September 10 - 16, 2017: Issue 329

Year Dated Beer Bottles Found In The Estuary Adjacent To Taylors Point

Roger Wickins photographed this week at Taylor's Point.
1934 bottle raised by Roger
Avalon Historical Society received a load of old bottles this month.  Back in 2008 Roger Wickins of Clareville had an open heart surgery to replace a faulty valve.  Part of the recovery exercise regime was a daily swim.  He found that it was difficult to hold his head above the water due to the scar on his chest so he shaved off his moustache and took to snorkelling.  Roger says that tomato soup and snorkelling are a strong argument against a moustache.  

When snorkelling at the netted pool which is next to the Royal Australian Navy Torpedo Wharf [part of HMAS Penguin, the diving school,] at Taylor’s Point he was unhappy to see the amount of accumulated rubbish, drink containers, [glass, aluminium and waxed paper,] marine ply, electrical cable, cordage, plastic bags, [mainly ones that had contained bait,] and plastic pipe.  

Taylors Point pool.

He set about clearing up the mess.  Duck diving improved his lung capacity and he often swam with a garden rake to the amusement of swimmers on the beach.  In that summer alone he recycled over one hundred and sixty containers from in and around the pool together with a lot of other rubbish.  
Up to the end of the 1960’s glass bottles cast in NSW had the year of manufacture embossed on the bottom.  Roger found a number of these bottles which he kept.  Some were recycled as birthday presents for those people who “have everything.” 
The earliest is dated 1934. 

In recent months Diana Storey, Roger’s wife has issued an ultimatum that he clear out the garage.  “Three choices, the bottles go in the recycling bin, or get someone else to take them, or else something else will be thrown out of the house.” 

Roger took the warning to his future wellbeing very seriously and offered them to the Avalon Historical Society who already have some much older bottles from the former Customs Station at Palm Beach.

ABHS Bottles from the former Customs Station at Palm Beach

Roger says that the pool is inhabited by humans, an octopus, sundry leatherjackets of varying colours together with an occasional visit by a pair of stingrays. The net use to be home for seahorses but these have disappeared as have a school of six stunning blackfish.  They ignored the dangled hooks till one day an elderly fisherman baited his with green weed and caught the lot.

The bottles themselves, one lot found in a cache of a dozen where the water may have been used to keep them cool, appear after storms have shifted the sands or simply through the tides of time.

Clareville and Taylor’s Point once had campers, some of whom may have been the depositors of said beer bottles.

At Newport village, King - street, leads out to Saltpan along a fairly good track, which opens out views of Pittwater, and will eventually run round the waterfront to Clareville Beach and be one of the most popular parts of the run to Palm Beach. 
NOW, one must return to Newport and pass on to Avalon before Clareville Beach may be reached, but no one with an eye for beautiful surroundings should miss this branch-off — Clareville Beach, with its shady gums over grassy lawns right on the whitest of sandy beaches, crescent shaped, and edged by the clearest of saltwater. It is an ideal holiday camping spot, and a haven of delight for the kiddies. There is a good road out to Careel Bay and along its southern shore, which branches off the Clareville road just as it reaches the ridge above the beach. This makes a lovely motor run for a mile or two through the trees, with glimpses of Pittwater on the left. C S Harnett Picturesque By-Paths. (1926, December 8). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 55. Retrieved from 

As a frequent visitor to Clareville on Pittwater, I am interested to notice that the local council is trying to prevent the use of this delightful spot as a camping area. For some inexplicable reason this august body is harassing campers and property holders in every direction. Surely it should realise that there is a war on, and any "blitzing" to be done should be directed at the Empire's enemy, instead of respectable British citizens. 
Neutral Bay. W H GHENT.  
POINTS FROM LETTERS. (1941, July 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Clareville Kiosk  was once a General Store – first run by a lady who asked for a concession after her husband returned from Service duty ill, and this was granted, and then run by the Mckays.

Old Australian beer bottles have a large collectors market. At one auction in 2014 a gentleman from the outskirts of Melbourne paid $5000 for one of Victoria’s rarest beer bottles, a 100-year-old green bottle from the former Shepparton Brewery.

Of course, knowing about the early glass makers in Australia, particularly those who specialised in making bottles for beer, will help you in identifying when you have found something rare. Being able to recognise what letters indicate as the company 'owner' of the bottle, along with marks on the bottle itself, such as pontil scars, where the iron rod used to make the bottle has been detached, all point towards the age of a bottle and the era it was made. 

AGM : indicates the 'Australian Glass Manufacturers' mark as used on the base of bottles. Used as lage AGM on bottles 1916 - 1928.
agm logo : indicates the 'Australian Glass Manufacturers' mark as used on the base of bottles. The letters were entwined as a monogram or logo. This mark was used 1905 - 1916.
: indicates the 'Melbourne Glass Bottle Works' mark as used on the base of bottles. This mark was used 1895 - 1905.

Attention is directed to an advertisement of the Manufacturers Bottle Co of Victoria Pty. Ltd., which, appears in our advertising: columns, giving notice to bottle dealers and others, that all bottles with the trade mark and brand 'M.B' over 'C.V.'-in a spade moulded thereon are their sole property, and when the contents are once used, the bottles must forthwith, on demand, be returned to the company or its duly authorised agents.BOTTLE DEALERS. (1926, August 24). The Murrumbidgee Irrigator (Leeton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from

The NSW Bottle Co put year dates on their bottles – first on the barrel part of the bottles and later on the base. The Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd. also dated their bottles

New South Wales Bottle Company Proprietary Limited (1916 - 1990) was formed on 15 June 1916 and was owned by both Tooth & Co Limited and Tooheys Limited. On 20 June 1916 Tooth & Co Ltd and Tooheys Limited entered into an agreement to sell to the company the business of the Brewers Bottle Association. 

The company supplied bottles to the two brewery companies and also ran a bottle recovery system in New South Wales, with operations in Tamworth, Taree, Dubbo, Queanbeyan and Wagga Wagga. Secondhand bottles were recovered from Butler & Norman Pty Ltd, J McCarthy & Co Ltd and other independent merchants. New bottles were purchased from the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co and Glass Containers Ltd. On one internet forum a query was posted about finding these in an area that had been affected heavily by an air raid in WWII- so these have travelled.

On some of these you will find, 'These bottles belong to NSW Bottle Company Pty Ltd.'

About Bottles  
The New South Wales Bottle Company, Limited, carrying on business at Bulwarra-road, Ultimo, Sydney, has an advertisement in this issue of special Interest to hotelkeepers, cordial manufacturers, storekeepers, bottle merchants, bottle dealers and others. The firm states that their bottles remain the sole property of the firm, and that only the contents of such bottles are sold — not the bottles themselves. Various other conditions are set out which those concerned can read for themselves. Local and General News (1918, June 6). The Northern Champion (Taree, NSW : 1913 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

The company was deregistered on 9 July 1990. 

N.S.W. Bottle Co., Ltd., v Tinson.
This was an application on behalf of the plaintiffs in the suit of the New South Wales Bottle Co., Ltd., against T. B. Tinson, to turn into a decree an application to continue the interim injunction restraining the defendant, who was a cordial manufacturer at Quirindi, from purchasing, collecting, or in any way dealing with bottles manufactured for the plaintiff company and hired by them to certain brewers, and to deliver up to the company all such bottles in the possession or control of the defendant.

By consent, his Honor made a decree as asked, and directed the defendant to deliver up any bottles in his possession or control belonging to the plaintiffs within one month after service upon him of the decree, the costs to be assessed at £15/15/. Mr. Harrington (Instructed by Messrs. Perkins, Stevenson, and Co.) appeared for the plaintiffs; and Mr. Mulholland, of Messrs. Collins and Mulholland) for the defendant.

This was an application on behalf of Holbrooks, Ltd., for an injunction to restrain Robert William Hewit, Mary Alice Hewit, and Frances Hewit, trading as Hewit Bros, at Newcastle, from using in the course of their business the branded proprietary bottles of the plaintiff company. His Honor granted an injunction restraining the defendants from collecting or otherwise dealing in the plaintiffs' bottles, and also ordered them to deliver up to the plaintiffs all proprietary bottles claimed by them within in 28 days after service of the decree, and further that the plaintiff company accept the amount already paid by the defendants for their costs of such proceedings as agreed upon.

Mr. R. Clive Teece (instructed by Allen, Allen, and Hemsley) appeared for the plain-tiff company, and Mr. K. Street (instructed by Messrs. Rankin and Griffith, of Newcastle) for the defendants to consent.

Similar applications were made in the suit of the Vinegar Company of Australia and C. H. Swalwell, of Leichhardt, harnessmaker, and the suit of Pick-me-up Condiment Company, Ltd., v Townsend, a manufacturer and vendor of sauces, of Harris-street, Sydney. Mr. Justice Street granted an injunction and orders In the same terms. Mr. Minton Taylor, of Messrs. Allen, Allen, and Hemsley, appeared for the plaintiff in each suit, and the defendants in person to consent. IN EQUITY. (1922, March 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from

Australian Glass Manufacture letters shown on the base of bottles can also assist with dating. By the 1920s the Australian Glass Manufacturers (AGM) had a monopoly on glassmaking in Sydney. Crown Crystal Glass Pty Ltd was one subsidiary company of AGM formed in 1926. It produced crystal as well as cut, pressed and blown glassware for industrial and household use, including pyrex. By the late 1930s, the company was producing 9634 different types of glass bottles and containers.

Glass Manufacturing.
Although tariff alterations proposed by the Minister for Customs have not yet received the approval of Parliament, the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co Ltd announced that as a result of the duties to be imposed on sheet glass, the directors intend to manufacture the material in Sydney. The duties introduced by Mr. Pratten certainly are sufficiently high to tempt any organisation to seek to be the first in the field with an enterprise of the kind. The new venture is to be undertaken by a company subsidiary to the Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd. That concern ranks as an exceedingly prosperous business. By absorbing the Zetland Glass Bottle Works Ltd in 1921 it largely obtained a monopoly of the bottle making trade of the Commonwealth. When registered in 1913, it amalgamated the Waterloo Glass Bottle Works Ltd and the Melbourne Glass Bottle Works Co Pty Ltd , and purchased the business of Vance and Ross Pty Ltd , glass bottle makers. Capital before the amalgamation with the Zetland Co stood at £442 489 in £1 shares, of which £100 489 represented payments in money and £278 000 otherwise. At the time of that merger, the company’s nominal capital was increased from £1,000 000 to £2 000 000 of which £175 000 was issued as 9 percent preference and £775 695 as ordinary capital. Before the amalgamation, the old companys profits had moved up from £27, 367 in 1917 (15 months) to £65,524 in 192. After the reorganisation and during the 14 months to March 31, 1923, £139,370 was earned as net profits and the next year they amounted to £147,207. It will not be far for the company to go from bottle making to sheet glass making. The prestige and financial strength of the company should mean that it will have no trouble in obtaining any funds needed for the new enterprise. MONETARY AND MINING. (1925, September 15). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 8. Retrieved from 

Another way to recognise unusual bottles is to research what era and societal influences they represent. The beer rationing and beer shortages during World War Two brings us bottles that could be refilled from kegs:

Beer bottle, “Plaza”, glass, Australian Glass Manufacturers Company/Tooth’s beer bottled by Hotel Plaza, Sydney, Australia, 1936-1955.
Moulded clear glass quart sized beer bottle, ovoid in shape with rounded shoulders. Short neck has a two part finish of a bulged character. Bore is sealed with a rubber length, over which a white ceramic stopper has been placed. Holes have been drilled either side of this stopper and a wire clamp passes through this over neck. Green and cream paper label has been adhered to the front of the bottle. Advertises product and provides trade information. Label features decorative scroll. Relief lettering on front and back surfaces and numerals on base refer further to conditions of sale and trade information. Relief lettering on base refers to Australian Glass Manufacturers company trademark.

Bottle manufactured by Australian Glass Manufacturers Company. The bottle's wired porcelain sealing arrangement would date it as c. 1900. However the term "Old Beer" (used on the label) did not come into common usage until the 1930s, to distinguish it from the newer lager beers.  The Hotel Plaza opened in 1936, terminology of "Old Beer" common in the late 1930s, hotel bottling common in the 1940s-early 1950s.

The beer bottle is a momento of the Sydney beer shortages of the 1940s-early 1950s. It was common at this time for hotels to bottle or sell draft beer, as bottled beer was in short supply, due to war-time rationing and black marketeering. The Plaza hotel took particular pride in its ability to meet customer demands. A 1946 handbill declared that the Plaza was "the Hotel that has kept its Bottle Dept. open for the past five years.... The Hotel that has never Black Marketted."

Beer bottle, "Plaza", glass, Australian Glass Manufacturers Company/Tooth's beer bottled by Hotel Plaza, Sydney, Australia, 1936-1955 2014, courtesyMuseum of Applied Arts & Sciences, Sydney

TOOTH'S BEER. Reduction of Supplies. 
SYDNEY, Aug 30.-Metropolitan hotels were notified by circular at the weekend that during September supplies to them of Tooth and Co, Ltd's beer would be reduced by 15 per cent. The circular stated that the direction had come from the Customs Department. The president of the NSW Licensed Victuallers' Association (Mr N. H. Connolly) said tonight he had had no official notification of the proposed cut. TOOTH'S BEER. (1942, August 31). The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from

Beer rationing - to wit, by a local wit:

It's Still A Dash; With No Beer
By Our Special Reporter,
YESTERDAY I decided to have a beer in the workers hour. I am still looking for the other worker. I did see some beer, but not in front of me.
I walked down Queen Street early in the afternoon to pick the pub with  the least crowd waiting at the door. That was a big mistake. I did a quick mental tally at the first hotel— 50 odd— all servicemen. That was no good. I thought that must be the pub where the boys from camp gather. On to the next. Seventy here and not one man in civvies. Couldn't stop there. At the third the policemen who should have been keeping at least half the footpath clear must have been taken suddenly ill. This one would do me. I joined the surge and swept in. Two months ago I tried this and I did get a 'wet.' A fellow on the bar side passing out six pots from someone he gladly hailed as 'Ollie' split most of one on my shoulder. Yesterday I only got - in the third row and I had no one to pass the pots out to me. But I did watch the clock as I vainly held out 8 1/2d.— yes, that Is the correct change— and in 17 minutes flat I heard a blithe voice say: 'Quota sold.' 

I lingered just in case. But a much nastier voice said. 'That means you, brother.' Still, they tell me that is better than the one where they blow a police whistle in your ear. Now I am looking for the fellow who told me that things were a lot easier now.' 

'Most of the Yanks up north.' he told me, 'and it is like old times.' 

Once a sucker always a sucker. I am sure to try again when the 'summer' quota comes in next month. By that time I will have forgotten all the warnings that the breweries can't produce any more beer. I will have recalled my prewar enthusiasm for a nice cool facer and try again. Wish me luck, fellows! 

But although I missed out in the beer rush yesterday, my chief regret is that I did not have Mr. Gledson, the Attorney-General with me. 
This week in Parliament a member had the cheek to suggest to him that as he was the Minister in charge of liquor laws he might do something about having beer quotas fixed on a sliding scale to make some adjustment which would provide for a sliding scale to vary with population changes. But he gave a very dry answer. It was a Federal matter, he said, and rather than he should approach the Federal Government, anyone, he declared, could approach his own Federal member and make a complaint. It's Still A Dash; With No Beer (1944, September 16). The Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

And this, from earlier that year, may have frightened a few!:

 7ozs. of Beer Enough
'Seven ounces of beer is quite enough, for anybody,' Mr. Justice Starke told Mr. J.' V. Barry, K.C., in the Full High Court last week. To which Mr. Barry lamented: 'I hope that, will 'not go forth as an official pronouncement. The last civil liberty will be gone if that becomes law.' .

Argument was proceeding on the return of an order nisi to review the decision of Mr. Nicholas, P.M., in what was known as 'the Pot test case.' ' The Court discharged the order, with costs against the Commonwealth. Mr. Barry argued that Charles Loaney, licensee of the Britannia Hotel, Swanston Street, Melbourne, had been guilty of a breach of National Security (Prices) Regulations,when his barman refused to supply 11oz. mugs of beer to Commonwealth officers. The magistrate had dismissed the information. 
Mr. Barry said the magistrate was wrong in holding that Loaney had a wide discretion on how he Could' carry on his business. Mr. Barry said the barman said, to the customers: 'No pots, only glasses.' The applicant for the liquor then purchased a 7oz. and a 4oz. glass of beer— 11oz. of beer in two containers, instead of one. 
The publican, who would have been entitled to charge 8 1/2 d. for 11oz. of beer in a pot, got 11d. when he supplied he same quantity of beer in two separate containers— 7oz. glass for 7d. and 4oz. glass for 4d. The High Court disagreed with the magistrate's finding that a publican had a wide discretion on how he should dispense his beer,' but held that the licensee had served a reasonable quantity of beer. Effect of the decision is that it is for a Court, and not for a publican, to determine whether a reasonable quantity of liquor has been served to a customer, having regard to the dearth of beer at the time it was ordered. NO NEED TO SERVE SCHOONERS (1944, June 1). Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative (NSW : 1890 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from

SYDNEY, Thursday. — Hotels drawing beer from Tooth's breweries have been informed that during June their supplies will be cut by 10 per cent. The reason was stated to be that two public holidays in the month would reduce output.  CUT IN TOOTH'S BEER (1946, May 31). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from

As with Collecting anything for investment or for the sheer love of those kinds of objects, deal with reputable experts and auctioneers and do a little research prior to have an idea of the scope of bottles, in this case, made by Australians within Australia and the companies or individuals behind these glass-making factories who made them. That way you may find yourself the owner of a little piece of Australian or Sydney history - and that's something certainly worth bottling!
Geoff Searl and John Stone at entrance to John Stone Photographic services business where ABHS office also is.

References And Extras On Glass Making In Sydney

1. TROVE - National Library of Australia
2. Resch's Beer Art - A Reflection Of Australiana Now Worth ThousandsPittwater Online News, Collectors Corner, Issue 183, 2014

Land has been resumed at ... Clareville, Pittwater, for a wharf;  .. GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. (1900, January 8). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from

AGM : indicates the 'Australian Glass Manufacturers' mark as used on the base of bottles. Used as lage AGM on bottles 1916 - 1928.
agm logo : indicates the 'Australian Glass Manufacturers' mark as used on the base of bottles. The letters were entwined as a monogram or logo. This mark was used 1905 - 1916.
: indicates the 'Melbourne Glass Bottle Works' mark as used on the base of bottles. This mark was used 1895 - 1905.

Why would we need to make our own glass - a hotel on every corner may have something to do with it:

List of Applicants for Licenses in the city and district of Sydney, under the Act of Council 2 Victoria, No. 18, for the year commencing 1st July, 1848 :—
1 Edward Robertson, Rose Inn, George-st.
2 William Howell, King's Arms, George-st.3 Matthias Hooper, King's Head, George-st.
4 Edward New, The Land We Live in, George-street.5 Robert White Moore, Fortune of War, George-street.
6 Isaac Moore, Patent Slip, George-street.
7 William Livingstone, Vine Inn, George-st.
8 James Smith, Rose of Australia, George-st.
9 William Sullivan, New York Hotel, George-street.
10 Nicholas Bray, Cornish Arms, George-st.
11 Robert Nairn, Liverpool Arms, George-st.
12 Israel Solomon, Crooked Billet, George-st.
13 Thomas Moore, City Wine Vaults, George-street.
14 Abraham Levy, The American Hotel, George-street.    
15 George Clark, General Washington, George- street.            
16 Charles Hargrave Salmon, St. John's Tavern, George and Bridge streets.
17 Thomas Martin, Castle Tavern, George and Bridge streets.  
18 Michael Farrell, Farriers' Arms, George-street.    
19 Archibald Menzies, Star Hotel, George-st.
20 William Edward Rider, Black Boy, George and King streets.    
21 John Holman, White Horse Tavern, George-street.    
22 John Sparke, Royal Hotel, George-st.
23 George Skinner, Skinner's Hotel, George and Hunter streets.        
24 George Simpson, Crown and Anchor, George and Market streets.      
25 Thomas Molloy, Bull's Head, George-st.
26 George Wilkie, London Tavern, George-st.
27 Edward Hancock, Swan with two Necks, George and Park streets.              
28 William Aitkenhead, Emu Inn, George and Bathurst streets.      
29 John Booth, Queen's Arms, George-st.
30 George Beringer, Bakers' Arms, George-st.
31 Harriet Whitehead, New York Hotel, George-street.
32 Charles Bath, Currency Lass, George-st.  
33 Thomas Lee, St. John's Tavern, George- and Liverpool streets.  
34 James Farmer, Crown, George-street.
35 Henry Harris, Jew's Harp, George-street.
36 Philip Whelan, Britannia, George and Goulburn streets.    
37 Wm. Shipman, Shipman's Hotel, George and Goulburn streets.      
38 James Stewart, Woolpack Inn, George-st.
39 Philip Brum, Peacock, George-street.    
40 John Francis, Square and Compass, George-street.
41 John Bishington, Odd Fellows' Hall, George-street.            
42 Patrick Meade, Corporation Inn, George and Sussex-streets.    
43 Jeremiah Murphy, Steam-Engine Inn, George-street.
45 Richard Trowler, Black Swan, George-st.
46 Peter Hunslow, Dog and Duck, George-st.
47 David Taylor, Wheat Sheaf Inn, George-street.
48 Robert Hancock, Wellington Inn, George-  street.          
49 Edward Bones, Rising Sun, George-street.
50 John Sims, Currency Lass, Pitt and Hunter streets.
51 Henry Joseph Cohen.FitzRoy Hotel, Pitt-street
52 Martin Gill, Gill's Hotel, Pitt-street:.
63 Matthew Mullaney, Fortune of War, Pitt- street and Brougham-place
54 Mary Ann Hely, Brougham Tavern, Pitt- Street
65 J. W. Roche, Rainbow, Pitt -and King streets
67 Edward Samuel, Liverpool Arms, Pitt and King streets
68 Joseph Lcfaum, Elephant and Castle,- Pitt  and King streets
59 John Solomon, Albion Inn, Pitt-street - 
60 John Shannon, Star and Garter, Pitt-st.
61 Joseph Faris, Shakespeare Tavern Pitt-street
62 Daniel Rogers, William the Fourth, Pitt street
63 Joseph Wyatt, Victoria Hotel, Pitt-street and Market streets
66 Marr Green, Cricketers' Hotel, Pitt and Market streets
67 Joseph Smith, Mayor Inn, Pitt-street
68 Charles Turner, Nag's Head, Pitt .street
69 M. Cohen, Glasgow Hotel, Pitt-street .
70 Henry Doran, Edinbro' Castle, Pitt and Bathurst streets 
71 John Jones, Cottage of Content, Pitt and Bathurst streets - 
72 George Chambers,' Curriers' Arms, Pitt-at.
73 Louisa Watkins, Pulteny Hotel, Pitt and Liverpool streets
74 James Oatley, Sportsman, Pitt and. Gool
75 Thomas Smith, Red Lion, Pitt and Gool
76 James Cunningham, ' Commercial Hotel, Pitt and King atreets . 
77 Edward Cattlin, Globe Tavern, Pitt and Market streets
78 Roger Murphy, Traveller's Rest, Pitt and Market streets  
79 Edward Burton, Sydney Arms, Castlereagh-street
80 John Barnett, Barley Mow, Castlereagh  and Park streets
81 William Tunks, Curriers' Arms, Castlereagh and Bathurst streets
82 Benjamin Lee, Settler Arms, Castlereagh-street
83 David Fernandez, New Zealand Inn, Castlereagh-street
84 George Scott, Printers' Arms; Castlereagh and Liverpool streets.
85. James Tallang-Leinster Lodge, Castlereagh-street
86 Catherine M'Elhart, Dungato House, Castlereagh street
87 Michael Cronin, Yorkshire [Stingo,; Castlereagh and Goulburn streets
88 Emanuel Crabb, Golden Fleece, Castlereagh-street 
89 Alexander Elliott, Rum Puncheon, Castlereagh and Campbell Streets.
90 'William Cullen, Sk Maurice O'Oronall, Elizabethand Hunter streets
91 Richard Driver, Three Tuns, Elizabeth  and Kingstreets.
92 Esther Roberts, Crown, Elizabeth and Goulburn streets.  
93 Joseph Coqualin, Cheshire Cheese, Elizabeth-street.              
94 Mountford Clarkson, Spread Eagle, Elizabeth and Park streets.        
95 Emanuel Martin, Madeira Inn, Elizabeth street and Strawberry Hill      
96 Elizabeth Wheeler, Strawberry Hill Inn, Elizabeth-street.        
97 Charles Benham, Nelson Inn, Phillip and  Hunter streets        
98 Anthony Tuohy, Lemon Trw. Phillip-st
99 John Raynor, Star Inn; ThiUipa^Hun
100 James Turley Jones, Crown and Kettle,York-street and Barrack-lane  
101 Robert E. Heaney, Hope Tavern,  York street and Barrack-lane
102  James Entwhistle, Freemason Hotel,  York-street 
103 John O Dowd; Forbes Hotel, York and King streets .'
104 Elizabeth Miller, 'Garrick’s Head, York  and King streets'
105 Thomas Murphy, Adelpi Hotel York-st.
106 James Chambers; Redfern Inn, York and Market streets
107 Richard Lowster,  Harp and Shamrock, York and Market Streets
108 John Nobbs,' Gardeners' Arms. York-st.'
109 Sarah Kilpatrick, Harp of Erin, York street
110 John Frawley, Erin-go-bragh, York and Druitt streets
111. Thomas Byrnes, Queen’s Head, York and King Streets
112 Thomas Buck, ‘Lamb’ , Clarence-street and Margaret-place
113 Saul Solomón, Australian Hotel, Clarence-street and Margaret-place
114 Joseph Spinks, White Hart,  Clarence and King Streets
115 Abraham Joseph  Levy, Solomon’s Temple, Clarence and Erskine streets
116 Joseph Davis, Crispin Arms, Clarence-  street
117 Patrick Erwin, Australian Inn, Clarence-street      
118 Gregory Board, Blue Lion, Clarence and Market streets
119 Patrick Conlon, Tradesman's Arms, Clarence and Market streets . '
120 William Wells, Lord Nelson Hotel, Kentand Argyle streets '
121 William N. Palmer, Dumbarton Castle, Kent-street '
122 Andrew Goodwin, Lord Rodney Hotel,Kent-street
123 Richard Linch, Friend in Need, Kent-st.
124 William-Peny, Gas Hotel, Kent-street
125 Edward Berringham, Union Inn, Kent street
126 John Beattie,. Masonic Arms, Kent and Erskine streets
Í27 William Wolstoncroft, City Inn, Kent-st.
128 William Stevens, Wollongong Hotel, Kent and King streets'
120 Henry Roberts, St. Andrew's Tavern, Kent and-King streets
130 H. F. O'Donnell, Australian, Kent and Market streets
131 William Johnson, Yorkshireman's Arms, Kent and Druitt streets
132 John Curtis, Macquarie Inn, Kent and Bathurst streets
133 John Dillon, Leinster Hotel, King-street
134 William Caree, Hunter River Inn, Sussex -
135 Robert Thomas Carter, Ship Inn, Sussex- '
136 Edward Borton, Blue Bell Hotel, Sussex and Erskine streets
137 Robert Henderson, Dove Inn, Sussex and Erskine streets
138 Thomas Stewart, Royal Oak, Sussex and 
140 Alexander Whittle, Lancashire Arms, Sussex-street and Union-lane
141 James Ezekiel Elliott, Saracen's Head Inn, Sussex and King streets
142 Thomas Blake,. Patent Slip, Sussex and King streets
143 Henry Linden, Woolpack, Sussex-street
144 James Yend, Commercial Hotel, Sussex
146 Samuel Jones, Governor Bourke, Sussex and Market streets
146 Samuel Barnett, Cheshire Cheese, Sussex and Market streets
147 Cornelius O'Neil, Darling Harbour Inn, Sussex-street and Market Wharf
148 George Coleson, George and Dragon,
150 Susan Legatt, Hope and Anchor, Sussex and Druitt streets
151 Alexander Gray, Light House Hotel, Sussex and Bathurst streots
162 Daniel Busland, Sir Walter Scott, Sussex  and Bathurst streets
163 William West, Angel and Crown, Sussex  and Liverpool streets
154 Michael Murphy, Builder's Arms, Sussex and Liverpool streets
155 Jane Coulson, Whitehaven Castle, Sussex and Goulburn streets
156 William Andrews, Ship and Mermaid, 
158 Daniel Gallagher, Punch Bowl, Gloucester-street
159 Matthew Charlton, Glenmore Cottage, Cumberland-street
160 'Henry Jackson Motahm, Coach and Horses, Cumberland-street
161 Edward T. Macdonald, Forth and Clyde, Cumberland-street and Essex-lane
162 James Casey, Rock of Cashel, Cumberland street
163 David Cureton, Three Crowns, Cumberland street
164 John Williams, Petty’s Family Hotel, Church-hill
165 Edwin Warlow, Neptune Inn, Prince-st
166 William Cole, Bee Hive, Prince and Argyle streets
167 John Rochester, Erin-go-Bragh, Cambridge street
168 Robert Hardy," Custom House, Argyls
169 Matthew Brown, Rose and Crown, Argyle
170 William Ford, Napoleon Inn, Windmill
171 Clement'Sheri y Peat, St. Andrew's Tavern, Windmill and Clyde streets
172 Thomas Kirkman, Hero of Waterloo, Windmill and Fort streets
Í73 Jonathan Brown, Whalers’ Arms, Windmill and Fort streets
174 James Merriman, Whalers’ Arms, Miller's Point
176 John Pomroy Bond, Royal Oak, Miller's Point
176 Jane Gaze,. Custom House Hotel, Macquarie-place
177 Henry Barnett, Captain Cook, Bent and Spring streets
178 David M'Makin, Forth and Clyde, Bridge street
179 James Bent, Dolphin Hotel, Bridge-st.    
180 Sarah Wallis, Hand and Heart, Liverpool and Dickson streets
181 Thomas Quigley, St. Patrick, Goulburn-street,
182 Catherine Walsh, Bee Hive, Campbell
183 Richard Loseby, Pack Horse, Campbell
184 Mary Blake, Shamrock Inn, Campbell-st.
185 Thomas Hilleon, Museum Hotel, William street, Woolloomooloo
Í86 Michael O'Keefe, Riley Arms, Woolloomooloo-road . "
187 John' Wilson,. Snr. Maurice O'Connell, Riley-street, Woolloomooloo
188 Thomas Baker, Woolloomooloo Inn, William-strcet, Woolloomooloo
189 Joseph 'B. Olifle, Cockatoo Inn, Bourke street, Surry Hills
190 Daniel Hickey, Curriers' Arms, Bourke street,. Surry Hills
191 John Robinson, Boundary Stone, Bourke street , Surry Hills . .
192 John'Barlow, Pine Apple, Surry Hills
193 Oliver Dwyer, .Hope and Anchor, Woolloomooloo
104 John AspiaaU, Terrace Inn, South Head Road - .
196 Patrick M<Donueil, Downshire Arms, South Head- Road.
196 Anthony Finn, Pelican, South Head Road
197 Robert Steele, Rising Sun: South Head Road                
198 Thomas Hume Allison; Queen's Arms, South Head-Road
199 Thomas Taylor, Old ; Sportsman, Old South Head Road' .
200 Peter Ford, Sportsman, South Head Road
201 Stephen Newby, Robin Hood Inn, South Head Road
202 Lawrence Marshall, Victoria Inn, South Head Road
203 Timothv Duigon, Green Gate, South Head’s Road
204. Daniel Clarke, White Conduit House, South Head Road
205 Thomas  Hopkins, Prince Albert, South Head Road
206. James-Barton, Odd Fellows' Arms, SouthHead Road.    
207  Jemes Greenwood, Greenwood Tree, Paddington
208 Francis Baker, Paddington Hotel, Paddington '
209 Peter Brenann, Coopers- Arras, Pyrmont
2HPJohn Ooding,'Edinburgh Castle, Pyrmont
21T Tilomas Jones, Crown, Chippendale.
212 William Phillip, Chippendale Inn, Chippendale 
213 'J]ohn MeilIon," Chippendale Hotel, Chippendale
214 .Michael WüBamson, .JhrpWdale
215 Stephen Swain, Hand and Line Redfern
216 George Spears/Rbdfern Inn, Redfern
'217 Wniüím Kúine;. Hand and Heart. Botany road
218,:William 'Beaumont, Sir' Joseph Banks Hotel, Botany. .... . 
219 George Wullens; Foreseers' Arms. Glebe
220 John Scott, Glebe Tavern, Glebe 
221 James Miller, Union Inn, Glebe 
222 Charles James Bullivant, Waterford Arms, Balmain
223 Thomas Aiton, Unity Hall, Balmain
224 William Ternan, St. Patrick Inn, Balmain
225 Sarah Bell, Shipwrights Arms, Balmain
226 Honora Simes, Pilot Inn, feamatÉáina Harris street
227.-William p'Sul£vRO, .'Erih'a Ôiéèa fIalo, Parramatta street
228 John Marmon HimWy, Britannia, Parramatta and Kesington streets
229 Wilh'am SnV, Rob Roy M'Gregor, Parramatta-street
230 John Darcy, Red Bull, Parramatta-street
231 Edward Fittgibbons, Dog and Duck, Parramatta-street
232 Thomas McKenzie, Kangaroo Inn, Parramatta-street 
 233 Thomas Arundell, Wellington Inn, Parramatta-street
231 James Simpson, Golden Anchor, Parramatta-street
235 Maurice O'Flahcrty, Australian Inn, Parramatta-street
236 Robert Beatson, Victoria Inn, Parramatta
237 Henry Webb, Sportsman, Parramatta-st
238 John Henry Fidden, New Inn, Castlereagh street
239 Andrew Guy, Sportsman's Arms, Newtown Road .
240 John McGrath, Nelson Hotel, Newtown  Road
241 Robert Bates, Saint John's Tavern, Newtown Road
242 William Walker, Union Inn, Newtown Road
243 James Richards, White Horse, Newtown Road
244 Charles Souter, White Heart Inn, Parramatta Road
246 James Davidson, Governor Bourke, Parramatta Road
246 John Harman, Timen, Parramatta Road
247 Samuel Weat, Red Lion Inn, Parramatta Road
248 Sarah Hughes, Woolpack Inn, Parramatta Road
249 Abraham Hearne, Bald Faced Stag, Parramatta Road
250 John Wright, Pack Hone, Parramatta Road
252 John Brown, Cheshire Cheese, Parramatta Road
253 George Barry Goodman, Circular Quay Hotel, Circular Quay
254 John Thomas Gannon, Union Inn, Cook's River
255 William Trimby, Bold Forester, Cook's River
256 James Murphy, Sugar Works, Canterbury
257 Thomas Kelsey, Canterbury Arms, Canterbury
258 James Pawsey, Harp, Canterbury -
259 William Smith, Cottage of Content, Liverpool Road
260 William Taverner, Bark Hut, Liverpool Road
261 Luke Holmes, Coach and Horses, Liverpool Road
262 Thomas Redgrave, Fig Tree- Cottage, North Shore
263 George Lavender, Macquarie Inn, North
264 Charles ' Shaw, Cornish Arms, North
265 John Whitford, Cornish " Arms," North Market streets
1 William Lynch, Lynch's Wine Tavern, South Head Road 
2 William Ryan, Black Cow, Chippendale
3 John Barrett, Fifteen Balls, Chippendale
4 George Cole Turner, White Conduit House, Newtown
5 Charles McCawley, Antrim Arms, Newtown
6 Foster Anderson, Redfern  
7 Evan Evans, Man of Kent, Cook's River
8 Johanna West, Seven Stars, Canterbury
9 John Commock, Green Gate, Lane Cove  
1 John Howell, George-street
2 John Glllick, York-street
3 Henry George Brown, York-street
4 Michael Wallace, Market-street
6 Thomas Mayhew, Hunter-street.
PUBLICAN’S LICENSES. (1848, April 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from 

It is not generally known that among the many industries which colonial enterprise has recently called into existence is an establishment for the manufacture of glass in the various forms for which there is a demand in our community. This glass factory is the property of the Messrs. Brown, and is erected on a wharf close to Darling Harbour, immediately to the south of the foot of Liverpool Street. It has been in successful operation some four months, and it bids fair to become one of the most successful ventures in the way of manufacturing industry in the colony. 
Mr. J. A. Brown, having some of his relatives engaged in the manufacture of glass in England, began to turn his attention to the subject some four years ago, and after conducting innumerable experiments, and expending a large amount of capital, as well as time, succeeded in turning out an article for which there is a considerable demand, and which, as a commercial speculation, already pays well. Notwithstanding the immense quantity of sand in the vicinity of Sydney, the greatest difficulty which Mr. Brown encountered was in getting sand of the right quality and even now the whole of the sand used in the manufactory is obtained from one particular spot on the sandhills. Sand, which, to all appearance, so closely resembles the kind used that the difference is scarcely perceptible, cannot be used at all in this factory, inasmuch as the glass made from it is not at all transparent, and is moreover full of defects. This was not the only difficulty met with, for, strange as it may appear, the chemical ingredients from which glass is made in England have been tried in vain in this colony— or at least the same proportions of ingredients have been used without success. A further difficulty was in obtaining the services of mechanics who had been accustomed to glassblowing at home, and after advertising in the whole of the colonies, the services of two men were obtained. These two are now constantly employed in the manufactory, and four others are daily expected to arrive from England. 
The building in which the manufactory is carried on is of the most unpretentious description, consisting simply of s wooden shell upon stone foundations. The furnace or oven has three openings, one for the fire, and two for the four crucibles which contain the materials, or ' batch,' as they are called. This furnace is erected in the centre of the building, and at the southern end of the same are four other furnaces ; one for annealing the crucibles before being used as the receptacle ft-r the hatch, and the other three for annealing the glass goods before they are ready for the m&ikci — for in the absence of this gradual cooling process the glass would fly into a thousand pieces. The pots or crucibles are made with great care, of a peculiar kind of clay, and are required to remain a long time to dry before being used. They are then placed in the furnace built especially for them, and this is gradually heated until the pots are of a white heat, when they are transferred to the large furnace, and are ready to receive the batch. With care, a pot will last many months, but contact with cold air will stiver it to pieces; hence it is necessary to keep the fire in the furnace night and day all the year round. We now come to the batch, which, for obvious reasons, is prepared by Mr. Brown himself. That the materials may fuse with the greater readiness, they are calcined in a furnace before being introduced into the crucibles, to remove water, carbonic acid, and organic impurities. The ingredients are mixed in dc finite proportions, and ore then ready for the furnace. They are then handed to the 'teazer,' whose duty it is to place them in the pots, keep up the fire, fill up the pots as the batch subsides by fusion, and send for the blowers as soon as the glass is ready for working. Hitherto the Messrs. Brown have confined their attention almost exclusively to the manufacture of soda water bottles, in consequence of their being a readier sale for them in the colony than for any other description of glass goods ; but they have now commenced the manufacture of chimneys for kerosene lamps; and considering how generally these lamps are used by all classes in the community, the proprietors are justified in anticipating a ready sale for a very large quantity. They are also turning their attention to the manufacture of tumblers, wine glasses, bottles of various descriptions, and jars for sulphuric acid — for every kind of hollow glass goods can be manufactured at this establishment, from a two ounce vial bottle to a nine-gallon carboy* Two mea end three boys are employed in working up the metal (glass in & state of fusion) into soda water bottles, and the operation is performed as follows A hollow rod is introduced into the melted mass, and the glass wound up like wax upon its extremity. When* sufficient quantity is upon it, the rod is removed by the workman and carried to the top of a tub of water, on which it rests while the metal cools slightly, and the workman throws water over the middle of the rod to keep it sufficiently cool to enable him to hold it in his hands. After this, the workman rolls the glass backwards and forwards on a smooth stone, occasionally thrusting it beyond the farther edge, and pulling the rod gently towards him. He is thus able to elongate the mass, or diminish its circumference at pleasure, and the operation is continued until a bottle's length of glass remains below the extremity of the rod, and this of such circumference that when inserted in & mould, the size of the required bottle, and inflated, the sides shall have a proper thickness. The mould is made of iron, in two pieces, like a bottle cleft down the middle, and these pieces are so constructed as to open or separate when a spring is touched by the foot. The bottle thus formed is removed, by means of the glass on the rod adhering to it, to a receptacle near the opening to the furnace, where by a sudden jerk it is detached ft cm the rod, the bottle is then lifted by means of a punty (a mould fitting the lower portion of the bottle, and attached to the end of an iron rod), mud placed in the furnace, where by means of another rod & small quantity of metal is placed round the upper portion, of the neck of the bottle to form its head. The bottle is then removed from the furnace by one of the workmen, who sits down and rounds off the rim and head with forceps. It is now handed to a boy, who places it in a heated chamber to be annealed. The heat in the annealing oven is so regulated that it gradually subsides, and on the third day the bottles are ready for packing. 
Notwithstanding the various processes through which the glass passes from the time it is taken from the furnace till it is placed as a bottle in the annealing oven, so great is the dexterity of the workmen, that when doing their best they make four bottles per. minute. These soda water bottles, which the Messrs. Brown can now turn out at the rate of 40 gross per week, and which quantity will be more than doubled when their four additional men, to arrive shall have commenced work, are much clearer than the imported bottles, are better finished, and are considerably cheaper, If a sale could be obtained for as many as could be manufactured, the Messrs. Brown believe that they could undersell the imported bottles by 18 or 29 per cent. Large quantities of these bottles have been already shipped, to Order, to Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and New Zealand, and there seems every probability that the importation of this class of bottles from the mother country will shortly cease altogether. We are informed that the cordial manufacturers of this city prefer them to the imported bottles. Mr. Starkey has recently purchased a large quantity of them, and Mr. Henfrey tested the strength of some of them, a short time since, and although he put on the greatest pressure of which his machinery was capable, he failed to burst one of them. 
A number of sodawater bottles, and carboys, from this establishment, have been sent to the Intercolonial Exhibition at Melbourne ; and a variety of articles, made of flint glass, are now being prepared for the same exhibition. Had the Messrs. Brown started their manufactory in Victoria, they could have put forward a valid claim to the £1000 bonus which the Government of that colony offer to any person who commences and bring into successful operation a new branch of industry ; and although the enterprising firm referred to may not succeed in this direction in Sydney, all who take an interest in the material advancement of the colony will wish them every success in their undertaking. BROWN'S GLASS FACTORY. (1866, November 3). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Among our new industries we may now number the glass manufactory at the foot of Liverpool-street, Sydney, near Darling Harbour. This establishment has been in existence for several months, haring been commenced by Mr., Brown, of Sydney, as an experiment, for the manufacture of soda water and other bottles. The glass-house in which the furnace is constructed is at present only of a temporary character.
The furnace contains four crucibles, each of which will contain about 10 cwt of glass metal which is prepared for blowing In about ten hours, the furnace feeing kept at white heat by the best Newcastle coals. "When the metal is ready, the furnace fire is gradually damped down, and the metal is then gathered, as required, on blow-pipes, five feet in length. Glass in its liquid state can be gathered from one ounce to almost any weight, as the article to be made may requires. 
The process of making a sodawater bottle
Its pipe being at white heat, is smoothed externally by being belled on a marble slab; it is then placed into onto an iron mould, blown, and detached at the neck by another process. After the neck has been neatly formed, the bottle is removed by a lad to the annealing kiln, where it remains for twelve or fourteen hours,  until gradually cooled. The bottles are made with great rapidity. A full "chair " of workman consists of a "gatherer," a "ringer,”; "finisher," and two boys to "wet off" and pack the tittles in the annealing kilns. Four "chairs " could work at this furnace, but four "chairs" of competent workmen cannot at present be obtained. 
The composition of the glass is prepared by Mr. Alderson, the fore-man; a gentleman who has been thirty years connected with glass manufactories in England. He is a relative of Mr. Alderson, of the firm of Alderson, Perin, and Co., Warrington. Mr. Brown, the proprietor of this concern, has evidently had many difficulties to encounter, and sacrificed a large amount of capital in bringing the works to their present stage. Those workmen who aided in initiating the 'machinery have nearly all left with a view to set up a' glass manufactory of their own. It was fortunate that Mr. Brown succeeded in obtaining so competent a tradesman as Mr. Alderson to superintend his business and when the competent hands from England arrive, an impetus will be given to this branch of colonial industry that will conduce, materially in
lessening the importation of soda-water bottles, jam and medicine bottles of all sizes and shapes, pickle bottles, kerosene chimneys, bird troughs, ink wells for stands, besides all kinds of chemical retorts and feeding bottles.
Those articles can be now made here, but not in sufficient quantities to meet the demand, and the work is consequently confined at present to completing the very large demands for soda water bottles. A package of these soda water bottles was sent to the Melbourne exhibition. Some opinion was expressed that they were not sufficiently strong. Two dozen bottles were, therefore, sent to Mr. Henfrey's soda water manufactory, filled and tested with the highest pressure with-out one of them breaking, and these will be sent, in a day or two to Melbourne, as a proof of their durable quality. The bottles we saw had the same appearance as those imported, and when brohon were of equal substance. The raw material for the glass, and the clay for the crucibles, are inexhaustible near Sydney. It will, perhaps, be ten or fifteen years before we shall be enabled to make large window panes and plain plate glass. It is satisfactory, however, to be able to record that a glass manufactory has been fairly established in the colony, at which the kind of bottles above enumerated can be made and sold at a less price than those imported. With the accession of competent workmen from the mother country, the establishment will be increased, and the whole premises re-constructed in accordance with plans more suited to the business than those in present use.COLONIAL GLASS MANUFACTORY. (1867, January 5). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from 

One of those whom Mr. Brown brought out, and who then went and set up on their own, was Joseph Ross - more on him below.

The opening of any new industrial enterprise in the colony, especially one for the production of goods that, like glassware, are so generally required for domestic, and on immense variety of other purposes, cannot but be viewed as a gratifying addition to our manufacturing capabilities. Whence came the original conception that such an undertaking could be profitably engaged in here may be matter of doubt, but three or four years ago, when the first practical effort was made, there had been proof that we possessed an inexhaustible supply of the chief ingredient of glass, and that too of an excellent quality. There was the striking fact of an English vessel free to carry any cargo which presented itself, transporting common sea sand a distance of 10,000 miles from Australia to England, in order that the glass-maker might have a fining siliceous material for his manufacture. Humble import as this was, it was shown to be so peculiarly well fitted for the production of the finest glass as to render it commercially advantageous to freight vessels with this substance alone. That this has not been carried out on a large scale may be attributed chiefly to certain objections to sand in its loose state as a cargo. However, having here close at hand such an abundant store of material rich in silica that constitutes the basis of all commercial [glass, having also lime, which enters into the production of some species of the article, having a plentiful supply of coals in variety, and seeing that at the same time there was a kind of legitimate protection to the new industry in the cost of importing like goods from so distant a part of the world as Europe, it would seem to any one who gave the matter a thought that success was attainable under favourable circumstances with regard to labour. This ground, however, afforded one of the first impediments in the way of the original projectors, and skilled men had to be collected by various means from different occupations in remote parts of Australia and New Zealand. 
Premises convertible to the purpose of a glass-house were taken near the head of Darling Harbour, and brought into a condition suited to glass production. Without acquaintance with the particular state of circumstances that afterwards arose it would be useless to speculate upon the ground for the change that indicated something like failure, namely, a change in the proprietorship. Whether it had its - cause in difficulties connected" with labour or capital, or insufficient or unprofitable production, has not been inquired into. Whatever the unfavourable circumstances they appear to a great extent to have been got over by the present Sydney Glass Company, and there is every promise now that the work will developed into a large and important industry, having in view the extensive range from within which demands for the goods it supplies are likely to come.
Although most people are pretty familiar with the substances used and the process adopted in glassmaking, some particulars of the works in operation, may afford an idea of their extent and capabilities.
The works of the Sydney Glass Company, in Dixon-street, occupy an area of about a quarter of an acre, and on entering them the nature of the industry there pursued is at once apparent from the materials lying about. The sands are procured within no great distance of Sydney ; but they hive to be cleansed carefully, and then they are calcined. Bat there is another kind of material, also supplied in the locality, called "cullet," being the broken glass collected from the city by boys and girls, and purchased at the Works. It has to be washed, and the pressed or German glass separated from the English cut glass, as their constituents differ. Lime is used for green glass, and the best for this purpose is the stone lime procured from the Manning River. Various alkalies are also required-for instance, soda ash, carbonate of soda, and potash-as fluxes, and the oxide of lead is used in making what is called " flint glass," to which title, however, it seems to have no exclusive right. 
In preparing the " fret," or mixed materials for melting, scrupulous care is required in giving the proper proportion of each ingredient, and even the strength of the alkali has to be tested before it can be safely used.
The different materials are put together in bins in what is called the mixing room. The broken glass brought in from the streets, after having been sorted, has to be again mixed up with sand, alkali, &c, according to its peculiar composition. The purpose of the saltpetre seen in the mixing room is to give the metal when in the pots greater adhesiveness, as it is sometimes in what is called too "buttery" a state to stick to the end of the blowing-pipe. 
The sieving of the soda ash is a dangerous occupation, and the men when thus engaged have to prevent the dust coining in contact with their skin or getting in their throats. Before going into the melting department it is as well to look to the pots or crucibles the making of which is of sufficient importance to have two rooms devoted to the purpose. These pots which are dome shaped, and have an opening on the side near the top, have for general use capacity for about a ton of metal and weigh from 12 cwt. to 15 cwt. They are made of Newcastle fireclay and require not only great care in construction, but the lapse of a considerable time before they have passed the various stages that fit them for the fiery ordeal they will have to pass through. After lying in soak for a week, the clay which has been refined, is kneaded by a couple of boys with naked feet, again allowed to rest for fourteen days, when it is turned over and the process of kneading repeated. The bottom of the crucible having been formed, its sides are built up by gradual and careful application of small pieces of the clay. The thickness averages from three to four inches; and four pots will occupy about a month in making. They remain in the room which is kept at pretty nearly an even temperature for two or three months, until the moisture has gone from the clay, and they are then very hard. The great care exercised in making the pots is necessary in order that no foreign matter may enter with the clay, as a bit of stick or stone would be fatal to them when they get into the furnace. The pots being sufficiently dried ore conveyed on an iron carriage to the pot arch to be baked. This process takes ten or twelve days, the temperature being gradually raised and all air excluded until they become quite white with heat. This pot arch is not far from the furnace, the front of which is laid open to receive the pot. This is a critical time, as the heavy pot has to be moved whilst in this state of incandescence to its destination in the furnace, which also is brought up to a founding heat, when the pot is fixed the front of the furnace is_ built up again, the crucible receives a glazing of its inner surface, and all sediment from the glazing having been removed from the bottom, it is ready to be charged with a batch of " fret."
The furnace is a square brick structure, banded strongly with iron, and the cave beneath, 80 feet long, gives a powerful draught. A pot is inserted in each of the four sides on brickwork, and so enclosed as to leave only the orifice at the side open, all the rest of the pot having a current of flame around it. The materials for the glass are shovelled in to the pot through the side aperture, and when the proper quantity has been received, the hole is closely stopped with fire-clay The heat is got up to great intensity, and m about four hours the fusion and amalgamation of the materials take place, and liquid glass is formed Some difficulty has been experienced in procuring suitable coals as it was necessary that they should burn to a white heat and clinker on the bars, so as to preserve the heat when obtained The best Newcastle coal was not found to serve the purpose, but other kinds, from both the Newcastle and Illawarra mines have met the special requirements, and the average consumption is about twelve tons a week. The pots when emptied of metal are refilled, and will generally last about four months. Bad chemicals are most destructive to them, for instance, damaged oxide of lead will utterly destroy them the instant great heat is applied in the furnace. The breaking of a pot produces a great stir in the establishment. The teaser, whose sphere of duty is in the region below the furnace, will probably be the first to perceive it, by the leakage of metal through the bars. Then all hands are summoned and a hasty emptying of the pot takes place. Much can be saved in this way, as the contents may be worth £20.
The " glory hole " is a small separate furnace used m intermediate stages of tooled work after the various articles have been blown and moulded
When the articles have, by means of the iron blowing pipes and the after work of tooling and moulding, assumed the required shape and size, they have to be annealed to prevent their cracking or breaking under any sudden alteration of temperature-just as a good housewife boils glass vessels, and allows them to cool gradually before using them for hot liquids. The articles are taken from the workmen by boys, and, according to their quality, are placed in the lear-a long, low arched oven on one tide the building, or in the bottle arch on the other side, each of which is heated to a moderate temperature, and a gradual cooling then takes place According to the thickness of the glass the process takes a longer or shorter period.
There is a mould-maker employed on the establishment, provided with all the appliances for making articles of various patterns. According to the design the moulds are made in more or less separate pieces of iron, made to fit with great nicety, and with smoothly-finished inner surface. The moulds open and close by means of hinges, and some are used in a hand lever press, others worked by foot. The addition of this branch, which is recent, is expected to prove economical in saving considerable skilled labour by tool work in the chair.
The store-room, which stands apart from the works is well stocked, and the crates and shelves display the various description of goods produced. Among these there are in green glass – soda water bottles, carboys, jam jars, dispensing bottles and phials in sizes, old tom, bottles, and it is intended to make glass gingerbeer bottles, as it is estimated that they can be manufactured of glass as cheaply as of earthenware. In flint glass there are tumblers and goblets, confectioners show glasses, kerosene lamp chimneys, globes, flower aquariums, white spirit bottles, glass stands, test glasses, candle shades, gas chimneys, &c. The capabilities of the establishment are sufficient for the manufacture of every kind of goods except cut glass. The works employ about twenty hands on the premises.
The other manufactory is that of the Druitt-street Glass Company at the West end of Druitt-street, and also abutting upon Darling Harbour.They confine themselves to the production of flint glass. It would be superfluous to describe the processes of the work, as they are similar to in nearly all respects and on> almost the same -plan as those at the Sydney Glass works. Here the furnace is conical, and is adapted for holding four crucibles. Among the articles shewn . in the store-room are wines, champagnes, goblets, tumblers, nil kinds of lamp glasses, moulded medical bottles, confectionery show glasses in variety, fish globes, water-boules, jugs, &c. The consumption of coal is from seven to eight toes per week. 
Flint glass requiring an intenser heat than other vitreous metal, it seems that in proportion to products the fuel would be greater in quantity.
Already the demand for the colonial-made goods is large and increasing, so that there is hope of this industry being permanently established. Only when this is successfully effected, can there be a prospect of extending operations to the more artistic kinds of work. Of glass cutters it is said there is only one in these colonies, and he is located at Melbourne. In some transactions between him and the Druitt-street Glass Company there was a curious exemplification of the effect of a protective tariff. To Victoria, where glass is not manufactured, a few lamp globes were sent to be cut, and though their value was only 17s., they had to pay 5s. duty. If this is the kind of protection the artisan gets there, our glass manufacturers would, it might reasonably be supposed, prefer the converse policy, Their ability to produce, without legislative aid, the articles they have up to the present attempted, at a price enabling them successfully to compete^ with imported goods of the same class, is an indication of the soundness of the enterprise, and its permanent success will be more thoroughly secured by self sustained vigour. COLONIAL GLASS MANUFACTURE. (1868, March 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

The colonial made glassware attracted a considerable amount of curiosity on the part of visitors, many of whom could have had but little idea that such articles could be turned out in the colony. The Co-operative Glass Company, of Druitt-street, exhibited a fine collection of this wore, consisting of bottles, show glasses, tumblers, gas shades, &c, &c, in great variety. They also exhibited some very beautiful globes of very large dimensions. Mr. J. Ross, of Camperdown, exhibited a large assortment of glassware, consisting of tho most part of chemists' bottles; the collection also contained some well got up articles of other descriptions of glassware. ARTICLES OF COLONIAL MANUFACTURE. (1869, May 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from 

Ross's Glass Bottle Works,
(See illustration on this page.)
With this issue we present an illustration of the exterior of the well-known glass bottle works of Mr. Joseph Ross, in Australia-street, Camperdown. Few industries are more widely known than this one, controlled by Mr. Ross, who has been for 47 years in the glass manufacturing business, and who is the original manufacturer of glass from sand in Australia. The factory at Camperdown was started 30 years ago by the present genial proprietor, who for many years had a hard uphill fight; but his indomitable energy and pluck, and thorough knowledge of every branch of the trade, prevailed in the end, and at the present time the works are in a most flourishing condition. About 40 hands are employed, and all the most modern appliances and machinery for the perfect manufacture of bottle glass are used. The works, which have been appropriately named the " Perseverance Glass Bottle Works," cover a large area of ground, and though the number of hands employed is large, many more could be taken on were the demand for his products greater. There are three smelting furnaces, having tanks capable of holding 30, 16, and 4 tons of liquid glass respectively ; and nine annealing ovens. The amount of coal consumed is slightly more than 200 tons per month, and some idea of the intensity of the heat that is maintained in the main furnaces can be formed  when it is stated that the temperature reached amounts to many thousands of degrees Fahrenheit. It may be mentioned that the stones at the bottom of the large glass tanks are of the best Pyrmont sandstone, while the sides and crown are of English fire bricks. 

The furnaces are constructed on most approved principles, and by means of a very large tunnel excavated beneath the fire boxes, a wonderful draught is obtained. Mr. Ross makes bold the assertion, notwithstanding his large experience in England, Europe, and America, that in no other country in the glass-manufacturing world is the quality of the principal ingredients-the lime and sand-as high-class as in New South Wales ; he contends the Marulan lime used by him cannot be surpassed, if equalled, anywhere. Mr. Ross confines his business in the main to the manufacture of glass bottles, and among other kinds turns out aerated water, chemists' and druggists', condiment, pickle, sauce, wine, spirit, beer, and confectioners' bottles. 

During the last two years he has gone in largely for manufacturing jam and fruit preserving jars and bottles, and now does a very large trade in that direction. Previous to this nearly all our fruit preserving jars and bottles came from America, but Mr. Ross's enterprise had the effect of reducing their cost since then by nearly 2s per dozen. These colonial-made fruit jars have taken the market fairly well, and have secured first prizes at many colonial shows. 

Mr. Ross is now supplying some of the largest Sydney firms with fruit bottles and jars, and manufactures aerated water and other bottles for the principal Sydney firms. He also has many customers in inland towns, and exports largely to Tasmania, Queensland, and New Zealand. As further showing the extent of his business, Mr. Ross has over 500 moulds for the different shapes of bottles. Nearly every steamer brings an addition to this number, and besides a mould-maker is kept constantly employed at the works. His appliances also include 600 blowpipes, 36 of which are required for each set. On an average 250 gross of bottles are manufactured every week, but the furnaces and appliances are sufficient to turn out three times that number. A wholesale business is of course chiefly carried on, but small orders, even to the housewife's dozen jam bottles, are also executed. A visit to the glassworks of Mr. Ross is well worth making, the different processes employed in the manufacture of a bottle, a description of which would occupy too much space here, being highly interesting and instructive. Suffice it to say that Mr. Ross is carrying on a thriving business, the products of his factory equal any of those imported, his prices are just as low and in some cases lower than those charged for the foreign-made article ; so that his laudable enterprise and efforts to establish one of the most useful of colonial industries deserve the best encouragement of the community.

Ross's Perseverance Glass Bottle Works--Australia's Pioneer Factory. 
(See letterpress on this page.)  
Ross's Glass Bottle Works. (1893, April 22). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 21. Retrieved from

The death took place yesterday, at his residence, Bray-Street. Erskineville, of Mr. Joseph Ross, an old and well-known resident of Sydney. Mr. Ross was the pioneer of the glass industry In Australasia, having mixed and smelted the first pot of glass, and made the first lot of bottles on August 18, 1866, at Darling Harbour, on the site now- occupied by the Fresh Food and Ice Company. 

In founding the glass trade Mr. Ross surmounted great difficulties. That he has left his mark is evinced by the fact that four of his sons are now engaged in this business. Mr. Ross's first apprentice is the managing-director of the Melbourne Bottle Works; another apprentice is works manager of the Sydney Glass-works, whilst a third is carrying on business on his own account. Mr. Ross took an active interest in municipal and political affairs, and was one of the founders of the Chamber of Manufactures, being on the first council, and several times a delegate at interstate conferences. He was also one of the promoters of the Protection and Political Reform League, and was always an ardent advocate for protection to Australian industry.

As an employer of labour, he was respected by all his men. A proof of this is the fact that four of his employees were 38, 37, 36, and 35 years respectively in his service, whilst many others have served from 16 to 30 years.

He leaves a widow and a family of five sons and two daughters, the latter being Mrs. Boag, of Newtown, and Mrs. Walker, of Marrickville Mr. Ross was born in Sunderland, England, in 1830, of Scottish parents.
DEATH OF MR. JOSEPH ROSS. (1909, July 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from


Though just beginning his first term of office. Alderman T. Ross, J.P., promises to be one of the -most successful mayors Waterloo has ever known.Born at Darling Harbour on August 18, 1866, he is one of the sons of Mr. Joseph Ross, the pioneer glass manufacturer of Australia. Alderman Ross is a member of the firm of Vance and Ross, the well-known glass bottle manufacturers of Botany-road, Alexandria. Great, however, as are the demands made upon him 'by his business, Alderman Ross has found time to take an active part In local and political 'affairs. He is a determined fighter, and was always easily retained his seat in the Waterloo Council. He is a member of the Redfern School Board,  and, with the assistance of the Mayoress, takes a prominent part in every charitable movement. His Worship faces his new duties with confidence, and there is no such word as "failure" in his vocabulary. No title (1908, March 29). The Sunday Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1903 - 1910), p. 5. Retrieved from 

Mrs. Christina Ross, widow of tho late Mr. Joseph Ross— the pioneer glass manufacturer of Australia— died early yesterday morning at her residence, Bray-street, Erskinoville. Deceased was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1841. In the sixties she was of very valuable assistance to her husband in establishing the glass industry, and for many years she made all the clay pots or crucibles In which the raw materials for making glass was smelted. Mrs. Ross had a large family, of whom four sons and two daughters are alive, as well as about 30 grandchildren. Tho eldest son. Thomas Ross, Is n director of Vance and Ross, Ltd., glass bottle manufacturers, and he is an ex-Mayor of Waterloo, senior vice-president , of the South Sydney Hospital, and a member of the council of the Chamber of Manufactures.' Mr. Frank Ross is in business on his own account; whilst John and Alexander Ross are members of the firm of Ross Bros., glass bottle makers. The daughters, Mrs. Boag and Mrs. Walker, are. well-known residents of Newtown and Erskine-ville, Mrs. Ross was a very old member of the Methodist Church. The funeral will take place to-day in the Methodist portion of the Necropolis, Rook-wood. AN OLD PIONEER. (1914, June 15). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 9. Retrieved from

Mr. Thomas Ross, who died last Sunday at his home, "Bottles," Burraneer Bay, Cronulla, aged 71 years, was the son of Mr. Joseph Ross, the pioneer bottle and glass manufacturer of Australia. Mr. Thomas Ross also went into the glass manufacturing business, and became a principal in the business ofMessrs. Vance and Ross which, in 1916, amalgamated with the Sydney Glass and Bottle Works, the Waterloo Glass and Bottle Works, the Melbourne Glass and Bottle Works, and the Adelaide Glass and Bottle Works, to form the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., Ltd. Mr. Thomas Ross retired from business many years ago because of ill-health. He was a leading figure in the establishment of the South Sydney Hospital, and helped to introduce the Empire Day celebrations into the public schools of New South Wales. He is survived by Mrs. Ross and two sons, Messrs. Fred, and Tom Ross, both of whom are associated with the Crown Crystal Glass Co., Ltd. DEATH OF MR. THOMAS ROSS (1936, December 31).The Propeller (Hurstville, NSW : 1911 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from

Joseph Ross (c.1836-1909) and Thomas Ross (1866-1936), glassmakers, were father and son. Joseph was born at Sunderland, Durham, England, son of Scottish-born parents. On 7 December 1859 in Edinburgh he married Christina Frazer (c.1841-1914), from Wick. They were to have four children born in Scotland and another ten in Australia. Joseph became a glassblower and about 1865 migrated with his family to Rockhampton, Queensland. In Sydney next year J. A. Brown employed him as a bottle maker. By 1871 Ross occupied his own premises in Australia Street, Camperdown, later named the Perseverance Glass Works. Here his workforce made bottles although, as he was a staunch Methodist and supporter of the temperance movement, apparently not for brewers, distillers and vintners.
In the early 1880s Ross subscribed to the Protection and Political Reform League and was an inaugural committee-member (1885) of the Chamber of Manufactures of New South Wales. Next year he helped to create the Protection Union of New South Wales. In 1887 he was a founding director of the Australian Newspaper Co. Ltd, which launched the protectionist newspaper the Australian Star, and a delegate to the first intercolonial conference of Chambers of Manufactures, in Adelaide. Next year he attended a subsequent conference in Melbourne.
Neighbours at times hauled Ross into court under the Smoke Nuisances Protection Act. In 1885 he had been brought before a parliamentary select committee, established by free traders to enquire into allegations that the protectionist Ninian Melville had corruptly helped Ross to sell land at Newtown to the Department of Railways at an inflated valuation. The committee found the charge 'not proven'.
Glassblowing was a family trade. Christina, at least early in the marriage, made the clay pots and crucibles within which the molten alloy was smelted. Four sons entered the business. When young, the daughters swept the works and shovelled coke into the furnaces; one married a glassblower. In 1894 Ross sold his factory to the Australian Drug Co., which tore it down to end competition with the company's North Botany (Mascot) bottle works. Ross agreed to stay out of business for ten years, but within three months his sons John and Alexander, as Ross Bros, had opened new kilns in Bray Street, Erskineville. Joseph and Christina moved next door to this factory and at times Christina was listed as its owner. Joseph's photograph showed a bold and mischievous face, with a fair curly beard and flourishing moustache. He died at home on 23 July 1909 and was buried in the Methodist section of Rookwood cemetery. His wife, five sons and two daughters survived him. Christina died on 14 June 1914.
Their fifth child Thomas had been born at Dixon Street on 18 August 1866, said to have been the night his father first fashioned a bottle in Sydney. Tom was business manager of the Perseverance works from an early age. On 23 January 1895 at St Paul's Church of England, Redfern, he married Ann Elizabeth Tye, née Mason, a widow. After 1894, instead of joining John and Alexander in Ross Bros, he managed glassworks at Alexandria, where he became associated with the Scottish-born master glassblower David Vance (c.1852-1931). Vance had arrived in Sydney about 1886 with his wife Catherine, née Hutton, whom he had married on 24 April 1885 at Glasgow. He worked for the Australian Drug Co. at its North Botany bottle works and then acquired two small glass-foundries at Waterloo. By 1904 he was in partnership with Thomas Ross. Their Alexandria Glass Works was known particularly for fruit preserving jars and whisky bottles.
A Freemason and a justice of the peace, Thomas had learned his politics in the tight little world of Camperdown and Newtown and followed his father as a committee member of the Chamber of Manufactures. In 1908-09 he was mayor of Waterloo. He was recruited by (Sir) James Joynton Smith as senior vice-president and government nominee on the board of South Sydney Hospital in 1909. His wife Elizabeth joined the board in January 1913. In 1910 Thomas failed to win Liberal pre-selection for the State seat of Botany.
Australian Glass Manufacturers Co. Ltd bought out Vance & Ross in 1915, paying the partners £24,000 in cash. As well, Vance received 9000 A.G.M. shares and Ross 7000. The Alexandria plant was demolished. Ross, in poor health for some years, retired to Burraneer Bay, Cronulla, naming his home Bottles. In the 1920s Vance moved to Glen Nevis, next door, where he died on 25 August 1931. An ardent promoter of Empire Day, Ross had celebrated the end of World War I by creating a large mosaic of three flags from coloured bottle glass set in concrete at his front gate, in honour of and relief at the survival of his sons Flight Lieutenant Frederick and Lance Corporal Thomas (who had won the Military Medal) and of a nephew. Thomas Ross senior died at his home on 27 December 1936, survived by his wife and their two sons.
Both sons worked for the A.G.M. subsidiary Crown Crystal Glass Pty Ltd, set up in 1926 to make cut glass, lighting ware and Pyrex. Young Tom became commercial manager. A stocky, hard-faced man, he presided over the works' cricket team, its golf days and its annual ball and represented the company in court against the trade unions. In 1955, however, the board tried to force his resignation, perhaps because of his ill health, and when he refused dismissed him. He died at his Bellevue Hill home on 18 February 1963. Legends he and his father had elaborated about their family as pioneer glassmakers, into which they had adopted Vance, were accepted by A.G.M. (later Australian Consolidated Industries Ltd) without question as part of its corporate history.
Barrie Dyster, 'Ross, Joseph (1836–1909)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, published first in hardcopy 2005

THE demand for colonially manufactured glassware is so rapidly exceeding the supply as to require the starting another glass factory. The new establishment, which is in the hands of a Company styled the Australasian Glass Manufacturing Company, commenced active operations in the newly-erected premises in Type-street, Richmond, on Tuesday, 2nd April last. The works comprise a smelting furnace, containing three ten-cwt. crucibles and one six-cwt. crucible, four annealing kilns for cooling down the manufactured glass, one pot-arch for annealing the pots, and one " glory-hole " for finishing large ware. At present fifteen hands are in constant employ, and the turn-out is over ten tons weekly. The principal articles "manufactured at the works are wine glasses and kerosene lamp chimneys, but samples were exhibited of almost every kind of glassware, from a plain nobbler glass to an elegant flower epergne, a large fish globe, or an elaborate water caraffe, which had been manufactured on the previous evening, and had gone through the final process of annealing.

THE AUSTRALASIAN" GLASS COMPANY'S WORKS, RICHMOND. (1878, August 10).Illustrated Sydney News and New South Wales Agriculturalist and Grazier (NSW : 1872 - 1881), p. 5. Retrieved from 

The above was a Victorian glass maker.

Australian Glass Bottle Company.
SYDNEY, Wednesday.-The above has been formed with a capital of £10,000, in £1 shares. Australian Glass Bottle Company. (1884, July 10).Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) , p. 2. Retrieved from

At the Redfern Police Court yesterday, before Mr. Payten, S. M. , Walter  J Taylor, of the Department of Labour and Industry, proceeded against Haigh Zlotkowski manager of the Australian Glass Manufacturing Company, on six charges of employing a male person under the age of 16 years in that part of his works at Alexandria in the process of melting and annealing glass was carried on. Defendant pleaded not guilty. Evidence was also given be several of the boys, all of whom stated that they were, on the day the inspector called, engaged at work between the furnace and the annealing ovens. Some were drawing bottles out of the oven, others were knocking bottles off the blow-pipe onto a plate. The defendant stated in evidence that all the firing was done at night. Every morning the furnace was blocked so that it would not go ahead and melt. On the day the inspector called there was no annealing of bottles. The defendant was convicted and fined £6 together with £2 4s costs, being 27s 4d in each case, in default, imprisonment for seven days. EMPLOYMENT OF BOYS. (1903, May 27).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from 

NOTICE is hereby given that at an Extraordinary General Meeting of the abovenamed Company held at the offices of Messieurs Frederick J. Smith and Johnson, 7 Moore-street, Sydney, in the State of New South Wales, on Wednesday, the first day of December, 1915, the following Special Resolutions were passed and at an Extraordinary General Meeting of the said Company. held at the offices of Messieurs Frederick J. Smith and Johnson, number 7 Moore Street. Sydney aforesaid, on Friday, the seventeenth day of December, 1915, the said resolutions were duly confirmed, namely:—

That this Company  be wound up voluntarily, and that Wilfrid Edward Johnson, of 7 Moore-street, Sydney, be and he is hereby appointed liquidator for the purpose of such winding-up.

That the agreement expressed to be made between the liquidator of the Melbourne Glass Bottle Works Company Proprietary Limited of the first part, the said Melbourne Glass Bottle Works Company Proprietary Limited of the second part, the liquidator of this Company of the third part, and this Company of the fourth part, and Hatsell Chapman Gerrard, Trustee of a new Company to be named "Australian Glass Manufacturers' Company Limited" of the fifth part, be and the same is hereby approved, and the liquidator be and he is hereby directed to enter into the said agreement on behalf of this Company, and to carry the same into effect.

That the liquidator of this Company be and he is hereby authorised to sell if and when necessary so many of the shares forming part of the consideration mentioned in the said agreement rs may be necessary and to satisfy any dissentient shareholders of this Company, and to apply the proceeds of such sale for that purpose, and to distribute the remaining shares anions the members of this Company proportionately to their holdings therein.

Dated this twenty-second day of December, 1915.
THE WATERLOO GLASS BOTTLE WORKS LIMITED. (1915, December 30). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 7831. Retrieved from

SYDNEY, Tuesday.
The Australian Glass Manufacturing Co., Ltd., is closing down tonight on account of the shortage of coal; 850 men will be affected. 
GLASS MANUFACTURING WORKS AFFECTED. (1916, November 8). Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 - 1949), p. 3. Retrieved from 

About Bottles  
The New South Wales Bottle Company, Limited, carrying on business at Bulwarra-road, Ultimo, Sydney, has an advertisement in this issue of special Interest to hotelkeepers, cordial manufacturers, storekeepers, bottle merchants, bottle dealers and others. The firm states that their bottles remain the sole property of the firm, and that only the contents of such bottles are sold — not the bottles themselves. Various other conditions are set out which those concerned can read for themselves. Local and General News (1918, June 6). The Northern Champion (Taree, NSW : 1913 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

Bottle Collecting.
"Bottles" asks: (1) Is it necessary to have a license to gather bottles? (2) Must I get permission from a company to gather.their branded bottles?
(1) Yes, a second-hand dealer's licence. You should apply, in first instance to the local police. (2) Yes. Bottle Collecting. (1928, April 20). The Land(Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from

-The works of the Southan Glass Bottle Company, Limited, situated at the corner of Morley and Dunning-Avenues, Rosebery, were opened yesterday by Mr. J. D. Fitzgerald (Minister for Justice), who performed the ceremony by breaking a long glass stick hung across the doorway.Refreshments wore partaken of In a marquee erected on the grounds. Mr. Fitzgerald stated that he was sure that everyone was glad to see the Inauguration of a new branch of an Industry. Besides giving employment in times when the problem was a serious one, it would, enable other important industries In other parts of "the State to carry on. It had come' to Ills , knowledge that through tho;. lock of facilities a great abundance of fruit in New South Wales could not be bottled. The Industry was one which was going to relieve that position by providing moans to preserve fruits which otherwise would .rot on tho ground or. trees. It would enable the people to enjoy the benefits of what was now a wasting product. He wished the project every success, and was specially elated at the successful bottle-making machine Invented by Mr. Southan; more so because It was the work of an Australian, (applause.) The history of the formation of the company was traced by Mr. F. H. Greaves (chairman of directors), who stated that In the erection of the works every consideration had been given to the comfort of the workmen. Mr. T. Mutch, M.L.A., referring to Botany's Industrial future, said that, besides being close to the city, the centre would ultimately have convenient access to the Botany railway, whlle the bay was one in which cargo vessels innumerable could be accommodated. He hoped that a good spirit of co-operatlon would possess the directors in relations to the men employed in their enterprise. (Applause.) NEW GLASS BOTTLE WORKS. (1920, February 12). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 6. Retrieved from

Glass Manufacturing.
Although tariff alterations proposed by the Minister for Customs have not yet received the approval of Parliament, the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co Ltd announced that as a result of the duties to be imposed on sheet glass, the directors intend to manufacture the material in Sydney.The duties introduced by Mr. Pratten certainly are sufficiently high to tempt any organisation to seek to be the first in the field with an enterprise of the kind. The new venture is to be undertaken by a company subsidiary to the Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd. That concern ranks as an exceedingly prosperous business. By absorbing the Zetland Glass Bottle Works Ltd in 1921 it largely obtained a monopoly of the bottle making trade of the Commonwealth. When registered in 1913, it amalgamated the Waterloo Glass Bottle Works Ltd and the Melbourne Glass Bottle Works Co Pty Ltd , and purchased the business of Vance and Boss Pty Ltd , glass bottle makers. Capital before the amalgamation with the Zetland Co stood at £442 489 in £1 shares, of which £100 489 represented payments in money and £278 000 otherwise. At the time of that merger, the company’s nominal capital was increased from £1,000 000 to £2 000 000 of which £175 000 was issued as 9 percent preference and £775 695 as ordinary capital. Before the amalgamation, the old companys profits had moved up from £27, 367 in 1917 (15 months) to £65,524 in 192. After the reorganisation and during the 14 months to March 31, 1923, £139,370 was earned as net profits and the next year they amounted to £147,207. It will not be far for the company to go from bottle making to sheet glass making. The prestige and financial strength of the company should mean that it will have no trouble in obtaining any funds needed for the new enterprise. MONETARY AND MINING. (1925, September 15). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 8. Retrieved from 

At Left— An aerial photograph of the Sydney factory of Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., Ltd., 1 934, in addition to which subsidiaries have been established, namely, Crown Crystal Glass Co., Ltd., Australian Window Glass Pty., 'Ltd., and Dott - & Co., Pty., Ltd., which, combined' with the parent Company, is able to supply almost the entire glass requirements of the Commonwealth.

Photograph of the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co. Ltd., Sydney Works, in 1915, on the site of the present plant. 
AUSTRALIA'S GLASS INDUSTRY (1936, April 9). The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 11. Retrieved from 


A portion of the engineering section of the Sydney Works of Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., Ltd. Glass-smaking to-day is largely a matter of engineering skill and efficiency,coupled with modern plant.

—A Group of killed artisans employed in the engineering section of the Sydney Works of the Australian Glass Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 
GLASS FOR EVERY PURPOSE (1936, April 9). The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 11. Retrieved from 

A Great Australian Industry That Can Be Yet Further Developed 
THE Australian Glass Manufacturers Co, Ltd., and its Associated Companies Crown Crystal Glass Co. Ltd., Australian Window Glass Pty. Ltd, and Dott & Co. Pty Ltd. — manufacture a greater variety of glassware than any other Company in the world. The organisation has ten (to) production plants under its control — four glass factories in New South Wales; two in Victoria, and one in each of the other States and New Zealand. The factories cover an area of over 40 acres.
The total capital used in the industry exceeds £2,000,000. 4000 workers are directly employed, and indirect employment is provided for another 4000. With the exception of certain heavy chemicals; only produced overseas, all the raw materials are of Australian origin. The wages bill approaches £700,000 a year. Included in this great glass industry are various other subsidiary factories, including metal spinning, lamp making, metal stamping, plastic moulding, corrugated box making, refractory and crucible works. The plant and machinery in the various factories are maintained at a high -state of efficiency. Modern machines demand skilled mechanics with engineering qualifications. There are hundreds of such skilled mechanics engaged in the glass industry to-day. The glass blower, however, is still required. Extensions in the industry have created a demand for various types of workers, and engineers and glass, blowers are both absorbed. 
The Australian Glass Co. is a national institution, and Australian glass, in a hundred forms, a daily necessity. We look through Australian glass windows, drink from Australian glass vessels, and we eat food packed and preserved in Australian glass containers. Australian Glass products stand the triple test, of Quality, Quantity, and Price-
QUALITY — Equal to the world's best. 
QUANTITY— Sufficient for the Commonwealth. 
PRICE— (Short, expression to convey the intelligence that prices are reduced because of Australian manufacture. Prices are lower than they would be if there were no Australian manufacture.) 
A Great Australian Industry That Can Be Yet Further Developed (1936, April 9). The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 11. Retrieved from 


Damage estimated at £100,000 was caused by a lire, which destroyed a large section of the works of the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., Ltd., at Waterloo, yesterday. The conflagration was watched by thousands of people, who saw flames 100 feet high roll out of the burning building, and blazing material hurled skyward by frequent explosions. 
HUGE FIRE DESTROYS GLASS WORKS AT WATERLOO (1938, December 12).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

No Local Manufacturer 
Importers and distributors of hardware have complained of the detrimental effect on trade of the heavy Customs duties recently imposed by the Scullin Government on window glass. It is stated that the introduction of such exorbitant rates is unwarranted, and that the resultant increase in prices will either restrict the use of glass or increase the cost of building and bring about further unemployment. Although it was stated that the duties would not be imposed until August 1, to the surprise of those concerned they became operative on June 20- Heavy losses were incurred by traders who had sold glass on the basis of the former duty, shipments of which arrived from overseas after June 20, but before August 1. 
There is no window glass manufacturing industry operating in Australia. The Government intended that the protection provided by the increased duties should serve to foster such an industry. A company engaged in the manufacture of bottles and table glassware had stated that it would establish a window glass works, but it is understood that, it does not intend to begin manufacturing until it is guaranteed sufficient orders to keep the factory going at its maximum output. Reasons given for the postponement of operations were the presence of heavy stocks.- of imported glass in Australia, and trade depression. 
In the meantime, it is contended by merchants that the consumer is being penalised. : Importers who had paid the present high duties had to pass them on, and others who held stocks had also charged increased prices to their customers :because replacements would be subject to the higher duties. Formerly, it was stated, the duty "on window glass comprised a flat rate of 2/ a 100 ft. on British glass and 4/ a 100.' ft. under the general tariff. Present 'duties were British 1fid. a lb., or. 45 per cent., whichever was the higher, and foreign 2d. a lb., or 60 per cent., whichever was the higher, almost without exception the duty on weight would operate. Upon 16 oz. British glass the increase in duty was 525 per cent., and on 21-oz. glass it represented an increase of 750 per cent. On foreign glass the increases were 316 per cent. (16 oz.) and 450 per cent. (21 oz.). In addition to the duty on sheet glass a new sub-item, "figured rolled" glass, was embodied in the tariff. This glass was generally known as decorative cathedral glass, and was used chiefly for door panels, office screens, and similar work. The new duties on it represented 110 per cent. on the landed cost against the British product. 
Exclusive of primage duty, the tariff represented approximately 210 per cent. on the free-on-board value of 16 oz. Belgian glass and 164 per. cent. on. 21-oz. glass. With these charges it was contended that the protection to the Australian industry on Belgian 16-oz. glass vas about 330 per cent., and on 21 oz. glass 312 per cent. As no sheet glass has yet been made in Australia, and it is indefinite when manufacture will begin these heavy duties are deemed by importers to be unwarranted and makes importation practically prohibitive. It is believed that sufficient stocks of sheet glass are held by merchants in Australia to cover a long period, but it is stated that small purchasers will feel the hardships of the new duties more than the larger firms who hold stocks, and it will be difficult for the small men to handle the line. WINDOW GLASS (1930, October 10).News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 - 1954), p. 10 (HOME EDITION). Retrieved from 

Mr. Scullin, See How Glass Monopoly Is Now Profiteering! 
Manufacturers Played With £275,000 Last Year, But Will Not Go Ahead With Their New Workshops! WHO IS GATHERING PLUNDER IN THE GLASS TRICK?
IF you please, Mr. Fenton, Minister for Customs, direct your earnest attention to the practices of the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., coupled with the name of Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) Ltd. Glass Distributors Ltd. have a perfect strangle-hold on the trade in N.S. Wales; and are already aiming to aria all other States . Every State is subject to the depredations of the Glass Combine. Tariff Duty on foreign Sheet Glass has been increased from 4/- per 100 square feet ' to TWOPENCE PER LB. Sheet glass varies in weight from 1lb to 2lbs per square foot. The old duty was ONE HALFPENNY per square foot. The new duty ranges from TWOPENCE per square foot for thin glass (lib to sq. ft.) to FOURPENCE per square foot for thick glass (2lbs tn an ft).
PROTECTED by those heavier duties (four times or eight times as much as before), the Australian Glass Manufacturers. Co. refuses to make sheet glass, .Until (in its own words) "abnormally large stocks of sheet, glass held In glass importers' warehouses throughout the Commonwealth have been sold off at increased prices." A new price list went out on July 22, 1930, from Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) Ltd. It raised the monopolist trade prices for sheet glass by increases .Which ranged from one penny to four-pence per square foot. …
name those who were taking a rake 'off ' under the Tariff. "Smith's" names for him the members of Glass Distributors (N.S.W.), Ltd., who are raking off the higher prices from their "abnormally large stocks held throughout the Commonwealth." No shareholder could complain of 'the profits distributed by Australian Glass Manufacturers' Ltd., in the balance-sheet of May 28, 1930. It was presented only two months ago, when the "prevailing depression" was everywhere proclaimed. Gross profit for 12 months ended ' March 31 was shown as £385,844/10/7; .and Net Profit as £187,163/15/10. j ; What became of the difference of £198,675/14/9 will be discussed later on.  In addition to Net Profit of '- £187,168/15/10, the Australian Glass Manufacturers brought forward from "the previous year a balance of £87,864/10/6, giving them £275,033/6/4 to play with. And this is what they . did with it: — Preference Dividend, 0 P.O. on £175,000 .. . £15,750 0 0 Ordinary Dividend, 10 p.e. on £030,178 „ .. 03,017 18 0 Bonus, 21 p.e. on £030,178 23,261 10 0 Total, Dive. ...... ..£132,050 IB 0 To Reserve Funds ., « 50,000 0 0 To Staff Superannuation 2,500 0 0 Balance, Forward ...... 00,173 11 1 Total .............. ..£275,033 0 1
Not a bad year ! Of the whole capital (ordinary and preference) of £1,106,478, only £195,342 has been paid in money; the remaining £910,136 was contributed "otherwise than in money" — presumably, in the holdings taken by component firms or companies which formed Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd. On that capital, of slightly more than £1,100,000, they cut up £132,000, of dividend and bonus, stowed away £50,000 into reserves, and carried £90,000 to help next year's dividends! But that is not all. Customs Minister Fenton and Prime Minister Scullin, when they examine the incidence of the Tariff, should ask Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd.- — "What about profits of distribution?" In the Trade you cannot buy glass in New South Wales, whether imported or Australian-made, unless you pay through Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) Ltd. Prices and discounts are fixed by the Monopoly; and if any trader sells glass at less than the fixed price, he is fined by Glass Distributors Ltd. He ,may be boycotted. He may be ruined. When the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., Ltd., made a year's gross profit of £385,844/10/7, they subtracted the following items— Salaries ; Travelling' Expenses. Rates; Office Charges. Taxation ; Depreciation. insurance:. DISTRIBUTING CHARGES. Etc. These are not itemised separately in the balance sheet but their total was £198,675/14/9. Distribution in N.S.W. is carried out by the Combine named Glass Distributors Ltd. Insurances are also effected by Glass Distributors Ltd.
Every home-buyer, every householder is affected by the exorbitant prices charged for glass, and the huge profits of the Glass Manufacturers as shown above. And the public is entitled to ask, concerning the sum of £198,675/14/9 subtracted from manufacturers' gross profits: — (1) How much of it, if any, represents trade profits of the Combine named Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) Ltd.? (2) How much of it, if any, is profit from the insurance business of Glass Distributors Ltd.? (3) What are the relations between Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd., and Glass Distributors Ltd,?
Statements made by Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd. will give a shock to those credulous Australians who trustfully believed that the higher Tariff would forthwith promote Australian manufacture, with consequent employment of Australian workmen. Its Acting Chairman, H. W. Grimwade (Melb.) told his shareholders on June 26, 1930: — "Progress has been made in Sydney with the erection of buildnigs for Australian Window Glass Pty., Ltd. "Owing to the abnormally large stocks of sheet glass held in glass importers' warehouses, coupled with the building trade lull, the start will bo delayed until Australian buyers are ready to take reasonable quantities." A monstrous rake-off from increased prices on "abnormally large stocks" is thus about to be made throughout Australia. All the trade suppliers in N.S.W. were commanded by Glass Distributors Ltd., as and from July 23, 1930 to raise prices as follows: — Sheet glass of 10oz, to be raised 1d per sq. foot. (Old rates were from 5d to 8d per foot, according to size.' of sheet. Sheet glass of 21oz, to be raised 2d per sq. foot. (Old rates, from 7d to 1/- per foot). Sheet glass of 26oz, to be raised- 3d
per sq foot. (Old rates, from-Od to 1/3). Sheet glass of 32oz, to be raised 4d per sq. foot. (Old rates, from lid to 1/0). Moreover, on all kinds of ornamental glass there are similar Increases, varying from a penny a foot to sixpence a foot. Between them the Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd., and Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) 'Ltd., have accumulated stocks of glass worth hundreds of thousands' of pounds. They will dispose of it at greatly increased prices. Every glass-buyer will suffer. Not one Australian workman will benefit. The only benefit will accrue to those who profiteer in the "ABNORMALLY. LARGE STOCKS" they are holding. To show how the screw, is twisted, "Smith's" will cite an individual instance. One Glass Combine recently bought a big quantity of glass from the Receiver of a firm' which had taken the knock: — price, 5 id a foot. Listed trade price,, from the Combine, was then 8d. The price has now been raised to lid a foot. Another firm rang the Combine and asked for some of the glass: the reply given to him was, "Not for Sale." Perhaps even another rise In price is contemplated !It It is outrageous that Scullin's higher tariff on sheet glass should thus have played into the hands of distributing Combines. "Smith's" presents to the Prime Minister, and to Customs Minister Fenton, the following questions: — 
1. — How much extra tariff protection was given to Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd., to manufacture sheet glass? 2. — Did the A.G.M. give any guarantee that they would make sheet glass; and If so, when would It be made? 8. — Has the A.G.M. Co. as yet made any sheet glass? 4. — What sheet glass has the A.G.M. Co. in stock? What other stocky, Australian or imported? 5. — What sheet glass has Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) Ltd. In stock? And what other stocks? C. — Is the A.G.M. Co. a member of Glass Distributors (N.S.W.) Ltd.? 7. — Will the A.G.M. Co. supply sheet glass In New South Wales, otherwise than through Glass Distributors Ltd.? Or only at the Combine prices? - 8. — Will the Government appoint a committee for public inquiry into the Glass Monopoly which is exploiting the tariff with higher prices on "abnormally large stocks?" During the year ending March, 1930, as "Smith's" has shown above, Australian Glass Manufacturers Ltd. had available £275,033 of NET PROFIT, after providing for taxes, for depreciation, and for distribution. An enormous gift was made to the manufacturers by the new tariff. But no new manufacture has been begun. The only visible result, is an outbreak of profiteering with, the "abnormally large stocks" already held.
Nice Fat Profits
All Are Affected
Prices Are Raised
Mr. Scullin, See How Glass Monopoly Is Now Profiteering! (1930, August 2). Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 - 1950), p. 9. Retrieved from 

Prices Row: Union Seeks Reopening Of Works
MELBOURNE, Friday. — Australian Glassworkers Union applied to the Arbitration Court today for an order directing the Australian Glass Manufacturers Co., Pty., Ltd. to return its employees to its Spotswood works.
Mr. Gregory Gowans (for the union) alleged that the company was using its employees as pawns in a cunning political game. He contended that the company was endeavoring to bring pressure to bear on the Federal Government, the union and the Prices Commission to obtain an increase in prices, and had chosen as a means to that end "a most palpable lockout" of 500 of its employees at Spotswood (Vic.). Similar action, he said, was threatened with 600 at Waterloo (NSW).Mr. Mr. Stanley Lewis (for the company) said the 'suggestion that the union was being used as a pawn was ridiculous. The company had not been able to obtain supplies of black coal and it was economically unsound to carry on under present conditions. Judge Foster reserved his decision. P.M.'s Telegram Affidavits by James Denis Kenny, general secretary of the union, stated that about July 22 notices of dismissal were posted at the Spotswood works. On July 24 he was present at a conference with the Prime Minister (Mr. Chifley) and Mr. W. J Smith (general manager of the company), at which Smith agreed to withdraw the notices pending investigation for approval of increases in selling prices. On July 29 further notices were posted, and on August 2 Smith informed him that the company did not consider increases in prices adequate. A telegram, sent by the Prime Minister to Smith on August 5, produced in court, stated that, although decisions of the Prices Commissioner did not meet the company's request in full, they would involve substantial increase in revenue and ensure profit to the company. A telegram in reply was to the effect that an optimistic forecast would show the company more than' £150,000 down on the previous year's profits. Selling prices were based on the use of coal fuel, and production costs had soared amazingly through the use of fuel oil substitutes. "All we are asking," the telegram said, "is that we be permitted to adjust prices to cover the extra cost, thereby ensuring profits equal to last year." Prices Row: Union Seeks Reopening Of Works (1946, August 9). The Sun(Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 

Of course one of the greatest demands for bottles, after the 1860's 'soda water bottle' era, is those needed for bottling beer:

The Firm of Messrs. J. T. and J. Toohey. Aronnd aid AM the Browy. The Manufacture of a Glass of Toohey’s Sparkling Amber Ale,
In this country, where the demand for the imported article to the neglect of the local produot is noticeable in respect of almost every commodity, ' it is peculiarly significant to find that in some instances at least there is a rapidly increasing recognition of the worth and excellence of an article of consumption manufactured right in our very midst. We re-peat the fact is peculiarly significant, because it furnishes an interesting and instructive illustration of the triumph of right and reason over prejudice and fallacy. Not many years ago, before science and skill had worked their wondrous changes, "colonial beer," as it was contemptuously termed, was set down as the tipple of the thirsty plebeian, good enough, doubtless, to rinse out the dusty throat of the manual worker, but not at all tho beverage to provide refreshment to thirsty gentility. All that was in the early days of beer manufacture in Australia, But see how marvellous a change has been effected since the great firm of Messrs. John T. and James Toohey set themselves to revolutionise and reform the whole system of brewing in Australia, To this immense business organisation must be awarded the credit of having lifted colonial beer from obscurity, and by the-splendid advancement made in the preparation of the article placed . Toohey's amber ales amongst the foremost and finest specimens of the brewers' product known to a thirsty world. That-is the precise position occupied to-day by the beer which is turned out in inconceivably vast quantities from the firm's huge establishment in Elizabeth-street. At present the standard brewery ale and stout oan hold its own in quality and palatable excellence, with anything . the. world produces, and what is still mote encouraging the great beer-drinking public of this country come, slowly perhaps but surely, to the conviction that at least in this article of every-day use the importer has to face a rival that is steadily cutting into the demand for his goods. And when you come to look the thing over carefully this result is nothing but the inevitable outcome of the perseverance, skill and splendid enterprise which have characterised the growth and progress of the firm which is the subject of this article. Let us review as briefly as possible the remarkable progress of an establishment which is perhaps unique in connection with Australian manufactures. Twenty-nine years ago the brothers John and the late James Toohey came from their native colony, Victoria, to try their fortunes in New South Wales. With a moderate stock of capital and experience they entered the brewing business by the establishment of premises at Darling Harbour, where in a necessarily small way operations were carried on, and beer was produced for a few years. Even then the keen business instincts of the partners and that push and perseverance which have since been the great factors in the success of the present firm had their results in rapidly increasing business, and to meet the requirements of a growing demand Messrs. J. T. and J. Toohey took opportunity by the ear, as it were, and secured the site whereon the present imposing premises now stand. This was practically the birth of the Standard Brewery, and from that time the business of the firm grew and advanced with a rapidity truly remarkable. This, we need scarcely say, has not been accomplished without unfailing energy and the exercise of that keen business faculty for which the firm is known by all who have had negotiations with it. But for the chief cause of this extraordinary success we must look to the exceptionally high quality of the article which is to-day famous all the world over as Toohey's Sparkling Amber Ale. For the making of this wonderful beverage what immense resources are needed. It is absolutely impossible to conceive the extent and magnitude of this great brewery until half a day has been passed in the deeply in ieroaiing proosas of inspection. To most of us who induos tired nature to book up, as it were, by the absorption of COOLING STIMULANTS the preparation and ingredients of the liquor are matters of email moment, but when you have spent a few hours in the study of the process, and have dipped into the mysteries of the making, there will (if your particular tipple be as pure and whole-some as Toohey's Amber Ales) be an additional zest and relish in the drink. Pass, as we have, through the magnificent premises of the Standard Brewery, and your trip will, as ours did, end with the conviction of absolute purity and with a fooling of admiration for the splendid enterprise of the firm. Just now the old premises are slowly and steadily undergoing a process of disappearance by the erection of the new and handsome buildings on the corner of Terry and Foveaux streets. On every hand one sees evidence of progress and improvement. Through the swing doors, as you pass along the passage of the office, you will find 100 workmen busy in the construction of handsome and spacious floors for the laying down of beer in " work " and the holding of stock ready, for sending out.
By these additions the firm will be in a better position to meet the immense demand which for some time has sorely taxed the accommodation. Now, when a thirsty country calls aloud for amber ale, hundreds of casks and cases can be sent out through the Foveaux and Terry streets entrances to the drays drawn up outside. In this important respect the additions will be of immense aid and value to a firm which has hitherto found its only difficulty in the rapidly-increasing tax upon its manufacturing resources, Across the street we find that the vexed question of the storage of empties has been finally and satisfactorily settled by the establishment of a Spacious floor, the entire area of which is piled with hundreds of casks ready to be filled with the golden liquor that is being consumed throughout the colony. On the right is the cooperage, where numbers of workmen are busy, and hero the merry ring of the hammer is beard all day long. Below this is found the cleansing room, which is a perfect maze of machinery in itself. At first one is puzzled by the eccentric behaviour of a couple of casks that are rolling around in tanks like some lightly-loaded ship in a seaway. This is an ingenious contrivance of wheels and chain gear by which the barrels are kept constantly moving in the water, after which they are scalded and Subjected to an air-drying process. 
Upon the occasion of a recent visit a good deal of amusement and satisfaction had been cansed in the bottling department by a series of tests, in which some visitors had been asked to select by smell, taste, and appearance a bottle of Standard Brewery stout from one of a leading English brand. In each instance the connoisseurs had selected the Messrs. Toohey’s as the imported variety and vice versa. Presently we were subjected to the game test, and without claiming anything like expert knowledge of the particular stimulant in question we flatter ourselves that we know stout when confronted with it. But in all seriousness we are bound to say that the sample submitted to as was the finest specimen of colonial production we have ever seen or tasted. For quality, flavour and body is was in our humble opinion far the superior of the imported liquor, with the added advantage that it was much lighter and' therefore bettor suited to climatic requirements, While each stout can be obtained at the price quoted by Messrs. J. T. and J. Toohey there should, and doubtless will be, an immense demand from a community that needs something palatable, sustaining, wholesome and moderate in figure. Then there is something interesting to learn about a new, and as yet experimental, process In the brewing of ale, but the gentleman who was our friend and quid a upon the occasion in question was not inclined to say much as to the modus operandi, but rather to invite our judgment upon a sample oi the new brew that winked and sparkled in a tumbler, from which the morning sun flung a thousand yellow gems of light. Pure and' clear as the mast perfect crystal, sparkling like the fines; champagne, and capped with creamy, snow-white froth, that glass of amber ale was a picture the alluring sweetucts of which would have melted away the scruples of the most uncompromising prohibitionist on the top of this thirsty planet. "There's not a headache or a moment's inconvenience in a cask of it," said someone with that confidence and conviction of a man who has been there and back. We confined ourselves to a glassful with the best and most comforting results, for we found the liquor, which, by the way, was drawn at random from a thousand bottles at hand, cool, sweet to the palate, refreshing and wholesomely stimulating, qualities which have made the Standard Alee more famous in this colony than Parkes, and have brought about the phenomenal success of this tremendous business. With that wisdom and. keen knowledge of business matters which have marked their long and eminently prosperous partnership the Messrs. Toohey saw that the surest and shortest road to success was by the production of the best article that energy, skill, enterprise and a liberal expenditure of money could give. And that, ie what yon find today when you enter those vast buildings that fairly hum with the varied notes of labour. Everywhere is evidence of scrupulous cleanliness and perfect completeness in the matter of appliance. From the great English cooling machine that works its powerful limbs in the refrigerating branch of the establishment to the delicate malt- weighing apparatus above; from the long tiers and etratchore of refining casks in the cool cellar to the great revolving mash-tub at the very top of the building, all is in the perfection of order, and as clean and sweet and pure as it is possible to conceive. These are a few of the reasons why to-day Toohey’s Amber Ale is the great national drink of this country, but that is precisely what it is. Penetrate to the farthest limits of habitation and settlement, and wherever there is a hotel the Sparkling Amber will lie procurable. In city and suburbs there is scarcely a hotel of any importance that does not provide a thirsty public with this famous brand, and in the private house Toohey's bottled ale and stout has become immensely popular for its light, palatable and wholesome qualities. Columns have been written in praise of this great beverage, and the poet has sung in rapturous accents of its power to revive languishing nature, but no man fully realises what perfect happiness is until tired out and- distressed with the' heat and toil of the day he drinks a glass of Toohey's Amber Ale, and with the soft gurgle of the bubbling liquor thanks the gods that so splendid a beverage has been given to suffering mankind. 

A GREAT BREWERY BUSINESS. (1895, December 16). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 16. Retrieved from 

Ultimo Electric Power House.
(See illustration on this page.)
Recently large additions have been made to the tramway electric 'power house' at Ultimo, and also to the plant. Our illustration shows the buildings as they now are. The additional plant consists' of 16 Babcock and Wilcox boilers, of £ 250 horse power each, and three 1500 Kilowatt three-phase alternators, of the General Electric Company's manufacture, driven direct by vertical compound Allis engines. The whole of the buildings were erected by the Railway Commissioners' staff. One striking piece of engineering work is the travelling crane. A railway is constructed near the roof at a height of 50ft; along this a traveller Weighing 70 tons runs longitudinally, and laterelly a travelling crane, capable of hoisting 30 tons, moves. The span of the traveller is …ft. It may be stated that the new generators are (lie largest south of the line, that 200 tons of coal is consumed daily, and that the pumping equipment lifts 9,000,000 gallons of sea water from Darling Harbour daily-not much below half the quantity of water consumed in the metropolitan area every day. 

Ultimo Electric Power House. 
Ultimo Electric Power House. (1902, August 23). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 22. Retrieved from 

Throughout the length and breadth of Australia 'Tooheys' is a household word. In fact, 'Here's too 'ee,' the motto adopted by the firm, has become a part of the 'Australian language.' That motto, with the fine figure of the brewery smith luxuriating in his glass of ale, adorns the big brewery building at Belmore Park, which is one of the most conspicuous features of that part of the city, and figure and toast also appear in the trophy of the brewery at the Exhibition, which is illustrated on this page. This trophy consists of the Standard Ales in cask and bottle, decorated with sheafs of barley. The Standard brewery stands right opposite the new central railway station and Belmore Park, an admirable situation for convenience and working, and it is full of the latest notions in machinery and appliances for the brewing of ales, stouts, and beer, and for the making of cordials. Yet, big as it is, it grew from very small beginnings. It is the outcome of the enterprise of the brothers John T. Toohey and James M. Toohey, both deceased, who about the year 1869 commenced operations in premises at Darling Harbour. The growth of the business has been phenomenal, and the floating of the concern into a limited liability company in 1902, with a capital of £550,000, is only one of many indications of rapid progress which occur in the history of the undertaking. At the present time the company employs quite a little army of workers day and night, and can supply its patrons with anything they may require in the shape of beer, porter, cordials, and mineral waters, all made on the premises, or with colonial and imported wines, spirits, and cigars of all descriptions. The malthouse is capable of treating upon the most approved pneumatic principles from 90,000 to 100,000 bushels of barley during the year, and this in itself is a tolerably good hint to our farmers who care to take it, that if they grow and put on the market a suitable malting barley, there will be one buyer at least willing to pay the local price, and to save the heavy duty imposed upon imported barley. The output of beer which necessitated a duplication of the plant some nine years ago again threatens to strain the means of manufacture, but, needless to say, every preparation is being made to cope with any and every possible increase in the demand. The very latest plant for bottling beers in vacuum has recently been installed, and in all departments from the brewing tower to the refrigerating rooms, and throughout the acres of stores, cellars, and stables, there is a thorough up-to-dateness in all details which foretells that the secret of success is known by those controlling the destinies of the brewery, and loyally worked for by all concerned. It is another example of well-ordered industry, of the application of the most scientific idea to the most practical purpose, and of the concentration of effort and utilisation of commonsense to a common end.

Wherever one goes through the brewery, and the various establishments of which it is comprised, the impression of thoroughness, of cleanliness, and of honest work and honest methods obtains. The founders were men of sterling character, who won respect in the community in all their relations of life, and they have left their impress on this business, which is now under the chief direction of Mr. Martin, and with sons of the founders in prominent positions to carry on the family tradition. In a treatise on the New South Wales brewing industry, issued by the company in 1903, there are some interesting particulars as to the upgrowth of 'Tooheys.' From it we extract and underline the following information:— 

'The great Standard brewery in Elizabeth-street covers upwards of five acres, and employs over 400 hands. 
It is but 36 years since the Messrs. John T. and James Toohey left their native colony, Victoria, to try their fortunes in New South Wales. With a moderate stock of capital and experience, they entered the brewing business at Darling Harbour, in 1869, where, in a necessarily small way, operations were carried on, and beer was produced for a few years. To meet the requirements of a growing demand Messrs. Toohey secured the site whereon the imposing premises now stand, and which, strangely enough, was the site of the first brewery established in Australia long ago, when the nineteenth century was in its teens. Acquiring this site was practically the birth of the great brewery of to-day, and from that time the business of the firm grew and advanced with a rapidity truly remarkable. 'Not many years ago, before science and skill bad worked their wondrous changes, 'colonial beer,' as it was contemptuously termed, was set down as the beverage of the thirsty plebeian, good enough, doubtless to rinse out the dusty throat of the manual worker, but not at all the liquid to provide refreshment to thirsty gentility. All this was in the early days of beer manufacture in Australia. But how marvellous a change has been effected since John T. and James Toohey set themselves to produce a beer on modern and scientific lines, and placed Toohey's amber ales amongst the foremost and finest specimens of brewer's products known to a thirsty world. Passing out of the spacious and well-appointed offices, the Country Delivery Stage first comes into view. Here we see numberless casks of various sizes filled with sparkling amber ales, ready to send out to all parts of the State. Thence past the large hop stores, wherein are thousands of pounds' worth of the best and choicest growths of the world's hops, we arrive at the vat room, with its enormous tuns, each of them capable of containing 8000 gallons of fermenting beer, and all fitted with coils of silvery appearance for the purpose of regulating the temperature. We now are taken through the mill room where the malt is crushed by large steel rollers, and so proceed up steep stairways, passing on our way copper refrigerators of enormous power of cooling the boiling liquid, and so arrive at the 'Tower,' where are situated two immense copper boilers, whose boiling capacity is nearly 10,000 gallons each. Up yet another stage and we find ourselves in the mash tun room with its two mash tuns, gristcases, and hot liquor backs, and a perfectly bewildering mass of machinery and network of burnished pipes. On descending to lower floors by a different route, we pass through the two capacious malt store rooms; and, still descending, we come to the Town Delivery Stage, which is of twice the dimensions of the Country Stage already described. From here we are conducted to the cellars. Row upon row of butts in apparently endless succession meet the view. Next we cross the well-kept road of the bottling department, of four stories. From here to the principal engine room, where two Hercules ice machines are placed to supply the needs of the brewery during the hot summer months. These machines are capable of turning out 50 tons of ice per day. On past the boiler house with its four double-furnaced Babcock and Wilcox boilers, and so to the recently erected malt house. Here is the latest and most scientific plant for the manufacture of barley into malt. Pneumatic drums, in which the steeped barley grows into malt, kilns with self-turning apparatus, malt bins which fill and empty themselves without the grain being handled by human aid, are all passed in review. Then come the spacious wine and spirit cellars, from whence Tooheys, Ltd., supply their customers with the best brands of imported ales, stout, and spirits. Messrs. Tooheys, Ltd., also make a specialty of the famous Balgowrie whisky, for which they are sole agents. They also carry on an aerated water manufactory, which is a great business in itself. All classes of aerated waters are made, including Federal Spa and Homa.' That was written in 1903, and in general terms it is equally applicable to-day, but what was up to date in 1903 is so rapid has been the advance of the brewery and of brewing service, often regarded by the management as being behind the times of 1906, and so in every department are to be seen still newer 'notions.' Still, more or later machinery. And so it goes on, the world being drawn upon for its ideas and brains, and capital lavished in keeping abreast of them. 
A.N.A. EXHIBITION. A.N.A. EXHIBITION. (1906, January 17).The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 169. Retrieved from 

Death of Mr. J. V. Toohey.
Great surprise and regret were expressed in commercial and sporting circles on Sept. 27 when it became known that Mr. James Matthew Toohey, the junior partner in the well-known brewing firm of J. and J. Toohey, had suddenly passed away. A few months ago Mr. Toohey took a trip to England for the benefit of his health, and a complimentary send-off, attended by many of the prominent residents of the city, was given to him, when, therefore, it became known that he had expired on the eve his return to his native land, expressions of regret were general. The news of his death was received by cable on Sept. 27. The Hon. John Toohey, brother of the deceased, had a few days previously received a message to the effect that his brother was seriously ill, and had decided to return by the E.M.S. Ophir. It was not anticipated, how-' ever, that the condition of the deceased gentleman afforded occasion for alarm, and consequently Mr. John Toohey was astonished at the reception of the news of his brother's death. During the day Mr. Toohey received a large number of messages of sympathy and condolence, prominent among them being one from Mr. Michael Davitt, M.P., who is at present in Melbourne. The messages came from all parts of this colony, and also from, Victoria, where the deceased was well known. Mr. James Toohey left Sydney for London in April last by the Ophir, accompanied by Miss Toohey and four members of his family. While in London he gave an entertainment in celebration of the twenty-first birthday of his eldest son, amongst those present being Sir Thomas Esmond and other members of the Irish Parliamentary party, and a large number of representative Australians. The deceased gentleman, who was the second son of Mr. Matthew Toohey, was born in Collingwood, Melbourne, about 1848, and consequently at the time of his death was about 47 years of age. After undergoing an educational course at St. Patrick's College, he, in company with his brother, proceeded to this colony in the year 1866. Some time after their arrival the brothers established a brewery at Darling Harbour, but they subsequently removed to the position now occupied by the well-known Standard Brewery. Both gentlemen interested themselves in various sports and pastimes, and Mr. James Toohey took an active part in many kinds of recreation.
While a young man he distinguished himself at cricket, and secured a batting trophy as a member of the East Sydney Club. In recent years the deceased took an active interest in the historical pastime of bowls. For about eight years he was a promineut member of the Union Recreation Bowling Club at Strathfield, where be resided, and also belonged to the City and Newtown club. Such was his proficiency at the game that on many occasions Mr. Toohey acted as rink captain in the various teams sent to represent this colony against Victoria. Mr. Toohey was also well-versed in theatrical matters, and possessed a thorough acquaintance with the works of Shakespeare. His public impersonation of Richelieu was generally regarded as being excellent. In commerce and politics Mr. Toohey was generally known and respected, and his unostentatious charity secured him a wide measure of esteem. His liberality in regard to the support and extension of the work of the Roman Catholic Church has repeatedly received the encomiums of the heads of the denomination. As a politician, Mr Toohey sat for over 10 years in the Legislative Assembly being one of the representatives for South Sydney in five Parliaments. He entered the House m 1882, and was re-elected at the general elections of 1885, 1887, 1889, and 1891. Of the protectionist policy he was a strong and uncompromising supporter ; and though he retired from Parliament in 1893, he offered himself for Tamworth in opposition to Sir George Dibbs, on which occasion he was defeated. A well-known gentleman writes of Mr. Toohey in the following terms :— ' A stanch friend, but a fierce opponent. It was always better to have him on your side than against you. He was an ardent sport, and was always foremost in beading a subscription in recognition of prowess. He always associated himself with cricket, football, hunting, bowls, and all other sports. In Victoria, when a young man, he was credited with being an excellent all-round athlete, and especially good as a footballer. He- was a prominent member of the old Alberts in Sydney. He was also an excellent amateur actor, and it will be remembered played the title role in Bnlwer Lytton's ' Richelieu,' both in Parramatta and Sydney. In his young days he had serious thoughts of adopting the stage as a profession, but his father was strongly against this step, and threatened that if be ever appeared on the stage

as a professional he would shoot him. This, however, did not de'er him from playing aa an amateur. He was a member of the Garrick and the A.B.C. Dramatic Clubs in Melbourne, and was looked upon as T. P. Hill's most prominent pupil. He played several times with Barry Sullivan in Melbourne, and at the hands of that actor received a marginal-note volume of Shakespeare.' Mr. Toohey was a prominent member of the Sydney Hunt Club. He leaves a family of eight — four sons and four daughters. The four eldest members of the family, together with Mrs. Toohey, are at present in England. At a meeting of the executive of the National Protection Union on the 27th ultimo, Mr. W. J. Lyne, M.L.A., made feeling reference to the decease of Mr. James Toohey, and on the motion of Mr. John Perry, M.L.A., seconded by Mr.
E. W. O'Sullivan, M.L.A., the following resolution of condolence was unanimously carried : — ' The committee learn with feelings of profound regret of the decease of Mr. J. M. Toohey, and wish to place on record its high appreciation of his sterling personal and political worth of the great services he rendered to the cause of protection, both in and out of Parliament ; and of the multiplied and unostentatious acts of public and private benevolence performed by him during many years ; and further wishes to express deep and sincere sympathy with Mm. J. M. Toohey, his widow, and with the Hon. John Toohey. his surviving brother, in their sad bereavement.'
ILLUSTRATIONS. (1895, October 5). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 695. Retrieved from 

Shortly before noon yesterday a cable message, forwarded from one of the suburbs of London, was received in Sydney announcing the death, of Mr. James Matthew Toohey, who, it will be remembered, left Sydney a few months ago on what was arranged as an extended tour in search of health and recreation. Only a few days ago, however, the brother of the deceased gentleman, Mr. John Toohey, M.L.C., was Informed by cable that his brother was seriously ill, and would return by the R.M.S. Ophir, leaving on the 4th inst. A cable, asking for confirmatory and fuller intelligence, has been forwarded to the old country. Mr. J. M. Toohey was accompanied on his holiday by Mrs. Toohey and their four eldest children, four other children remaining at the deceased gentleman's residence at Strathfield. The late Mr. J. M. Toohey, who was 40 years of age, was the second son of Mr. Matthew Toohey, and was a native of Victoria, his birthplace being a suburb of Melbourne then known as Emerald-hill. Educated at St. Patrick's College, in 1866 he came with his brother, Mr. John Toohey, to this colony, the brothers eventually entering, into business as brewers at Darling Harbor, ultimately transferring operations to the present site of the Standard Brewery, then known as Terry Hughes's paddock. For over 10 years the deceased gentleman was an active member of the Legislative Assembly, and for five Parliaments occupied a seat as one of the representatives of South Sydney. He entered the Assembly In 1882, and the electors of South Sydney renewed their confidence in their representative by returning him at the elections of 1885, 1887, 18S9, and 1891. His views were strongly protectionist; and he fought for the cause with unabated vigor and unwavering consistency. Mr. Toohey's decease will be mourned in very many circles. In almost every form of wholesome sport ho was a well-known figure. As a bowler Mr. Toohey was a skilful player. He was prominent among the members of the Sydney Bowling Club, and only a short time ago captained a team which visited Victoria. He also made his mark in the cricket field, and was actively interested In the Sydney Hunt Club, the Sydney Gun Club, and many other organisations for the furtherance and enjoyment of outdoor amusement and beneficial exercise. In private life Mr. Toohey earned the admiration and esteem of all who knew him; and his charity was far-reaching and lavish. PERSONAL. (1895, September 28). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 5. Retrieved from 

The late Hon. John Toohey.
A cablegram was received by the general manager of Toohey's, Limited (the Standard Brewery), last week, announcing the death of the Hon. John Thomas Toohey, M.L.C., chairman of directors of the company, which took place at Chicago an the 5th instant. The deceased gentleman was a well-known figure in commercial, political, and philanthropic circles in this State, and the news of his demise will be read with regret. Born at Limerick, Ireland, in 1837, John Thomas Toohey was brought to Australia by his parents when 12 months old. He received a sound education, and with his mental training imbibed 'keen affection for the land of his birth and that of his adoption. He developed a resoluteness of character which stood him in good stead during the business efforts of his early manhood. His self-reliance and will power enabled him to succeed after some unsuccessful business ventures. In Victoria, New Zealand, and Queensland his efforts to achieve success were unfortunate, but in 1870, in this State, he, in company with hi? brother, the late J. M. Toohey, founded the Standard Brewery at Darling Harbour, Sydney. When the brewery was removed to its present locality in Elizabeth-street, Mr. Toohey put all his energies into it, and prosperity followed rapidly. Both he and his brother became men of prominence, and as they took a profound interest in matters of State pi ogress in various directions, they became men in whom the community placed trust. Mr. Toohey sought the suffrages of the Monaro constituency at one time, but was unsuccessful in his Parliamentary aspirations. He was, however, in 1892 appointed to the Legislative Council. He was a leading member of the Roman Catholic Church, and by his death several of the religious and philanthropic organisations of that Church have lost a devoted friend, whose purse and counsel were always at call. He was for some years a resident of Burwood, but of late years he had resided at Innisfail, Wahroonga. He assisted materially in the development of both Burwood and Wahroonga, and was one of the benefactors of the Little Sisters of the Poor at Randwick, the Lewisham Nursing Sisters' Hospital, the Westmead Orphanage, and the Waitara Foundling Hospital. He was married twice, and his second wife, son. and three daughters were with him during his tour round the world. Dr. C. W. M'Carthy was his medical adviser, and it was owing to that gentleman's advice that he sought health abroad.

Photo, by Newman. LATE HON. J. T. TOOHEY, M.L.C. 
The late Hon. John Toohey. (1903, May 13). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1178. Retrieved from 

By the death of the Hon. John Thomas Toohey., K.C.S.G., M.L.C.. which is reported to have occurred in Chicago (U.S.A.) on Tuesday in last week., the Catholic Church has lost a most devoted son, New South Wales a worthy Senator and citizen, Sydney society a most amiable member, and the poor a sterling friend. In commerce the community to which he belonged has yielded no more signal example of energy, enterprize, probity, and success than in the person of the gentleman whose demise it so sincerely deplores. And to the last day of his 33 years of opulent activity in Sydney he was in every respect the same unpretentious John Toohey that he was when we first made his acquaintance. He was one ' of those whom success cannot spoil ; and he will be remembered for many evidences of this by old acquaintances upon whom in later years Fortune had forgotten how to smile. The eldest son of the late Matthew Toohey, John Thomas Toohey was 'born at Limerick, Ireland, in 1837, and was brought to Australia 'by his parents when he was but a year old. A sound education, with that robust mental training which came from intellectual parents, prepared the naturally resolute will of the youth to face the world without flinching or faltering. 

Young John Toohey is said to have declared in Victoria at a very early age that he intended to work for no employer. He essayed the realization of his desire in Victoria, New Zealand and Queensland with varying success, but undaunted purpose. In 1870 he, with his brother, the late Mr. James M. Toohey, established the business known since then as the Standard Brewery. Success was with this undertaking from the first. Mr. Toohey and his brother, the big-hearted 'Jim' (who by a strange coincidence also died while travelling abroad), immediately identified themselves with the social as well as the commercial life of the city with which they had thrown in their lot, and at once attained a popularity as genuine citizens which they never forfeited. Up to last year Mr. Toohey devoted considerable energy to the development of the business. It was then formed into a limited liability company, with Mr. Toohey as chairman. But this devotion to business never stood in the way of compliance with the demands of public, social, or religious duty. From an early period of their residence in Sydney the brothers took a keen interest in the politics of the State; both helped and encouraged the growth of a protectionist policy ; both offered their services in Parliament ; and although John Toohey was unsuccessful in trying to win Monaro to this view, his brother represented Belmore for a number of years. 

The gentleman whose death we now deplore never flagged in his belief in protection as making for the prosperity of the country, and it was in furtherance of that policy that he projected the establishment of the 'Australian Star,' on the directory of which he continued till the end. In 1892, in recognition of the prominent and intelligent interest he had taken in the welfare of the State, Mr. Toohey was appointed to the Legislative Council. With his liberal Australian training, Mr. Toohey might in the ordinary course have been expected to favour Irish autonomy. As a matter of fact, although an Australian of the Australians, he was an ardent lover of the land of his forefathers, a close student of its history, ancient and contemporary; and its struggles for justice always appealed in him to a sterling Irish Nationalist. With every movement having for its objective the advancement of Irish Nationality he had for the past 33 years been prominently associated. He was one of the local officials of the Irish Famine Relief Fund of 1879-1880. by which £30,000 was raised in New South Wales for the suffering Irish peasants. He was associated with the organizations which crowned with success the respective Home Rule visits of Messrs. John and William Redmond, of Mr. John Dillon, Sir Thomas Grattan Esmonde, Mr. Edward Blake, and Mr. Michael Davitt ; and at the time of his death he was one of the honorary treasurers of the Homo Rule organization which was formed at the Sydney Town Hall in July last. Mr. Toohey also prominently identified himself with the movement to commemorate the heroes of '98. To aTl these movements he was a liberal subscriber in cash as well as sympathy ; and no St. Patrick's Day celebration committee in Sydney was complete without his co-operation. Nor to his Church was John Toohey a whit less loyal than to the countries of his birth and his adoption. What movement during the past generation for the promotion of Catholic and charitable objects were without his generous and active co-operation ? He was associated with the rebuilding of St. Mary's Cathedral during the time of Archbishop Vaughan with its opening in 1882; and in the following year was a fellow-passenger of Dr. Vaughan on the voyage from which that prelate never returned. Mr. Toohey was on the committee which gave such enthusiastic welcome to Cardinal Moran on his arrival in this country; and since then has never failed to be at the right hand of his Eminence in any work for the promotion of religion and charity. Some nine years ago, on the recommendation of the Cardinal, Mr. Toohey was invested by tin* Sovereign Pontiff with the detrition of Knight Commander of St Gregory the Great and with the insignia of the Order he took his seat at many an important function in St. Mary's Cathedral, the last 'Teat gathering in which he took part in that stately pile being the Australasian Catholic Congress of 1900. Almost the last occasion on which Mr. Toohey appeared in public was at the opening of the bazaar in aid of the Pymble Convent last October, when he seconded Monsignor O'Brien's remarks on the necessity of religious education for the young. Apart from the general mass of his charity, private and public, Mr. Toohey was a munificent benefactor of the Little Sisters of the Poor, Randwick; the Magdalen Refuge (Sisters of the Good Samaritan), Tempe ; the Women's Hospital (Nursing Sisters of the Little Company of Mary), Lewisham ; the Home for Destitute Boys, Westmead; and the Waitara Foundling Hospital. A keen commercial man, Mr. Toohey, has a large fixed deposit in what Bishop Torreggiani calls 'the Bank of Providence.' Mr. Toohey was twice married — first to Miss Doheney (sister to Mrs. John Baxter and Mrs. J. G. O'Ryan).. He is survived 'by his second wife (who is the sister of the Very Rev Dr. Egan. O.S.B., of Ponsonby, diocese of Auckland). His sister (Mrs. Gunning) also survives him. By his first marriage there were two sons and three daughters, .and of these all survive but the eldest son (Matthew), who died eight years ago. Mr. and Mrs. Toohey had established a palatial home at Wahroonga, and for years past 'Innisfail' has been a centre not only of hospitality, but of charitable works. During the Congress celebrations in 1900 one of the most prominent and brilliant entertainments was the garden party given by Mr. and Mrs. Toohey at 'Innisfail' in honour of the visiting prelates. Earlier, the '98 delegates from Melbourne and
prominent Sydney officials were entertained. Here, too, the deceased gentleman spent most of his time of late, impaired health adding to a natural distaste for society apart from his own Home. In October last, having shaken off much of the tyranny of business by the formation of his company, Mr. and Mrs. Toohey and the Misses Madeline, Eileen, and Josie Toohey, set forth upon a prolonged tour in Europe and America. It was not, however, on the advice of his medical attendant (Dr. C. W. MacCarthy) as has been stated elsewhere, that the tour was undertaken. It was thought by his family that the sea trip would benefit him, and as two of his daughters were proceeding to England to reside for a couple of years, he thought they might all make the journey together. The last two mails brought letters, which, in some slight way, prepared his relatives' for this sad news. Mrs. Toohey and her daughters understood from the London doctors how hopeless Mr. Toohey's case was, but the last news by mail from Bournemouth staged their intention of returning via America as the easiest way home : for Mr. Toohey's one longing was to reach Australia. On receipt of this disquieting news Mr. J. Maurice Toohey (the only surviving son) and Miss Egan (Mrs. Toohey's sister) immediately took passage for America. They left by the Sonoma on Easter Monday, which was due at San Francisco on the 3rd instant ; and it is just possible that good John Toohey breathed his last surrounded by all his family, though in 'a far foreign land.' May he rest in peace. A cable has been received from the family announcing that the remains will he brought oil I o Sydney by the Sonoma, which left San Francisco on Tuesday last, and should reach Sydney on the 5th or 6th of June. It also announces that Mr. Toohey's last request was that his Requiem should be celebrated in his own little parish church at Pymble. REMEMBRANCES. We have been requested to publish the following 'remembrances' of Mr. Toohey's charity. The Little Sisters of the Poor at Randwick desire to record their deep sympathy with the bereaved family in the loss they have sustained by the death of Mr. Toohey. He was a truly great benefactor to the Home, and in him the aged poor who are under the Sisters' care have lost one who was ever ready by advice and by purse to help over any difficulty that beset the Little Sisters. Indeed, he, together with the late Mr. Thomas Dalton, was the main instrument in the erection of the truly 'beautiful 'Palace of the Poor' overlooking Centennial Park.' 'The committee of the Home for Destitute Boys, Westmead, recognize that the Home has lost a truly generous friend by the death of the Hon. John Toohey, who has for some years past been chairman of the Home trustees—in fact, the existence of the fine new buildings at Westmead is clue largely to Mr. Toohey's generous initiative. At the meeting of the committee, held on Monday last, the matter was referred to in most sympathetic terms, and arrangements were made for the celebration of a Requiem Mass at the 'Home for the repose of the soul of the deceased benefactor. All the boys in the Home will assist at the Mass, and as many members of the committee as can conveniently do so are also invited to attend.' The Home, we need hardly tell 'Freeman' readers, is controlled by the charitable Society of St. Vincent de Paul, of which body Mr. Toohey was a zealous member. THE HON. JOHN TOOHEY. (1903, May 16). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 20. Retrieved from 
Tooth and Co of course must take a place as one of those companies tat had much use for beer bottles - especially during this era, the 1930's, when they were celebrating their centenary - a few notes to outline their place in Australia's historical bottles landscape: 

Mr. John Tooth, Merchant, was fined £20, for non-compliance with a summons served upon him, to serve as a special juror in the case Chadley versus Wyatt. Mr. Kerr put in an affidavit in favor of Mr. Tooth, but the Court ruled it was not a sufficient answer. MATTER FURNISHED BY OUR Reporters and Correspondents. (1835, September 16). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 2 (MORNING). Retrieved from 

Original Correspondent
To the Editors of the Sydney Herald
GENTLEMEN,-I beg the insertion of the following in contradiction to the report supplied in your Journal of this morning, containing particulars of a fine imposed upon me by the Honorable the Supreme Court for non-attendance as a Juror on the4th June last, in the case Chadley v. Wyatt, in consequence of the statement made by the Bailiff, on being questioned as to serving the summons. "In the first place the summons was not served upon me personally for the above case, nor did I on that day or have I since spoken to the man, and I deny in toto having made use ; of the words attributed to me;" the whole is, therefore, an infamous falsehood, and the only time I remember this man on his duty was in April last, when levying an execution on my goods for the sum of £2 5s. 6d. for a like fine imposed, " (the only instance I believe of the kind known in the Colony) which l then did protest against paying for the best of all reasons, viz :that of principle, as had previously paid a fine for non-attendance as a Juror, when at the same time other parties were fined and I believe did not pay," it was, therefore, I consider optional with me as a British subject, whether I choose voluntarily to tender the, amount or allow the process of the Court to take place (and to which I offered no obstruction) you may judge therefore of my astonishment on finding myself at the apparent mercy of this man's spleen ; as so far from my having committed a contempt of Court, " I disclaim any such intention," and I consider myself treated extremely harsh in having as it would seem no remedy against the assertions of a man, who in his situation by a still more infamous course, might cause the infliction of a fine to ten times the amount, and so on that ruin might follow without redress, " if supposed words are to constitute the measure of fines in such cases ;" but as by my birthright I inherit the first principles of freedom and independence, and having put in my affidavit of the foregoing to the Court in Banco, without obtaining a mitigation of the fine, I must respectfully submit my right to be heard in order to show that this man's statement is false, and that I have not in any way committed a contempt, consequently do not merit the fine imposed.
I am, Gentlemen,
Yours. &c. &c.
JOHN TOOTH. O'Connell- street, 
17th September, 1835. 
Original Correspondence. (1835, September 24). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

To the Editors of the Sydney. Herald.
GENTLEMEN,-As I am credably informed that Mr. Tooth is speaking unkindly of me regarding the fine levied upon him, by order of the Supreme Court, for his non attendance as a Special Juror in June lastand as one story is generally good until the opposite one is told, you will confer a favor by inserting the following " facts'' in your next number facts which Mr.Tooth cannot contradict.
Mr. Tooth, Gentlemen, has shewn repeated con-tempt as a Juror, for one of winch I received an execution against his property for two pounds only. On receipt of the writ, I called on Mr. T., who re-fused to pay it ; I offered to pay the amount to the Sheriff myself; he answered, that if I done s0, he would not pay it back to me, I was then obliged to sell him off ; advised him to have his clerk at the sale to bid, or his property might be sacrificed,
which he did do.
On my receiving the Special Jurors Summons for the last June Term, I had two for Mr. Tooth for the "same day," but for different cases-and being aware of his repeated contempt I was cautious, and gave one to my Assistant, and kept the other myself, which I served personally on the same day that my Assistantant handed the other to Mrs. Tooth-he thought proper not to attend on either summons. The affi-davits of Mrs. T. and the clerk went only to shew the one served on "herself" in Mr. T's absence, but not a word about the one I served on himself. I have every time cautioned Mr. Tooth that he would one day or another be heavily fined for his repeated re-fusal to attend, and he as often replied that the Judges " may fine away" (these were his words), that he would never attend so long as they excused " other gentlemen" (naming them). Their Honors the Judges, Gentlemen, have excused Jurors from attending, but upon good grounds, and supported by affidavits. I trust my character is too well known since I emigiated to this Colony, upwards of seven years ago, to be Injured by what Mr. Tooth says about me.-" He ' bites' against a file."
I am, Gentlemen,
Your obedient servant,
Principal Bailiff. Sydney, 24th September, 1835.
To the Editors of the Sydney Herald. (1835, October 5). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

It is a matter of surprise to many, that this much talked of Quay has not yet been commenced. Owing to the rubbish thrown in from the town, we are sorry to say that the Cove is filling rapidly ; and it is, therefore, of the utmost importance that our legislature should act promptly. Mr J. Tooth, merchant, is completing an extensive brewery, on the ground lately belonging to Major Druitt, near to that which Mr Blackwell now has in operation. It would greatly and to the morals of the people, if a wholesome beverage like beer substituted any reasonable proportion of the very extraordinary quantity of ardent spirits at present consumed in the country. It will be many years before the recommendation of the Horticultural Society, to cultivate the vine, will enable landholders to issue a moderate portion of wine in sultry weather, to renovate their often extremely exhausted servants. In the meantime, it is to be hoped, that brewers will tend greatly to mitigate the alarming evils induced by gross intemperance. NEWS, old in Sydney, but new to our Country readers, for whose amusement the following extracts from our contemporaries have been selected. (1835, January 17).The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (MORNING). Retrieved from 

A very costly building for the purposes of a brewery on a very large scale, is nearly completed, a short distance, from the Sydney toll gate, on the Parramatta road. The proprietors, we under-stand, are our respectable townsman, Mr. Tooth, the merchant, and a gentle-man lately from England who is said to possess a thorough knowledge of the art of brewing from malt and hops, which will be the sole ingredients used by the proprietors of " the Kent Brewery." The new buildings combine every requisite for the purposes to which they are to be applied, on a most extensive scale. A well has been sunk upon the premises, thirteen feet in diameter, and sixty feet deep, which so overflows with water, as to render it necessary that it should be pumped out daily. We wish the enterprising proprietors of the new establishment that success which they deserve, and which, there can be little doubt, they will experience. BATHURST. (1835, June 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

On Thursday last, at her residence, George-street, Mrs. Hyland, the wife of Mr. F. Hyland, carcase butcher, and sister to John Tooth, Esq., Merchant, Spring-street. Family Notices (1835, November 3). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from 

TOOTH—October 1st, at Irrawang, Raymond Terrace, John, the third son of the late Mr. Robert Tooth, Cranbrook, county Kent, England, in his 54th year, after a protracted illness of 10 months, leaving a wife and large family to deplore their loss. Family Notices (1857, October 10).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from 

QUARTER SESSIONS, SYDNEY. Before the Chairman and a Civil Jury.
James Upton, publican, of the " Billy Blue," Bridge-street, who was on Monday last acquitted of a charge of receiving stolen property, was arraigned on Friday, together with Frederick Holmes and Thomas Egan, stonemasons in his employ, he being a master builder, on a charge of stealing from the person of Thomas Hollinsworth, dealer, on the 2d October, one £5 note, and fifteen £1 notes, his property.
James Ryan, a constable in the Sydney Police deposed that he took the prisoner Upton into custody on the third day after the robbery in the yard of the Police-office, he having attended in obedience to a subpoena as a witness in the case against the prisoners Egan, Holmes, and a man named Norton, since admitted approver ; witness found a piece of string on the person of Upton, which was subsequently identified by the prosecutor as the string with which the notes were tied when taken from his person. Holmes and Norton had been given into the custody of wit-
ness on the evening of the robbery, about a quarter of an hour after it had been committed ; on the person of Holmes he found fourteen six-penses, one dollar, one shilling, eleven pence in coppers, and a small Spanish coin of the value of 3½d. ; on the person of Norton, about two and sixpence was found ; Egan was taken in about two hours afterwards ; nothing was found on his person.
Cross examined-Egan accompanied the prisoners Norton and Holmes to the watch-house, and returned in company with Upton to O'Meara's public-house, were witness apprehended Egan on the representation of Hollingsworth, who said he was the third man present at the robbery ; he apprehended Upton in consequence of orders from Mr. Jilles.
Thomas Hollingswroth examined-I was in Mr. Napthali's public-house on the 2d September last; I saw the prisoners Holmes, Egan, and Upton there ; I then had about £22 about me ; I paid some money to Mr. Napihali in presence of Upton and Holmes; I had been at-tending a sale in the neighbourhood, from eleven o clock ; when I left Napthali's it was between four and five in the evening; Holmes, Egan, and Upton were there when I left for the purpose of proceeding homewards ; on going down Brick-field-hill I was met by Holmes, whom I had left at Napthali's, who accosted me, saying I was a countryman of his, and he would treat me before I went any further ; I had a load of ropes on my back, which he laid hold of, assisting me to take them off my shoulders; Norton then came up ; I saw at a short distance on the opposite side of the street, the prisoners Upton and Egan walking towards us; I was induced to go into O'Meara's public-house, when the prisoner Holmes called for some spirits for himself and Norton, and a glass of beer for me ; we had scarcely entered when Upton and Egan came in, and Holmes asked Upton to lend him a sovereign for the purpose of paying for the liquor; he threw the money on the counter and came and stood beside me ; Norton was next to Holmes, and Egan next to him ; the prisoner Upton stood at the end of the counter ; in an instant the prisoner Holmes passed his hand round me, and took a roll of notes out of my pocket, which he passed to Norton ; I gave him a push from me and told him he had robbed me of £20, and should not leave the room until he was searched ; he lifted his hand for the purpose of striking me for accusing him, and with the other passed the money to Norton ; I raised an outcry that I had been robbed ; Upton and Egan, who were standing at the end of the counter made a sudden rush into a dark room ; the landlady told them not to go in there as it was dark, but they rushed in ; I went to the door and called out loudly for a constable; in turning into the house I saw Upton and Norton going out the back way; Norton was apprehended by the landlord of the house as he was going over the gale ; Upton and Egan did not come to my assistance when I announced that I had been robbed ; I know the string produced ; I had taken it from some pit saw files that morning, around which it had been tied, and which gave it the chafed appearance it now bears ; I made a running noose upon it when I tied the notes with it, which noose still remains; I swear positively that is the string which was taken from my person on the evening in question.
Cross-examined-I was at Napthali's in order to pay him some money which I owed him ; I was sober, having had but two pints of beer during the time I was there ; on leaving the house, I went along York-street, and turned into George-street, by the old burial ground wall ; I lost no time in going to the Brickfield-hill ; I swear Upton left the house whilst I was calling a con-stable; Mrs. O'Meara was present when Upton gave the sovereign to Holmes.
Mrs. O'Meara being called, corroborated the evidence of Hollingsworth, with the exception, that she saw Upton go out at the front door.
John Norton, approver, examined-I was in the employ of the prisoner Upton on the evening in question, and was returning home from the Kent Brewery where I had been working, when I met the prisoner Holmes, who was also in Up-ton's employ ; he said he was glad he had met with me, as the man on before us with the ropes on his back had plenty of money, and we could easily get it ; I asked him, how he knew ? he said he had seen a 5£ note and several small ones in his possession ; I asked him where he had left Upton ; he said he was following behind; I looked up the street, and saw Egan and Upton coming towards us ; he observed that he would put something in my way that evening ; I understood him to mean that he would rob the man ; we followed him at some distance down the Brickfield-hill, when Holmes said, it would not do to go much farther, as he lived somewhere in that neighbourhood, and we would lose the chance ; he left me and ran on a distance ahead of the prosecutor, and returned walking, to meet him ; on coming up to him, they entered into conversation, and in a few seconds, Holmes assisted the prosecutor in lifting the ropes off his shoulders ; I went towards them, when Holmes proposed that we should go into O'Meara's public house and have something to drink ; Egan and Upton came in, and went into a back room, where they remained a few seconds, and then came towards the bar ; they had not been long at the bar, when the prosecutor called out that he had been robbed of £20 ; Holmes was then standing close to the prosecutor, and had a moment before put his hand in his pocket, and threw a sovereign on the counter ; Holmes at the same moment put a parcel into my hands, and I passed it to Egan, who let it drop ; Upton picked it up and went out with it ; Holmes, Egan, and myself were taken that evening on the charge; we were searched ; Upton was not then searched ; Upton was taken on the day following.
Cross-examined-It was about seven o'clock ; I did not look at the parcel when Holmes gave it to me ; I did not look at it as it lay on the floor so as to enable me to say how it was tied up, it was dropped beside Upton ; I was apprehended on the charge, and put into the watch-house ; I ran away because I did not wish to be taken in-to custody ; I knew Upton was subpaened as a witness against us ; I told what I knew about it to save myself.
This closed the case for the prosecution ; on the part of the prisoner Egan, several witnesses were put into the box, among whom, was the Chief Constable, who had known the prisoner, who had recently kept a public house in Prince street a number of years, and always considered him an industrious honest man, whose only fault was his unfortunate habit of drinking to excess.
On the part of the prisoner Upton, Mr. Tooth, proprietor of the Kent Brewery, stated, that he had been employed by him for about twelve months, and he had formed a good opinion of his general character from his observation of his conduct during that time ; he admitted however, that his opportunity of judging of the character of the prisoner was confined to his employment at the Brewery solely ; he had had no reason for forming any other than a good opinion of him.
The prisoner Upton, in his defence, denied that the string sworn to by the prosecutor was his property, and put it to the Court, whether it was likely, that with a consciousness of having committed the alleged robbery, he would have kept anything about his person likely to tend to his conviction; the string in question had been used at the work, for the purpose of tying chisels together on taking them to the smith's to be re-paired ; it was quite usual for masons and builders to have similar cords about them for that purpose ; he had attended the sale of which the prosecutor spoke, and meeting there with the prisoner Egan, who he was about engaging to work for him, they had accidentally gone into Mr. O'Meara's public house, where they retired to an inner room for the purpose of drawing up an agreement, and not in consequence of the prosecutor's alarm of robbery as had been stated ; he trusted, the Jury would see how unlikely it was that he should be connected with such a transaction, and left his case in their hands.
The Chairman minutely recapitulated the evidence, expatiating on the nature of the evidence of an approver, and pointing out to the Jury how far it was entitled to credibility, inasmuch as it had been corroborated in various important particulars. The Jury retired for about half an hour, and returned a verdict of Guilty against all the prisoners. The Chairman, addressing himself to the prisoner Upton, observed, that he with the other prisoners, had been found guilty on the clearest evidence ; as for him, the Court looked upon him as one of the worst of characters with which society could be cursed ; who, finding means to command an appearance of industry, combined with respectability as a master, perverts it to the purpose of pursuing a course of delinquency ; attending sales and other public places in company with persons who are called his servants, in order to ascertain who has money, that they may be made the victims of him, and his necessaries in crime ; fortunately for society justice had promptly overtaken him, and it now only remained to pass thesentence of the Court, which was, that Upton be transported to Van Diemen' Land for the period of fourteen years, Holmes to a Penal Settlement for a like period, and Egan for seven years.
In the course of the trial the counsel for the prisoner Upton, in remarking on the evidence of the approver, observed that a Jury of twelve honest men had expressed their sense yesterday of the value of the approver's testimony by acquiting the accused, thereby proclaiming to the world that he was not worthy of belief on his oath. The Chairman, with a shake of his head observed, that it was prudent for him to say as little us possible as to that verdict.
The Court adjourned to the 7th December next. LAW INTELLIGENCE. (1835, November 2).The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

The Kent Brewery.
THE Kent Brewery, or as it is more frequently called throughout this and the adjoining colonies, Tooth's Brewery, is situate in Parramatta-street, Sydney, and is one of the finest establishments of the kind in the whole of the Australia. There can be few of the inhabitants of New South Wales who have not had an opportunity of becoming practically acquainted with the beer produced at this establishment, for it can be obtained in all parts of the colony. But as a knowledge of the extent and importance of the establishment is confined to those who have had the advantage of personally inspecting the works, we propose to give here a description of the brewery, and thereby convey to the minds of our readers some idea of the extent and nature of one of our largest industrial institutions.

The brewery, which covers an area of five acres of land, has been established about thirty-five years, and during that long period every new appliance and improvement in the methods of brewing has been introduced, until it has at length reached the position which it now holds as one of the most complete and extensive establishments in the country.

The principal entrance to the brewery premises is from Parramatta-street, and along a private macadamized road, on the northern side of which runs a high wall, acting as a protection to the whole establishment. The first buildings to the right on entering are the bailey stores and malt-house, which are built of solid masonry. The floor of the barley store is raised about four feet from the surface of the yard, in order to afford convenience in unloading the drays, and on entering it there are to be observed that spaciousness, cleanliness, and order, found in every part and branch of the establishment. The malt-floor is beneath the barley store, and is a very extensive one. The floor is cemented, and to the right of it are two 30 quarter steeps. When the barley is lowered from the upper door it is placed in those steeps, and cold water is run in with it, and allowed to remain a certain time, after which it is thrown out on the cemented floor to dry. The men who are engaged in the room shortly after turn it, and by this action gradually move it on to the other end of the maltroom, and then its place is again occupied by the barley which had been in the mean time steeping ; and this goes through the same process, and so the work proceeds night and day, one portion steeped, dried, and moved on towards the kilns, and then followed by another portion going through similar treatment.

Descending from the malt-room, an entrance through a corridor is gained to the kilns, both of which are built of stone, and have a capacity for drying thirty quarters each. They are about sixty feet high, and about twenty feet broad, and thirty feet long. The furnaces are about three feet from the lower floor, and the drying-floor is about twenty feet above. The grain is placed on this sieve-like floor, and dried ; the heat from the furnaces being thrown with equal distribution to all parts of it. Over the malt-floor there is another large room, which is cased with tin, and in which is stored imported malt, The object of tinning the room is to prevent vermin and insects from attacking and destroying the groin. .Near this there is a very extensive room, in which are stored a large number of malt-tanks, all of which contain six quarters each.

To return to the kilns-when the grain is sufficiently dried, it is conveyed to the malt-house, and there stored. This room is about three hundred feet long, fifty feet wide, and is scrupulously clean. When used for brewing, the malt is then placed in a kind of shoot, from which it runs into a hopper, and thence into a mill where it is ground, and passing along in a narrow box it is conveyed by elevators to the top of the brewery. Standing in this room and observing its construction some idea of the massive nature of structure is gained. The immense weight above is supported by a number of iron pillars, which are again supported by others beneath of still larger I and stronger make, and which have their foundation on the lowest floor. The tower, or the brewery proper, rises to a great height, and is for about thirty feet built of stone, the remaining portion being of iron framework and wood. On the top is an immense iron tank, about four feet deep, thirty feet wide, and forty feet long ; and it is into this that the water used in the whole establishment is pumped through pipes in the iron pillars from the large wells beneath the premises.

Immediately below the tank is the liquor boiler, in which the water is heated for mashing purposes-which is the first process of brewing, and the object of which is to extract the saccharine matter from the malt. This tank contains about 3000 gallons of water. Below this are two thirty-five quarter mash-tubs, with cast-iron false bottoms through which the wort runs. The malt is brought up to the top of the tower by the elevators, and is discharged into a kind of hopper, just over the mash-tub, from whence it is conveyed into the latter by a patent process, which saves a great amount of both time and labour. After remaining here for a time, in order that the saccharine matter may be extracted from the malt, the wort is carried off by copper pipes to the liquor-back or wortboilar. In order to thoroughly extract the wort, the proprietors have introduced Perkins's patent sparging machine, which is the best one known for the purpose. When the wort is placed in the boiler, the hops are added placed in the cauldron with it and boiled the process being performed by steam from the steamboiler passing through a copper-worm of a number of coils, which are fixed in the bottom. After boiling here for some time it is drawn off in pipes, and run into two large coolers, which are situated in a house adjoining the tower. The hops are then placed in a patent hop-press, which effectually removes the wort, after which they are placed in a shoot, and shot down to an enclosure, whore they are sold as manure, and as such are in great demand, the gardeners and cultivators in the suburbs calling regularly for supplies. The wort is then |put through a cooling process. This is effected by means of M. Baudolot's patent refrigerator, composed of twenty eight copper pipes, through which the cold water is run and carried on for some further service. When the wort is run from the coolers spoken of, it is carried along a pipe and over each and every one of these copper pipes in the refrigerator, and by the time it gets to tho last pipe it is of the same temperature as the water which is running through the pipes. This refrigerator is a great improvement, as the brewer is enabled by its means to quickly cool down to the proper temperature a large amount of the wort ; whereas by those processes generally in use a large amount of time is wasted, added to which there is the expense of the machine employed for working the fans used in the old process.

From the trough at the bottom of the refrigerators, the wort passes on to the fermenting tuns, -which are situated in a portion of the premises extending backwards. In one room there are eight fermenting tuns, and in another room are twenty more. When the wort is placed in the tuns, a patent appliance consisting of copper coils is lowered into it to preserve an evenness of temperature ; this has a great deal to do with the successful manufacture of beer, for in cases where these patent coils are not used, the wort varies in temperature with the atmosphere. These tuns are thoroughly scoured and cleaned as often as they are used, and they are kept in the purest and whitest condition. After remaining for forty-eight hours, the wort is carried to " unions" in another portion of the , premises, a room about 400 feet long and 50 feet wide. Here are three or four rows of cleansing casks, running the whole length of the room into which the wort is conveyed by "pipes" from the fermenting tuns, and it is here that the working-off process takes places, by means of which the beer is freed from the yeast, and the fermentation is finished. This is done thus : When the wort is run into the cask, being filled, the yeast is forced up through a pipe into a trough, where again that is effectually separated from the beer, which may have been forced up with it. The beer is then run from the casks into a trough beneath, and from thence conveyed to another part of the premises where the beer is placed in casks ready for sale. The yeast, which has been forced up the pipe and into the upper trough, is afterwards sold to bakers for their use. When the beer runs from the casks water is passed through a pipe and into them, and then a handle is placed upon it and turned by the men, washed; and so the work goes on, the casks never being removed, and a great saving of labour and time effected.

On the lower floor the old method of working-off is seen in operation, and which, when compared to the one just spoken of, shows the improvement effected in the latter. The cellars run in every direction, and are filled with casks containing tens of thousands of gallons of beer. Tho casks are raised by a hoist, worked by the engine, so that when a cask is to be carried from the cellar to the drays, it is placed on a projecting part of the floor, and the hoist catches it and takes it up with the greatest ease and speed. Everywhere the most perfect cleanliness is to be perceived, and no doubt the quality of the beer manufactured on the premises is in a great measure owing to this scrupulous attention to cleanliness. The hop store is a very large one, and well stocked with the best English and American hops. Bottling is carried on in a separate part of the premises. The engines are constructed on the beam principle, and are very powerful and good ones.

The cask-washing department is at the back of the brewery, and the process by which they are washed is an entirely new one. The casks are placed on iron frames, and water being put into them, a piece of iron chain is also introduced ; motion is then given from a horizontal shaft coming out of the engine-room. The casks are turned and thrown in every conceivable direction, and the whole plan is as ingenious as it is labour and time saving. The cooperage is near the cask-washing appliance, and a number of men are constantly engaged making or repairing the large supply of casks constantly required.

In the engineer's shop, there are exhibited a like good order and efficiency. A large and expensive lathe has lately been imported from England, and in this workshop all the engineering required at the establishment is effected.

In other parts of the premises are found the various clerical and other departments for conducting the business of the establishment, every branch of which goes on with the utmost regularity and despatch.

The qualities of the ale manufactured at this brewery have, of late, been much improved, rivalling, and, at the last Metropolitan Exhibition, excelling the best Victorian ales. The award of the Agricultural Society to the Messrs. Tooth has, therefore, set at rest any doubt as to the superiority of their ales over those produced in Victoria, in which colony there had been great competition as to the matter. The proprietors have, after much expense, succeeded in producing an ale which bids fair to rival the best English article imported to this colony ; and it may be mentioned that this year they will introduce it for the first time to public notice.

The production of colonial ale is attended with more legislative restrictions than is generally supposed. Almost every article used is subject to heavy customs duties upon importation. Hops are charged 3d per lb, malt Gd per bushel, and even the timber used for the bins in which the malt is placed on board the importing ship is charged duty by the foot superficial. By the taxing policy of this and the other colonies, our ales are placed at a serious disadvantage; for although the principal, if not all, the articles used in its production, pay customs duties, no drawback of any kind is allowed upon the re-exportation when made into ale. Previous to the extension of our tariff, colonial ale found its way to Queensland ; but it now is, by legislative trammels, almost confined to the consumption of our own colony, in which it contributes a large sum annually to the revenue on the articles used in its manufacture.The Kent Brewery. (1871, August 5).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 16. Retrieved from 

'Tooth's,' as 'the Kent brewery' is popularly known, is a New South Wales institution 'familiar as a household word.' A 'Mail' representative who visited it this week brought away impressions of a vast establishment in which one great gallery or wide-spreading room, full of ingenious machinery, or myriads of bottles, or huge vats and tuns, or endless barrels, followed another, all white-limed, washed, and aggressively clean. An apparently interminable series of solid structures pulsating with machinery, whirring dynamos, bottling and wiring machines that were human in their performance and superhuman in their capacity, great ice machines, lathes, planes, and what not. Then there was an immense white stable. Everywhere everything white, and everything spotless, is earn cleaned, water cleaned, dustless, full of tense activity, yet the activity so automatic and so well ordered that though 475 employees wore engaged, only in the bottle-washing and bottling departments did the impression of men dominate. In all the others they seemed mere incidents of the seven or eight acres of ground space and the many multiplied acres of the superimposed floors.

Away back in the thirties arrived one John Tooth, a Kentish worthy, who had a brewery at Cranbrook, in that famous county. Looking around him, he was struck with the chance for a brewery afforded by a creek of pure water at the swamp which emptied into Blackwattle Bay, and which was a favourite duck-shooting ground of the Sydney sportsmen. 
Presently this advertisement appeared: 
KENT BREWERY (opposite Ultimo). 
The above establishment being nearly completed, the undersigned beg to intimate their connexion as partners in the same under the firm of Newnham and Tooth,' and to assure the public of their intention to produce Ale and Porter from Malt and Hops at a moderate prices, particulars of which will be short be mentioned. JOHN' TOOTH, CHARLES NEWNHAM. June 1. 1835.

As time went on the firm of Tooth and Newnham became R. and F. Tooth, then R., E.. and F. Tooth, then Tooth and Co., when J. S Mitchell was admitted with Frederick and Robert Lucas Tooth; and finally in 1888 the business was floated into the present company of Tooth and Co., Ltd. — always 'Tooth's,' be it noted, 'R„ E„ and F.' being cousins of the founder. 

That enemy of so many colonial concerns, fire, troubled the Tooths more than once, and on the night of January 27, 1853, the place was gutted. How one disaster was met is told in another old newspaper, hanging framed on the boardroom walls;-

The Harvest Home, a very fine barque of 477 tons, owned by Messrs. R. E. and F. Tooth, of this city, and commanded by Captain Wright, an old trader of this port, arrived last evening from Southampton, after a protracted voyage of 115 days. She has on bourd an extensive iron house and necessary machinery in tendon for a brewery for Messrs. Tooth. She also brings the machinery for the Cockatoo Dry Dock. . . . . It was on the night of January 27, 1853, the fire at the late Kent Brewery took place. It was then calculated by the proprietors that in less than 18 months a new brewery made of iron, imported from London, would be erected by them. It was only on the time Harvest Home has taken that Messrs. Tooth's prediction fell short of the mark. We may now expect to see the brewery duly opened in a few months. The new plant will brew as much beer in a day as the present does in a week, besides avoiding night labour. 

The new brewery made of iron has gone the way of all things, and the wide-spreading premises of to-day are of brick and stone and cement. Mr. A. W. Tooth remembers those George-street fronts as the brewery horse paddocks within the past 20 years. The good water and the paddocks in the old days were also utilised by the Messrs. Tooth in the interests of their pastoral properties. They established wool-scouring works next the brewery for their station wool. The drainage of the swamp, as houses were built, did away with the creek and springs, and nowadays the city water supply is wholly relied upon. But the brewers and the cordial manufacturers do not take it neat. They filter it most carefully in the cordial factory filters, each with 54 'candles' of a cement-like substance, drive crystal-clear water into glass-lidded marble tanks. Those filters are cleaned thrice daily, and the amount of slime which is taken from them would give the householder who takes water as it comes occasion for much reflection and some internal qualms. The 'candles' are so drastic in their operation that when the experiment was made of putting beer through them they took even the colour out of it. The beer in the brewery is filtered through many plates of compressed wood pulp, which leave it clear and sparkling, and there is now completing a cooling room lined with snowy white tiles, wherein is a huge cooling vat, 43ft by 16ft by 2ft deep, made in Sydney, of copper, and all the air that enters that room will be filtered through cotton wool.

Space will not permit of following every detail of the brewing. At the very outset one is impressed by the cosmopolitan grasp which the management of so large a concern involves. The barley for the malt is drawn from Australia, from New Zealand, from England, and other wide-sundered places, the hops from Kent, New Zealand, and Tasmania. The Bohemian hops come out in steel or iron cylinders holding 2civi each Then there is the sugar — from Mauritius and Queensland. So with the machines. They come from England, Ireland, America, and also Denmark. Wherever something particularly good is evolved by the ingenuity of the brewing scientists of the world, there it is investigated and secured for Tooth's. A fact that struck the visitor as illustrative of the triumph of method is that every minute hand on every clock in the building moves forward each half-minute simultaneously — there is only one clock. All the rest are dials connected with it by electricity.' 

The pilgrimage of the brewery is usually begun where the malt comes in, goes through cunning machines that clean every impurity from it till the grains fairly glisten, sort them out into sizes, crush them; and finally land them in perfect order in the mash-tuns. The crushing machine in greatest favour is one by Ganz, of Buda Pesth, which Mr. Tooth saw and admired in the famous Guinness brewery at Dublin. It works without the slightest attention, and if anything goes wrong cuts off automatically and rings a hell for someone to come and put it right. In the mash-tuns the crushed malt and water, forming a sort of porridge, remains for five or six hours, then the wort is pumped out to the coppers to be boiled. Three coppers of 150 barrels capacity each are at work, brewing up to 900 barrels daily. Here the hops and the wort are boiled together for two hours. Ther they are emptied into a huge tank -with a perforated false bottom, where the liquid is strained off from the hops to the coolers, thence to the fermenting room, the skimming squares, and the filters. An immense amount of steam is used for cleansing, for power, and for generating electricity. There are boilers up to 230-h.p. — two 75's, two 60's, and two high-pressure 180's (working at 1251b). Everywhere the power is being converted into electricity. The generating plant has two 53-b.p. Crompton plants, and a third, of 220-h.p., is to be erected. Two Linde ice machines, a 25-ton and a 75-ton, are hard at work. For the transport of the ale, stout, and cordials, etc. (the company are also spirit merchants), there are 150 splendid horses in a magnificent stable, capable of accommodating 200. A great feature of the establishment is that it is so extraordinarily self-contained. There arc completely equipped engineers' shops, carpenters' shops, coopers' shops, and so on. Casks are made of oak on the premises; metal work is done; and even the pipes are drawn from the round. Only lack of space prevents description of the scrupulously clean cordial factory, presided over by Mr. Forest, who guarantees that he uses only the purest ingredients, of 'lie administrative branches governed by Mr. Partridge, the manager, and Mr. Thompson, the secretary, and the multitude of other departments with which Mr. A. W. Tooth and his three assisting brewers are concerned. Pages instead of a couple of columns might be interestingly filled with reference to any or all of these parts of a great and prosperous enterprise.


THE KENT BREWERY. (1906, January 10).The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 87. Retrieved from 

Tooth and Co.'s Holding of Seventeen Golden Acres
AN unsubdivided block of land, of 17 acres extent in the heart of the City of Sydney in 1927, sounds like the subject of a :real estate agent's dream, put it is not. Such a block actually exists, and it is owned and occupied by one firm, Tooth and Co. Ltd., proprietors of the Kent Brewery, George Street West. It is not for sale, but in subdivision, it would probably realise £1,000,000 at least. . THE property has an actual unbroken frontage to George Street West of 450 feet, and an overfall frontage of  6800 feet, broken by a few individual blocks. Its average depth would be approximately 800 feet. This enormous estate has been built up to its present size over a period of almost a hundred years. Back in 1834, John Tooth, the founder of the present brewery, began with a modest two acres of the old Chippendale grant, but his block was then about 90 feet back from Parramatta Street, which is now George Street West. In relation to the City, as it was then, Tooth and his brewery were well out in the bush. He was always further out than the cemetery, even when it was moved to Devonshire Street. Gradually the property was enlarged, the city came out to meet it, and has now passed beyond it, leaving a trail of golden feet along the George Street frontage. Taking the George Street -front of 450 feet at a very conservative average value of £300 a foot, the value of the strip alone would be £135,000 in subdivision sale. 
Then, the remaining Immense area at the rear would sell at anything from £50 a foot up. 
This consolidated estate of Tooth's is unique in Sydney. It has remained intact because the business could not do with less space. The nearest, and about the only approach to it in size is Anthony Horderns' block. Although there is no suggestion that Tooth's' will ever move from this site. If the company did decide to establish itself elsewhere; and sell the property, quite a proportion of the profit from the enhanced values of a hundred years would go in payment for the moving of the plant.

The White Line indicates the £1,000,000 Block.
SYDNEY BREWERY BLOCK WORTH £1,000,000 (1927, April 9). Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 - 1950), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Tooth's Kent Brewery.
Centenary Celebrated.
Tooth and Company, Limited, Sydney, have Issued a book, entitled, "The First Hundred Years," to commemorate the centenary of the establishment of Tooth's Kent Brewery in Sydney, in 1835.

The book' gives an account of many interesting events, personalities and other factors in the history of the brewery. The familiar Kent brewery emblem, a rampant white horse, with the motto, "Invicta," is traced back 1400 years, to that sanguinary epoch in English history, when Hengist and Horsa, the Saxon leaders, supported by three shiploads of tough soldiery, set out in 466 A.D., to conquer a kingdom for themselves in England. The original expeditionary force, composed mainly of Saxons, Angles and Jutes, from Germany, constituted the first seed of the Anglo-Saxon race. The names, Hengist and Horsa, have equine associations, and a rampant white horse was their battle standard. On the crowning of Hengist's son, Eric, who was the first King of Kent, the emblem of Hengist and Horse became "the White Horse of Kent," and was eventually adopted as the ensign of the fighting units representing that county In the British Army. 

"The Tooth family, had its origin in Kent, and thus the emblem appealed to them as a distinguishing mark for their products. John Tooth, the man from whom the idea of the Kent brewery first sprang, was a native of Cranbrook, Kent. Leaving England at an early age, he came to Sydney. He set up business first as a general merchant, and later entered the wine and spirit trade. In 1834 he acquired land, with a view to establishing a brewery, and then entered into a partnership with Charles Newnham, the latter being a practical brewer. Business commenced In June, 1835.

Extensive damage was caused to the brewery by a fire In 1853. The report in the "S.M. Herald" points out that during the fire a number of people made their way to the cellars and drank to excess whatever they could find. The business, however, recovered from the temporary setback, and in 1888, a company was floated, which took over the business, the board of directors including members of the Tooth family. To-day, the Kent brewery is one of the largest enterprises in Australia, occupying 16 acres of city property, and giving direct employment to 1300 persons, comprising 61 different callings.Tooth's Kent Brewery. (1936, January 7).The Wingham Chronicle and Manning River Observer (NSW : 1898 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from 

Better Return To Shareholders To Mark Jubilee
THE finalisation of Tooth's balance-sheet at the end of September, and the anticipation of its issue about the middle of this month have been the signal for abnormal . activity in the shares on the Stock Exchange.
But this year, in addition to normal expectations, there is the added prospect that something special will be done to mark the jubilee of the company.
ONE hundred and three years ago, to be precise, on October 5, 1835, what is now familiarly known as Tooth's Kent Brewery, opened its doors for business. It resulted from the Initiative and resourcefulness of John Tooth and Charles Newman, who together laid the foundation stones — in both senses of the word — of what time has proved to be on of the most successful Industrial enterprises In the Commonwealth.
On June 30, 1888 — 50 years ago this year — the firm of Tooth and Company was taken over by Tooth and Co. Ltd., a company with nominal capital of 600,000. Of these shares vendors took 520,000, while the investing public of the day subscribed £380,000. And even in those early days of company history in New South Wales, the shares enjoyed the same popularity as they enjoy to-day. The public issue was literally rushed, the whole of the required capital being arranged in the early part of the day on which applications opened. That popularity has persisted through the intervening half century. To-day the shares, 20/- fully paid, command a premium of 170 per cent, over their face value — a premium which rarely goes below that high level. Last year it passed 190 per cent, when the shares were sold for 58/3. Reasons for such high standing in the opinion of the investing public are numerous. The main points are that the company is well managed, it basks in a reputation for soundness and stability, and has created for itself over the last 50 years a record which is not only enviable, but one which stands high on the list of achievement" by Australian companies. ….MONEY TALKS (1938, November 5).Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 - 1950), p. 21. Retrieved from 

The death occurred on Friday at Molong Hospital, Darlinghurst, of Mr. Arthur William Tooth, who was for many years chief brewer for Tooth and Company, Limited. He was 64 years of age.
Mr. Tooth was the son of the late Mr. Frederick Tooth, who, with his brother, was the founder of Tooth and Company. He was born at Cranbrook, Rose Bay, Sydney, and was educated at Eton (England). After leaving Eton he returned to Sydney, and joined the firm in a clerical capacity. Later he returned to England, and studied the technicalities of brewing at the leading breweries of Kent.

Upon resuming duty with the firm of Tooth and Company he was appointed to the brewing staff. He was subsequently promoted to the position of assistant brewer to the late Mr. Bethel, who was then head brewer. When Mr. Bethel died, in 1889, Mr. A. W. Tooth succeeded him as head brewer, and subsequently reorganised the brewing departments of the company. He remained in charge of the brewing until 1916, when he retired from active participation in the business.

Mr. Tooth married Miss Isabel Gaden, daughter of Mr. Gaden, chief Inspector of the Commercial Banking Company, Sydney. There were seven children. Two sons were killed on active service during the war. The surviving members of his family are: - Mrs. C. W. Rundle, Mrs. H. S. Macneil, Mr. Nevil Tooth, Mr. Douglas Tooth, and Miss Isabel Tooth.
Mr. Tooth had travelled a great deal.

At the time of his death he was a member of the Australian Club, the Union Club, the Royal Sydney Golf Club, the Australian Jockey Club, and the Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club. His recreations were golf and motoring. He was one of the earliest motoring enthusiasts in Sydney.

The funeral took place on Saturday after-noon from the residence of Mr. C. W. Rundle. Edgecliff-road, Woollahra, to the Crematorium at Rookwood. The chief mourners were: - Mr. A. E. Tooth (brother), Messrs. Nevil and Douglas Tooth (sons), and Mr. C. W. Rundle and Mr. H. S. Macneil (sons-in-law).
Amongst others present were: - Messrs. A. Feez, K.C., A. Consett Stephen, S. E. Laidley. R. L. Massie, Y. G. Lindeman (Commercial Bank), T. R Raine. P. A. Rabett, H. Campbell Munro, Lieut.-Col. W. R. Bertram, Messrs. Sydney Evans, Clifford S. Ross, Charles H. Ross, Edward Hungerford, H. F. Maxwell, C. J. D. Goldie, Francis Bligh, F. W. Hixson, J. W. Street, R. F. Pulsford. H. Dean, E. Watt, A. Jobson, A. J. Jobson. R. C. Ste-phen, T. R. Stephen, N. F. Stephen, H. M. Stephen, J. R. Taylor, F. Henrlques, Captain Green (of Burns, Philp, and Co.), Dr. Guy Pockley, Messrs. Guy Bellsario, H. S. Holt, Douglas L. Dowdall, and Charles J. Henty. Tooth and Co., Limited, was represented, amongst others, by Messrs. W. J. Cleary (gen-eral mannger), J. R. Palfreyman, H. C. For-rest, H. L Windon, J. R. Davidson, S. Penton, and H. Jones (manager of the maltings at Mittagong).

The Rev. John Boardman, rector of St. Peter's, East Sydney, who officiated at the crematorium, said that Mr. Tooth was known amongst his friends as a devoted father, a loyal friend, and a good citizen. He bore his last illness with great fortitude, and with-out complaint. Though taken away in what was the prime of his life, he left behind him a record that would long be preserved in the memories of his relatives, friends, and all with whom he came in contact in public, social, or private life. MR. ARTHUR W. TOOTH (1928, March 5).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

John Lusby broke into a merry laugh. He had written to the editor of the "Herald" telling him about a wonderful afternoon that three friends, Mr. Sharp Lewis, Bishop Langley, late of Bendigo, and "another old man" had spent at Stanmore talking about bygone days. They were probably the oldest Y.M.C.A. men in Australia. Mr. Lewis was in his 91st year, Bishop Langley in his 85th, and John Lusby himself-the "other old man"- in his 84th, and he thought that it was interesting enough for a few lines in the newspaper. But the idea of anybody caring to hear anything more about the three friends, and more especially that anyone should have the slightest interest in the "other old man" tickled his humour beyond anything that he had ever heard.

Whether or no Mr. Lusby's amusement was well founded others may judge. At any rate it opened the way to one of those delightful chats in which the reminiscences of an ob-servant and retentive mind infuse life and colour into the pages of the past. It carried one back to old Sydney, when, as the old man remarked in describing the experiences of his father on arrival, "this was no place for a white man unless he were a convict or an official." That was in 1841, when John Lusby, senior, seeking a climate less trying to his health than that of the homeland, came ashore from the Bussorah and wandered about the township in a hopeless search for suitable accommodation for himself and his wife and family. At last he was compelled to take a small unfurnished room in Kent-street, for which was demanded the sum of 15/- weekly. The crazy old place was no proof against a deluge that came on the same day, though, so soon afterwards he found slightly better apartments opposite to where the Baptist Church stands in Bathurst-street. There he remained until his eye caught the announcement that E. H. J. Knapp, senior, on behalf of the trustees of the Redfern Estate, had laid out that attractive area for subdivision.
All the people of the town of Sydney were not so well impressed by the attractions of Redfern as were the promoters of the sale. Redfern was a remote place then, and the mere suggestion on the first Mr. Lusby's part of acquiring one of the blocks, and building himself a house there drew from a horror-stricken friend, who conjured up visions of escaped and desperate convicts, the exclamation, "You are either stark staring mad or you must have the heart of a lion to go and live in such a place." That the fears were not entirely groundless will be shown later. How-ever, they did not daunt John Lusby's father.
A surprising amount of knowledge regarding early Redfern is reposed in Mr. Lusby's mind. He can tell you all about the original Crown grant of 30 acres, which was issued to one, William Roberts, on January 8, 1794, with the proviso that he was "to reside within the same and proceed to the improvement and cultivation hereof." In 1842 - at the time of the subdivision it was still known as "Roberts's Farm," but whether any sort of a homestead or cultivation had ever existed there Mr. Lusby was never able to ascertain. All he knows is that on September 16, 1800, Roberts sold the estate for £60 to a Mr. John Boxley, who, five years later, resold it for a profit of £10 to Mr., Thomas Laycock, senior. Laycock had made a good speculation, for immediately afterwards he sold it to Mrs. Sarah Wills for one hundred pounds. It was through that transaction that the now populous district was destined to receive its name of Redfern, for when, in 1811, Mrs. Wills's daughter Sarah was married to Dr. William Redfern, she received the farm from her mother as a marriage gift. By a consolidated grant in 1816 this area, and an adjoining one of 70 acres, which had been granted to Dr. Redfern, were incorporated into one, with the provision that "the said William Redfern does not alienate, sell, or transfer any part or parcel within a term of five years, during which time he is to clear and cultivate, or cause to be cleared and cultivated, 20 acres of it," failing which the land would revert to the Crown. After the doctor's death Mrs. Redfern married James Alexander, one of his partners in Redfern, Alexander, and Co., and the firm soon afterwards became Gilchrist, Alexander, and Co., the forerunners of the Gilchrist, Watt, and Co., of to-day. About this time the estate came into the market, and Mr. Lusby, Sen., secured one of the "attractive allotments," and built thereon a slab hut on a framework of saplings between Pitt and George streets. "That was our first house - two rooms and a kitchen," remarked Mr. Lusby.
A little while after the Lusby family took up their residence on the pleasant open spaces of Redfern, prison gangs were set to clear the scrub on the Waterloo estate, adjoining the southern boundary of Redfern; and Mr. Lusby recalls that some of the convicts had the appearance of having undergone much hard-ship and privation. "Occasionally," he relates, "some of them made their way to our house begging for food, etc., and such requests were never refused. Our position was isolated, and we usually obtained weekly sup-' piles of provisions from town. One day a sister about four years my senior, and I, had been sent to town for this purpose, and we were returning heavily laden. At that time a creek ran through the centre of the Cleveland paddocks, from Strawberry Hills to Blackwattle Swamp. On that particular day a prison gang was at work, clearing the scrub off the land on which the Cleveland-street Public School now stands. Just as we reached the creek a portion of the gang intercepted us, and took everything that we were carrying. Rooted to the spot, We watched the men re-turn to their comrades, and then what appeared to be an angry discussion took place amongst them. Some pointed angrily in our direction, and thereupon those who had robbed us moved off in our direction again, and in a few minutes we were agreeably surprised to be again in possession of our week's marketing. The conclusion that we came to was that men whom we had befriended insisted upon the return of the things, and my father decided not to mention the incident to anybody, for fear of bringing punishment upon innocent and guilty alike."
Two well-known families lived in the Redfern district then-the Chisholms, of Eveleigh House, which is now railway property, and the Tooths, of Cleveland House. Mr. Lusby speaks of the extensive and beautiful grounds of Cleveland House, having a frontage to Cleveland-street extending from about where the Public school now stands to the corner of Elizabeth-street. Their northern portion reached right across where Devonshire-street now is to within a short distance of Belmore Park, running along the wall of the burial-ground where the Central Station now stands. The house was noted for its commodious and well-stocked wine cellars, and there lived the founder of Tooth's brewery.
"Our own modest dwelling," says Mr. Lusby, "was succeeded by a weatherboard structure of two stories, and when we removed there my father had a portion of ground adjoining levelled and made into a bowling green. But bowls proved Impossible to procure in Sydney, and he had recourse to a wood-turner. Even then, with all the attractions of a bowling green, visits to our house were, on account of its distance out, events of rare occurrence, and my own puny efforts to propel the heavy balls provided people with amusement rather than competition. My father's oldest friend was Mr. (afterwards the Rev.) J. J. Glassop, who was a compositor on the "Herald" and one of the earliest residents of Balmain.
BYGONE DAYS. (1920, December 25).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from 

Mr, George J. Cohen, chairman of directors of Tooth and Co., Ltd., on behalf of Sir Robert L Lucas-Tooth, has presented each of the present members of 'the Kent Brewery staff with a souvenir to mark the distinction conferred by the King, while an extra day's pay has been handed to the employees. PERSONAL. (1906, September 1). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 13. Retrieved from 

The portrait of Mr. Atticus Tooth published in this issue will be viewed with keen interest by all who know anything of Queensland's early history, for it reveals a man, still full of mental vigour, who has witnessed close on three-quarters of a century of our development. To think of Queensland now and compare it with the great empty territory of the "thirties" awakens the idea that time is indeed a wonderful magician, but after all it is not time alone. The potent spell with which the change has been worked is just that splendid energy and enterprise displayed by men such as Mr. Tooth, men to whom the far flung lines of empire have been something more than a poetic fancy, and to whom the very existence of unconquered lands has been an irresistible challenge. 

To meet the sturdy old pioneer as he appeared during a recent visit to Brisbane it seemed difficult to conceive that it was as far back as 1833 that Mr. Tooth first blinked childish eyes in Australian sun-light. He came of a Kentish family, and had been brought to Sydney Cove by his mother, together with one brother and five sisters. His uncle, Mr. John T. Tooth, had some years before founded the Kent Brewery in Sydney, and to the successful establishment of this business may no doubt be attributed the arrival of the family in question, the good ship Lalla Rookh being the medium of their migration. The family settled on the Hawkesbury River, near Camden, and in that delightful country, the very cradle of the type which came to be known as "the cornstalks," the youngster developed. As he grew in strength and stature the gray forests of the unknown interior seemed to beckon to him, the great empty plains whispered an invitation, and the lure of adventure possessed his soul. Squatting was the occupation to which all the young men of the day turned. Young Atticus, despite his name, was no pale faced dreamer, so he went out and established himself on his first holding, near where the town of Tumut now stands. 

Then the glory of the Northern lands began to be talked of, as a result of exploring expeditions, and young Tooth moved up to the Darling Downs. His place seemed always in the front rank of the pioneers, for as others came along he once again stepped out as far as the Mary River, where he prospered exceedingly for a time. One day, however, the floods came down as we now know they can do. Flocks, herds, and home were swept away, and yet another break for fortune rendered necessary. It was during his residence in the valley of the Mary that a notable incident occurred. Mr. Tooth had been on a visit to the Moreton Bay settlement, and was on his way home to his station "Cambroon," when he met Captain Hope, Mr. Borthwick, and two blackfellows. The party had crossed the range, and were en route to Mr. Balfour's at Collington, where wild blackfellows had murdered two Chinese shepherds. The murderers were known to be two aboriginals named "Sprightly" and "Toby." The blacks, it seems, had crept upon the Chinese whilst the latter were at breakfast, had tomahawked them, and after ransacking the hut had cleared off to the bush. Mr. Tooth at once volunteered to assist in the search after the marauders. On arrival at "Cambroon " he learned from one of his natives that "Sprightly" was some little distance away at an outlying sheep station. Taking some blackboys with him, Mr. Tooth discovered the where-abouts of " Sprightly," and some of the blacks having induced him by strategem to come to the camp for a meal, the murderer was seized. He made a gallant fight of it, and got away, but several shots from Mr. Tooth induced him to surrender. The blackfellow was secured by chains and straps on to the back of a horse, and he was sent off under an escort of four men to be delivered to Captain Hope at Durundur. Having transacted some business which kept him about four hours, Mr. Tooth overtook the escort, only to discover, however, that " Sprightly," true to his name, had escaped from his guard. The story was that the prisoner's horse had fallen, and the chains had to be re-moved to allow of his rising. They then allowed him to walk a few yards, when he suddenly bolted. As he reached the edge of the dense scrub "Sprightly" turned round and called after the party in derisive fashion, after which he disappeared from view. The blacks thereabouts had threatened trouble about this time, and the incident was no doubt calculated to give them heart, but Mr. Tooth soon altered the complexion of things. 

He again visited Brisbane, and an arrangement was entered into between the pioneer and Captain Wickham, then Commissioner of Moreton Bay, whereby Mr. Tooth was to effect the capture of the murderers, and a posse of police was to be sent to escort them to the settlement. Mr. Tooth then assembled all the blacks on his station, and informed them that the murderers would have to be secured or the police, who were then on the road, would wreak summary vengeance on the whole black race by shooting all the gins and pickaninnies. Runners went out to the neighbouring stations, and word of the ghastly proposition went like wild fire through the district. A party of upwards of 100 natives next day assembled at Mr. Tooth's station, and all agreed to assist Mr. Tooth in capturing the runaways. Eager spies, with brain afire in the desire to save their womenfolk and children from destruction, scoured every recess of the bush until at last Toby was discovered, mobbed, and captured. One half of the children's ransom was thus soon paid, and "Toby'' was carried to the station amidst yells of triumph and exultation. A lieutenant of police, with 10 native troopers, took charge of Toby and chained him to a log, whilst the blacks went off to seek the balance of their quarry. It was another day and night however before "Sprightly" was found in a mountain recess. With spears and nullas he was routed from his retreat and handed over to the troopers. 

The blacks were all handsomely rewarded with tobacco, prints, clothing, pipes, &c. The troopers were started off in the direction of Moreton Bay, with their prisoners, but Mr. Tooth has since expressed some doubt as to whether "Sprightly" and "Toby" ever reached the official hangman. It was a long, rough journey, and to carry a couple of prisoners so far was an awkward task. Mr. Tooth states that when he next visited Moreton Bay it was after Separation, and the officials had then all been changed, but he remembers that he saw nothing in the papers of the arrival or the trial of the blacks. Those were days of rough justice. 

Mr. Tooth claims to have been the first man to take cattle from the Murray River, on the Victorian border, to Widgee Widgee, in the Wide Bay district, a feat which was accomplished in 1846. The trip occupied seven months, and some 1500 head of stock were lost, including 25 horses and a team of bullocks. He reached his destination with 600 head of cattle, 4 horses, 6 working bullocks, and a dray. In April, 1862, he left the Darling Downs with the first mob of sheep ever travelled to Bowen, and he arrived there in July, 1863. He left Eumore to take up country in the Gulf, and he took his first mob of cattle down the Flinders River in 1864. 

It was in 1856 that he first went from Clifton, Darling Downs, with 10,000 sheep, for the Mary River. It was in 1859 that the Government of New South Wales offered a reward for the discovery of a maritime cutlet for the Kennedy district, that land of tragic story, which was known to be a splendid area for pastoral settlement, provided only that a place of shipment for pastoral produce, and a landing place for stores, could be secured in a convenient spot. Captain H. D. Sinclair, of the ketch Santa Barbara, was led to make an exploratory trip in his ketch as a result of this inducement, and he discovered Port Denison October 16, 1859. A change of Government led to the offer of the reward being repudiated. 

Mr. G. E. Dalryrmple was appointed Government representative, and given a commission to take charge of the now port, to plot out a settlement, and generally lay the foundations of a township. Mr. Dalrymple's party travelled to what is now Bowen in two divisions, one going by land and one by sea. The land party was under Mr. Dalrymple's direct supervision, and comprised Lieutenant Williams, a couple of white orderlies, 12 native police, and several adventurous young squatters who were after country. Of these Mr. Tooth was one. The sea party travelled by the ketch Santa Barbara, under the command of Captain Sinclair (and with Mrs. Sinclair as a member of the party), and the Jennie Dove. Mr. Clarendon Stuart, Government Surveyor, with a staff, accompanied the party to lay out the now township. The overlanders had an adventurous trip, and on reaching Collaroy, then the furthest north settlement on the route, the question of pro-visions became a somewhat serious consideration. Mr. Dalrymple accordingly gave Mr. Tooth a letter to Mr. Anslow, of Broadsound. Tooth returned to that place, and secured 100 fat bullocks at £6 per head, which he travelled to the new township. He also induced Mr. T. Cavanagh to leave Rockhampton for Port Denison, and take along a dairy herd. Dalrymple's main party waited for Tooth with the cattle, and so their arrival at the destination was delayed considerably. The sea party, led by Captain Sinclair, was also held up, for they had received instruction not to land until they were signalled by Dalrymple, in order to avoid any possible trouble with natives. They had arrived in the port some time before, and getting tired of waiting they landed on Stone Island, where night watcher were always posted to keep off attack. Peter Craigie, one of the party, whilst on night watch, accidentally shot himself dead, his rifle falling from his hand, probably during a doze, and discharging as a result. Poor Craigie was buried on the island, his last resting place being marked by a rude cross of wood. This has long since disappeared, but, Mr. Tooth say, the spot is still identifiable by a cairn of stones. It was on April 11, 1861, that the overland party reached the mouth of Doutty's Creek, and signalled the sea party by firing their rifles. 

Next day a landing place was selected, and the sea party got ashore. There was an assemblage held in the centre of what is now the town, at noon a flag was hoisted, and the town officially named after Governor Bowen. Mr. Tooth celebrated the event by killing a bullock and distributing the meat free. The killing took place on the hill where the Bank of Commerce now stands. Mr. Tooth thinks there were in all about 70 persons present at the official opening. Mr. Tooth remained at Bowen until his stock of cattle was exhausted, and then again moved on. The anniversary of Bowen was celebrated in August of last year, and a deal was made of the survivors of that long back expedition, as indeed they deserved, Mr. Atticus Tooth being a notable feature of the band. The bark structure where Mr. Tooth started his Bowen butchering business, and which stood where a big hotel now exists, was recalled with interest by the pioneers, and many interesting stories of the early days were recalled on that historic anniversary day. 

Speaking of the early squatting days, Mr. Tooth says the price of stock and of pastoral leases were then most interesting features. On one occasion he and his brother purchased cattle on the Big River for 10/ per head, and they also paid £33,000 for the Clifton freehold, with 10,000 head of prime Shorthorns. The Tooth brothers started a boiling down establishment at Ipswich in the fifties, Mr. Donald Bell being their manager. They put through as many as 50 cattle per day for 5 or 6 months of the year, and ran the works for some 5 years.

There were some big transactions in stock in those days, and tallow brought a phenomenal price. Mr. Tooth states that on one occasion he had 10,000 cattle camped on the site of what is now the flourishing and populous capital of the Darling Downs (Toowoomba). The spot from which the proclamation was read making Bowen a town is marked by a flagpole in the garden of the Sub-collector of Customs. As you listen the old gentle man runs on, drawing upon the deep recesses of his active memory for stores of interesting incident, the wealth of which is almost bewildering, and which is somewhat difficult indeed to reduce to chronological order—how he took up the famous Widgee station, near Gympie, and its out-station Woonga, how he came to be one of the escort which conveyed the first lot of gold from the Cape diggings under the command of Mr. Pinnock, the big law case between the Tooth Brothers and Mr. Flemming over the purchase of Talavera station, &c.—indicate but glimpses into the rich memory of this well preserved old gentleman. His re-collections at last bring us, however, to yet another historic incident, and the establishment of yet another now prosperous township. 

In 1864 Mr. Tooth took up country on the Cloncurry River near Canobie. A year later Messrs. Seward and Cassady chartered a vessel to take men and rations to the Albert River, on the Gulf, where they were told a township had been established. They sailed from Bowen, and at the same time Mr. Tooth went overland with Mr. Cassady, whose wife and mother-in-law were on the ship. When they reached the site of Burketown they found the settlement purely imaginative, there being only a pilot and one or two temporary residents. The vessel did not arrive as expected, and there was consequent anxiety as to her whereabouts and fate. Tooth and Cassidy borrowed the pilot boat to go in search of her. It transpired eventually that the captain had got into the Leichhardt River in mistake for the Albert. The searchers eventually discovered her making across the bay, the passengers being then in desperate straits for fresh water. Their troubles in this respect were soon overcome, but the condition must have been a dreadful one, for nearly all on board, including the crew, were down with fever, the captain and Mr. Tooth having to work the craft to the pilot station. Amongst the mangroves a huge sperm whale was seen stranded, but a crowd of blacks had taken possession of it, and the risk of an encounter with them was not taken by the tiny party of explorers. 

The arrival of the party practically marked the beginning of Burke-town, and a very bad beginning it was said Mr. Tooth. Within a very short time only two of all that ship's company remained alive, the others being carried off by the fever. Mr. Caasady lost his wife, two children, his step-father, his wife's mother, and his sister-in-law. Civilisation and comfort have since followed in the trail laid by the brave pioneers, and few indeed are left of them. There is probably no one remaining with such an active memory as that of Mr. Atticus Tooth. To such as he the present generation owes very much indeed. A proposal has been mooted that the Government should do something to ease the declining years of such as he, and should this reach fruition, there can be no doubt that the public will cordially approve. It may be mentioned that Mr. Nicholas Tooth, a brother of Mr. Atticus Tooth, was at one time representative of the Burrum in the Queensland Legislative Assembly.

MR. ATTICUS TOOTH. -Poulsen photo. 
SKETCHER. (1910, October 8). The Queenslander (Brisbane, Qld. : 1866 - 1939), p. 8. Retrieved from 
Taylors Point Wharf 2017 - A J Guesdon photo

Year Dated Beer Bottles In the Estuary Adjacent to Taylors Point by Roger Wickins and A J Guesdon, 2017. 

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Blacksmiths and Tinsmiths  Nylon Stockings Poster Art Furphy's Water Cart   Mousehole Anvil  Sapphire One Armed Bandit  Gould's 1840 Single and Compound Microscope  Tibetan Thangka Wheel Of Life Painting  Cast Iron Seats  Mabel Lucie Atwell Prints  The Customs of Traditional Dining by Hans and Jenny Carlborg  Albert Collins Landscape   Boomerang Harmonicas  Drinking: 18th Century Style Part I by H&J Carlborg  Drinking 18th Century Style Part II by H&J Carlborg Fleece Shears  Wood Case Crank Telephone  1803 Timepeice  Vintage Guitars  Milestones  No.38 Rolls Royce Motor Oiler  Christmas Postcards  Seashells  McCormick-Deering Horse Drawn Mower  Rope Making Machine  Marilyn Monroe 1955 Calendar  Stubbie Holders  Hill's Hoist  Akubra Hat  Fowler's Bottling Kit The Bold Autographed Script  Fishing Tackle  Arnotts Biscuit Tins  Comic Books  Silver Opium Pipe  Mrs Beetons Book  Souvenir Teaspoons  Bendigo Pottery  Gianelli Figurines  Key Fobs  Model Aircraft-static  Porcelain Slippers Wagon Wheels Rhys Williams Painting  Chinese Guardian Lions Australian Halfpenny  Bud Vases  Rolling Stones Still Life LP Autographed  WL1895 Thinking Monkey  Estee Lauder Ginger Jar  Reel Mowers  Surf Reels Millers Car Collection Hilton Lingerie - Slips Miniature Books of Verse - A Romantic Tradition  REGA Pouring Can  R O Dunlop - Sailing At Itchenor Painting Morning Shadows by C Dudley Wood  The Father of Santa Claus - Xmas 2012 HMS Penguin Anchor at RPAYC - Newport  SS Birubi Mast at RMYC - Broken Bay  Helen B Stirling Ship's Wheel at Club Palm Beach   Woomeras  HMSEndeavour Replica Cannon at RPAYC  The Doug Crane Classic Handmade Double Blade Paddle  HMS Bounty Wooden Ship Model Collecting Ladies - Ferdinand Von Mueller and Women Botanical Artists  Australian Bark Art  Chinese Ginger Jars  Hand Plough and Jump Stump Plough - Australian Inventions Frank Clune Books  Frederick Metters - Stoves, Windmills, Iron Monger  Trinket Boxes  1933 Wormald Simplex Fire Extinguisher is Pure Brass  Chapman 'Pup' Maine Engines - Chapman and Sherack  The Beach Ball  Figureheads Salty Wooden Personifications of Vessels Binnacle at RMYC The Australian Florin - Worth More Than 20 Cents to Collectors  Weathervanes; For Those Passionate About Seeing Which Way the Wind Blows Her Majesty's Theatre 1962 Programme - Luisillo and his Spanish Dance Theatre  Cooper's Sheep Shower Enamel Sign and Simpson's and Sons of Adelaide Jolly Drover Sugar Bowl and English Pottery A Means to Gaze into the Past Chief Joseph and Edward S Curtis; His Images of Native Americans an Inestimable Record of Images and Portrait Photographs His Masters Voice, Old 78'™s and Australia's Love of Music Jack Spurlings 'Tamar' Picture 1923  Resch's Beer Art - A Reflection of Australiana Now Worth Thousands  The Compleat Angler - Izaak Walton's Discourse Inspires Generations of Fishers Portable Ice-Boxes and Coolers “ How Many Claim This Invention as Theirs?  Malley's and Sons Ltd. - A Munificent Australian Family Company  Vintage Paddles and Gigs  Nautical Memorabilia  The Crinoline - a 550 Year Old Fashion  B.B. King - King of the Blues Goes Home: a Timely look into Photographs and Autographs and Being Buyer Aware  Deep Down Among the Coral - By Christopher Corr - A Limited Edition Print in Celebration of the seventy fifth anniversary of QANTAS Airways  Old Chinese Rice Bowls for Marriage: Worth More Than You Think...   Commanderie St. John: An Ancient Wine - From 1927 with Lineage to Cyprus in 1210/92 and Methods of Production to Greece in 800 B.C.  Pittwater Regatta Air Race Trophies: from 1934 and 1935 and The Pilot Who Saved William Hughes  Vintage Brass Mortar and Pestle  1958 Bedford 'D' Truck and GM Holden Australian Made Car Bodies  Heart Padlock Charm Bracelets for Newborns: A Golden Tradition  Marvellous Marbles: An All Ages Preoccupation for Collectors  Antique Silver Fish Servers: Artisans Past  Tuckfield's Bird Cards: to Swap or Collect   Joseph Lyddy – O.B.B. Dubbin Boot Polish  Vintage Wooden Tennis Racquets: A Collectors Item As Popular As Summer  Australian Trade Tokens Record Enriching Colonial Histories: the Cascade Shilling First Art Form To Record 'Tasmania' And Kangaroos  Australian Vinyl Singles of the 1950's and 1960's  Dicken's The Old Curiosity Shop bought at The Old Curiosity Shop  Pear's Soap: Artworks For The Masses  Collecting Vintage Photographs: Early Tasmanian Photographer - J W Beattie  Cyclops Vintage Toys