the Blue Mountains and had two children, Josephine and Jacqueline. They divorced in 1948[1] After the divorce, she returned to fashion drawing and illustration to support herself, pursuing her art interests, as she had before, on the weekend. She took up full-time painting in 1952.

From 1961 to 1974, Isherwood taught at the National Art School. This was a period of conflicting views in the teaching of art in Sydney, a time when a disciplinary approach to the skills of perspective, anatomy and design was considered by many of both the teachers and students alike as passé and unnecessary to the creation of works of art, the stylistic vogue in teaching being Abstract Expressionism.  Jean Isherwood was one of the several teachers who determinedly maintained the opposite position. An exacting teacher, she stalked her perspective drawing students with a kneadable putty eraser in hand, challenging their skills with arrangements of battered metal rubbish bins, piles of broken chairs and, on rainy days, a dripping sixteen-rib umbrella. It was said of Miss Isherwood that no student escaped her class without being able to draw parallel lines and precise ellipses, freehand.

In 1959 Isherwood travelled around New South Wales by car. From that time onwards, she became primarily a landscape painter, and, through her attachment to the countryside, a major exhibitor in the art competitions held in conjunction with the shows run by the local Agricultural Societies and culminating each year in the Sydney Royal Easter Show with its exhibition attracting hundreds of entrants. From 1950 until her death Isherwood won more than 100 first prizes in various art competitions.

In 1974 Isherwood made a trip to Central Australia. On her return journey, passing through Tamworth, New South Wales, she was struck by the beauty of the countryside of that region and in 1976 purchased a property at Moonbi, where she was to live until 1987 when she moved to Tamworth.

Isherwood, as a child, and like most other Australian children for many years, learnt by heart Dorothea Mackellar's iconic poem, "My Country", in which an Australian explains to an English listener how she is not moved by the gentle landscape of England with soft, dim skies and green lanes, but by the harsh beauty of Australia.

In 1982 Isherwood heard on the radio that a statue was to be erected as a memorial to Dorothea Mackellar at Gunnedah, on Australia Day, 26 January 1983. Isherwood had long had it in mind to create a series of works illustrating the writer's most famous poem. Prompted by the imminent celebration, Isherwood created a series of thirty four watercolour paintings for exhibition in Gunnedah in conjunction with the unveiling of the statue.

From 1946, Isherwood had nineteen exhibitions, of which three were with her daughter, Jaqueline Dabron, in the state capitals of Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne. A retrospective exhibition was held in the New South Wales regional galleries of Tamworth and Muswellbrook. In 2012, thirty-two of Isherwood's watercolors were featured in Sister Cities, the inaugural exhibition of Gallery Lane Cove on Sydney's north shore. Her portrait of Marjorie Cotton was exhibited in First Ladies: Significant Australian Women 1913-2013 at the National Portrait Gallery in Canberra. 

Jean Isherwood died at home, Tamworth, on 6 January 2006, aged 94 years. Her funeral notice requested that those attending should wear bright colours. [4.]

1950 Wynne Finalist Jean Isherwood - Pittwater from Palm Beach
1950 Mosman Art Prize Jean Isherwood Trees, Palm Beach, 1950

Jean De Courtenay Isherwood, Untangling the Nets. Courtesy of David Barsby Auctions © Jean De Courtenay Isherwood or assignee

Marjorie Cotton Isherwood, best known by the name Marjorie Cotton (1913–2003), was the first professionally qualified children's librarian in New South Wales, Australia. She initiated programs that are the basis of services to children in Australian public libraries today. Marjorie pioneered many of the services now associated with children's librarianship in Australia, including weekly story sessions, contact and collaboration with schools, providing material for children in languages other than English and appointing qualified children's librarians.

Her influence reached far beyond the Ku-ring-gai, Newcastle, Randwick and Woollahra libraries in which she worked. She was the first president of the Library Association of Australia Children's Libraries Section in 1953. Marjorie worked with Bess Thomas conducting the first Australian course in Children’s Librarianship at Mosman Municipal Library, which was attended by librarians from four states in 1954.

Jean Isherwood, Portrait of Marjorie Cotton, 1969
oil on canvas (frame: 118.0 x 93.5 cm, support: 102.0 x 75.5 cm) Courtesy National Portrait Gallery

Jean De Courtenay Isherwood, 'Reflections, Wyong Creek,' 1980. Courtesy of David Barsby Auctions © Jean De Courtenay Isherwood or assignee


Katharine Hepburn, VIEWS OF THE BARRENJOEY LIGHTHOUSE SITTING ATOP BROKEN BAY, 1955, Auctioned by Sotheby's, New York in 2004.

The late, great actress Katharine Hepburn liked to paint and when she visited Australia in 1955, apparently liked what she saw. Hepburn, who died in 2003, painted several Australian landscapes, including views of Barrenjoey Lighthouse in Sydney, and a portrait of herself having breakfast in bed in Brisbane. 

The art works - mostly watercolours on paper were auctioned by Sotheby's in New York in 2004, with many a lighthouse among her created works.Hepburn painted Australia during a 1955 tour with the Old Vic Shakespearean, which took her to Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth. One beach scene shows her with the actor Robert Helpmann.

THE Old Vic Coy. presents The Taming of the Shrew without any psychological subtleties. 
They drop, the Induction.
This is often done in the Soviet Union, where this play is very popular, to point an ironical interpretation of the play. According to this interpretation, Katharine does , not become a slave of Petruchib, but, achieving full understanding with him, enters a subtly ironical relationship.The Old Vic would have none of such subtleties, but play the show as a knock down, drag out farce, Katherine Hepburn seems far more comfortable . in this than as Portia, -and Helpmann and the others in the cast give very polished performances. Michael Benthail has used a deal of imagination in the-business introduced and what laughs the play rouses are won by this. This is one of Shakespeare's earliest plays, Written at a stage when he was still infatuated with his gift for words. It is full of tedious witticisms and plays on words. The theme and characterisation, at least as interpreted by' the Old Vic, are so slight as, to fail to compensate for this. 

Katharine Hepburn and Robert Helpman in The Millionairess 
NO SUBTLETIES IN OLD VIC'S SHREW (1955, June 1). Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236256137

The post war 1950's Boom of Pittwater Artists: Avalon and the Rise of the Avalon-Mona Vale Artists Community

Alexander Stewart Jolly, Sali Herman, Arthur Murch –this could be a very very long list. Clearly Mr.Lister Lister and then the land sales of Mr. Small opened the valley of Avalon to the eyes of those who may build their homes themselves rather than have them built - just to pursue being able to create new works.

MISS MADGE AUBREY, the English actress, who is appearing in the play, By Candlelight, at the Minerva theatre, paid an unofficial visit to Mr. W. LISTER LISTERS exhibition this morning, and the artist is showing her one of the pictures. entitled "Overlooking Avalon, N.S.W." Miss Aubrey will open (he exhibition to-morrow afternoon at Anthony Hordcrns art gallery, at 3 p.m. 

SUE SEES SYDNEY (1941, April 15). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231206212 

Messrs. H. W. Horning and Co. will have a decidedly good thing to offer, buyers of week-end and holiday sites on Boxing Day, when the Avalon .Beach Estate, north of Newport, will be opened up. The land is right at the beach, providing all the attractions of the surf, and there is a regular motor service to the estate. HAPPENINGS OF IMPORTANCE IN REAL ESTATE WORLD. H (1921, November 27).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article123244094 

Artists of anther ilk - more thespians:

To-day that exquisite spot known as Avalon Beach will be inhabited by actors and actresses from Sybil, all determined to have the picnic of a lifetime. Each armed with their own mug, knife, spoon and fork, they will sit on the grass and eat as only hungry picnickers can eat. Then they will have sports, swim, fish, or play tennis as they feel inclined, and not dream of coming home until the moon rides high in the heavens. You shall hear all about it next week.
THEATRICAL WORLD PERSONALS (1924, March 9). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128142665  

Sali Herman
Of that large number of artists who in recent years have exhibited work of a modern, primitive flavor, few seem more sincere than Sali Herman. With many, one feels that, however much they may strive for truth, this for them is not the natural approach. There is in their work a laboring for effects and a self-conscious attack that robs it of spontaneity. If there is a prevailing tendency in Sali Herman s work, it is whimsicality, but over all there remains that real abstraction from deliberate preaching that is intrinsic in real art. The show on view at the Macquarie does leave one with a slight regret that there is riot more variety in subject matter, but perhaps Mr. Herman knows best what he can paint. Certainly, his figure work is disturbing when it occupies anything more than a shadowy subordinate role. Most of his pictures have a Sabbath morning solitude, even when a figure or two Is included, which is due, no doubt, to the overwhelming personality of the buildings themselves, which are obviously, his main concern. These buildings are very nearly modelled in pigment to allow scope for play in texture, to a point that approaches Degas's feeling for flesh. That, and an atmospheric handling of edges, which almost suggests dream castles, are two obvious things that strike the eye; but it is in color that a truly individual vision is most apparent. To describe a palette as innocent is not very informative; but that is the word that best applies. Whether or not it is a good thing, it is certainly startling to think of our choice slums in terms of innocence. Not all of these pictures are successful, but it is a show worth inspection. ART (1947, July 31). Catholic Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1942 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article146603904 

One of the first Avalon Beach Art Shows at an Avalon Market Day?:
A site has been purchased by the Avalon Beach sub-branch of the R.S.S. & A.I.L.A. on which a clubhouse will be erected. Opportunities for Business (1948, June 23). Construction (Sydney, NSW : 1938 - 1954), , p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222879862 

Plans for the erection of a new clubhouse at Avalon Beach have been prepared and will go to the Warringah Shire Council for approval. Opportunities for Business (1948, September 29). Construction (Sydney, NSW : 1938 - 1954), , p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222880569 

Up in the Warringah Shire, which has a greater concentration of talent than any place outside The Cross, John O'Brien is organising an art show for the Avalon RSL. His preliminary list of exhibitors looks like a chapter from Who's Who in Australian Art and includes Paul Beadle, Frank MacNamara; Weaver Hawkins and a shoal of others. The show will be held in a big marquee at the Avalon Beach Fair on December 16.  SYDNEY DIARY (1949, November 2). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 17 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229233881 

Shrewdest provision for residential qualification that we've come upon lately has been evolved by John O'Brien, honorary director of an exhibition of paintings by Warringah Artists, which will be on show at the RSL Fair at Avalon on December 17. 

A Warringah artist is an artist who "habitually lives in Warringah during the weekends and holidays." The definition has dragged in a heap of big names, who paddle, fish or just loaf about between Manly and Palm Beach in their spare time. SYDNEY DIARY (1949, December 3).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5 (FINAL SPORT LAST RACE). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230742731 

Clearly this was an Artists community - an Artists colony by now, and despite being legends to the rest of Australia - all these talented individuals could carry their own water, chop their own wood:

Artists  Out-Of-Town Homes

Above: AMERICAN artist, MR. RAYMOND GLASS, sketches his wife in the studio home they have built at Mona Vale. They have two children, RAYMOND Jnr. and BLIGH. Next to art, Mrs. Glass's main interest is cooking and cheese-making. She collected many unusual recipes when living in America and Mexico.

MRS. FRANK MCNAMARA and one of her two sons, TIMOTHY, watches her husband start work on a landscape painting outside their Newport home. Mr. McNamara's book called "Landscape in Watercolour" was published recently. He will take his family on a
tour to England in July.

ARTISTS' wives are not deterred from home-making because their husbands choose to live and work in the solitude of places well away from the city limits.
In the many art "communities" which are growing in districts once considered to be well off the beaten track wives of Sydney artists have made charming and comfortable homes-often in houses which they have helped their husbands to build.

Many, of the wives share their husbands' interests in art and "dabble" in paint themselves. Others have cultivated their own hobbies and crafts.
In the Mona Vale-Avalon art "community" the wives have their own group with definite interests. One is writing a^ book, another designs and prints fabrics, another is an authority on cooking and cheese-making.

MRS. ANNE WIENHOLT TAKASHIGE, of New York, with her daughter, JANET, sorts out some of her etchings and engravings at the home of her mother, Mrs. Ivan Lewis, of Whale Beach. Formerly Sydney artist Anne Wienholt, she is spending a painting holiday in Sydney.

IN the studio at his home at Narrabeen, MR. JOHN ELDERSHAW is at work on a collection of paintings from a recent visit to Central Australia. Mrs. Eldershaw is writing a book on the trip.

Above: MR. and MRS. PAUL H BEADLE and their sons TIMOTHY and ANTHONY live at Narrabeen where Mr. Beadle, a sculptor, has built an outdoor workshop. His wife is always on call to provide cups of tea.

Above Right: MR. and MRS. WEAVER H. HAWKINS are among the oldest members of the Mona Vale art "community." While her husband discusses a new painting Mrs. Hawkins paints the door of their studio.

Above: WINNER of the 1950 Archibald Prize, MR. ARTHUR MURCH, interrupts his painting to advise MRS. MURCH on a lino cut for a fabric she has designed. Their son, JOHN, also takes an interest. Mr. Murch is building additions to their home at Avalon in his spare time.  Artists' Out-Of-Town Homes (1951, February 4). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18498795 

At Avalon a focus on bringing people to their exhibitions as much as having these in Galleries potential purchasers could easily access in town, began to signal a dynamic element between Avalon Beach Artists and the Manly Art Gallery and Musem that still exists today. It began simply enough. Avalonneeded a primary school - those that had children and worked in Avalon Beach wanted them to be able to be educated locally. Ria and Arthur Murch had children, they wanted them to stay in this safe beautiful environment. This wasn't all the Murch family did for the community to spread a cultural centre - aided by everyone else of course:


putting the finishing touches to the exhibition of arts and crafts which was officially opened at Avalon school yesterday by Mr. Richard Windeyer.The exhibition was organised by Mr. Arthur Murch, to raise funds for a lathe and pottery kiln for the school's evening college.  No title (1951, January 21). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), , p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18489530 

Arthur Murch also taught at Avalon Public school - evening classes for adults, an in school hours for the littlies. Another Teacher who taught at East Sydney Technical College and also at the 'Avalon art group';

At an art exhibition

MRS. ALAN ROWE, a student in G. K. Townshend's Avalon art group, attended the opening of his show.

Acting High Commissioner for Pakistan MR. AHMED ALI and MRS. ALI with artist G. K. TOWNSHEND, whose exhibition of paintings was opened by Mr. Ali at the Grosvenor Galleries yesterday.

Among the art enthusiasts were MRS. K. D. WASHINGTON (centre) and MESDAMES CLAUDIA WOODGATE and OLIVE GREGORY, who are both artists. At an art exhibition (1952, October 29).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 32 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230998103 

Geoffrey Keith Townshend also known as G. K. Townshend was an Painter, Cartoonist  and Illustrator, watercolourist, art teacher and heraldic engraver.
He was born in Auckland in 1888. After studying at Elam Art School and working in Auckland as a heraldic engraver he came to Sydney in 1910 [1911 acc. AGNSW records]. 

He continued his 'bread-and-butter’ job while studying art with Dattilo Rubbo in c.1912. He contributed to the Bulletin from 1911 as a result of being introduced to Percy Lindsay, who also influenced his style according to those who can discern such things. 

In 1915 he enlisted in the AIF and spent three years on active service in France, sending back sketches from the front and contributing to Aussie. He continued to draw for Aussie , e.g. How She Got the Notion to Shorten Her Skirts, 15 May, 1929, p.35. 

Most of his Bulletin cartoons seem to be of the 1930s and wartime ’40s, done when he was a part-time teacher at ESTC. Examples include: “You’re still too far from the kerb, Henry” [couple parking a car on a very wide empty country street] 1940; '– “Where’d you get those decorations?” – “Anthony Horderns’, sir”’ 1940; “I want to see someone about changing my son’s number – 131313”, 1942; “Now, lads, I want you to feel as if you was in your own 'ome. Look on me as your mother” (officer to raw recruits) 1942; “Just for a start, Mabel, I’ll clear four or five acres for wheat” (newchum farmer in bush) 1943; “Mister, may I have tomorrow off? Me grandmother’s coming home on leave”, 8 November, 1944.

Townshend also painted watercolours. He was vice-president of both the RAS(NSW) and the Australian Watercolour Institute. According to the Bulletin , he spent 'a lot of time in rural parts getting subjects for his water-colour pictures’, although he lived in Dee Why ( Renniks ) and for many years was on the teaching staff of ESTC. McCulloch states that his landscapes were influenced by John Singer Sargent’s watercolours and by the work of Winslow Homer. He was married to Dorothy Reynolds, a potter. 

The Bulletin (22 February 1939, 18) stated that he was in his mid-forties and his father was heir-presumptive (after an elder brother) to the Marquess of Townshend, but since the latter was then a healthy twenty-two 'G.K. Townshend’s chances of succession are pretty remote’. He was an AGNSW trustee in 1959-61. He died at Dee Why on 14 September 1969.

THAT lively group of artists which has settled along our northern beaches keeps the cultural fires burning brightly. On Saturday, for instance, there'll not only be a flower show at the Avalon school, but there'll be a preview of an art show that will later tour the country. The show, by artists who have painted the interior of Australia — a sharp contrast for the coast-dwellers — includes works by such well-known men as John Eldershaw, Sid Nolan, Arthur Murch, Donald Clarke and Alan Banfield. ARTHUR POLKINGHORNE'S Sydney Diary-- (1953, October 1). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 25 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230745776 

Clearly the joint was brimming with talent and attracted the talented in all other modalities or ways of giving others access to creative works:

THAT short "digging holiday" which Sir Allen and Lady Lane, who will visit Sydney in January, will spend with Agatha Christie and her archeologist husband in Mesopotamia on the way to Australia.
Sir Allen, who, with his brother, founded the Penguin books in 1936, and Lady Allen will stay with his sister, Mrs. Frank Bird, of Avalon. Sydney's Talking About— (1952, October 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8 (Sport Section). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18286286 

From The Earliest Times Until Now

As can be seen, from just this handful of insights, Artists have been coming to Pittwater areas from the first instance of creating Australian Art until recently. Their fields of expertise have filled every kind of creative process from paint, to ceramics, cloth and prints, etchings and sketchings, and in doing so have shown us how much the place has changed and which parts remain close to what they once were.

W.H. Raworth (Brit./Aust./NZ, c1821-1904). St Michael’s Arch, NSW [Avalon] c1860s. Watercolour, signed lower left, obscured title in colour pencil verso, 34.2 x 56.5cm. Tear to left portion of image, slight scuffs and foxing to upper portion.  Price (AUD): $2,900.00  at: https://www.joseflebovicgallery.com/pages/books/CL181-53/w-h-raworth-c-brit-aust-nz/st-michaels-arch-nsw-avalon Visit Avalon Beach Noth Headland Indian Face 'Falls' 

The crossover of suburbs within the text illustrates these artists, when painting outdoors, may choose one headland or view one day, and turn their easel the opposite way the next. It most definitely the beauty and peace of the place, and trying to capture that, beyond making 'pictorial maps', that drew so many to Pittwater's many beaches, bays and bush paths.

This also underlines the shift from camping outdoors or in farmer's outhouses to renting or buying affordable cottages and in this the meeting up of all these artisans in shows and exhibitions and teaching, to form 'communities' or 'colonies' where the fundamental and core meeting ground was Art itself.

Future pages, Pittwater Art II, will run on these communities, the world as it was around them during their evolving techniques and chosen fields, and the Artists within these 'communities'. 

We close with a gentleman who may be classified as a photographer who specialised in 'Pictorialism', but his passionate interest in garden design and landscape adds depth, as there is in the stories ringing back in generations behind all Artists associated with Pittwater, whether residents or visitors, that illuminates what they sought to share, in illumination, with all of us, for all time. These images would have been taken from a commercial basis to highlight the advantages of land sale opportunities for potential purchasers in the 1920's.

His Photographs of Palm Beach, Clareville and Avalon, placing people in the landscape engaged in human activities, or simply of buildings themselves, capture the time where the landscape and social shifts were turning in Pittwater, allowing this to become a place accessible for all. Through that the inner qualities of a place and people can be communicated and translated through the pencil, charcoal, brush, clay and verses of those who will pursue this, one moment confident, the next moment the opposite, to place something often incommunicable in the psyche of others.

Album Title: Avalon, Pittwater

CREATOR Rex Hazlewood, 1886-1968. Created ca. 1920-1929
1. Holiday group on front of house named Avalon - ON 165/12 
2. Surfing at Avalon Beach - ON 165/8 
3. The palm grove ... Avalon Beach - ON 165/13 
4. Nancy Lea Avalon Beach - ON 165/17 
5. Avalon Beach - ON 165/6 
6. The Stone Woman. Avalon Beach - ON 165/9 
7. The bathing pool Avalon Beach - ON 165/7 
8. The bathing pool Avalon Beach - ON 165/19 
9. West across rock swimming pool and water to timbered ridge with scattered houses - ON 165/10 
10. Dumcriefe Avalon Beach - ON 165/15 
11. Clareville wharf Pittwater near Avalon Beach - Small steam passenger vessel coming in - ON 165/18 
12. Southerly from ridge to beach and park with lone Araucarian pine thence to rocky point - ON 165/11 
13. Looking up from road to house with sandstone and wooden rail front fence - ON 165/168. 
14. Grass with sign reading Avalon Golf Links in preparation
A preliminary listing compiled by Mr Laurance Hazlewood is available in the Mitchell Library Original Materials Reading Room at ON 165

David ‘Rex’ Hazlewood (1886 – 1968) was born in Dulwich Hill in Sydney’s Inner West and grew up in the suburban areas around Homebush, Chatswood and Epping. 

On Friday last there was a large gathering of parents and friends of the pupils to witness the annual distribution of prizes. Among those present were Mr. George Howarth, M.L.A., Dr. Crabbe, Mrs. Ford, Mrs. Dettmann, and Mrs Ludowici (members of the school board), Rev. D, Murphy, Dr. M'Swinney, Mr. Ward, and many others.

Tho prizes, models, and trophies were presented by Mr. Howarth and Dr. Crabbe. In the course of his remarks Mr. Howarth referred to the growth of the school. The enrolment was, he said, now over 710, and it had been decided to go on with extensive additions. He hoped to see the new buildings opened in six months time. The gold medal presented by Mrs. W. J. Brennan to the dux of the boys was won by Rex Hazlewood, and the gold medal presented by Dr. Crabbe for the cadet who made the best score at the last shooting competition was won by Harold Charlish...CHATSWOOD SUPERIOR PUBLIC SCHOOL (1901, December 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14429550

He first trained as a tailor in a city clothing warehouse, but in 1909 when he was 23, he began training for the Baptist ministry. Rex Hazlewood’s father, David, was a keen amateur photographer and fostered the same passion in his son. Rex spent two years in country New South Wales as student pastor and took numerous photographs of the areas around Yeoval, Manildra and Molong, where he was based. 

Portrait of Rex Hazlewood, 1910 - created by self. Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.: a1528316h

On his return to Sydney in 1911, he took many photographs of the areas around his family home in Epping – including several series of the new developments in the north western suburbs, government works and the newly-built Central Markets (now Paddy’s Markets) in the city. 

His photographs recall the farming days of Sydney’s outer suburbs, including fruit-growing in Epping and timber-hauling in Carlingford. Some time between 1911 and 1916, Rex Hazlewood began to identify himself as a professional photographer and he appears to have gained several contracts to record the progress of large government building projects. He enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force in 1916 and left for England in 1917. He served at the Western Front, and at the end of 1918 he was appointed an official war photographer until his return to Australia in 1919.

Post war studio portrait of 17317 Sergeant (Sgt) Rex Hazlewood, 1st Division Signals Company, probably taken in Melbourne. A photographer from Epping, NSW prior to enlistment, Sgt Hazlewood embarked with the rank of Sapper with the 26th Reinforcements from Melbourne on HMAT Shropshire on 11 May 1917. After serving in France, he returned to Australia on 23 September 1919.

After his marriage to Robin Kendall in 1920 and the birth of his son, Rex Hazlewood continued to take photographs, probably on a contract basis and for commercial postcards. Some of these postcards were taken with his rotating panoramic camera – 75 examples of panoramic negatives are held in the Mitchell Library’s collection.

By the late 1920s, Rex was finding it impossible to make photography profitable as a freelance photographer. His brothers owned a nursery in Epping, and Rex worked for them, taking photographs of gardens, plants and animals to illustrate their catalogues and writing articles on plants and garden design. He developed a passion for landscape design and delivered illustrated talks on the topic to interested groups. Rex Hazlewood left his brothers’ nursery in around 1935 and undertook various jobs until the end of the Second World War, when he began a business selling wholesale roses to nurseries. 

At Wednesday night's meeting of the Taree Municipal Council a lengthy letter' was read from Mr. Rex. Hazlewood, who designed a scheme for the beautification of the park. He wrote in reply to objections made to the poisoning of surplus camphors …proposal to grow the bougainvilleas on pyramids inside the park area. He said this would have a serious effect on the design. The camphors would eventually have to be thinned out, as they were planted too closely together. His proposal was to destroy only such of the camphors as were unnecessary and to utilise the trunks and branches as a trellis for the bougainvillca. Ii these plants were placed on pyramids they would have to be at least 20ft.' from the camphors to have a chance of thriving, and this would result in the camphors interfering with the general design in the boundary planting. He suggested that eight camphors be killed each year, and if they were spread over the park the blanks would not be very noticeable. The mayor moved that the suggestion to poison' eight trees be adopted, lie felt that council, having obtained expert advice, should follow it right out. If they were not prepared to do that they should throw - his scheme out altogether. The camphors ultimately must go, if his scheme was to be proceeded with, and so he advised council to get on with the work. He admitted he was a party to the variation made at the last meeting. Ald. Chapman said the camphors would be dead long before the bougaiuvilleas grew. It was futile to plant anything near the roots of a camphor tree — the ground for yards around would be solid wood. Iu tho Queensland parks the bougainvillcas were all grown on trellises.
Motion carried…
…. TAREE PARK SCHEME (1935, December 14). The Northern Champion (Taree, NSW : 1913 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162146898

At a meeting of the Tree Planting and Preservation League, held at the Y.M.C.A. building last night, arrangements were made to invite Mr. Rex Hazelwood to give an address on the subject of street, park, and municipal tree planting, and to preservation of trees. It was also proposed to hold an excursion at an early date to an area where members and others interested will have an opportunity to study trees under expert advice. … TREE PLANTING LEAGUE (1936, November 27). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134677755 

The position of honorary garden adviser to Dundas Council will be offered to the well-known Epping nurseryman, Mr. Rex Hazelwood. Valuable work has recently-been done by Mr. Hazlewood in assisting the council in designing gardens in the municipality, and in advising as to the suitability of planting various flowers, shrubs and trees. . 
The council last week adopted a layout and specification of trees for Boronia Park, Epping, which, had been supplied by Mr Hazelwood free of charge. 
"To make Mr. Hazelwood our honorary adviser," said Alderman Noonan, would be some form of recognition of his services He really shows splendid citizenship, and the manner in which he has designed Boronia Park is excellent." GARDEN ADVISER (1938, March 28). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104971126 

A former resident of this district, Miss May Kendall, died at Pennant Hills last week, at the residence of her sister, Mrs. Rex Hazlewood, Miss Kendall was born in Kiama and was a daugther of the late Mr. and Mrs. R . Kendall, of Barroul, Kiama. She left this district about 20 years ago to live with her sister. MISS MAY KENDALL (1953, November 18). Kiama Independent (NSW : 1947 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article101650226

His last series of photographs recorded a European trip he took with his wife in 1956-57.

Biography from and courtesy State Library of New South Wales 2016 and Australian War Memorial
Holiday group on front of house named Avalon - photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.: c046220007h
                  Surfing at Avalon Beach photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220003h

The palm grove ... Avalon Beacphoto by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220008h
Nancy Lea Avalon Beach photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220012h
Avalon Beach photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.: c046220001h

The Stone Woman. Avalon Beach photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220004h
The bathing pool Avalon Beach  photos by Rex Hazlewood, Images Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.: c046220002h and c046220014h
Dumcriefe Avalon Beach  photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220010h
Looking up from road to house with sandstone and wooden rail front fence photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220011h
Grass with sign reading Avalon Golf Links in preparation photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220009h

Links at Avalon
People Interested in the attractiveness of seaside resorts are beginning to realise the value of golf links. The latest proposal is to establish a course at Avalon Beach. Avalon is a favorite holiday and week-end resort of the motorist, who enjoys a short run, and when links are in playing order Its popularity, will; increase. The course will be laid out on a sheltered pocket on the Manly side of the beach. The main road to Palm Reach will form its western boundary, so that there will be no question of its accessibility. 

The course will be of nine holes to commence with, and a beautiful site has been reserved for the clubhouse, within one minute of the beach and swimming pool. The ground at present is mostly covered with ti-tree, but clearing it will not be expensive or difficult. Patches have already been cleared, and are well grassed, the soil being sandy and most suitable for golf. The work of laying out the course and getting It In order will be taken In hand almost Immediately, and an effort made to get the links in playing order by next summer. SEASIDE GOLF (1923, February 27). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), , p. 5 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223446089 
Clareville wharf Pittwater near Avalon Beach - Small steam passenger vessel coming in photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220013h The SS Phoenix Steamer Approaching Clareville wharf, circa 1922 - also visit: Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Clareville And Taylor's Point Wharves
Palm Beach: West across rock swimming pool and water to timbered ridge with scattered houses photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220005h
Palm Beach: Southerly from ridge to beach and park with lone Araucarian pine thence to rocky point photo by Rex Hazlewood, Image Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW, No.:c046220006h

References And Extras

1. Johnson, Heather, ‘Looking Back’, Celebrating Paradise: The Artist and the Northern Beaches 1890 – 2000, Manly Art Gallery & Museum, 1999, p.5
2.  Pearce, Barry, Frank Hodgkinson, The Beagle Press, Sydney, 1994, p.19.
3.  Chanin, E. & Miller, S., The Art and Life of Weaver Hawkins, Craftsman House, 1995, p.62
4. Jean Isherwood. (2016, March 18). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jean_Isherwood&oldid=710663635
5. Roy De Maistre. (2017, April 23). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved
from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Roy_De_Maistre&oldid=776775449

Conrad Martens

The Late Conrad Martens
Conrad Martens the son of Mr. C. H. Martens, a Hamburg merchant, who settled in England and married an English lady. The subject of this notice was born at Cruchet Friars in yhe vear 1801, and having determined in early life to devote himself to the profession of an artist, he studied with thelat Mr. Copley Fielding with this end in view. On the death of his father he retired with his mother to Devonshire, in the lovely scenery of which county his pencil and brush found pleasing and constant employment.

Being offered by Captain Blackwood, of H.M.A.S. Hyacinth, the opportunity of a cruise, he sailed in that vessel for Rio, where, hearing that the services of an artist were desired on board H. M.S. Beagle, then engaged in a surveying expedition at the Straits of Magellan, he joined that vessel, then under the command of Captain Fitzroy. He remained on board about two years, increasing the treasures of his portfolio, and finally sailed from Valparaiso for Sydney, taking sketches at Tahiti and New Zealand en route. 

He reached Sydney in or about the year 1835, and selected one of the loveliest spots on the North Shore for his residence, which he occupied until his death. Having married the daughter of Mr. William Carter, who held amongst other offices that of Registrar-General of the colony, he settled down to the practice of his profession, in which he had constant and active employment during many years. 

The opening of the gold-fields, however, developed in this country a feeling antagonistic to art, and in the restlessness of those times a generation arose that knew it not ; accordingly, in the year 1863, being offered the office of librarian to the legislative Council, he accepted it, and filled this post until his death. During his tenure of this office he still continued to devote his leisure to art, and painted many valuable pictures from his old sketches. Possessed as he was of on exceptional facility of handling, he quickly mastered the peculiarities of our local form and colouring, and it may, without extravagance, be affirmed that the truth, grace, and freedom of his sketches have rarely been equalled and never surpassed. 

Being of retiring habits and disposition, he was by the public chiefly known from his works, but his intimate friends have ever recognized and esteemed his high and consistent character, and his accurate attainments in various brandies of knowledge. In Mr. Conrad Martens we have all lost the acknowledged father of colonial art, and many have lost a constant and sincere friend ever ready to guide with precept and example, and to tho teaching of whose hand and words they owe any progress they may have attained in tho perception and delineation of nature. 

Mr. Martens has left a widow and daughter to mourn their loss, the latter of whom inherits to a large extent the artistic talent of her father, and who intends, we are given to understand, to follow the same profession. At page 328 will be found a graceful tribute in verse Bid to the memory of the deceased gentleman by Mr. Henry Halloran.

The Late Conrad Martens. (1878, August 31). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 332. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162694238

Poetry. (1878, August 31). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 328. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162694225

In endeavouring to estimate the position occupied by Art in Australia at the dawn of the twentieth century the necessary retrospect cannot be extended to the early years of colonial history. These were occupied by pioneer struggles for existence in a new country, and interest in the art of painting was doubtless at its lowest ebb. As soon as wealth began to accumulate in the colony, however, there were families of substance and refined taste who imported pictures of value from Europe. Their opportunities of purchasing to advantage on tho spot were probably limited, though several famous artists from time to time visited the country. The veteran artist, Conrad Martens, arrived here (with Darwin) in H.M.S Beagle in 1836, and resided here, painting assiduously, until 1879. Sir Oswald Brierley, afterwards Marine Painter to the Queen, came out in the Wanderer in 1812, stayed cruising about in that ship and the Rattlesnake for six years, and again visited Australia in the Galatea with the late Duke of Edinburgh in 1867. Many valuable examples of his style will be found in the collections of Australian connoisseurs, especially in Sydney Nicholas Chevalier was also at one time known m Australia. Thomas Woolner, R.A., and Summers (both sculptors) visited the country ; and, as pointed out by Mr. E. Du Faur in his speech to Viscount Hampden at the opening of the first completed portion of the National Art Gallery of Sydney, Skinner Prout, E. B. Boulton, Terry, H. Gill, and a few others, also kept the lamp of art burning here during the years in which the exigencies of early colonial life left little leisure for such pursuits. " But these scattered interests, and the disconnected episodes around which they cluster, can hardly be described as contributing a definite history of our art progress. To estimate this the record of organised movement, and that alone, can be followed. It was this which first formed Australian opinion on the subject, first led to the public exhibition of choice works of art, and first rendered possible the establishment of a subsidised school of painting. In this way from small beginnings, started actually as late as 1871, a continuous onward movement was maintained, which finally rendered possible a federal exhibition in London of works painted entirely in Australia. This was in 1898, when these works were acknowledged to reach as high an average standard of attainment as that which characterised similar shows by English artists trained in the old world.

Conrad Martens portrait -ca. 1840  painted by Maurice Felton. Inscribed in ink on reverse by Myra Felton, the artist's daughter, "Conrad Martens. By Maurice Felton M.D. Property of Myra Felton" . Image No.: a928666h, courtesy State Library of NSW
ART. (1901, January 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14366056


THIS VALUABLE COLLECTION OF PAINTINGS was, in 1883, exhibited in our own National Gallery and formed a leading feature in the Water Colour Section of the Loan Collection, and has been pronounced to be, by gentlemen competent to give an opinion, one of the best private collections of the Early English Water Colour Painters in Sydney. 

Mr. ROYLE . has instructed the Auctioneers to dispose of the Collection without the Slightest Reserve, consequently Connoisseurs will have an opportunity of securing rare examples from the brash of J. 'H. Mole, T. C. Dibden, Louis Hagho, T. M. Richardson, T. B. HARDY, and that great Australian artist, Conrad Martens,- and other artists of repute. 

Buyers at this unique sale can bid with the greatest confidence, as with one or two exceptions each Painting carries the artist's signature, and can be authenticated by Mr. Royle, who purchased them direct from the artist, or at Christie's. 
Have pleasure in announcing that they have been favored with instructions from C. J. ROYLE, Esq., to conduct the above Sale, at their FINE ART GALLERIES, 324 GEORGE STREET, . or. WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 22, at 11 a.m. NOW ON VIEW. INSPECTION INVITED. Applicants for Illustrated Catalogues must apply personally, or send order. Advertising (1906, August 19). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126550820

St. Thomas'
North Sydney's Historic Church to be Consecrated
The church of St. Thomas, North Sydney, is to be consecrated on Thursday, November 26, at a service at which the Archbishop of Sydney, Dr. Wright, will officiate. The building has much interesting history attached. It contains some work by Conrad Martens, who, a devoted layman, took an active part in the erection of both the old and the new church. Though dedicated in the usual way, the present structure has not been consecrated.


ST. THOMAS' CHURCH, North Sydney, is one of the most beautiful in Australia. Its history goes back to 1843. At that time Sydney had only St. Philip's, St. James, and the temporary wooden church of St. Andrew. Parramatta had St. John's; Cook's River, St. Peter's; and St. Anne's was at the Field of Mars. A schoolroom at Lane Cove was used once a month, St. John's, at Gordon, now being on the site. 

Representations were made to 1he Government in 1842, and grants of land and money to assist in building a church were promised. On June 13, 1843, the foun-dation-stone was laid in the following attendant circumstances: — The Gover-nor's barge left the public jetty at Sydney Cove, and was rowed across the harbour with the Right Rev. Wil-liam Grant Broughton Bishop of Australia, the Rev. Robert Allwood (incumbent of St. James', Sydney), the Rev. William Branwhite Clarke (newly appointed minister to the dis-trict), Assistant Commissary-General Thomas Walker, and Conrad Martens, the artist, as passengers. The visitors were met on the other side by Deputy Commissary-General Miller, Mr. Alexander Berry, Mr. Charles Younger, and Mr. James Milson, jun., and this imposing cortege proceeded to the site. One hundred and thirty people were present, most of them residents in the vicinity, and the foundation-stone was laid with the customary service. 

An artist, George French Angas, who arrived in Sydney in 1845, published a book entitled "Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand." He found little savage life, but much beauty, on the northern side of the harbour, which he describes enthusiastically, especially concerning the residence of Conrad Martens, where there was a deep dell through which ran a gurg-ling stream, almost choked with the luxuriance of the flowers about it, including the gay "warrator." Martens, he said, had not far from his pretty cottage erected a little church, and when he last visited him was sculpturing the font out of a block of while Sydney stone with his own hands. 

St. Thomas', according to Captain J. H. Watson, of the Royal Historical Society, whose researches have provided the information here given, owes much to Martens, for he gave liberally of all he had, both in cash and artistic skill, towards its building. It is generally accepted by the parishioners that the little old brown church with the square tower owned as architect no other than Martens himself. That building, 60ft long, served for 38 years, 24 of which were under the charge of the first minister. Rev. William Branwhite Clarke, M.A. Pictures of it are in existence, showing it with square belfry and surrounded by gum trees. 

The new one was built over it, and the stones of the old carried out through the west door. One of the congregation who knew it said the people came their several ways from Kirribilli Point, Greenwich, Neutral Bay, and elsewhere by lovely flower-bordered bush tracks and by the banks of clean, little streams. And everybody walked. From Lavender Bay to Berry-street there was only one small roadside cottage. There were a few houses in Berry-street — Earlwood, The Lodge, and Montrose; and after Montrose came the church. The first verger was one George Read. Outside through the clear glass window could be seen the boughs of trees waving in the wind. Chancel and transepts there were none, one large cylinder-like cedar pulpit served the purpose nf reading desk, lectern, and faldstool. At the opposite side of the church one more ornate was used for the sermon. The musical portion of the service was furnished by a wheezy old harmonium and a mixed choir, which were in a little gallery on the west end. During the singing of one of the hymns the clergyman retired attended by the verger to the vestry, reappearing in a black gown and Geneva bands to enter the sermon pulpit. In those, days that was Ihe style of dress worn by the preacher, and some years later when a newly-arrived curate preached in a surplice he was considered very "advanced'' in his views. Great was the comment caused in the parish. The parish in 1846 comprised not only Lane Cove proper, but embraced Gordon, Willoughby, Manly, Narrabeen, and Broken Bay — an area of 232 square, miles, chiefly consisting of bush and rocky gullies. A line extending from the mouth of Lane Cove River to North Head, to Barrenjoey, to the head of Cowan Creek, and to the head of Lane Cove formed the boundary. The population did not amount to more than 500. The account, (written in 1906 by one of the congre-gation) says; — "For a long time we used a building in Union-street, for evening prayer, and always spoke of it as a chapel. How changed it all is now. The beautiful, new church, with very little to remind us of the old in it — only the font, one small window, some of the mural tablets, and cedar pews. The east window commemorates the clergy-men of our early remembrance. 


Most of the worshippers are gone, and a walk in St. Thomas' Cemetery brings to mind many of those who used to meet Sunday after Sunday; but, although with far finer music, and more elaborate detail, the services, so changed, yet the same, make one feel the strange blending of past, and present, and the merging of the old in the new with no sense of harsh severance." A beautiful link with the past, indeed, for the old members. THE new church was commenced with the intention of building for the time being only the chancel and transepts, the old structure to form the nave. 

Photographs taken in 1877 and 1878 show the contractor, a Mr. Jago, with his workmen on the building. At the laying of the foundation-stone on June 23, 1877, 500 people were, present, including the Dean of Sydney (the late William Macquarie Cowper), Canon O'Reilly, and the Revs. G. C. Bode, J. D. Langley, T. W. Unwin, T. B. Press, C. F. Garnsey, H. Wallace Mort, and E. Rogers. The new portion was opened for service in 1880 — that is to say, the old church was the nave, the transepts and chancel being new. The Rev. S. H. Childe, who arrived in Sydney in 1879, took up the charge, and threw great enthusiasm into the work, that soon became necessary, of still further extending the accommodation. Taking advantage of the arrival of H.M.S. Bacchante with the two Royal Princes — Prince Edward and Prince George of Wales— they were invited to lay the foundation-stone of the part to be gone on wilh. On Saturday, August 6, 1881, on a beautiful morning, the Princes crossed the harbour, accompanied by Lady Augustus Loftus (wife of the Governor), Colonel Roberts (N.S.W. Artillery), Lieutenant Nathan, A.D.C., and the Rev. Chaplain Dalton, of the Bacchante, and they were driven to the church, and the formal ceremony was performed. In three years the building was far enough advanced to enable service to be held in it. When the new nave was finished the old church was inside it. Then the work of demolition was begun, and the original edifice, commenced 59 years previously, was carried out, stone by stone, through the doorway and used to build up St. Thomas' Terrace, Miller-street. Some of the old fittings were used in SI. Stephen's, Willoughby, notably large tablets, on which were the Lord's Prayer, the Creed and the Decalogue, the work of Conrad Martens. Every church had them on the eastern side at that time. The opening service or dedication, of what may be called the completed church, took place on October 11, 1884, Bishop Barry being present with a distinguished company of clerics. 

IN the matter of architecture the church stands as a monument to the memory of the architect, Mr. E. T. Blackett. It is the most truly ecclesiastical of any in the diocese, and a beautiful example of the stone mason's art. Interesting memorials are to be found in it. One window in particular, which was put in by public subscription is in memory of Commodore Goodenough, who was killed in 1875 at Santa Cruz Island with two seamen. The bodies were brought to Sydney and placed in the old graveyard in West-street, where the Commodore reposes between the two sailors in an allotment enclosed by chains and crossed anchors. A memorial tablet commemorates Captain Owen Stanley, of H.M.S. Rattlesnake, who died in Sydney in 1850 and was buried at St. Thomas'. The building holds a great many gifts of various kinds, some of which cannot be traced back to the donors. 

The baptistry is an especially prized work. The font is the one carved by Martens and it was fitted with seats and a tile floor by a bequest from the late Colonel Malcolm M. Macdonald, of the N.S.W. Cavalry. Some of the beautiful Communion vessels of the church were also gifts from Martens. They are dated 1846. A fine brass cross on the altar commemorates the Rev. A. A. Maclaren, B.A., the first missionary to New Guinea. War memorials keep fresh the names of Lieut. Noel Francis Vine Hall, Lieut. Seldon and Eric Osborne Moore. A fine War Memorial Hall stands in McLaren-street. As previously stated, the minister for the district was originally the Rev. W. B. Clarke 184 6-1870. He was succeeded by the Rev. W. C. Cave Brown-Cave. The Rev. George Middleton temporarily held charge until the return from England in September, 1870, of Mr. Cave, who came under the influence of a schism which then existed, and gave up his license. The Rev. G. C. Bode was appointed, and held the incumbency until 1880, being succeeded by the Rev. S. H. Childe (1880-1913) and the Rev. Horace Crotty (1913-1919). The present rector, Rev. H. N. Baker, was appointed in 1919.

THE BEAUTIFUL BAPTISTRY. Containing a font carved by Conrad Martens. 
St. Thomas' (1925, November 25). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160083839

Above from: Advertising (1842, January 10). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12873216 

Engravings on Colonial Wood.
AT a time when the productions of the colony are about to he brought together and presented to the public eye in a more conspicuous and attractive form than on any previous occasion, we may hope to be pardoned for saying a word or two about this journal as a sample of colonial skill and industry. There are those who think colonists ought to purchase an article because it is of local production, in preference to a better, an imported one. W do not agree with them, and it is not advocacy of any thing of the kind that we write. We introduce the subject for the purpose of showing what we believe many are not aware of, that we posses within the colony all the materials-both natural and manufactured-for producing a first-class news-paper. As an example everything used in this journal is of local manufacture and materials. The paper on which it is printed was made by the Australian Paper Company; the woodcuts were drawn and engraved by local artists ; and even the wood on which they are cut is of colonial growth. Previous to the commencement of this journal, no successful attempt had ever been made to find a suitable material amongst our colonial woods as a substitute for box-wood, for engravings; and the imported box-wood was so dear, often so scarce, and so liable to be warped and twisted by the remarkable atmospheric changes peculiar to the climate, as to put creative difficulties in wood engraving in the way of the publisher of a large illustrated paper. 

The proprietor of this journal, in his attempts to discover, amongst colonial woods, a substitute for box, succeeded, after much trouble and disappointment, in finding the wood on which many of the engravings of past issues have been cut, of which the portraits of the Earl and Countess of Belmore, and other engravings in the present issue, are specimens-and which portraits are introduced here for the purpose of showing the capabilities of this colonial wood. .

"We are willing to admit that for the finer kinds of engraving, such as is required for portraits, it is hardly equal to box-wood; although, for general purposes, it is superior in many respects, and more especially in the quality of being uninfluenced by changes of temperature. "We mean that it is hardly equal to box in the estimation of engravers who have already learnt their art, and whose whole experience has been confined to the working of box-wood ; but we believe that when practice has made them familiar with the qualities and capabilities of the colonial substitute to which we refer, it will be preferred to box for all purposes whatever. It possesses a vast advantage over box, in that the tree which produces it is of large growth, while box-wood is so small that twenty or thirty different pieces have to be joined together to make a moderate sized woodcut, and it is the joints of these small pieces, warped or twisted by atmospheric changes, which make the unsightly breaks and lines which frequently disfigure the best engravings. In fact the supposed defects of this colonial wood are mainly owing to the circumstance that wood-engravers have so long been accustomed to use box that they naturally find some difficulty at first in accommodating them-selves to a slightly different material. Many of the cuts in previous numbers of this paper are by no means all that we could desire ; but in an endeavour to produce a journal of exclusively colonial materials we have been willing to sacrifice something for a time, with the hope of eventual success. So far the result has equalled our expectations in the matter of the adaptability of colonial wood, and we feel assured that a little perseverance will overcome all remaining difficulties.

To Mr. Winter and to Messrs. Hoddle and Butcher, engravers, who, discarding the prejudice almost universally entertained in favour of box-wood, have devoted their abilities to the production of engravings from the colonial substitute, the proprietor is much indebted ; and he feels no doubt that with their co-operation he will ultimately succeed in producing, from colonial wood, engravings in all respects equal to those which ornament the pages of the English illustrated journals.

The quantity of box-wood imported into England mostly from Turkey-for the use of engravers, is very large; and hitherto, although that material has always been scarce and costly, no substitute has been found for it. If the colonial wood on which the engravings now before the reader are cut, is found upon full experience of its qualities to be all that it is believed to be, a valuable article of commerce will be added to the list of our exports.

Engravings on Colonial Wood. (1870, August 27). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 9. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70461545 

We are interested to welcome from time to time our returning artists. Arthur Streeton, who has always been a favourite in Sydney, both personally and as an artist, has just had a successful exhibition here,; Tom Roberts is the next to arrive. Fullwood has had a show where and he, too, is one of our favourites of old. John Longstaff is coming out to consult with the trustees of the Sydney Art Gallery. He/is its principal adviser in London, and it is no doubt owing to - Mr. Mann, the local director, and Longstaff that' notwithstanding the very limited financial support of recent State Governments the Sydney Gallery continues, to  buy and show so much that is both new and excellent. Melbourne, with its splendid Felton Bequest, will own the greater treasures of British, and foreign art in Australia, but we in Sydney have a very fine collection of the beauties of-Australian art. And we also maintain a promising colony, of young painters, who appeal to us, both by their constancy in sharing our fortunes and by their understanding of our changing tastes in colour and design. It is also characteristic of the Australian school growings up in. Sydney "that" Art in Australia 'is a local publication, though confined to no State or no school. AUSTRALIAN ART AND ARTISTS. (1920, July 24). Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 - 1949), p. 3. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article191731337 

More on Grace Cossington Smith

Queen Honours Sydney Artist London, May 11.—Queen Mary visited Walker's Galleries to-day and inspected the exhibition of paintings by the Sydney artist, Miss Grace Cossington SmithQueen Honours Sydney Artist (1932, May 13). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) , p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136589070 

NEWS of the success of Miss Grace Cossington-Smith's first exhibition of pictures, which is being held in the Walker Galleries, New Bond-street, London, will be interesting to her Sydney friends. The Queen, who takes a deep interest in all Australians, visited the show, and other well-known visitors were Lady de Chair, Lady Ryrie, Mrs. Wilfred Fairfax and Dame Rachael Crowdy. Miss Cossington-Smith had the co-operation of her English cousins, Mr. and Mrs. Lionel Crawshaw, who also had an exhibition in an adjoining room. The artist returned to Sydney recently from a visit to the Governor-General and Lady Isaacs at Federal Government House, Canberra. Brevities (1932, June 10). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 16 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230112710 

Grace Cossington Smith.
Miss Grace Cossington Smith has made herself known as an artist of adventurous temperament, who has journeyed far outside strictly realistic territory. Her pictures have made an appeal because of their vivid imagination, their splendid sense of colour, and their delicate weavings of line. Sometimes she has succeeded in unifying these separate elements into a well-disciplined scheme. At other times, the task of concentrated statement has proved beyond her and the various segments of a composition have sprawled confusedly across the paper or the canvas.

Until now, the unevenness of Miss Cossington Smith's achievement could be regarded as evidence of a praiseworthy desire to experiment, and to extend the boundaries of her technique. But her present show at the Macquarie Galleries is the third that she has held; and the time has arrived for a less provisional estimate of the work. What, in truth, has this artist accomplished, now that the period of her apprenticeship is over?

A tour of the walls, carried out in this uncompromising spirit, reveals that she is in grave danger of falling victim to a formula. The technique of the non-realistic artist can ossify and become unfruitful. Just as easily as that of the most academic practitioner. The remedy for the realist is to experiment in new fields. For Miss Cossington Smith, a change is also indicated; but In her case the direction of that change might well be In the opposite direction, back to academic discipline and practice.

This prescription is offered because Its efficacy seems to be borne out in the present exhibition. It Is precisely the pictures which approach more closely to a literal viewpoint of nature which are the most successful. And the most obvious feature of the realistic approach is the emphasis on a third dimension. Where the artist emphasises perspective and recession, instead of crowding distant fields and hills against the trees in the foreground to make a flat pattern, she some-times attains effects of uncommon dramatic force, "The Ballet," for instance, invests its subject with more movement and fantasy than any study of the same subject which has yet appeared in Sydney. "Still Life With Tulips," in which the flowers seem to advance from their background in several planes, is another admirable example. Amongst the drawings in colour, "From Wychwood Balcony" illustrates the same idea.
The exhibition will be opened this afternoon by Brigadier-General A. T. Anderson. ART EXHIBITION. (1937, July 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17379909 

ART Grace Cossington Smith
There are probably few painters who take their painting sadly, although the work of some of them would give that impression. In Miss Smith's case that is obviously not so. If the exhibition at the Macquarie is any indication, life to her is very largely a bowl of roses, or at least a blaze of sunshine. Every picture in this fairly-large show is saturated with sunshine to such a degree that one rather gets the impression of living in a house consisting entirely of glass. Such a happy outlook on life is rather to be commended, but one can have too much of a good thing. Even sunshine can be-come monotonous, and it seems unlikely that every subject would have such a surfeit of it as this show suggests. Technically such work is in the tradition of the impressionists, whose idea it first was to simulate light and form by placing a series of varying colors in juxtaposition. This has the effect of surrounding the subject with shimmering light, but basically the subject it-self is not changed. Some of these pictures react well to this treatment, when the matter itself is well drawn and well conceived. In others it can add little to what is in itself commonplace. Miss Smith is right in deeming shadows to be live color and not dead or neutral paint but, realism apart, there is something to be said for tonal contrast. Psycho-logically it is a relief to turn from light to shade, and the meaning of shadow is not explained by denying its presence. There is undoubted charm in some of this collection, but on the whole the treble has been given rather too much precedence. MAGAZINE SECTION (1947, September 25).Catholic Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1942 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article146600913 

Grant Makes Art Purchase Possible 
(By C.G.) 
The most important purchase of Australian art yet made by the Trustees of the Art Gallery has just been concluded.
This has been made possible by an increased Government grant. Besides the three pictures recently described, a dozen oils, two water colours, and a number of drawings have been hung in the lower gallery, where they will remain until the Marian exhibition begins about the end of the month. Important examples of the middle period by Muir Auld, McCubbin and Withers, have been secured. Sali Herman's "Woolloomoo-loo" is one of his best efforts. He has achieved a harmony of colour and tone, and a poetic interpretation of a rather sordid locality which show his merit as a painter. Lawrence Daws, a young painter of great promise, Sidney Nolan, Judy Cassab (a still life) and Jean Bellette's classical work are also worth mentioning as likely to be popular. The Sydney Ure Smith memorial fund has donated a fine study by Passmore of "Boys Digging Bait," a valuable possession.Water colours by Townshend and John Loxton are fair examples of their kind. Some fine drawings by Feint, Friend, Missingham and others will enrich our already good collection. A wood sculpture by Gerald Lewers, "A Flight of Birds," is a notable addition which we were fortunate to secure.An interior by I. Cossington Smith is an example of work in a high key which I feel would enhance the collection if it could be obtained. Grant Makes Art Purchase Possible (1954, November 25). The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article52966468 

Gentle, refined drawings and watercolours
GRACE COSSINGTON-SMITH: Drawings. At Macquarie Galleries, 35 Murray Crescent, Griffith. Until June 15.
GRACE Cossington-Smith's drawing and watercolours exude an air of gentility and quiet charm. They date from 1910 up to 1949, and clearly show that although she was not as innovative as certain other Australian artists, her achievement lay in the way her drawings made that time visible. They recall silence and calm; a world free of distractions, and one both ordered and without conflict.

That is their main interest. Nostalgia can often be an escape and an avoidance. I don't think Grace Cossington-Smith consciously tried to avoid the turmoil of her time, and of those years. What she chose to do was to portray the things around her, her brothers and sisters, flowers and landscapes; things that were not a threat.

Being protected from strife and anxiety led her to describe pleasant scenes of people reading, and gentle trees. It is a very lovely world, and although I am personally unable to identify with it, I can understand her place in Australian art, and her accomplishment.

Probably the best work in the show is one made of her sister while asleep. Drawn in 1920 in broad sweeps of black and grey, it describes, the way a head nuzzles a pillow. The mood is a strange one and very difficult to describe. Somehow, perhaps because of the angularity and placement of the head, it looks as though the sister will awake shortly with a start.

In others a similar sense of nervousness can be detected. A watercolour of the artist's brother, Gordon, painted in 1912, shows a sudden confrontation with a youthful, unblemished face composed of trembling, tiny brushmarks. The paper is yellowing with age. For some reason this adds the poignancy of the portrait.

By 1949, when, number 28 was painted, the artist had developed a more aggressive and confident pallette. The colours are bolder, more strident, but even these speak with a whisper, a sense of hush and reticence.
Grace Cossington-Smith's works will delight many people. Not because it is good old-fashioned realism, but because they are so totally without contrivance and pretence.
Clever, but unoriginal.
 LIFE STYLE TV-ARTS-ENTERTAINMENT (1975, June 3). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1995), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article110640580 

The Bubonic Plague in Sydney - 1900

The Bubonic Plague.
Near the close of last week the artists of this journal devoted some attention to a subject which is ` now of very great importance to all Australia. Several wharfs, and the cleansing process which, we are glad to say, is now being most vigorously carried out, were photographed. The pictures are simply realities, and afford a fair idea of the magnitude of the work which us before the Health and civic authorities. One case of bubonic plague was on Saturday night discovered in the city, and unfortunately it has ended in the death of the patient. The victim in this case is a woman, named Ellen Matilda McCann, living in the vicinity of Miller's Point. She had been ill for some days, and the illness was reported as a suspicious one, but it was not possible to pronounce with sufficient accuracy from the symptoms as they manifested themselves, whether it was the dread disease or not. However, death took place on Saturday night, and an autopsy was performed, which established the character of the malady beyond doubt. The house in which Mrs. McCann had resided, was at once isolated by the police, and yesterday morning the corpse was taken to the quarantine station and buried. 

At the same time the other inmates of the house - the father and mother of the deceased, with two daughters and two sons, were quarantined. A suspicious case was reported on Sunday afternoon, also from the city. The patient in this case was also a woman, a Mrs. Lillian McLachlan. The Board of Health investigation was made by Dr Ashburton Thompson himself, and it was deemed was it send Mrs. McLachlan to the quarantine station as a "suspect." Her husband and a lodger were sent with her. On Monday a boy died in Redfern.Assuming that the malady by which Mrs. McLachlan is attacked is a true plague, this brings up the total number of cases to date to 21, with nine deaths, or a trifle over one-third. The first illness was reported in January last, or, roughly seven weeks ago ago. 

In a city of half a million inhabitants, the proportion is one in about 22,000, or, calculating by time, three cases per week.  In Bombay the cases reported to the health authorities have risen to more than 500 per day, so that the outbreak here cannot be called a very severe one. Its character, too, has been mild. It has not yet been proved that any one person has caught it from another, but the balance of testimony appears to point to inoculation as the cause of infectionIn the cases which have occurred among the members of the Dovey family the bits of insects were probably the primary cause; in the other patients it was probably through a sore on the hand or some other portion of the body having come into contact with the virus. These facts are mentioned to show that the public alarm if it exists, need not be acute. 

Dr Ashburton Thompson on Saturday, in answer to a question, said that the form of plague as it exists in Sydney is not infectious. With ordinary precaution there is no danger to persons in attendance on the patients, as the seizures hitherto have been simple bubonic plague but if a case occurred in which the disease attacked the lungs, then there would be great danger to attendants as well as to patients. The present situation may be summed up in this way, that while there is necessity for the strictest precaution, there is no cause for panic. Persons who were quarantined with patients suffering from the plague continue to be released from time to time. On Sunday evening five persons who were sent to the Station. 10 days ago with the young man Stratford were liberated. Their names are Gertrude Dawson, William James, sen., William James, jun., May James, And William Stratford. The last named is a brother of the patient, who still remains in hospital, but who is doing well. On Monday two parties were released, consisting of eight people who were quarantined with the deceased patient Lionel Owles, and three who were detained as suspects through having been found with Richard Stephen King. 

Up to Saturday afternoon over 1000 persons had been innoculated with Haffkine's prophylactic serum by the Board of Health authorities. Most, if not all, these persons were people who are engaged in waterside occupation, or who are liable to be brought into contact with danger of infection. In view of a statement appearing in Saturday's "Herald" to the effect that the Government bacteriologist of Queensland is just recovering from an illness caused by inoculation for the plague, the experience of the after effects of innoculation here, so far as it is known, is interesting. The president of the board was asked on Saturday whether any after effects such as appeared to have been observed in the Queensland case had been noticed here. …

The controversy raging round the subject of the Moore Park tip will have, in all probability be ended in a day or two by the disuse of the tip. Meantime a man, by Instructions of the Board of Health, is stationed at the tip to ascertain if any deadly rats are to he found there, or whether any showing signs of disease have their habitat among the rubbish. So far, however, no success has attended the quest. If any dead rodents are there it is instead likely that they have died in their holes and have escaped notice. The inspectors to the board report that the tip is still being used for its oil purpose, and that the ' humpies '' which it has been stated were burned down are its existence. At any rate, some of them are. As to the state of the patients now in hospital at the Quarantine Station, the latest reports received are to the effect that they are doing as well as can be expected. The fact that no deaths have taken place there for several days is regarded as a hopeful sign that the patients may recover. 
The President of the Board of Health states that the present course of the cases contrasts strikingly with the other cases, in which the patients all died except Payne, and died shortly after the attack. …

The following details of the Quarantine Station, which is situated on the North Head of Sydney Harbour, are from Mr. C. A. Simms, secretary to the Department of Public Health :- 

The area set apart for quarantine purposes is 670 acres. The small settlement only occupies about six acres of this, and between it and the nearest residences on the Manly side a considerable space intervenes, a portion of which is known as the "Neutral Zone" The half-dozen acres are divided into two portions, the cabin enclosure, where healthy persons reside during their temporary isolation, and the hospital enclosure, where the patients receive attention. Visitors to Manly, when passing Green Point, upon which the yellow flag generally floats, and near which the quarantine landing-stage is situated, may have noticed a group of red buildings just above the point. These form the hospital, the enclosure being, roughly speaking, about 100 yards square. As they get nearer Manly and look towards the north-east, a larger cluster of buildings may be seen about a quarter of a mile higher up on the hill. These form what is known as the cabin enclosure. 

Besides these enclosures, there are cottage quarters for the medical officers and quarantine staff, the place being altogether capable of accommodating between 400 and 500 people. It is in the red building mentioned - the hospital enclosure - that the sufferers from the present epidemic plague are quartered. A medical officer, a trained wardsman, and a trained nurse (the latter has this week been reinforced by two other trained nurses from the Coast Hospital) also occupy quarters in the hospital enclosure, and these, with the exception of the doctor, are just as much in strict quarantine as the patients. The medical officer is allowed out upon complying with certain rules as to disinfecting. The hospital enclosure contains eight buildings, and has 46 beds. When stores and medicines are being passed into this enclosure precautions are taken against contact between those within and without, so that the isolation of the within and without, so that the isolation of the former is complete. 

The medical officer who has charge of the sick does not hold a permanent appointment, but is engaged specially as circumstances warrant. At presentDr Shells, late of Chatswood, is engaged in the task of endeavouring by all aids of human science to combat the ravages of the worst of all disease, and to nurse the plague-stricken back to health. Dr. Shells holds English and Scotch degrees, and enjoys the full confidence of his superior officers. Like his entire staff, the doctor is inoculated with the plague serum. The quarters occupied by the patients are all airy and comfortable, resembling any ordinary well-constructed and well-conducted hospital. 

The healthy people who may be isolated have neither to mix with the plague patients nor with those who attend them. They occupy the cabin enclosure, known as "healthy ground," and are, of course, maintained during their stay there at Government expense. All are inoculated, and at the slightest symptoms of ill-health are isolated and closely watched. The period of detention is 10 clear days. 

The staff employed regularly at the Quarantine Ground numbers nine, and is under the control of the superintendent, Mr. J. F. Vincent; upon emergency, however, the staff is increased. While the yellow flag is flying the officers, who have the powers of special constables, regularly patrol the ground, to prevent trespassing. Trespassing on the Quarantine Ground renders the offender liable to a penalty of not less than £200. The stores are taken to quarantine in a small launch, regularly used by the department, which runs between North Head and the Woolloomooloo deport.



The Bubonic Plague. (1900, March 24). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 691. Retrieved  fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165302191

The minute of the Mayor of Sydney dealing with the outbreak of the bubonic plague in the city, and recommending certain action in regard to the disposal of all vermin collected, embodied a suggestion that it should be destroyed by fire by the Pinhoe Company at its destructor works, North Sydney. The matter has given rise to some alarm among the residents of North Sydney, and a number of the aldermen, as representing the people in all matters affecting the health of the borough, determined to take steps, through the Mayor, to prevent the recommendation being carried into effect in so far as it referred to North Sydney. It was decided to interview the Mayor of North Sydney (Alderman J M Purves) on Saturday afternoon, but upon their calling at that gentleman’s residence it was ascertained he was absent on military duty. Recognising the gravity of the proposal, an informal meeting was hastily convened, and seven of the aldermen attended. Alderman G. J. Barry (an ex Mayor) was voted to the chair Amongst those present were Aldermen H Glean, F Slack, T A. Winter, J. R Hardie, W. A. Sayer, and T P Lister, and Mr. C J. Ross (borough engineer).

The matter having been discussed at length, it was unanimously resolved, on the motion of Alderman H Green, seconded by Alderman W A Savor,-
"That this meeting views with alarm the proposal of his Worship the Mayor of Sydney, as reported in the city press this morning, as to the destruction of vermin within this municipality, and hereby requests the Mayor of North Sydney to take immediate stops to prevent the same " 

The chairman was requested to see Alderman Purves yesterday morning hand him though resolution, and request him to take immediate action Accordingly Alderman Barry, accompanied by the borough engineer (Mr Ross), again called at the Mayor's residence, but unfortunately found Mr Purves was still absent Mr Barry, however, left a copy of the resolution for the Mayor's perusal, with a request that immediate steps might be taken to prevent the proposal being carried into effect.

When seen last night at his residence by a representative of the "Herald" the Mayor of North Sydney (Alderman T M Purves) stated that owing to his absence with the squadron of Lancers in the Pittwater district he was until his return unaware of the proposal of the Mayor of Sydney in regard to the destruction of vermin at North Sydney. He had received a ropy of the resolution passed at the informal meeting of aldermen on Saturday night, re-questing him to take immediate steps to prevent the proposition being acted upon Ho was in thorough accord with that resolution, as he viewed the intention with complete disfavour, and he intended to take immediate action. Not for a moment did he think Sir Matthew Harris would do any thing that would injure an adjoining suburb, and he was convinced that as soon as he received North Sydney's protest he would make other arrangements for the disposal and destruction of infected vermin. It was a monstrous proposal, more especially as the route in which the rats must be carried was a long one, and traversed the whole borough Again there was no necessity for the proposed action, as the vermin could easily be burned nearer the locality in which they were collected. The question of taking precautions against the spread of the disease to North Sydney had already engaged his attention, and at the next meeting of tile council ho intended placing on the business paper a minute dealing with the matter I he borough's sanitary inspector had prepared a report on the subject, which would also be considered He would recommend that immediate steps should be taken to ensure cleanliness m all promises within the borough, and those precautions which in the opinion of the Health authorities were necessary on the part of householders Vigorous steps must be taken to keep all premises scrupulously clean, and the council must enforce all regulation, he directed He did not think the officers of the council would meet with much opposition on the part of house-holders, as every effort was necessary to keep the district free from infection. The protest against the Mayor of Sydney’s proposal would be forwarded without delay.

Alderman Barry, ex-Mayor, seen by a representative of the " Herald " yesterday, said he most strongly protested against the proposed action by the Mayor of Sydney (Sir Matthew Harris). He viewed with alarm any such action us that contemplated, and he was at a loss to see why such a proposition should be earned out, as the animals collected might easily be disposed of in the vicinity in which they were caught. To his mind the carriage of plague-infested vermin through the streets of the district was fraught with great danger, and was a menace to the public health He favoured extreme stops being taken to prevent the proposal being carried into effect even to the extent of procuring an injunction restraining the Mayor of Sydney from carrying out his proposal. The vermin would, no doubt, be landed at Milson's Point, and us the Pinhoe Destructor Works were at Folly Point, Middle Harbour, a passage through the whole length of the borough must be made Notwithstanding all the precautions that might be taken to minimise the risk of infection, they had the expert opinion of Dr Ashburton Thompson, chief medical officer to the Board of Health, that to effectually remove all possibility of danger the vermin should be destroyed by fire therefore the health of the community would be jeopardised by the cartage of the dead carcasses through the borough even after treatment with antiseptics and disinfectants His attitude was one of extreme antagonism to any proposal that would in any way endanger the health of the district. A PROTEST FROM NORTH SYDNEY. (1900, March 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14297824 

The first case of bubonic plague ascertained yesterday was that of a Chinese named Moon Kee. He is said to have come from the country only a few days since, but resided in the city when the case was reported. He, however, was dead before any member of the Health Department's diagnosing staff visited him. Another patient was a young woman named Kate Mulvihill, residing in the city; the third was that of man named James Vaughan, also a city resident; the fourth was named Oswald Munro, a resident of North Sydney; the fifth was John Toms, a city resident; the sixth was Arthur Bertram Bullock, of Tempe, who was dead before the case came to the knowledge of the Health authorities. His body was taken to the Sydney Hospital morgue, where a post mortem examination was made. The last case reported during the day was that of a patient named John William Hennessy, residing at Chippendale. The two deaths already mentioned were the only two which occurred during the day.

No. 86 Athlone Place, from album - Views taken during Cleansing Operations, Quarantine Area, Sydney, 1900, Vol. IV / under the supervision of Mr George McCredie, F.I.A., N.S.W. Courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. Image No.: a147237h 

That portion of the city lying between Market and Druitt streets was placed in quarantine the first thing yesterday morning. No surprise was caused by the act, as it was generally considered a settled thing that the Government intended to quarantine different blocks in succession along the whole front-age of Darling HarbourThe barriers were erected during the night, and the gangs of men began cleansing operations early in the morning. Good progress was made, indeed at one period of the day it was hoped that the upper portion, from Kent-street to Sussex-street would be ready for release the same evening, but this was found impracticable, and it will in all probability be to-night before the inspection is concluded and the area declared clean. It will then be released. Many of the premises within the area were cleansed by the owners before quaran-tine was declared, so that little more than inspecting them remained to be done, but other places were left in their original state, and accumulations of rubbish had to be removed. Great bonfires, fed by waste timber taken from old sheds and other offices in back yards, were burning on pieces of open ground, and tons upon tons of old wood were consumed in this way. Rats, both living and dead, were found; the latter were removed, and the former were summarily despatched.

A surprise came at night, however. Soon after 7 o'clock orders came from the Executive Council to erect barriers along the east side of Elizabeth-street, near Belmore Park, between Goulburn and Campbell streets, then down those streets to Macquarie-street South. This forms a complete square, and includes, among other thoroughfares, Wexford-street. 

There was great excitement among the residents of the area when Superintendent Larkin, with 40 constables, came up, and the constables having been placed at street intersections and openings of lanes, turned back all who wished to pass out of bounds. A large crowd collected, and the arrival of drays loaded with barriers taken from portions of the Darling Harbour quarantined areas did not tend to allay it. However, the barriers were erected, and about 500 men will be engaged this morning in cleansing up the place and denuding it of rubbish. The quarter is pretty thickly populated, and the work will occupy two or three days at the least.

Inspections by medical members of the staff of the Board of Health will be made during the week in other parts of the city and suburbs, with a view of finding out whether any reason exists for treating those localities similar to that near Belmore Park.

A request has been made that it be mentioned publicly that Dr. Posman is the medical officer appointed for duty inside the quarantined area of the city, and that his address is the Royal George Hotel. Some of the residents of the area are apparently unaware of the fact.

The Woollahra Sanitary Committee will meet again tonight at the council-chambers. The Attorney-General and the President of the Department of Public Health have both signified their intention to be present with the view of speaking on the importance of personal effort in fighting the plague. Residents of Woollahra who wish to support the committee should be present. Mrs. B. R. Wise has joined the ladies' committee. THE BUBONIC PLAGUE. EXTENSION OF THE QUARANTINED AREAS. (1900, April 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14304718

The Bubonic Plague.
Three cases of bubonic plague were the total for Friday— John Clisby, of Manly, and Kee Liug and Samuel Pearce, both of the city. Charles Bennett, who was admitted at the Quarantine Hospital early in May, died on Friday morning. On Saturday six cases of bubonic plague were discovered : Stanley Oakes, of Balmain ; James Wilson, of Rose Bay ; Richard Jones, of Burwood ; John Fox, of the Quarantine Station ; John Peard, of the city ; and John Wilkins, of Mittagong. The last named patient resided in Sydney until Wednesday last when he left, and on Saturday a telegraphic message was received to the effect that he was suffering from a suspicious complaint.

Dr. Grieves, of the clinical staff of the Board of Health, was despatched to investigate, and pronounced the case one of plague. The patient Fox has been employed at the Quarantine Station since the beginning of March last. The only case of plague discovered on Monday was that of a man named George Perrin, aged 26, who reported himself during the morning at the Hospital Admission Depot, attached to the Health Department offices.The patient stated that he was a boundary rider by occupation, but had been unemployed for the last fortnight, during which time he had lived at Wahroonga in a tent. The Bubonic Plague. (1900, June 6). The Scrutineer and Berrima District Press (NSW : 1892 - 1948), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article125085927

One of the main long term effects of the bubonic plague its transformation of Sydney’s urban environment. The Cleansing Operations that came about were an opportunity and trigger to rebuild the waterfront areas. The government resumed these areas as part of their cleansing operations, and started building modern wharves and warehouses to combat the spread of the disease by the rats that had come off ships infested. The finger wharves in Woolloomooloo, Jones Bay and Walsh Bay are a direct legacy of the epidemic.

How the Plague was Fought.
By F.P.

Australia has not escaped a visitation of the bubonic plague, and unfortunately Sydney has been the place where its attentions hare been most marked. The first case was found on January 24 last ; a carter was discovered to be suffering from it, and he and his family were removed to quarantine. The patient recovered, and was re-leased in due course. Then there was a lull for about a month. No further cases were discovered, and the public was beginning to congratulate itself that the one case was the only one. 

The Board of Health held a different opinion, and the result proved that the Board of Health was right. Late in February a death occurred at Drummoyne, and the post mortem examination showed that the plague was the cause. Excitement was renewed, and the people began to develop a fear that a disease which could lurk in their midst for a month without showing itself would run through the community and decimate it. Things were not rendered any more reassuring when the third, fourth, and fifth cases were discovered in quick succession. Nor was there anything more hopeful in the fact that all the patients died. It is a peculiarity of the disease that it runs its course in a little time and either kills quickly or the person attacked soon recoversfrom it. In many cases there are after-effects which declare themseIves in proportion with the state of health of the sufferer at the time when the moreserious disease was contracted, and in Sydney many of the patients who died succumbed because of one or other of the after-effects rather than of the disease itself. Now, with nearly half a year's experience of this disease, the public of Sydney will be prepared to lock much more philosophically upon a fresh outbreak should one unfortunately occur. 

The information made public by the Board of Health, and notably the public lectures delivered by Professor Anderson Stuart on the subject, have gone a long way to allay apprehension. There will be no panic if the disease breaks out again next summer, in the sense that people will feel that they are being stricken by a foe which they cannot see and cannot understand. The means that have been taken for its eradication appear to have been successful; so successful, indeed, that during lust month — July — only six fresh patients were discovered, and two of these had passed through the acute state of the disease before they even knew that they had contracted plague. They had had it in an attenuated form, and were taken to the convalescent home at the quarantine station to complete their recovery. Only one case has been registered during the present month. What the means taken for its eradication were will be set out in brief in this, article. It may be premised that no special means were inaugurated until towards the end of March. At that time the number of cases came to an average of something like 15 per week, and the tendency was for them to increase rather than diminish. It is, in fact, understating the case to say that the tendency was for cases to increase, They were actually increasing, and they continued to do so until the end of April, when they began to decrease. 

However, towards the end of March the state of affairs was this: The Board of Health, through its inspectors, and people who had sources of information not known to the general public, said there were places in the city which reeked with accumulations of filth. The City Council was appealed to as the local authority entrusted with the task of keeping clean the area within its jurisdiction. It replied that the city was not dirty. One lane in particular was mentioned as being very foul. The inspectors of the council replied that. it was not. The Premier, as custodain-in-chief of the interests of the citizens, called on the City Council to make special arrangements for cleaning up all suspicious parts of the city, and there was some haggling about the terms. The Premier offered to pay half the cost; it has since transpired that the City Council wanted the Government to pay three-fourths. At all events, no agreement was come to, but the plague was increasing. Then Mr. Lyne — he was not then Sir William Lyne— decided to take the law into his own hands, or, rather, to override the law. The only statute which allowed him to quarantine any place was contained in the maritime quarantine law, but it was doubtful whether the provisions of that enactment could by any stretch be made to apply to what he wanted to do. However, he decided to do the necessary work, and to look into the question of legality afterwards. 

On March 23 he declared a portion of the city fronting the eastern shore of Darling Harbour as a place where there should be a performance of quarantine because of the plague, and after some searching about for a man who united in himself the faculty of organising men, and who knew enough of architectural and wharf matters to enable him to see wherein unhealthy conditions might prevail, so far as the structure of edifices was concerned, be offered the portion to, and it was accepted by, Mr. George McCredie, the architect who designed the Darling Island wharfs, among other city works. This gentleman was given the task of organising his own staff and making his own arrangements. The thing was done with the impress of hurry stamped upon it, and there was one goal in view—to clean up the beds of filth that it was known had accumulated. How it was to be done was to be left mainly to the initiative of the men engaged in the work. Mr. McCredie had to get officers and men. 

The unemployed who have been besieging the Labour Bureau were applied to, and work was promised to 1000 of them. It was also promised that they should be inoculated with Haffkine's prophylactic as a preventive against their contracting the disease, though they might be working in the midst of the contagion. A day was set apart for the inoculation, and out of 1000 men who had provisionally engaged 250 appeared. A number of men who had been trained in the work of sanitary engineering at the Sydney Technical College were engaged to direct operations, and Mr. P. E. Getting, A.I.S.E. (London), was placed over all as inspector-in-chief, without whose certificate no place once quarantined for cleansing purposes should be declared clean. Mr. W. Bruce, of the Public Works Department, was the only one of several officers who were applied to to assist in overlooking who responded, and he was appointed superintendent, second in command to Mr. McCredie, in the executive portion of the work. On Mr. Bruce, as a practical man, understanding the nature of buildings, fell a great portion of the work. He had to supervise the details, while his chief took the directory portion of the work. The inspectors from the Technical College had to supervise the gangs of men. 

Ordinary rates of wages did not tempt labourers ; therefore the rates were raised to fancy ones. Even then men came id but slowly. The public did not know the nature of the disease with which they were combating. People who were fortunate enough not to be shut up in the areas shunned them as though tbey were dangerous places for humanity to venture into. The night before the proclamation of the first area men left work as usual. The proclamation was published during the night, and next morning scarcely one of those who had been working there quite unconcernedly day after day had the courage to approach the outer barriers The fact that the law had stepped in added new terrors to the plague. Yet all this fear was unnecessary. The plague is not ' catching ' in the ordinary sense of the term. Its germs are not blown about by the wind ; they are either too heavy to be raised from the ground by currents of air or are too glutinous to be lifted by them. Anyhow, they do not float around us in the same way that particles of dust do, otherwise humanity would have been utterly helpless. 

As far as medical knowledge goes at the present time, it tends to show that before the germ of plague can do any harm to the human being it must by some means or other get under the skin; in other words, it must be conveyed into the blood direct. It is known, and has been a well ascertained fact for centuries, that rats and mice are susceptible to the disease— rats especially so — and as these garbage destroyers — and collectors of garbage as well— are in the habit of congregating in places where population is thickest, they disseminate the disease. Controversy has raged round the means by which it is spread through their agency, and is still raging ; but the probability is that there are several ways by which the contagion can be distributed, ranging from the bite of a flea that has come from a plague-infected rat to the picking up by means of a sore on the hand, or other part of the body, of a particle of earth on which a live germ rests. Anyhow, once it gets into the blood it does its work, as the 102 graves at the quarantine station  abundantly testify. 

The things that were found to exist when the gangs of cleansers went to work staggered Sydney. Most people thought that there were dirty backyards to be found there, but very few had any idea that they were positively foul. For years and years it had been the custom to throw all kinds of rubbish and slops into the yard. These sank into the soil, saturated it, and decomposed there. When the scavenger drove his pick and shovel into this ground he stirred up the decomposing matter and the smell became noisome. What was found may be indicated by means of an illustration. Everyone knows that when water charged with manure is thrown on the ground the water sinks into the soil, while the manurial matter is retained. In process of time, as the manure rots, it will sink into the ground with the water. House slops contain a good deal of manurial matter, from small particles of vegetables broken off in washing them before they are cooked up to dirt thrown out with washing water. Years upon years of throwing these slope on the ground had caused the accumulation of foetid substances, the surface of the soil became saturated with them ; so they rotted they were taken down a little further, and when the scavenging gangs began to dig they found that the top soil of the yards of the small dwellings in the area was filled to repletion with this accumulated filth to the depth of a foot or more, It was a concentrated mass of garbage. There were houses found which had stood, many of them, for the greater part of a century. They were originally built without any dampcourse in the walls, and the rainwater had been drawn up by capitary attraction until the floors and walls were rotten. Most likely, when the houses were first built their floors were above ground-level, but the laying-out of streets and the filling -in of the land had caused the floors to be below the level of the outside ground. There was a vacant space beneath the floors, and the water lodged there after every rain. 


The walls went out of repair and rats burrowed through them, got under the floors and made their nests there. Into these nests they carried old rags, bones, pieces of rope yarn — anything they could eat or out of which they could make a nest. For years upon years these bad accumulated, and when the scavengers raised the floors they found a pea-soup mixture of rags, bones, meat, dead rats, old nests, new ones, water, and a thousand acd one things which bad been taken thither by the rats. All were decomposing together. The smell was horrible, and often the men bad to throw into tbe mass of corruption which they bad suddenly uncovered a s timer solution cf sulphuric acid to burn the filth. They 'hen had to retire for a time to allow the acid to do its work, and afterwards to come back and remove the mixture. This stuff was tipped into punts moored at one or other cf the wharfs and sent out to sea, or if it would burn it was thrown into the streets and fire was applied to it. 

Above ground things were not much better. Some of the houses had no backyards at all, in others one sanitary convenience did duty for two or more households. In other places, where the yards were only a few feet square — some of them were not more than 10ft. long by the same in width — the tenants had roofed them over and made them into kitchens, shutting out daylight from the other rooms of the house. Down came these kitchens and out into the streets the timbers of which they were composed were thrown to feed the fires. Many scores of tons of old packing cases and other odds and ends of wood, used in the construction of these flimsy buildings, were disposed of in this way. The walls of the houses were afterwards treated with limewash. Again, in some of the houses, old wells were found underneath the floors. These wells had been sunk in the very old days of Sydney, before the water supply of the city was derived from public waterworks. Some of them were fed by springs ; others were underground tanks, cemented to make them hold water. When the city became more thickly populated the owners built other houses over these old wells, without taking the trouble to fill them up. The water in them was putrid, and the people who lived above them knew nothing of their existence. On the wharfs the state of things was not much better. Many of the wharf sheds had stood do many years that the foundation timbers were rotten. Many of the tiles of the wharfs themselves were in the same state. In most cases there was a sea wall composed of sheet-piling with a large vacant space behind it. The tides had washed small animals, the remains of vegetables, and half a hundred other things into these vacant spaces, where they lay rotting. 


In several instances it was found that new wharfs were built a foot or so higher than the old ones, while the old decking, being allowed to remain, caught all the waste that fell beneath through the planks of the new. There were large accumulations of this matter in places and the probability was that it was plague infected. The Government are the possessor of a steamer capable of throwing a boiling water jet, and the boiling water was turned on to these wharfs, and behind the sheet-piling to cleanse them. The dredges were set to work to dredge between the wharfs, and here the stuff raised smelt to heaven itself. All along the foreshores of Darling Harbour there were short lengths of sewers simply running from dwellings into the water. These bad been used for years, and the accumulation of sewage matter that bad run from them was very large. Several thousands of tens of it were raised during the couple of months that the dredges were engaged, and were Bent to sea. The publication of details of these accumulations of dirt under and around the wharfs caused the Government to consider what should be done. A decision was assisted by a petition signed by 89 members of Parliament, presented to the Premier, asking him to resume the wharfs in Darling Barbour. After consultation with his officers, who pointed out to him what waB necessary to be done to prevent the wharfs again getting in a state as bad as they were before this cleansing, the Premier and his Government decided. to resume all the wharfs, and a strip of land behind them, so that proper approaches could be made. A proclamation was issued on May 2, resuming the lands and wharfs, and this has been admitted on all hands to be one of the best things ever done by any Administration. In addition to this, every house in which a case of plague occurred was disinfected and fumigated by a special staff working directly under the direction of the Board of Health, and some business places as well. As a means of preventing the disease from spreading to the out ports, coasting vessels were fumigated and disinfected before they left port, and railway carriages and trucks were washed with disinfectant solutions.

Meanwhile the quarantining operations did not seem to be doing much good in staying the plague. People continued to be attacked. Dr. Thompson' president of the Board of Health, when interviewed by a 'Sydney Morning Herald' reporter, declared that the city was still in the hands of the plague. He had before counselled the destruction of the rats that around in and around the wharfs. The publication of this report caused some stir. A public meeting of citizens was held, and a central vigilance committee formed. Branch ones were afterwards formed in every ward of the city and in most of the suburbs.  The Government at the same time decided to offer a capitation fee for all rats caught and killed. It was felt, after consideration, that his was the best way to get lid of them. The fee at first was 2d per head, but the success that attended this offer was not sufficient to induce men to enter upon the catching of rats as a means of employment. It was therefore raised to 6d. 


The fiat of the medical men, as well as of the Board of Health, was ' Kill the rats : bunc them, trap them, poison them, stifle them, but kill them, and burn them afterwards.' A disused steam boiler was secured, and the first depot for burning rat carcases was established at the foot of Bathurst-street. In a few weeks it was removed to Darling Island, where it still remains. In all, about 60,000 rats have, been caught, paid for, killed, and burned since the capitation grant was offered. Before that time the quarantined area gangs of men had caught and killed about 11,000, and the City Council and disposed of 38,000 more, so that the total number of rats killed since the plague broke out in Sydney is upwards of 100,000. One area being finished, others were proclaimed, until, in all, 21 have come under the direction of Mr. McCredie and his men.  At one time there were more than 2000 labourers employed in the work. 

'Professional Ratcatchers' From Album: Views taken during Cleansing Operations, Quarantine Area, Sydney, 1900, Vol. IV / under the supervision of Mr George McCredie, F.I.A., N.S.W. Courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales. Image No.:a147264.

The whole of the Darling Harbour frontage, from its head near the railway station, to Miller's and Dawes points, have been scavenged, portions of Manly, Redfern, Paddington, Surrv Hills, Darlington, Waterloo, Woollomooloo, Ultimo, the Glebe, and George-street have been similarly dealt with, and the most pestiferous parts of the metropolis have been made clean. The vacant spaces between the sheet-piling at the wharfs have been filled up with stone, and the floors of the sheds have been concreted, so that the rats cannot get beneath them, nor can small bits of rubbish fall through, and the end is that three weeks have passed since the last case of plague was registered at the Health Department. As to the cost, that is as yet unknown ; probably it will reach £100,000 ; but the plague appears to have been stamped out. How the Plague was Fought. (1900, August 25). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 452. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163695054


Kurringai Chase has an area of 36,800 acres (or 57 ½  square miles), and is thus about the same size as the National Park.
It extends from the Northern Railway, and embraces the whole of Cowan Creek.
In an easterly direction it extends to the western side of Pittwater, taking in Refuge Bay and The Basin, places well and favorably known to tourists on the Hawkesbury. The country round about is extremely rugged, so rugged in fact that its picturesque beauty, cannot be damaged by so-called “improvements." It is so rugged as to be useless for settlement of any kind, while it is eminently adapted for purposes of recreation. Waratah Bay. (1894, June 16). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), , p. 30. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71215097  

WOODCUT BY GEORGE COLLINGRIDGE - 'G.C.' in left hand corner among dark ink.

Some Sculptors From Further South


HOLIDAY EXCURSIONS. (1906, December 15). The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), p. 27. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139180718 
Walter Page

Keen and Vigorous at 95.
Hale and hearty, with all his faculties bright and alert. Is Captain Page, well known In Manly a few years back as a very clever sand modeller, who recently celebrated his 95th birthday

Captain Walter Sagon Page, to give him his full title, has had such a colourful and stirring career, that he says he is never lonely, for he has enough memories of other lands and other days to keep his mind fully occupied.

Outside his door stands a model of an old time sailing ship, which he made himself. The sails look like canvas, but examination proves that they are made of wood, pared as thin as paper. As he eyes it with affection, he tells you it is a model of The York, an East Indiaman sailing ship, owned by John Allen and Son, London, and of which he was mate in 1881.

It was a direct ancestor of his with the same christian and surname who commanded »he London Merchant, a warship fitted out by the merchants of London at the time of the Spanish Armada, Another ancestor was Lord. Chief Justice Sagon Page in the reign of Queen Anne, and his mother's father was Dr. Hall, one of Nelson's fleet surgeons, who fought at the battle of Trafalgar. His wife be-longed to the family of the famous Richard Arkwright, inventor of the cotton-spinning machines, which revolutionised that Industry in Yorkshire and Lancashire, and his twin sister, Amy Sagon Page was a writer of novels.

The old man emphasises the fact that members of his family have always been sailors and soldiers, and says that It was a great disappointment to him when the authorities took up what he considered a ridiculous attitude when they ruled that he was too old to go to the war in 1914. 
"I wanted to have a boat in the North Sea," he remarked, adding that few people living knew the North Sea as he did. However, he Joined the Red Cross Society, for which he did great service.

His son was captain of the Corromandel, and met his death when the ship was submarined while carrying supplies from America. Two grandsons were also victims of the war, and a granddaughter, who was nursing at a field hospital, and refused to leave her patients when the hospital was shelled also gave her life for her country.

Captain Page sometimes tells tales of adventures which would thrill the soul of any adventure-loving boy, of fights with river pirates, of ambushes when he served in the Ashanti War, and of sudden uprisings in China. Once, when near Aden, his ship struck an uncharted reef, and, to r.dd to the evil, plague broke out on board. When they reached land only seven of the crew remained.
CAPTAIN W. S. PAGE. (1932, February 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16838451

E. L. Sodersteen, Architect

This illustration shows a Rayner Hoff plaque depicting "The Ride of the Valkyries" in the ballroom of the Hotel Manly which was cast and erected by the Art Plasto Co. The Art Plasto Co. were also responsible for the fibrous plaster ceilings in the recently completed additions to the Hotel and this illustration indicates the high quality of the work that is turned out by tins firm. PLAQUE, HOTEL MANLY, MANLY, SYDNEY (1935, March 20). Construction and Real Estate Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1930 - 1938), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222915705
A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists - Artists and Art Colonies - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2017

Previous History Pages:  

Marie Byles Lucy Gullett Kookoomgiligai Frank Hurley Archpriest JJ Therry Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor Bowen Bungaree W. Bradley 1788 Journal Midholme Loggan Rock Cabin La Corniche La Corniche II Lion Island Bungan Beach Botham Beach Scarred Trees  Castles in the Sand Dame Nellie Melba lunches at Bilgola Spring, 1914  First to Fly in Australia at North Narrabeen  Mona Vale Golf Club's Annual Balls  Governor Phillip camps on Resolute Beach  Ruth Bedford  Jean Curlewis  Mollie Horseman  Charlotte Boutin  May Moore  Neville W Cayley Leon Houreux  Frederick Wymark  Sir Adrian Curlewis  Bilgola Heron Cove  Mullet Creek  Shark Point  Woodley's Cottage  A Tent at The Basin  Collin's Retreat-Bay View House-Scott's Hotel  Bilgola Cottage and House  The First Pittwater Regatta  Women Cricketers Picnic Filmed In Pittwater  Governor Phillip's Barrenjoey Cairn Waradiel Season The Church at Church Point  Gov.  Phillip'€™s  Exploration of Broken Bay, 2 €- 9 March 1788   Petroglyths: Aboriginal Rock Art on the Northern Beaches  Avalon Headland Landmarks  Steamers Part I Pittwater Aquatic Club Part I  Woody Point Yacht Club  Royal Motor Yacht Club Part I  Dorothea Mackellar Elaine Haxton  Neva Carr Glynn Margaret Mulvey Jean Mary Daly  Walter Oswald Watt Wilfrid Kingsford Smith John William Cherry  George Scotty Allan  McCarrs Creek Narrabeen Creek  Careel Creek  Currawong Beach Creek  Bushrangers at Pittwater  Smuggling at Broken Bay  An Illicit Still at McCarr's Creek  The Murder of David Foley  Mona Vale Outrages  Avalon Camping Ground  Bayview Koala Sanctuary Ingleside Powder Works Palm Beach Golf Course  Avalon Sailing Club  Mona Vale Surf Life Saving Club  Palm Beach SLSC Part I - The Sheds Warriewood SLSC Whale Beach SLSC Flagstaff Hill Mount Loftus Pill Hill Sheep Station Hill  S.S. Florrie  S.S. Phoenix and General Gordon Paddlewheeler  MV Reliance The Elvina  Florida House  Careel House   Ocean House and Billabong  Melrose-The Green Frog The Small Yacht Cruising Club of Pittwater  Canoe and I Go With The Mosquito Fleet - 1896  Pittwater Regattas Part I - Dates and Flagships to 1950 Shark Incidents In Pittwater  The Kalori  Church Point Wharf  Bayview Wharf  Newport Wharf Palm Beach Jetty - Gow's Wharf  Max Watt  Sir Francis Anderson Mark Foy  John Roche  Albert Verrills  Broken Bay Customs Station At Barrenjoey  Broken Bay Water Police  Broken Bay Marine Rescue - Volunteer Coastal Patrol  Pittwater Fire-Boats  Prospector Powder Hulk at Towler's Bay  Naval Visits to Pittwater 1788-1952  Pittwater's Torpedo Wharf and Range Naval Sea Cadets in Pittwater S.S. Charlotte Fenwick S.S. Erringhi  P.S. Namoi  S.Y. Ena I, II and III  Barrenjoey Headland - The Lessees  Barrenjoey Lighthouse - The Construction  Barrenjoey Broken Bay Shipwrecks Up To 1900  Barrenjoey Light Keepers  Douglas  Adrian Ross Newport SLSC 1909 - 1938 Part I Overview  North Narrabeen SLSC - The Formative Years  Bilgola SLSC - the First 10 years   North Palm Beach SLSC    A History of Pittwater Parts 1 and 4 Pittwater Regattas - 1907 and 1908  Pittwater Regattas - 1921 - The Year that Opened and Closed with a Regatta on Pittwater Pittwater Regatta Banishes Depression - 1933 The 1937 Pittwater Regatta - A Fashionable Affair  Careel Bay Jetty-Wharf-Boatshed  Gow-Gonsalves Boatshed -Snapperman Beach  Camping at Narrabeen - A Trickle then a Flood Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek'  RMYC Broken Bay Boathouse and Boatshed Barrenjoey Boat House The Bona - Classic Wooden Racing Yacht Mona Vale Hospital Golden Jubilee - A Few Insights on 50 Years as a Community Hospital Far West Children's Health Scheme - the Formation Years  The First Scotland Island Cup, Trophy and Race and the Gentleman who loved Elvina Bay Royal Motor Yacht Club Broken Bay NSW - Cruiser Division History - A History of the oldest division in the Royal Motor Yacht Club   Royal Motor Yacht Club€“ Broken Bay€“ Early Motor Boats and Yachts, their Builders and Ocean Races to Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury and Pittwater  The Royal Easter Show Began As the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales   The Mail Route to Pittwater and Beyond  The Wild Coachmen of Pittwater - A Long and Sometimes Bumpy Ride on Tracks Instead of Roads  The Fearless Men of Palm Beach SLSC's Surf Boats First Crews - A Tale of Viking Ships, Butcher Boats and Robert Gow'€™s Tom Thumb 'Canoe'  Furlough House Narrabeen - Restful Sea Breezes For Children and Their Mothers  From Telegraphs to Telephones - For All Ships at Sea and Those On Land Mona Vale Training Grounds - From Lancers on Horses to Lasses on Transport Courses  Fred Verrills; Builder of Bridges and Roads within Australia during WWII, Builder of Palm Beach Afterwards  Communications with Pittwater  Ferries To Pittwater A History of Pittwater - Part 4: West Head Fortress  Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur  Early Pittwater Launches and Ferries Runs Avalon Beach SLSC - The First Clubhouse  Avalon Beach SLSC The Second and Third Clubhouses From Beneath the Floorboards at Hyde Park Barracks  Bungaree Was Flamboyant   Andrew Thompson - 'Long Harry'  Albert Thomas Black John Collins of Avalon Narrabeen Prawning Times - A Seasonal Tide of Returnings   Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings and Pearl Kings and When Not to Harvest Oysters Yabbying In Warriewood Creeks  Eeling in Warriewood's Creeks (Includes A Short History of community involvement in environmental issues/campaigns in and around Narrabeen Lagoon - 1974 to present by David James OAM) Eunice Minnie Stelzer - Pittwater Matriarchs  Maria Louisa Therry - Pittwater Matriarch  Katherine Mary Roche - Pittwater Matriarchs Sarah A. Biddy Lewis and Martha Catherine Bens Pittwater Matriarchs  Pittwater's New Cycle Track of 1901 Manly to Newport  The Rock Lily Hotel  Barrenjoey House The Pasadena Jonah's St Michael's Arch  The First Royal Visitor to Australia: the Incident at Clontarf March 12th, 1868  Pittwater: Lovely Arm of the Hawkesbury By NOEL GRIFFITHS - includes RMYC Wharf and Clareville Wharf of 1938 + An Insight into Public Relations in Australia George Mulhall First Champion of Australia in Rowing - First Light-Keeper  at Barranjuey Headland  Captain Francis Hixson - Superintendent of Pilots, Lights, and Harbours and Father of the Naval Brigade  The Marquise of Scotland Island   The First Boat Builders of Pittwater: the Short Life and Long Voyages of Scotland Island Schooner the Geordy  Boat Builders of Pittwater II: from cargo schooners and coasters to sailing skiffs and motorised launches  The Currawong: Classic Yacht  The Riddles of The Spit and Bayview/ Church Point: sailors, boat makers, road pavers winning rowers   VP Day Commemorative Service 2015 –  at Avalon Beach RSL Cenotaph: 70th Anniversary  Captain T. Watson and his Captain Cook Statues: A Tribute to Kindness   Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern or Wiltshire Parks to McKay Reserve – From Beach to Estuary Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer  Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves:  A Headland Garden  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Green Family  Elanora - Some Early Notes and Pictures  The Stewart Towers On Barrenjoey Headland  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Williams Family  Early Cricket in Pittwater: A small Insight Into the Noble Game from 1880's On  The Pacific Club's 2016 Carnival in Rio Fundraiser for Palm Beach SLSC Marks the 79th Year of Support  Bert Payne Park, Newport: Named for A Man with Community Spirit   Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Fox Family  Surf Carnivals in February 1909, 1919, 1925, a Fancy Dress Rise of Venus and Saving Lives with Surfboards  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Paddon Family of Clareville  Mermaid Basin, Mona Vale Beach: Inspired 1906 Poem by Viva Brock  Early Pittwater Schools: The Barrenjoey School 1872 to 1894  The Royal Easter Show and 125th Celebration of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College: Farmers Feed Us!  The Newport School 1888 to 2016 Pittwater's Ocean Beach Rock Pools: Southern Corners of Bliss - A History The Royal Botanical Garden Sydney Celebrate 200 Years in 2016  The Porter Family of Newport: Five Brother Soldiers Serve in WWI Church Point and Bayview: A Pittwater Public School Set on the Estuary  The Basin, Pittwater: A Reprise: Historical Records and Pictures  Lighthouse Keepers Cottages You Can Rent in NSW - Designed or Inspired by Colonial Architect James Barnet: Includes Historic 'Lit' Days records   Bayview Days Ships Biscuits - the At Sea Necessity that Floated William Arnott’s Success  Mona Vale Public School 1906 to 2012   St Johns Camden: 176th And 167th Anniversaries In June 2016 - Places To Visit  Narrabeen Lagoon And Collaroy Beachfront: Storms And Flood Tides Of The Past  Avalon Beach Public School - A History   Muriel Knox Doherty Sir Herbert Henry Schlink  Shopping And Shops In Manly: Sales Times From 1856 To 1950 For A Fishing Village   Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club's 150th Sailing Season Opening: A Few Notes Of Old  A Few Glimpses Into Narrabeen's Past Beauties  Dr. Isobel Ida Bennett AO   Taronga Zoo 100th Birthday Parade: 1000 Reasons To Celebrate  War Memorials: Manly, October 14, 1916  Avalon Beach Golf Links: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  War Memorials - Mona Vale, November 14, 1926  Annie Wyatt Reserve Palm Beach: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Tumbledown Dick Hill  Waratah Farm and Narrabeen Plums: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Mark Twain, J.F. Archibald And Henry Lawson - Did They Go Fishing At Narrabeen In The Spring Of 1895?: Probably!  Bayview Baths Centenary Celebration in November 2016 hosted by Bayview-Church Point Residents Association  Dr. Jenny Rosen's Historical Timeline  Palm Beach RSL - Club Palm Beach Celebrating 60 Years  Early Years At Narrabeen: The Plane Sailing Day Of 1944 The  Five Ways- Six ways Junction; Kamikaze Corner - Avalon Bilgola  RPAYC Season on Pittwater and coming of Jubilees in Summer of 1938 Local Explorers’ Modern Day Discovery - Governor Phillip’s First Landing site, Campsite and contact with Local Aborigines in Pittwater: The Case for West Head Beach    Rendezvous Tea Rooms Palm Beach: links with 1817 and 1917: Palm Beach Stores  and Fishermen  St Cloud's Jersey Stud: Elanora Heights: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Roderic Quinn's Poems And Prose For Manly, Beacon Hill, Dee Why And Narrabeen  A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists: The Estuary  Celebrating World Radio Day: The Bilgola Connection With The Beginnings Of Radio In Australia  Emile Theodore Argles - champion of all Australians without a Voice - a very funny Satirist, Manly Poet and Pittwater Prose Writer and Litterateur  Sydney Harbour Bridge Celebrates 85th Birthday: A Few Pittwater Connections  Victor James Daley: A Manly Bard And Poet who also came to Pittwater and the Hawkesbury  Let's Go Fly A Kite !: Palm Beach Whistling Kites Inspire sharing How to Make Standard, Box and Whistling Boy Kites - school holidays fun with a bit of Australian and Narrabeen history  Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space, and Of Many Captains   Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I: Coastal Landscapes and Seascapes  The Bayview Tea Gardens 1920 to 1923 When Run By Thomas Edward And Annie Newey (Nee Costello) An Australian and RPAYC Commodore Aboard an America's Cup Challenger of 1908 and 1914   Henry Lawson - A Manly Bard and Poet: on his 150th Birthday