July 29 - August 4, 2018: Issue 369

Roads To Pittwater: the sandspit punt and spit bridge

Spit Punt, Middle Harbour- photo by A. J. (Albert James) Perier, 1870-1964. Image No Home and Away - 34440, circa.1900
(Proposed location for Spit Bridge) Digital order no: perier_34440 - courtesy State Library of NSW

The Spit was originally known as the Sand-Spit. In 1846 John Burton acquired 30 acres opposite The Spit at present day Seaforth.

From 1829, a ferry operated by a former Irish convict, Barney Kearns, carried passengers across the waters of Middle Harbour from Chinaman’s Beach to Clontarf. A set of 216 gruelling stairs that climb up from Kiora Ave near Rosherville Reserve to Parrawi Road are named for that ferryman.

Further down the harbour Barney Kearns ran a service from Balmoral to Bilgoofey or Balgowlah in North Harbour for the benefit of the few hardy pioneers who were trying to scratch a future out of the scrub around the head of the Pittwater. By 1830 he operated on a regular timetable. Forty Million Passengers A Year Were Carried Across The Harbour. This Is The Story Of Sydney's Ferries (1949, January 30). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 1 (Magazine Section). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18463713 

In Shelagh Champion OAM's 'The Murder of David Foley' we read about Mr. Foley's journey to take butter to an agent at North Harbour to take to town. We also read about Thomas Collins, one of three people charged with David Foley's murder, who was a son-in-law to Peter Ellery, and visited the home of Ellery at The Spit the day Mr. Foley was killed.

Peter Ellery and his wife Susannah Husband Ellery (nee Poyner), with their children arrived on the ship Orient on April 4th 1839, along with her brother Francis Poyner. Three more children were born in the colony, a daughter and two sons. One of the daughters who arrived with them, Lavinia Maria Ellery, when just 18, married Thomas Collins on 11 March 1844 at St Philip’s Church, Sydney. They went to live on John Clarke’s farm at North Narrabeen. Clarke died on 1 May 1847, leaving all his real and personal estate sworn at under £200, to Thomas Collins, who was living with him at the time of his death. Thomas Collins thus became the main southern neighbour of David Foley. [2.]

Peter Ellery settled opposite The Spit in 1843/44 and in 1855 purchased the land he was farming. 
LIST of unclaimed Letters for the Month of September, 1844.
Ellery Peter, North Harbour 
GENERAL POST OFFICE, SYDNEY. (1844, October 8). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1232. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230677734 - and subsequent listings each year.

Peter Ellery was often requested by travellers to take them across Middle Harbour and commenced ferrying people by rowboat in or before 1849. In 1850 Peter began a punt-style ferry service, from the flat area adjacent to the present day bridge, across Middle Harbour to the Sand Spit on the Mosman side. Initially he charged 1/6d (15 cents) for a horse and cart and 6d for passengers who were walking, the rowboat had become a hand-drawn cable punt by the early 1850's - this is possibly the boat he was using during this time and this may be his eldest son Richard who was drowned or another employed by him as Richard appears to have become a seaman - as had Francis Poyner:

DEATH BY DROWNING.—On Thursday forenoon, as Mr. M'Nab was walking at Rose Bay, he saw a boat with two men in it, drifting towards the shore. One of the men leaped out of the boat, and in about half an hour afterwards his body was washed ashore. Mr. M'Nab took the body out of the water, and went to the Police Office, in Sydney, where he reported the circumstance.

Sargeant Shearman went to Rose Bay, and brought the body to the Infirmary. The other man who was in the boat at the time is named David Power and appears to be insane. He denied having been in the boat. He was detained in custody to give evidence at the Coroner's inquest. An inquest was held on the body, yesterday, at the Three Tuns Tavern. No person appeared to claim or identify the deceased. It appeared from the evidence, that he was about twenty years of age, and was dressed in a blue woollen shirt, a pair of moleskin trowsers and a cabbage-tree hat. The other person who was in the boat with him was an idiot, commonly called " Davy,'' and can give no information who deceased was. The witness M'Nab stated that the name " Peter Ellery," was painted on the stern inside, and also the boat's name, which he believes to be "Harriett," but cannot perfectly recollect. The words " Middle Harbour," were painted on the stern outside. 

The deceased jumped out of the boat apparently with the intention of swimming ashore, but is supposed to have been seized with the cramp. M'Nab got the aid of four men and they exerted themselves to save the deceased but without success. The jury returned a verdict of Accidental Drowning. We have since ascertained that the deceased, the subject of the above inquest went from the Boatmen's Stairs, in Lower George-street, with a load of manure to Middle Harbour. Going down the harbour his masts were carried away, and the boat was blown into Rose Bay. He anchored the boat off the Hermitage, and jumped over board for the purpose of swimming ashore ; he suddenly threw up his arms and exclaimed " God help me." He then sunk and was drowned. Family Notices (1852, August 14). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60135976 

Peter Ellery's punt circa 1853-1859
There is more on the Ellery family under 'Extras' below.

In the early days in order to reach Pittwater, or Manly, while staying on land, travellers would have taken a track which followed the present day Mona Vale Road from the suburb of Gordon. It was also possible to travel to Manly via the Spit. This road was a rough track which ran off the Rosherville Beach track from present day Military Road.

In 1862 a road from St Leonards to Balgowlah via The Spit was opened. This road was very steep and ran along the west side of the headland. A description during the period of when this road was being laid is available in:

THE distance from Sydney to the above unfrequented spot is about thirty miles-easy of access, although, perhaps, less visited than any part of the environs of the metropolis, simply because people are not aware of such "an excursion being possible ; and also because of the necessity of a guide, or minute description of the route, to supply Which I have undertaken to describe my last journey on Easter Monday, two days being sufficient to accomplish it on horseback, the only conveyance it admits of.

We started from the North Shore Ferry in Windmill-street at noon, and ascending the road leading from the ferry to the top of the hill, turned to the right, opposite the chapel, and took the excellent road to Middle Harbour, about three miles of which are in good condition. Turning then to the left we enter the scrub, when a bridle-path is seen with a belt of trees, a hundred yards from the main road, this being the only guide to turn off to Middle HarbourA mile through this path leads to a somewhat rugged descent to the sandy spit, projecting half way acrosswhere Mr. Ellery, on being hailed, brings the punt across to fetch both cattle and men. The charge for this service is half-a-crown each way, and if the horses are swum across sixpence less.

The punt being under repair, we had to swim the horses-a very safe proceeding, which they appeared to enjoy amazingly; although at first I was not over-confident in the propriety of trusting my favourite steed to so very unceremonious an immersion. The distance is about a quarter of a mile, and free from sharks. The scenery of this inland bay is very fine; and I may as well mention en passant, that a small boat can be had to row two miles further up the harbour to its extremity into which the Willoughby Falls descend from the North Shore, which everybody ought to make a point of seeing.

On landing from the punt we looked in at Ellery's, where everything reminds you of a neat English farm ; and the gaude wife having regaled us with plenty of new milk, we ascended the zigzag path, cut in the solid rock at least 200 feet high, and reached the path leading to Manly Beach on the right, distant only three miles; and to Pitt Water and Broken Bay on the leftdistant about twenty-four miles from the punt. To a stranger, a little difficulty exists in taking the right path for each place ; but Mr. Ellery never fails to explain the proper direction, and often accompanies a stranger to the top of the hill to see them right. 

Ellery's Cottage Middle Harbour  ca. 1845-1858 - possibly drawn by Conrad's daughter Rebecca - dated June 21, 1858 . Image No.: c12759_0007_c, courtesy State Library of NSW

The first landmark is a log-bridge over a wide creek, which leads through two or three small farms adjoining each other ; then a very good bridle road continues through thickly-timbered forest, when suddenly the sea is heard to break, and then immediately appears in an opening on the right, between two heads forming a large lagoon, running inland, called the Deewi lagoon, which is crossed in its narrow part by a wooden log-bridge. A sandy bar keeps out the water from the lagoon, except when the sea breaks in and then fills it, from which it again gradually drains out. A wild duck suddenly arose, disturbed by our noise, which gave an indication of work for the gun in this locality.

The road from here to Pitt Water follows immediately the line of the coast northward, which makes it easy without a guide as you cannot go wrong, and a small farm every two or three miles also enables milk to be had, and perhaps a crust ; but no other accommodation in the commissariat is to be expected ; unless, as in our case, you have friends on the road.

Passing Jenkins' farm there is a level piece of beautiful turf nearly two miles long, and a quarter of a mile broad, quite fitted for a racecourse ; forming the finest gallop anywhere near Sydney, and almost of it-self worth the trouble of riding out to. After this, bush occurs again, and then the Narrobin lagoon is reached, half a mile wide-sometimes nearly dry, sometimes up to the horses' knees or girths, and at times impassable. We found it very low, but filled with fish of various sizes, darting in all directions. This back water extends inland quite out of sight, but is a perfect level sand all over, and, if not fordable, can he crossed by the bar of sand which shuts it out from the sea.

The road continues alternating with fine galloping ground over the downs, on the sand-hills and through the bush ; every now and then magnificent headlands appearing suddenly as you emerge from the bush, generally enclosing between them a fine sandy bay, upon which the ocean rolls in with a most majestic appearance from the heights above.

Near Mr. Farrell's farm are cliffs at least 100 feet high, from which a man fell, whilst shooting birds, from the rock giving way; and, strange to say, he was not much hurt, as he walked out a few days afterwards. The beach underneath is covered with debris of trees and timber, driven down the Hawkesbury by the recent floods, and drifted about here into the bays. The road from Farrell's to the flagstaff has not the sea in view, being amongst bush and steep gullies, over picturesque murmuring creeks. 

We crossed a tent, where men were boring for coals on the Rev. Mr. Therry's land they have reached 150 feet without success ; but it appears that the cognoscenti have pronounced the seam to be deep but certain. That it is hard stuff in some strata, is seen by four inches only having been gained in the last two weeks. If coal is found, a tramway to Manly will save a sea voyage to Newcastle, and open a great traffic.

Suddenly, after emerging from a tortuous mountain track, we come in full view of the magnificent estuary of Broken Bay or Pitt Water, running nine miles inland, with water enough for the largest man of war: here the Juno formerly went for gunnery practice, and ascended five miles up.

'Pittwater. Broken Bay' - Watercolour by M.C. Denison, from Album, 'Views mainly of Sydney, Wollongong, New England, Cook's River, Hawkesbury River, Norfolk Island, Hobart and Franklin Valley, and Moreton Bay, ca. 1846-54.'Image No.: c11829_0029_h, courtesy State Library of NSW

The middle water is the mouth of the Hawkesbury, several miles in extent, and beyond it is the bar of Brisbane Water, known by the surf beating over it, and difficult of access for any but coasters and steamers, the deep channel being narrow with less than two fathoms of water This runs inland sixteen miles ; East Gosford, a rising township, being at the head of the head of the navigation.

Thus the Hawkesbury has Brisbane Water on the north, and Pitt Water on the south of its embouchure all three compused between the North and South heads, and about ten miles across. The appearance is not unlike Sydney Harbour near Middle and North Harbours, with the exception of more width, and heavier timber all around.

The first thing that met our eyes on the shores of Pitt Water, was a small colony of Chinamen, who live in tents, and are engaged in curing fish caught there for the Melbourne and Sydney markets; a dozen small boats are engaged in the trade, which I hear has been a good hit, although, just now, there are no fish, which is attributed to the great floods having driven them all out to sea. Another mile along a level piece of turf by the water side, brings us to the coast-guard station, where Mr Ross has for several years been in charge. He very politely led us to the top of the lock, where the flagstaff is placed commanding a splendid view of all the surrounding scenery for many milts in all directions. This is Barenjo on the South Head, and is about 100 feet high. Several soldiers, made out of trees, as large as life, and painted, are placed about, and might actually serve as landmarks to vessels entering these complicated waters they would be more useful several miles up the mer, where Steamers have often taken the wrong channel, owing to the numerous wide branches on either side, rendering the proper channel difficult to recognise.

[View of] Barrenjoey, Hawkesbury, 1862 / Henry Grant Lloyd, Image no.: c073210001 - courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales.

This ends the trip to Broken Bay, which, for diversity of scenery of entirely an opposite nature, constantly' recurring, forming a succession of panoramas of forest, lagoon, green turf, sand hills, mountains, gullies, creeks, precipices, and (few and far between) settler farms, I will venture to affirm, cannot be equalled in so short a distance of thirty miles in any part of Australia, and will well repay the trouble of the journey and somewhat plain fare attendant upon it, as, after Manly, there is no accommodation for travellers, and supplies should be carried with them from there from Manly, the distance to Barenjo is twenty-one miles, and can be performed, starting early in the morning, there and back the same day, half the road being a splendid turf, which part of the ground can be got over quickly, and the remainder offering no difficulties to the rider
This trip can only be performed on horseback, but you can avoid taking a horse across Middle Harbour by hiring one at Manly Beach, and going from there to Broken Bay, the road, after crossing the Manly Lagoon, being the same as I have attempted to describe.
A TRIP OVERLAND TO BROKEN BAY, THE MOUTH OF THE HAWKESBURY. (1861, April 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13059376 

On Wednesday -morning.-says The Herald, a large number of persons assembled at Edward's Beach, Middle Harbour, to witness a prize fight for £50 a-side, between William Sparkes and John M'lntyre; but notwithstanding the secrecy with which the affair had been planned, the police, landing at Mossman's Bay, travelled overland and arrived in time to stop the proceedings, after which they demolished the ring, and brought the ropes and stakes away. SYDNEY NEWS. (1861, May 4). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18681674 

In 1871 the Government replaced this service with a public ferry:  

JAMES RIDDLE, the first cab proprietor of St. Leonards, North Shore, begs to inform the public that his 'buses run daily from Milson's Point. Fares : To. the Royal Hotel, 3d ; Balmoral, Middle Harbour, Willoughby Falls, 6d each way. For picnic parties, Sand- spits, and North Sydney, 1s ; Lane Cove Orange Grove, 1s 6d. All orders punctually attended to.
JAMES RIDDLE, Middle-street, North Shore. Advertising (1867, November 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13153229 

SALE OF FERRY.-The tolls to be collected at the ferry Sandspit, at the mouth of Middle Harbour, on the road from St Leonards to Balgowlah, will be submitted to auction at the water police office, Sydney, on the 1st March. GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. (1871, February 4). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63115574 

The Spit hand-operated punt, 1860's. Image no: DSC2001, courtesy Mosman Council Digital Library of images Trace.

The Spit hand-operated punt, 1860's. Image no: DSC1996, courtesy Mosman Council Digital Library of images Trace.

Sale of Ferry.— The tolls to be collected at the ferry Sandspit, at the mouth of Middle Harbour, on the road from St Leonards to Balgowlah, will be submitted to auction at the water police office, Sydney, on the 1st March. GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. (1871, February 6). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129971612 

WANTED, thoroughly efficient CHAINMAN ; also, COOK. Survey Camp, Sandspit,  Middle Harbour. Advertising (1877, May 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13386862 

Bridge Across Middle Harbour.
A deputation, consisting of Messrs. T. Rowe, Mayor of Manly, J. Woods, I. E. Ives, R. Harnett, J. R. Street, and Aldermen Hilder and Peters, were introduced by Mr. Alexander Stuart, M.L.A., to the Minister for Works on Monday morning, to urge that gentle-man to substitute a bridge for the punt across Middle Harbour at the Spit. 

It was explained that, Manly having become incorporated, its people were becoming awake to their interests. They were increasing in numbers, and found themselves not unfrequently cut off from communication with the metropolis on account of rough weather in the harbour — at least so rough that ladies were often afraid to face it. This was one reason why the bridge should be erected. They were aware that there was a punt at the Spit, but it was slow and antiquated, and sometimes, especially at night, it was not obtainable. If the bridge was built it would allow of troops being in times of danger conveyed to North Head, thought by many the Gibraltar of the city, as well as to Broken Bay. It was considered by many that if casemated guns were put on the ocean side of North Head they would be of great service, and could not, like the other guns, be turned, if captured by an enemy, upon the city. Apart from this, however, the Government had a large quantity of land along the routes leading to the proposed bridge, and this, if the bridge were built, would have its value materially enhanced, as people would then buy and settle upon it. 

The cost of a wooden structure of the requisite dimensions would, according to a professional gentleman, named Russell, in the Government service, be about £8000. 

Manly, it was claimed, deserved much consideration on the part of the Government as the great sanatorium of the city and the colony to which thousands of people resorted every week. After some remarks from Mr. Ives, who said the people of North Shore were co-operating in the movement, and some from other members of the deputation, Mr. Sutherland said in reply that he had no know-ledge of the cost of such a bridge as that desired, and had no doubt of the benefits it would confer on the Manly and North Shore people. He must have a carefully prepared estimate of the cost of the bridge, and this he would submit to the consideration of his colleagues. There was no likelihood of the money for the structure being placed on the Estimates of the present year, because it was anticipated they would be voted in a week. He would also have an estimate prepared of unsold Government property contiguous to the bridge. If the people of Manly or North Shore were of opinion that they were not getting their rights, they were perfectly justified in demanding them ; and this fact would be duly con-sidered by the Government. After a general conversation, during which it was stated that the bridge would provide many beautiful rides and drives for the citizens, the deputation thanked Mr. Sutherland for his courtesy, and withdrew. 
DEPUTATIONS. (1878, March 2). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 264. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162691215


The establishment of an overland route to Manly such as would place that beautiful suburb within easy reach of Sydney, is a project which has now acquired considerable strength, and has advanced to a stage from which its fulfilment at an early period ought to be ensured. Under the present conditions, the overland trip to Manly is something of a task, a journey full of delay and obstacles, which are only counterbalanced by the enjoyment of the supreme beauty of the surrounding scenery. On leaving the city the first delay takes place at the ferry, where according to circumstances, the vehicle may have to wait any time under a quarter of an hour. At the other side the horse has to face the long stiff ridge on which St Leonards is built, and which at length reachs a level on the Military-road, beyond the reserve. The usual wheel route to the Military road follows the main thoroughfare of St Leonards, now occupied by the cable tram line, and owing to the direction of the roads in conformity with the formation of the country, this route takes one right away from the desired direction, and on account of this detour and of the uphill work to le got over, the St. Leonards section is a very considerable part of the journey, and it involves a deal of dead of dead work. The is a shorter route cutting of a part of this deviation and meeting the Military-road near the, brick works but it is reckoned too steep for vehicles. Other short cuts could be made by working in round the head of Neutral Bay but the roads would require to be adapted to this plan It is by simply making use of the existing route, and enlarging its capabilities, that it is proposed to bring Manly within an hour and a-quarter of Circular Quay, or perhaps an hour clear. The drive along the Military Road is well known as one of the best about Sydney. It opens up views of the city and harbour not to be obtained elsewhere, and not surpassed by those that are. 

There is one magnificent panoramic view of Sydney to be seen from the high ground just beyond the reserve, that that is of itself worth a trip to the spot. But the popular knowledge of this picturesque drive is limited to the road to the fortifications, from which many lovely scenes are visible. The Manly-road, branching to the left at Bueno Vista, leads the visitor into a new sphere of beauty, teeming with pictures of hill and sea and what is virtually the lake scenery of the winding arms of Middle Harbour. As you approach the Sandspit above Clontarf, to reach the ferry, there is splendid aspect of Sydney Heads to be observed from this spot alone, and still nearer to the ferry the view opens on a broad stretch of blue, in which the waters of Middle Harbour merge with the swell of the entrance and are lost in the smooth line of the horizon away out at sea. The approaches to the Sandspit Ferry form an important part of the new scheme. These approaches were positively dangerous, but they have been abandoned for new roads opened a few weeks ago, which will render this crossing perfect so far as that part of it it is concerned. The new road on the south side leaves the old line just at the top of the hill above the spit; and instead of the steep descent on the inner side of the hill, we have now a splendid drive round the Middle Harbour side, leading to the ferry at such a gentle gradient that one can trot his horse down it without using the brake. The road is broad and level with a strong fence on the edge; and as it winds along the face of the hill the scenery of the harbour entrance is exhibited in many new and beautiful aspects.

At the Sand spit ferry the traveller meets with the most serious check of the whole journey, owing to the want of a proper ferry boat. The punt now in use is worked by a pulley and cable, and usually takes about a quarter of an hour to cross the water, under the most favourable conditions 12 minutes. The punt is left at the landing place to which it is last brought, and the next arrival on the the side of departure has to wait for it to come back thus breaking half an hour in crossing. On the Manly side there is now an easy approach cut round the lull, the first few hundred yards rising from the water being twined round the head of a little inlet, with the most picturesque effect. From the upper part of the slope fresh views of Middle Harbour, both above and below the spit, are opened up, and there is a grand general view of Clontarf and the crossing-place. A great deal of work has been done on these roads, extending ever eight or nine months, and the result is very satisfactory.

The roads have still to be metalled but are even now in capital condition. The passage of the ridge on to Manly leads past Dobroyd where a piece of Government land is now being cleared for sale for building purposes and some fine sites will be rendered available In fact, this route to Manly opens up a large extent of unaliented land peculiarly well suited fur residences and there can scarcely be a healthier or more beautiful situation.

On reaching the last height above Manly, a fine ocean view breaks on the sight, and away on the left is the hilly country stretching towards Narrabeen. There has been another improvement in the approach to Manly, by which the steep descent of the Red Hills road is avoided. The new road turns down towards the harbour just beyond " The Chalet," a pretty residence on the top of the hill, and it skirts the slope on the harbour side though many; attractive scenes till it teaches the level in Manly itself. This is the route as it now stands, and as it is proposed to be further developed. When it becomes properly known it will be one of the most popular drives of Sydney But the idea is to shorten the trip so that the whole of the locality traversed be made available for the residence of those having business in the city. The horse ferry at Fort Macquarie, it is urged, should be improved to such an extent that the north and south shores would be connected by a ferry trip of merely a few minutes duration, by means of a steam bridge working with properly constructed docks and approaches. The proposal includes a suggestion that the Sydney end should be placed on Dawes Point. So far as the passenger traffic is concerned, a more rapid service and the existing tram line would provide tor this section of the trip. 

Arrangements are now in progress for continuing the journey to Manly by means of coaches, one line connecting with the train terminus and running to the sandspit, whence passengers will be taken on by another line into Manly. It is also proposed that a bridge should be built over the spit crossing to connect with the two new roads. The roads have been laid out with the view to this future connection and it is understood that plans for the bridge are in existence. The bridge would have a clear height of 40 feet from the water, and this it is believed, would pass all craft likely to go up the harbour for a very Long time. A further important part of the project is the construction of tram from the present terminus to Manly. The gradients are said to be all sufficiently easy to permit of a line being laid successfully, while the construction of the tints would solve the difficulty as to the crossing. It is suggested thit in the meantime a better ferry boat should be provided at the Spit. The tram line could be laid on the south side first, and perhaps on the north side also pending the construction of the budge; but in any case, the ordinary road traffic would require better ferry accommodation. With these proposals earned out in their entirety, a most desirable residential district would be opened up with great advantage, both to those who chose to place their homes there, and to the citizens of Sydney in search of recreation. OVERLAND TO MANLY. (1887, May 18).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13656391 

Mr. Copeland laid upon the table of the Legislative Assembly last evening the report of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Public Works relative to the proposed bridge at the Spit, Middle Harbour. The committee resolved that it is not expedient the work should be carried out. The bridge as proposed would cross Middle Harbour at the Spit, near the site of the present ferry ; and according to the design it would be constructed to each of two central openings of 60ft. each, with two spans of 125ft. on either side. The central spans would be formed by continuous lattice girders, revolving upon a central swing pier ; the 125ft. spans would be independent lattice girders. The roadway of the bridge would be 32ft. wide ; the height of the superstructure, which would rest upon wrought and cast iron cylinders, 30ft. in the clear above high-water ; and the approaches, which would be 1500ft. in length, would consist of timber spans, and an earth- work embankment. The total estimated cost of the work is £62,000. 
As far back as 1881 representations were made to the Government in favour of the construction of a bridge across Middle Harbour, and since then the question has been before several Ministers for Works successively, the result, so far, being that the sum of £62,000 for the work was placed on the Loan Estimates for 1888, and passed. The committee, after a careful investigation, have arrived at the conclusion that the bridge should not be erected and that the requirements at the Spit in the form of improved arrangements for crossing that part of Middle Harbour can for the present, and for many years to come, be met by means of a steam punt. They have come to this decision for several important reasons :— 
1. The expensive nature of the bridge compared with the alleged beneficial results which its construction would bring about. 
2. The present overland traffic to Manly and its neighbourhood, or that which is probable for some years to come, is not likely to be increased to such an extent as to warrant the erection of the proposed bridge, seeing that, even with this bridge, unbroken land communication could not be had between Manly and Sydney unless by travelling round by way of the bridges across Lane Cove, the Parramatta River, and Iron Cove, a distance so great as to make the journey practically impossible. 
3. Inasmuch as persons passing between Sydney and Manly by way of the Spit must make use of the steam ferry boats running between Sydney and North Shore, concerning which no witness examined by the committee made any complaint, there should be no inconvenience experienced in the use of similar means of transit at the Spit, provided sufficient measures be taken for ensuring safety and expedition. 
4. It is the intention of the Department of Public Works to at once place a steam-punt of the best description at the Spit, in lieu of the ordinary punt at present there, and the plan of this steam-punt shows that it will be sufficiently commodious to afford all the accommodation likely to be required for some time to come, while the width of Middle Harbour at the Spit being much less than the distance from Sydney to North Shore, the crossing in the punt at the Spit should occupy much less time, and should be carried out with as much regularity as the ferry service between North Shore and Sydney. 
5. It does not appear that the construction of a bridge would do much, or more, than a steam-punt to promote settlement, and the area of Crown land in the neighbourhood of Manly, the value of which would be increased by the improved means of access to it which the proposed bridge would afford, or the probable increased value, is not sufficiently large to justify the expenditure of £62,000, and the subsequent annual charge for interest upon that sum and other expenses connected with the maintenance of the bridge. 
6. The bridge, being a low-level one, would, to a certain extent, impede the present water traffic in Middle Harbour, and would be a more serious impediment when the shores of that estuary become, as in the course of a few years they may, extensively populated. The bridge, as already stated, is estimated to cost £62,000 ; but as it is not quite certain that this would be the exact cost, the expenditure might be greater. 
Mr. W. C. Bennett, Commissioner and Engineer-in-Chief for Roads, says upon this point that the sum named will cover the total cost of the bridge and approaches as far as he can estimate ; he has been guided by the prices paid for other works, and has reason to think that the estimate ought to be a fair one. But as no provision is made in the design of the bridge for footways, apart from the ordinary roadway, the cost would probably have to be increased to ensure the complete safety of pedestrians, especially if the bridge were to carry a tramway, though at present the possibility of a tramway crossing the bridge is not a matter for serious consideration. If these footways were provided, the estimate of £62,000, according to Mr. Bennett's evidence, would be increased by at least £3000. Supposing the cost of construction to be £62,000, the annual charge against the bridge representing interest and depreciation, working expenses, painting, &c., would be £3604. 
All bridges in this colony are free to the public, and therefore there could be no receipts from this bridge, unless at some future date a private company secured the right to use it for the purposes of a tramway, in which case the payment by the company would be credited against the annual charge arising from the expenditure upon the construction of the bridge. 
Against this large expenditure and this annual charge there must, of course, be placed the advantages which it is contended will arise from the construction of the bridge. In relation to the second of the reasons which have influenced the committee in their decision, it seems evident that if an extensive overload traffic between Sydney and Manly is to be brought about it must be by making the connection between the two places by land complete, and of such a nature that the journey from one place to the other shall be at least as convenient, if not more so, than the means which at present exist for communication by water. But the erection of this bridge, beyond the improved facilities it will afford for crossing at the Spit, will do nothing in the way of attaining this object. 
Referring to the third of the reasons mentioned, it will be found from the evidence that the conveniences for crossing Middle Harbour by means of a steam-punt will be quite equal to what is experienced in relation to the steam-ferry boats running between Sydney and North Shore. No one among the witnesses examined considers that a steam punt is equal to a bridge, but it is admitted that it may be made as convenient as what is met with in the traffic between North Shore and Sydney.
The intention of the Department of Public Works to place a steam-punt at the Spit, in lieu of the present ordinary punt, is influenced by the knowledge that, if the erection of the proposed bridge were sanctioned, it would be at least two years before the bridge would be completed, and some improved means of crossing Middle Harbour at the Spit is required at once. There-fore, plans for a put have been prepared, and tenders for its construction invited. The punt is estimated to cost about £2000, but it would probably be built for much less, as a tender for its constitution, amounting to £1487, has been received, and it is to be worked by steam and a wire rope, at an estimated annual cost, including depreciation, of £800, a large portion of which would be recouped by the annual receipts. Its carrying capacity will be eight ordinary-sized buggies each trip, with room for passengers on the side-walls ; and it will cross and recross at intervals of 15 minutes, though the distance being short, it could do the journey much quicker. 
The punt, as proposed, is one of the latest design ; and it is certain to meet the requirements of the ordinary traffic for some time to come. Eight ordinary-sized buggies every quarter of an hour would represent between, say 6 o'clock in the morning and midnight, a traffic of 576 vehicles ; and in the opinion of the committee it is very improbable that there would be anything like such a traffic at this crossing, even if not only the Spit bridge but also a bridge to connect Sydney with North Shore were built. With regard to the question of the bridge promoting settlement and increasing the value of Crown land, until land communication with Manly is complete, and there is no necessity to use the ferry boats between Sydney and North Shore, the traffic across the bridge must be very small ; and, therefore, the bridge is not likely to promote in any appreciable degree, or more than a steam punt would do, the settlement of population. The last of the principal reasons which have led the committee to conclude that the bridge should not be erected is that it would to a certain extent impede the water traffic in Middle Harbour. To this objection, however, the committee do not attach very much weight. 
A high-level bridge would be so expensive that the erection of such a structure could not be sanctioned except under the most pressing conditions as regards trafffic, and a low-level bridge, however designed, must in some degree interfere with passing to and fro of yachts and steamers. But the fact that the bridge, as proposed, would prove an interference with the water traffic, deserves some consideration when placed in connection with the other objections against the structure ; and to that extent the committee regard it as one of the reasons why it is not expedient the bridge should be built. The committee, on Thursday 13th December, agreed to the following resolution, moved by Mr. Kethel, and seconded by Mr. Campbell, — 
" That the committee do not consider it expedient to recommend the construction of the proposed bridge across Middle Harbour at the Spit, as they are of opinion that the steam-punt proposed to be built by the Department of Public Works for a ferry service at the Spit will be sufficient for all traffic at that place for many years to come."
PROPOSED BRIDGE AT THE SPIT, MIDDLE HARBOUR. (1889, January 17).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13710561 

The push for a bridge continued, despite the January resolutions:

A deputation of residents of Manly waited upon the Minister for Public Works yesterday to urge the reconsideration of building a bridge at the Spit, over Middle Harbour. Amongst those present were Messrs. J. F. Burns and Cullen, M.L.A., W. H. Vivian, Littlejohn, Aldermen Cameron, Hayes, and Passau. The speakers contended, in view of the inconvenience that recently happened during the storms, that the Government might again fairly place the matter in the hands of the Public Works Committee. The old argument respecting the commercial aspects of the undertaking were brought forward, and it was con-tended that there was every necessity for the bridge, in order to ensure communication between Manly and Sydney.

Mr. BRUCE SMITH, in reply, stated that the Public Work Committee had gone fully and impartially into the question, and reported emphatically against the proposed bridge, recommending instead a steam punt of ample capacity. They were asking him to recommend to the Government a work that had been condemned in the most unmeasured terms. In the first place it would be necessary for them to place before him fresh evidence in support of the work, and to show that the Public Works Committee arrived at an improper conclusion on the evidence before it. It was only natural for the deputation to come in a biassed frame of mind, but it was his duty to guard the public funds, and see they were not expended on works other than for the public benefit as a whole. The storm complained of might not happen for 10 or 20 years again, because it was unprecedented in the colony. As long as he was satisfied that the interests of Manly could be properly attended to by an improved system of puntage it was not likely that he was going to be led away by the fact of the recent storm. Concerning the commercial view of the matter, he remarked that a bridge would increase the value of private property as well as the Government lands there, and in that case, what proportion were the people prepared to contribute towards the erection of a bridge ? 
It was not fair to say that the Government should pay all the money because 4000 acres of Government land would be enhanced 25 per cent. If the people were prepared to contribute pro rata with the Government according to the lands held, which would be a reasonable thing, he would be prepared to entertain the proposal.
Mr. CULLEN : Would you be inclined to treat all the municipalities in that way?
Mr. BRUCE SMITH : Yes; where the work was condemned by the Public Works Committee.  
THE PROPOSED SPIT BRIDGE. (1889, June 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13741877 

The 'at once' turned out to be August that year for the launch of the new steam-punt:

On Saturday last there was launched from the works of Messrs. Foster and Minty, engineers and shipbuilders, of Balmain, an iron steam punt for the Spit at Manly, 55ft. long, 24ft beam, with large flaps at each end 12ft long. She is driven by a pair of 6½ vertical engines, geared to large wheels, which receive steel rope. The launch was a perfect success. There were present: Mr. Bunton, engineer of the Roads and Bridges Department, who supervised the punt which in course of construction Mr M'Crutchie, of the Marine Board, Captain Mat Byrnes Messrs. W. and J. Halliday of the firm of Halliday Brothers, Erskine-street, and several other gentlemen. After the punt was moored along-side Mr M'Crutchie proposed success to the firn of Messrs. Foster and Minty, which Captain Mat Byrnes in a few appropriate terms supported, and which was dulv responded to. There is also at these works now in course of construction a steam launch 55ft long, 10ft beam, and 6ft. deep, of light draft, only waiting for her machinery, as the hull is in a forward state of completion.
LAUNCH OF THE MANLY SPIT PUNT. (1889, August 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13746177

By late September the new punt was put to work:

Ready for Action.
The Works Department has at last got ready the new steam punt, which has been constructed for the Spit, Middle Habor and it will be put into action tomorrow morning. It is intended that it shall run from 7 a.m. to 9 p.m., and is expected to accomplish the journey each way in between 3min. or  4 minutes.Arrangements can be made, if applications are sent to the office beforehand, to run the punt after 9 p.m., but otherwise passengers who have been out later will have to fall back on the local Charons and be ferried across. The scale of charges will be similar to that now in force. It is the intention of the Minister to review the scale on all punts in the colony, and with this end in view returns are now being prepared for his information.
THE SPIT STEAM PUNT. (1889, September 25 - Wednesday). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 5 (SECOND EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227580861

The Spit punt, 1880s

From Sydney to Manly by Land.
Variety is charming, and for a good round pleasant trip from Sydney to Manly and back again, the one here described and illustrated cannot be surpassed in any part of Australia. For moderately strong people who are fond of a walk, with plenty to see on the way, the above trip is one which will repay the least imaginative individuals. Starting fairly early in the day in such pleasant warm weather as we are now having, and taking the North Shore ferry to Milson's Point, one begins to feel the genial balmy air of the morning, which suggests what he will get when in the higher regions above. Milson's Point, to which he will ascend by the cable tram, runs from the ferry landing to the St. Leonards reserve— the run being about two miles. 
On the way, as the tram winds slowly up the hill, are grand views of the. city and suburbs; while on the right can be seen the long range of the Blue Mountains. These views are better appreciated, however, when there is more time at one's disposal, for as the tram travels along, the brief glance obtained before it is out of eight hardly does justice to probably one of the finest panoramas of a city to be obtained anywhere. Things have progressed here since we either had to walk up the hill, or take a tumble-down vehicle which was pulled up the hill by an animal which was quite in keeping with the vehicle, and the man who drove such vehicles in those days w as not out of place. Instead of this, now we have the smartly-appointed cable tram, which makes one imagine he is in some American suburb, or, to get' nearer home, Melbourne. And while talking of conveyances, it is as yet a dream when one will be able to enter a railway carriage near the General Post Office in George-street, and 60 travel along to Dawes Point over the proposed suspension bridge — a bridge which would be equal if nut better than the famed New York and Brooklyn one — hence by the proposed circular railway along the North Shore to Manly, crossing Middle Harbour on a similar bridge. This is at present a dream, although many attempts have been, made to bring it to a reality, the excuse being, I believe, at present that the population of the place doesn't warrant the expenditure, whereas, as a matter of fact, it would be the very means of creating a population. For, naturally, if a business man could live on the 'Shore,' and be within, say, 15 or 20 minutes of the General Post Office in the city, with only one transit, instead of the amount of 'transhipping' required when one lives ' up the line,' — from walking to :the train an 1 waiting, then, arrived in Sydney, running to get a seat in tram or 'bus which will take you to the city — there would be a temptation to live on the 'Shore.' The inconveniences referred to would be obviated by .such a railway as suggested from North Shore into the city. It would be better for many reasons. First, the St. Leonards, heights, overlooking the harbour and sea, is much cooler to live in than the western suburbs, where a sea-breeze in the evening would be quite as much a novelty as ice is in a back-block bush ' hotel. But as we are on a pleasure trip, and not coming to town on business, we will continue. The railway is all very pleasant for people in a hurry. We are not, and therefore leave the tram at the reserve near the Military-road, which, by the way, is the terminus. 

A delightful walk is that through the St. Leonards's Reserve, where a lot of money has been spent during the last year | or so in putting the place in order. Here on I Saturdays cricket and football matches, &c , are indulged in, while to the quieter kind or' individual there are beautiful flowers, shady nooks under trees, &c, where he or she can read his or her weekly paper or novel without being interfered with. We now commence our walk in real earnest, stopping occasionally to view the panorama before us, which for variety of detail it would be difficult to excel' . 
From the extreme left the Heads (north and south'), a long stretch of harbour, above which can be -seen the residences of many of our Sydney nobility, then the extreme end of Waverley, on to Woollahra, Paddington, Darlinghurst, and the city; on again to the University, which stands out as a giant from the apparent pigmies of houses, which are seen in masses to the right and left ; then Botany Bay, and on again to the mountains. The smoke of a busy city and busy harbour, with its hundreds of craft of all kinds, from the 6000 ton Orient or P. and O. liner to the ferry boat and smaller sailing craft — why, the view is perfect, and, on an Australian bright spring day, is equal to anything to be seen on the Mediterranean. Leaving the Military-road at its junction with the Spit-road, just above Mossman's Bay, we come to our sketch as depicted in No. 1, where three distinct headlands are seen, the first and greatest being, of course, the North Head-on the left, with it quarantine station, the buildings appearing like little white dots on the green hill side ; and again to the left will be seen a distant view of the
Cardinal's Palace at Manly. The head nearest is Middle Head, on which a formidable battery is located, guarding the entrance to the Port' of Sydney. At Easter time it is very lively and busy with the Volunteer Encampment, which locates here for the yearly drill and inspection. Over the Head, to the right, is the inner South Head, on which can be seen the Hornby Light. forming the extreme point. Between there and the North Head all kinds of craft proceed to sea. At the foot of the hill, in the foreground, is a well known picnic resort — Balmoral beach, which is a Government reserve, and where in the season many camps are made. This is one of the few m beaches in Middle Harbour which the Government have kept for the public benefit. The I necessity of such provision in the future (as ? the other shores are mostly private property, and will, no doubt, be built up to) will be felt. After thinking these things over, we pass on our way among wild flowers which grow in profusion on either side of the road, passing several pretty villas. 
For the sake of the picturesque, it is better to keep to the old Spitroad, which runs in a straight line over the hill, while the new road running to the same point runs round the side of the hill. This road, of course, is better for vehicular traffic on account of it not being so steep as the old road ; but for people who intend enjoying a walk and seeing the scenery, the old road is preferable, as we soon find out. A fine view is obtained of Middle Harbour on our left, as seen in sketch 2. Many points are here recognisable to anyone who has been on fishing or boating excursions (and who in Sydney has not some time or other ?) On the left is the favourite fishing ground under the Bluff, known as Blackwall ; to the left Tremlow's Reef and Sugarloaf, and so on until the I hills disappear and melt into the sky. Behind I the Bluff and out of sight are the well known I powder hulks, and. another extensive view (sketch I No. 3) is lower down the road, and one sees between the trees the ' Spit,1' a narrow neck of land running right out into the deep waters of Middle Harbour. From here we take the new steam ferry (fare Id) across to the other side, known as the Manly Peninsula. This ferry is a big advance on the old affair, which was just as primitive as it crmld be, and which, as if left on purpose to form the comparison, is seen stranded on the sandy spit hard-by. Once over on the other side we commence to ascend what is really a considerable hill, but which is made easy of ascent by the road being made to zigzag up the side. An occasional stop to admire the beautiful once more is well repaid, for looking down towards the Heads the view is fine indeed. Middle Harbour, with ils deep blue and green waters and its many bays, recall not a few pleasant days spent in exploring them. On the left is Clontarf, one of the most, beautiful pleasure resorts around Sydney. When halfway up the hill one gets a capital idea of what the old road was and the new road is, as shown in sketch 4. The old road went in a white line right over the hill, while the new road is been on the left to- disappear round the side, making, as stated before, a very much more easy climb. When on the top of the hill we are on' a fine red gravel road, which runs like an old Roman road in parts, being straight and well formed. On the left, as we travel along, are grand extensive woodland scenes, stretching as far as the eye can see — hills that tower above Narrabeen and Newport, and growing in between are the wild flowers that make Manly popular once a year.
Many are the interesting sights to be seen in the next mile or so; but we have selected the one view (No. .5), which will give a comprehensive idea of the entrance to Port Jackson. Looking from North Harbour, at the foot of the road in the foreground, a broad expanse of water is seen ; on the left, the flagstaff attached to the Quarantine Station ; and, further on, the South Head, on the top of which is the justly- celebrated Macquarie light, which stands on a cliff over 300ft. in height, the foot of which is seen by a white line of foam Further down the road we pass many beautiful residences until we turn sharp y round a comer and begin to descend into Manly and obtain the view as sketched in No. 6. with the old residence of the late Hon. W. B. Dalley, P.O., in the foreground, looming up its white stone-turreted sides and towers against the blue distance. This is a very charming scene, with its various colours and forms, both in trees and residences. On the hill to the right, above Shellharbour, or cove; a better idea (being closer) of the Cardinal's palace is obtained. The palace itself is a very fine building, but its complete isolation on a bare hill makes it look at a distance like a huge factory, there not being the slightest indication of a tree to break its many straight lines and dots of windows as they appear at a distance. But still the building is there, not forgetting the usual flagstaff on the top of the centre tower. But why a flagstaff on such a building it is hard to imagine. We leave this idea to take care of itself, and pass on down the hill to the pretty little township (Our Village) at the foot. Much could be said of Manly, with its different scenes, for ' variety is charming,' and there is much in Manly, with its pretty churches and parks, reserves walks, &c, its ocean beach and harbour beach, unique in its formation and locality. We lunch in the ' village,'' and feel much better for our well-earned repose, having seen more in a few miles' walk than we ever expected or imagined, and take the boat back to Sydney, which will take a little over ha'f an hour, enjoying en route the many lovely scenes as we sit comfortably on the steamer taking a well earned rest, and, quoting Mr. Francis Myers's well-known lines on the harbour to conclude, we see in all truth — 
Sunlight's lilts bare paled to neutral, toned to hues of soothing ffrey.  
And in hallowed trance of stillness, nature ends her chequered day.  
A. N. F. 

OUR ILLUSTRATIONS. (1890, November 29). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1207. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163644727 

NB: Sketch number 4 shows Peter Ellery's home on the hill leading up to the Manly road - clearly a larger residence than that first sketched by Conrad Martens.

Opening: of the Military-road Electric Tramway.

On Thursday, the 21st, an event took place which is of special interest to the residents of Mosman and Manly, and, indeed, to the residents of that remark ably picturesque part of the colony lying between Manly and Pittwater, a branch of the far-famed Hawkesbury River. The even'; we refer to was the opening to public traffic of the recently completed electric tramway running from St. Leonards Reserve to the junction of the Military and Spit roads, Mosman, a length of about two miles.

The present completed section is the first of the line which it is proposed to construct to the Spit at Middle Harbour and thence to Manly. A branch line will be built to connect with the fortifications at Middle Head. The track is a capital one, and in laying the line care has been taken to use sleepers and rails that will be strong enough to carry a light rail way and serve not only the necessities of the fortifications but the growing traffic in the district.

1. View near Tram Terminus, looking out to sea. 2 and 3. Views from the Lauderdale Avenue, the new coach road into Manly, overlooking North Harbour. 4. The Lauderdale Avenue. OPENING OF THE TRAM TO THE SPIT-ROAD.— VIEWS ON THE OVERLAND TRIP TO MANLY.

The following gentlemen left Manly between 8 and 9 o'clock by one of Mr. Black's coaches to proceed to the tram terminus, where they were to meet the members of the Mosman Council : — Aldermen C. H. Hayes (acting-Mayor), Farmer, Fletcher, Thomas, and Moss: also Messrs. C. B. Austin, T. C. Haylock (council clerk), H. T. Robey (secretary of Manly and Pittwater Railway League), John Woods, E. Ridge, S. Smith, and A. Bilder. The route taken was along Lauderdale-avenue, a roadway that was completed some six months ago at a cost of about £2000. Manly looked charming in the morning light, and the coach journey was a delightful one. The air was laden with perfume of wild flowers, which were everywhere in abundance, lending an added charm to the other beauties of the landscape. The picturesqueness of the scenery is so striking that the people of the district look to its becoming a favourite resort of excursionists on that account, and also as favourite residence suburbs, now that the tram service renders the district so accessible to Sydney. 

The extension of the tram line to Manly is also eagerly looked forward to. The present extension gives residents of that village a double service to Sydney, making them to an extent independent of the steamers during rough or foggy weather, the connection with the present tram terminus being maintained by coach, but the completion of the tram service into Manly is regarded as a desideratum. The party from Manly were met at the tram terminus by Mr. J. F. Cullen, M.L.A., and the Mayor and aldermen of Mosman and North Sydney, and a number of officials and prominent citizens. Alderman C. H. Hayes, in the unavoidable absence through illness of tie Mayor of Manly (Mr. German), offered his congratulations on the opening of the tramway. The people of Manly were interested with those of Mosman in the work which had been so far accomplished. Mr. Black would with his coach take up the link from the point where they stood and convey passengers to view the beauty spots. He might add that the journey from Manly that morning had been accomplished in 29 minutes, and he hoped that the influx of visitors would lead to such a development of excursion traffic that the public would be enabled to get from the stopping-place, to the beauties beyond Middle Harbour, to beautiful Manly. 

It was their desire that it might be of such volume as to warrant the Railway Commissioners in extending the line across the Spit to Manly. Anything that could be done towards that end would be done by the members of the Manly Council and the people of Manly. He might safely say that the whole dis tance from Sydney to Manly would be done for Is, and, as one who had seen most of the picturesque sights of Australia and New Zealand, he had never seen in the same distance of four miles such an amount of picturesque beauty crowded into such a small compass. The speaker then shook hands with Mayor Harnett, who in reply said that he had much pleasure in welcoming them to the new borough of Mosman. They had met in an informal way to exchange congratulations and shake hands with Manly ; and as they now had the nucleus of a lasting connection between Mosman and Manly, two of Sydney's most picturesque and beautiful marine suburbs, they, as a council at Mosman, hoped that there might be a connecting link over Middle Harbour some day by bridge and tramway, so that the beauties of Middle Harbour may become more appreciated— by being brought within easy reach of the residents of Sydney, North Sydney, and Mos man. It would also lead to the country north of Middle Harbour, as far as Narrabeen and Pittwater, being opened up. Cheers were then given for the Manly Council, the Mosman Council, Mr. Lyne, and the Railway Commissioners, after which all present boarded the tram and proceeded to North Sydney. Several passengers were picked up on the way, amongst them being Sir Joseph Abbott. Upon arriving at Ridge-street a change was made to the cable tram, and the party reached Sydney about 25 minutes to 10 o'clock.

1. D. Y. Lagoon. 2. The coast, looking from hill above Narrabeen. 3. Pittwater Basin. 4. A camping party. 5. Long Reef and Collaroy Beach. 6. At Newport. VIEWS ON THE ROUTE, MANLY TO PITTWATER.
Opening of the Military-road Electric Tramway. (1893, September 30). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 703. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164368643

NB: Sketch Number 4 above is actually the first Newport school rendition, which was run in a tent. Visit - The Newport School (188-2016)

The Spit, Middle Harbour (pre-1900) from the Tyrell collection, Powerhouse Museum

The Spit Punt, from Glass negatives including images of boating, beaches, motoring and houses in the Sydney region, ca 1890-1910, by William Joseph Macpherson Call number ON 588Box 02. Digital ID c071150004 - courtesy State Library of NSW.

The Steam-Punt was considered obsolete less than 10 years later and unable to cope with the increased traffic created by the extension of the tram to The Spit in 1900:

The condition of the steam punt at the Spit was the subject of much condemnation' at Tuesday night's meeting of the Mosman Council. The matter arose over a minute submitted by the Mayor (Alderman Alderson). It appears that the steam punt is subject to an annual overhauling, and while being, laid up its place is taken by an obsolete ferryboat. According to the Mosman aldermen, the steam-punt is bad enough, but the old ferryboat is infinitely worse. The Mayor's minute, suggested that in view of the fact that great inconvenience  occurs to the travelling. public during the overhauling of the steams-punt at the Spit, the council deems it advisable that steps should be taken to approach the Government, asking for better accommodation, and that the member for the district be written to, asking his assistance in the matter. In the discussion that followed, the steam punt was described 'as slow and obsolete', and it was said to be disgraceful that the affair should be kept on for so many years. One alderman stated that it was a disgrace to Mosman, and unfit for any gentlemen, let alone a lady to use it. The minute was adopted.
THE STEAM PUNT AT THE SPIT. (1898, September 15). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113246848

On busy days, such as fine Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays, the Government punt at the Spit, which is on the overland route to Manly, is insufficient to deal with the heavy traffic, and the consequence is that travellers are frequently subjected to annoying delays. The matter has of late had the attention of the Mosman Progress Association, and, as a result, the member for the district is endeavoring to persuade Mr. O'Sullivan to place a larger punt on the service, which Is a very profitable one.
THE SPIT PUNT. (1903, August 1). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237551205

An accident happened to the vehicular punt at the Spit, Middle Harbour, yesterday afternoon. This caused a suspension of traffic and a large number of people were seriously inconvenienced. About 2.30 p.m. an excursion steamer in crossing the bar came into contact with the steel wire rope which works the ferry from one side of the channel to the other. The rope at the time was just below the surface of the water, and the vessel, as it steamed slowly over, dragged the rope with it, wrenching it from its fastening on the landing stage at the Manly side. A westerly gale was blowing at the time and it was found impossible to pick up the lost rope end. As is usual on Sunday a large number of vehicles traverse the road to Manly, and on returning from that popular resort people arrived at the Spit to find that there was no means of crossing over. 

Unfortunately the accident happened early in the after-noon, so that the great majority of those who used the road earlier in the day were unable to get back to Sydney. The occupants of the vehicles in nearly every case returned to Manly, and came on to the city by boat. The accident was quickly taken advantage of by boatmen, and a number of rowing boats were engaged in conveying people across to the Spit at a somewhat higher figure than that usually charged on the ferry. To-day the rope, it is expected, will be picked up and again fastened. Traffic will most probably be resumed to-morrow morning. THE MIDDLE HARBOUR FERRY. (1903, September 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14549478 

The tram line to The Spit, increasing passenger traffic, officially opened in November 1900, just in time for Summer by the sea, and was preceded by a visit to Pittwater wherein the then Minister for Works reminded all that he was responsible for getting it there:

For two years past the project of a tramway from Manly to Pittwater has been mooted, its prospects and possibilities have been represented to both Mr. Reid and Mr. Lyne's  Governments, surveys have been made, reports and estimates prepared, and statistics collected but hitherto in spite of the exertions of the member for Warringah, Mr. Dugald Thomson, M.L.A., no step towards the realisation had been taken.
The new Minister for Works (the Hon. E. W.O'Sullivan) having had the matter brought prominently under his notice, arranged to visit the route on Saturday, and accordingly in company with Mr.  Dugald Thomson, arrived at Manly by special launch at 10 in the morning, and then took coach to  the district, attended by many Manly residents and  visitors. Among the coach party were the Mayorof Manly (Alderman W. H. Fletcher), the Mayor  of Paddington (Alderman T. J. West), Messrs. E. and S. L. Ridge, H. T. Robey, D. Farrell, T.C. Haylock, A. Vialoux, and W. Bulfin.
The day was fine, and as he drove along the Minister’s attention was drawn to various points and undertakings of interest. Just over the Manly lagoon bridge gangs of men were breaking local white metal for the repair of the road as far as  Greendale, and it was shown that the same work  was badly wanted right down to Narrabeen. The  Salvation Army Home, its irrigation works, market gardens, and quarters excited comment, as did Mr.James's brick and pottery works, where it has been attempted to start an extensive local industry. Long Reef with its basin was inspected, where is the only boat refuge between Sydney and Broken Bay, but whose facilities are at present denied to the public because the Government has not proclaimed a road to it which was long since surveyed. At    Narrabeen a halt was made, and Mr. D. McLean joined the party, the drive being shortly resumed over Narrabeen bridge, past Rock Lily, and on to Church Point, at Bayview. There a large gathering had assembled, prominent among them being Messrs. G. S. Brock, J. J. Roche, S .Morrison, and Geddes. 
The steamer Cora took the party on board, and a trip up to Kuring-gai Chase, round Scotland Island, and on to the basin, was thoroughly enjoyed, and when a landing was effected at Newport  all were ready for host J. S. Gregg's excellent luncheon. At the hotel the party were met by Mr. J. Waterhouse, Mr. D. C. McLachlan, Mr. J. Symonds, Dr. Watson Harvey, Alderman F. C. Passau, and many others. Some 50 persons sat down, the chair being taken by Alderman W. H. Fletcher (Mayor of Manly), who proposed the health of "Her Majesty," after which Mr. T. J. West proposed " The Ministry " coupled with the name of the Hon. E. W. O'Sullivan.
Mr. O'Sullivan said that the action of his Government in sending troops to South Africa would have a prominent place in history. The unrest coincident with the last years of the centuries was abroad, perilous times were ahead, and the duty of every Britisher was to do what he or she could for the Empire. His colleagues had passed in four months, 54 measures, including the Early Closing Bill, the Amended Navigation Act, the re-valuation of selections, and trades union rates for skilled labour. His great aims were to mitigate the effects of droughts by water conservation, boring, and light railways to carry stock to carry out the city railway, the North Sydney bridge, and to light up Sydney with electricity.
Mr. J. Waterhouse proposed "The Parliament," coupled with the name of Mr. Dugald Thomson, M.L.A., to which that gentleman responded.The Minister for Works proposed "Success to the District," and said it was strange that so few people in Sydney knew anything about the magnificent scenery with which Pittwater teemed. He had that day seen a great deal of picturesque beauty along the route, and it appeared to him that this was a part to which greater facility of access should be given for the sake of the people and the colony. He could not promise that money for the tramway should go on the Estimates or that the matter should be brought before the Public Works Committee just now; but he would promise to have a report made so complete and a survey as exhaustive as  would enable him to submit the scheme to the Cabinet, and persuade them to send it on to the committee at as early a date as possible. He had already ordered the tram from Mosman to the Spit, which would greatly help Manly, and enable travellers in rough weather to avoid the boats, and he would honestly endeavour to forward the Pittwater project and while he was Minister would not lose sight of it.
Messrs. F. C. Passau, D. Farrell, J. Symonds, and D. C. McLachlan also spoke.  
The Chairman, in acknowledging the toast of his health, proposed by Mr. H. T. Robey, said he hoped the Government would reduce the debt on the Manly waterworks system, whose cost had been magnified by the purchase of watershed lands at very high figures. He suggested that the people of Pittwater and district might combine to hold a weekly market in Manly, and if they thought the scheme worth a trial he had no doubt the council would allow a suitable site.
On the return to Manly the journey was broken first at Mr. G. S. Brock's establishment at Mona Vale, and again at the Rock Lily Hotel. Manly  was reached at 7 p.m., and it is considered that a distinct forward movement was made by the day's proceedings. PROPOSED MANLY TO PITTWATER TRAM. (1900, January 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14291370

The Spit Road, Middle Harbour (tramway) from collection Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 courtesy National Museum of Australia





THE TRAM EXTENSIONS TO MIDDLE HARBOUR AND WATSON'S BAY. (1900, September 1). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 510. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163693858 

Official Opening of the Spit Tram.
(See illustrations on page 23.)
The Minister for Works journeyed to Mosman on Saturday, and officially opened the new tramway from the junction of Military and Spit roads to the Spit, at Middle Harbor, a distance of one mile and forty-two chains. The tramway, it may be mentioned, .had been running one week prior to the official opening, and had carried during that time 5870 passengers. Associated with the Mosman folk in the reception of the Minister were the people of Manly, and it was by the Mayors of these two councils that Mr. O'Sullivan was received. The Ministerial party, which included Messrs. W. J. Trickett, M.L.C., H. Stuart, M.L.C., Dr. Cullen, M.L.C., and Messrs. D. Thomson, E. M. Clark, and R. A. Price, Ms.L.A., was met at the Mosman Wharf, and was driven to the Spit-road junction. There a special tram was in waiting, and the Spit was soon reached. Some 2000 people were present, and Mr. O'Sullivan, having been welcomed by the Mayor of Mosman in a few words, officially declared the tram open to the public. He justified its construction by pointing out that another beauty spot and health resort now became available for the people. The progress of North Sydney was eulogised by the Minister, who said that it had put to blush many of the other suburbs. Mr. D. Thomson congratulated the Minister on the extension, which, he said, would be a paying concern from the out-set. He hoped that, the line would be taken to Manly, and explained that, the water could be crossed by suitable punts as in America

An adjournment was subsequently, made to the re-freshment marquee, where the health of the Min-ister was proposed by Dr. Cullen in a happy manner, and responded to by the Minister, who said that since he took office the traffic on the trams had made marvellous strides, and there were 600 more men employed. The party then boarded the steamer Carabella, and landed at the Military Wharf. Drags were in readiness, and a start was made for the Buena Vista Hotel, where a banquet was prepared. The route taken thither enabled the party to see the district through which the proposed Balmoral extension will pass. The Mayor of Mosman (Alderman G. W. Hamp-shire) presided at the banquet. The loyal toasts having been honored, the chairman proposed "The Minister for Works," and congratulated Mr. O'Sullivan on the construction of the tram. He .pointed out the necessity of building the Balmoral extension, and hoped the Government would resume sufficient land adjoining the beach to accommodate the large number of visitors. The Minister, in reply, referred to the enormous growth of tramway traction at North Sydney; 480,000 passengers were carried each month, or an increase of 152,000 a month over the previous year; 4,447,181 passengers were carried for the year ended June 30, 1900, or an increase of nearly 1,000,000 passengers over the previous year. There were obstacles in the way of the Balmoral extension. Could the Government trespass on the military reserves? There were, however, good prospects of it being carried out. All he asked was time, money, and opportunity. He recognised that it was his duty sooner or later to build this tram. "Parliament," proposed by Alderman J. M. Purves (Mayor of North Sydney), and responded to by Messrs: Trickett, M.L.C, and D. Thomson and E. M. Clark, Ms.L.A. "Kindred Boroughs," "The Railway Commissioners," and "The Press" were the other toasts.

(Photos, by G. A. Hills, 82 King-street.) .

1. Scene at the Opening. 2.-View of Tram Terminus, Spit, and at Middle Harbor. 3.-Spit-road Junction, showing Cars going to the Spit, to Milson's, and to the Mosman's Wharf.
Official Opening of the Spit Tram. (1900, November 10). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71391381

Spit punt, Middle Harbour, Sydney, 1908. Mosman Image 001206, Courtesy Mosman Council Digital Library of images.

This was followed by:

The construction of the tram line from the Spit (Middle Harbor) to Manly has now been completed, but the line will not be opened for public traffic until after the official ceremony, which will be held next week.

Last night the first three tram-cars were taken right through from Milson's Point to Manly. The operation of conveying the tram-cars, which weighed many tons, across the Middle Harbor, at the Spit, proved an interesting piece of engineering work, and was witnessed by several hundreds of people. The operations wore delauyed until a late hour last night, so as to minimise the Interference with the ordinary traffic by the punt. It was not until after 8 p.m. that the cars, which bad been waiting at the Spit terminus for some time, were moved on to the temporary siding leuding to tho punt ontrance. Wheu they reached a point at which they could not hvall themselves of the overhead electrical power other tramcars were used to push them a further distance. But still some yards had to be negotiated. For the last portion of the journey human traction was utilised, and the cars slid easily on to the rails laid precisely in the centre of the punt. Fortunately there was not the slightest wind, nor motion on the water, and the dangerous work of ferrying the heavy load across the waterway was successfully undertaken. A separate trip had to be made for each of tho double-cars, and it speaks highly for the officers who had the work In hand that there was not the slightest mishap to record. The scene altogether was a bright one, the busy workmen dodging about among the napthe flare lights with the crowds of spectators forming a background. The trams, after being safely landed on the Manly side of the Spit, were placed on the rails and were soon after speeding for the terminus at Manly. 

A flashlight was taken by "The Daily Telegraph" shortly after 9 p.m.. and is reproduced this issue. 

SPIT TO MANLY TRAM. (1911, January 4). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238707930


This drawing illustrates the pontoon bridge which, with strong local backing, is suggested for erection over Middle Harbor at the Spit. The width of water at this point is between 750 and 300 feet. Traffic is at present served by one punt during the week, and an extra one on Sunday

Disembarking from the Spit punt, c. 1915. ,Image No001079 Courtesy Mosman Council Digital Library of images.

Both, working at high pressure, however, signally fail to meet requirements. Travellers are subjected to delays of anything from fifteen minutes to two hours, and If one punt should break down the consequent wait might cover any period. It is estimated that the cost of construction would be about £25,000. The bridge would consist of a number of concrete pontoons providing a roadway of 21ft. and 8ft pnssage each side for foot passengers. On the Manly side a fixed pierhead is provided for, while the floating pontoon section would be steadied by cables with the shore. To admit of traffic through the bridge there is provision for a lifting spurt of 50ft., worked by electric motor. One man, it is considered, could do all that is required. The originator of  the idea is ex-Ald. C. D. Paterson, of Seaforth. The plans are by Messrs. John and Herwald Kirkpatrick, architects for the Commonwealth Bank. A deputation representing all the councils directly interested is to wait on the Minister for Works at an early date to ventilate and advocate the scheme.
PONTOON BRIDGE OVER THE SPIT. (1919, May 21). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239600246

The Spit. Middle Harbour, Sydney (showing two of the punts),  from collection Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 courtesy National Museum of Australia

Cars queuing for the Spit punt from the Manly side, early 1920s.  Courtesy Mosman Council Digital Library of images, No 155 Trace.

Just as lack of residents was once used as an excuse to stymie any plans to erect a bridge and make a direct connection to Manly and Pittwater, increased population and their wish to travel to the beaches became the prime motivation as the 1920's, and other parallel schemes of 'opening up' the land around Narrabeen and Frenchs Forest, to increase the number of punts and continue the push for a direct connection along the coast. By 1922 it would seem three punts and a trailer were not enough to meet the demand:

The punts at The Spit, with which a constant struggle is waged to cope with the heavy motor traffic, have been reduced by one yesterday; the small punt was taken to Ryde to replace a punt that is being repaired. An officer of the department said It was considered the two remaining punts and a trailer were ample to meet requirements of The Spit traffic. Most motorists were of the opinion that there were not enough facilities at The Spit as It was.
LOSE A PUNT (1922, November 10). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118830322

The Spit Middle Harbour, Cut-down postcard, backed with cardboard, with a sepia photograph of 'The Spit Middle Harbour.' from collection Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 courtesy National Museum of Australia

Sir, — It is estimated by the Department of Public Works that it would cost £150,000 to construct a bridge over Middle Harbor at the Spit, providing a clear opening 70ft. wide, for the passage of vessels, and a roadway 27ft. wide with a provision for tram tracks, and I have written to the Premier, urging upon him the desirability of calling for tenders for the construction of this bridge by private contract and the toll system. Within the next twelve months big financial interests, both from America and England, will be directing their attention to the preparation of tenders for the construction of the North Shorn Bridge, and it would be a most opportune time to secure a tender for the construction of a Spit bridge. I feel sure that those interested on the north side of tho harbor will be prepared to pay a toil on what might he termed a local bridge, such as the Spit bridge and I hope that the local councils will see fit to actively support this suggestion. — Tours, etc..
Parliament House, December 8. 
TO THE EDITOR (1922, December 11). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245779561 

SAVING DELAY AT THE SPIT (1922, December 22). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118815883

At a meeting of the Mosman Council Alderman Thorne stated that the conference of councils interested in the Spit Bridge, and also the Harbour Trust Commissioners, favoured a bridge at the Spit with an 80ft clearance above highwater level, and one span of 80ft without a lifting or swing span. As to finance, the Commonwealth Bank was prepared to advance the necessary money at 5½ per cent, on 15 years' terms. The council decided to discuss the financial aspect when the bridge plans were completed. THE SUBURBS. (1923, May 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16065815 

The Minister for Works moved the second rending of the Middle Harbour (The Spit) Bridge Bill. He explained that the bill was framed on similar lines to the George's River Bill. The bridge would cost about £60,000 or £70,000, and it was proposed to make the Harbour Trust the constructing authority, in agreement with the Manly Council, on plans and specifications to be agreed upon. The money would be provided by the Manly Council, and the council would have power to impose a toll, similar to that proposed for the North Shore bridge. When the bridge had been paid for it would be handed over to the Government as a free bridge, and would become a national work. The bridge would be constructed of timber in order to cheapen the cost, because It would be of a temporary character, and a high level bridge, more expensive and substantial, would be constructed in the vicinity later on. In connection with the electrification of the railways. Provision would be made to allow large boats to proceed up the harbour. 

Mr. Lang said that, while not opposing the measure, he was of the opinion that It was a retrograde step to Inflict tolls, but as the Government had decided to allow the Manly Council to recoup themselves by this means, possibly there was no great objection. He did not think much advantage would be derived from the provision that after the bridge bidge had been paid for it would become a national work, because a timber bridge would In 20 years depreciate very considerably. He considered the suspension of various Acts of Parliament by measures such as this was wrong. Municipal and shire councils looked to the Local Government Act to carry on the government of their areas, and It should be left Intact. If those advancing the money considered thy tolls were Insufficient security they might expect the municipality to give them a Hen upon their rates.

The Minister said that the ratepayers will be protected.
Mr. Lang said he failed to see why the Government should not build the bridge.

Mr. O'Hearn opposed the bill, but It was supported by Mr. Gregory McGirr and Mr. Cann.

Mr. Ball, In reply to Mr. O'Hearn, said that no one could remove the toll except the council, and they wore not likely to do so until the bridge had been paid for.

Mr. Dunn prophosied that when the novelty of the bridge had worn off, people would not pay for It, but would urge the Government to relieve them of their burden. In all probability the bridge would cost £100,000. The toll system, he said, belonged to the dark 

Mr. M'Girr: Do you object to thousands of starving workers being employed on this Job?

Mr. Dunn said that he did not, but he would rather see them building developmental rail-ways and roads in the country. Besides the Government would be importing skilled labour because the bulk of the Australians were not skilled and only a few of them would be absorbed.

Mr. Arkins said that It stood to the credit of the present Minister for Works and the present Government that they had been the builders of bridges which had been neglected for the past 50 years. What was the difference between placing a toll on a bridge and asking a man to pay his fare to use the rail-ways?

Mr. Baddeley failed to see why there should he any eulogy for the Minister in connection with the matter, or where the workers were going to benefit. The people whoso property was enhanced by the building of the bridge should pay for it.

Mr. Mutch said that a high level bridge, permanent In character, should be constructed. He was opposed to the system of tolls.

The Minister pointed out that it was distinctly stipulated that the toll would apply to vehicular traffic only, and not to foot passengers who crossed the bridge. The people of Manly were already paying a tax on the unimproved value of their land, towards the cost of constructing the North Shore Bridge, and would contribute to the construction of the Spit Bridge by paying tolls.

Mr; Mutch said that some provision should be made whereby the landowners who would benefit from the increases that would occur in land values would make a direct contribution. He proposed to move that the word "timber" should be deleted, so that the material to be used in the construction of the bridge would be left open.

The second reading was agreed to on the voices.

In committee a new clause was Inserted, at the Instigation of the Minister, providing that any loan obtained by the council under the Act should not be taken Into account for the purpose of ascertaining the limit to which the council might borrow under the Local Government Act of 1919.

Replying to a question by the leader of the Opposition, In regard to the estimated revenue from the toll, the Minster said that he had been given to understand by the council that It could pay for the bridge at a much shorter period than 20 years-probably in 10 years by a toll of 6d for motor cars and 3d for horse drawn vehicles, no charge being made for passengers. If the traffic Increased it might be necessary to vary the amount by reducing It and extending the period of liquidation. The punt would be unnecessary when the bridge was erected, and an annual saving of £5000 would be effected.
The bill was reported with amendments, and the third reading of tho bill was made an order for to-day.
STATE SESSION. (1923, November 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16113681

Of course, the politicians of the day got it done by Christmas:

SYDNEY, Friday. 
"Although it has not been practicable for the Government to accomplish all the tasks which it set itself and Parliament at the commencement of the session, the record of work to date covers a wide range of usefulness,' said Sir George Fuller, the Premier, to-night. "Some comment has been made on the waste of time in the early part of the sessions, and while I admit, with regret that there is ground for such a charge against the Assembly as a whole, it must be clear to everyone who lase followed the proceedings that the fault did not lie with the Government. Apart from the purely obstructive tactics of some Opposition members, the party constitution of the Assembly led to a number of unusual, unexpected, and difficult situations, which prevented still greater progress being made. Taking into consideration those circumstances, and the desire of the Government to always allow reasonably free discussion, In the interests of the public, of all matters on the floor of Parliament, the results are gratifying. "
" The passage of the Middle Harbour (The Spit) Bridge Bill assures the construction of the much-needed bridge across the Spit, and the George's River Bill provides for similar traffic facilities being provided over the George's River. 
THE RECENT SESSION (1923, December 22). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139598571

As Manly had been visited by hundreds of thousands of people during the 1880s, and automobiles would only increase their access to beautiful places, and independently too instead of massed on ferries, the likelihood of traffic to Manly and Pittwater was only ever going to increase - as this item pointed out;


This is the sort of thing that is to be seen at any week-end or on any holiday. An apparently never-ending line of cars waiting for the punt. The construction of the proposed bridge at this point will shortly be begun. The Harbour Trust, which is to build the structure, is now assembling the piles and other necessary timber. The cost of the bridge is to be borne by the Manly Council. It should be completed within six or eight months. MOTOR CAR CONGESTION AT THE SPIT, BETWEEN SYDNEY AND MANLY. (1924, February 20). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 36. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166151852




TO BE OPENED FOR TRAFFIC EARLY IN DECEMBER.  THE PROGRESS OF THE SPIT BRIDGE. (1924, June 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16135493 


Every fall of the giant hammers on these pile drivers is a step nearer the day when the Spit will cease to associate itself in the minds of thousands of motorists with many wearisome waits and much lost time- Rapid progress is being made with the construction of the bridge, winch will replace the Spit ferry. PROGRESS OF THE SPIT BRIDGE (1924, June 24). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245712887 


The Mayor of Manly (Alderman A. C Samuels) has received a report that rapid progress is being made with the Spit bridge. The decking has been laid on the Mosman end of the bridge, and the driving of the piles at the Manly end is well advanced.
The bridge will not be perfectly level, but will rise from the Mosman side. The opening span in the centre will, however, be level. Considerable excavation work is necessary where the northern end of the bridge will rest. An effort is being made to arrange for one-way traffic on the Manly side, there being two roads leading to the approach to the bridge. THE SUBURBS. (1924, July 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16139939 


— Workmen busy on the construction of the Spit Bridge at the Manly end. It will not be long now when the connecting link will be finished.  
CHINESE BOATS THE SPIT BRIDGE VISCOUNTESS' FARM (1924, July 18).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119979790 

THE Spit Bridge is rapidly taking shape. The spectacular part of the work is practically completed. But Mr. Austin, secretary of the Harbor Trust, sounds a note of warning to ultra optimists.
He points out that the work is yet far from being completed. The details, that the casual observer often miss, take the time. Nevertheless, barring accidents, he believes that the bridge will be finished in the stated time. An item which is not only very costly, but which will also occupy a lot of time, is the installation of the Bascul span, through which vessels will pass. The machinery for this span is being made by Dorman, Long, and Company, and it is believed that there will be no delay in the delivery of the mechanism. The span will be worked by electricity, and will be lifted vertically. It is stated that this operation will cause no more delay than the horizontal action, and will be cheaper to install and to work. THE SPIT BRIDGE (1924, August 15).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119974330 


One of the steel spans for the Spit Bridge was put into position yesterday. The job will shortly be completed. Inset: the foreman, Mr. Shinner STEEL SPANS OF THE SPIT BRIDGE (1924, November 11). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 10 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223579166 


SPIT BRIDGE NEARING COMPLETION.— Motorists will shortly be saved the long wait for punts to which they have become accustomed at The Spit. This picture affords a general view of the new bridge, which is now having the finishing touches added. 
THE SPIT BRIDGE REMARKABLE PHOTOGRAPH (1924, November 28).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119961251 

Opening on December 23 
Arrangements are to be made by the Manly Council to have The Spit Bridge officially opened for traffic on December 23.
This was decided at last nights meeting of the council upon a minute presented by the Mayor (Alderman A. C. Samuels).' On the motion of Alderman Quirk, seconded by Alderman Kemp, it was decided that a sub-committee be appointed to arrange for the olficial opening, and that tolls be collected from the outset.
It was decided to Invite the Premier, Sir George Fuller, and tho Minister for Works, Mr Ball, to be present on the occasion. Council decided to make a special allowance of £100 to the Mayor to cover the cost of the opening ceremony. The Works Committee recommended that the Mosman Council be authorised to construct a tar macadam roar 24 feet wide at the Mosman approach to the bridge, the cost (£200) to be refunded at the completion of the work. It was also decided to spend £450 on the completion of tho construction of a stone retaining wall on the road approach to the bridge on the Manly side.
SPIT BRIDGE (1924, December 10). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 10 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223579290

The Manly Council has decided to arrange for the official opening of the Spit Bridge on December 23.
The bridge is rapidly approaching completion, although some details will not be finished by the date decided upon. A sub-committee was appointed to arrange for the official opening, and it was also decided that tolls be collected from the date of opening.
The Premier (Sir George Fuller) and the Minister for Works (Mr. Ball) will be invited to the ceremony, and the council voted £100 to celebrate the event. SPIT BRIDGE. (1924, December 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16206974



THE PROGRESS OF THE SPIT BRIDGE. (1924, December 12). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article193499878  

On Friday, the Mayor of Manly, Alderman Samuels, the Deputy Mayor and others were in the first motor car to cross The Spit bridge. The Premier will open the bridge on Tuesday.
SPIT BRIDGE (1924, December 21 - Sunday). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128137577

Officially opened Tuesday December 23rd, 1924, the event was reported across the state:

The stark ugliness of the new Spit Bridge, which, with its galvanised iron roof man-o-war grey color, and its rough lines, has spoiled the soft 
beauty of that little reach of Middle Harbor, but to-day It was relieved by the color of a gay crowd and lines of waving flags. It was a great occasion — the official opening of the bridge across Middle Harbor, for which Mosman and Manly and all interested had waited and hoped for years and years. 
"Manly at last has come Into its own." said the Mayor of Manly (Alderman Samuels), Introducing the Premier (Sir George Fuller). "The Premier." he said, "would be performing a marriage ceremony, uniting the towns of Mosman and Manly, despite the fact that it had been described as the ugliest bridge in the world It would be the best Christmas box the people of Mosman and Manly could have, however ugly It might be, were it two times as ugly nothing could give greater benefit to the people of the suburbs using It. It would be the best expenditure of £60,000 that the Government had ever authorised." 

Sir George Fuller, who was welcomed with cheers, said that If he were to perform the marriage ceremony as the Mayor had suggested, he hoped that the Matrimonial Causes Bill of the Attorney-GeneraI would not operate to smash this union between Mosman and Manly.
"I have been many times stuck on the other side over there; and I am afraid that some of the language used then did not help me on my way to heaven," said Sir George. Now that sort of annoyance would cease, he hoped, for ever. 
Sir George complimented the Manly people on their spirit of self-help and enterprise In carrying out the bridge. It was the policy of the Government to encourage such self-help and especially the policy of Mr. Ball, who would go down to history as the greatest bridge builder New South Wales had known. Sir George Fuller, who had received from the Mayor of Manly a gold-mounted and inscribed pair of scissors for the purpose, then went forward and severed the ribbon to open tho bridge officially. He Invited Lady Fuller, who used the scissors, whilst h'o himself declared the bridge open. Then followed much cheering, much tooting of ferry steamers' whistles, and the band played God Save the King. Present at he ceremony were: The Minister for Works (Mr. Ball), Mr. Scott Fell, Sir Thomas' Henley, Dr. Arthur, Mr. Weaver, Ms..A., representatives of the district...' 
Pictures of the Spit, Bridge will be found on page 1. 
WAVING FLAGS (1924, December 23). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223570486

On that Page 1 there were no real pictures of the Opening Ceremony - just more 'ugly' cries from the publishers of The Sun:

The Bridge of Sticks beauty and the beast

The most beautiful spot on our Wonderful harbor Artists from other Stales flocked to paint it; and the popular view-points- were so congested with palettes and easels that the police had to move them on. In every annual exhibition it figured in oil and paint. ' And now there is none to do it' reverence. The ugliest bridge in the world has: been built in the middle of it. 
It is called the Spit — and now the beauty-lover almost wants to.

THE spoiling of this lovely spot begun years ago, with the erection of a huge advertising hoarding. However, the beauty - spoilers were not content with perpetuating that piece of ugliness. Motorists wanted a bridge for years, and now they have got it. It will be opened to-day with due ceremony by the Premier, and the Mayor of Manly (Alderman A. C. Samuels) and the Minister for Works (Mr. Ball) will be attended by various notabilities. 

When It was decided to bridge this beautiful waterway of Middle Harbor, one visioned a glorious span of delicate beauty, a sliver gossamer web sweeping from the rocky bluffs each side. But look what happened! The Spit bridge starts from the end at the sandy spit and climbs unevenly to a scarp of rock on the Manly side. Even with that disadvantage it could have been made a thing of beauty, rising up In a pleasing curve to the hill. But the completed structure deliberately spoils any such danger. It starts with an Inclined plane until it reaches the lifting spans, when It becomes horizontal, immediately after the span the roadway rises again, but becomes horizontal to cross a permanent span designed for the passage of motor craft; then it rises again to reach its end on the Manly side. 

All the beauty of line has been spoiled by this obviously uneven truck. But that might be forgiven on utilitarian grounds. It Is the superstructure that shocks. For the lifting spans grim gaunt steel constructions have been erected, with criss-cross work unsheathed with a kindly covering, and with four heavy steel blobs on top. 

To balance the weight of the lifting spans the engineers have built two ugly concrete cottages and suspended them in mid air. These amazing affairs act as counterweights for the spans, but there is no beauty in their form. Just blocks of concrete unabashed, crude megoilthic construction, lacking even the sense of solidity. 

The bridge looks as if it had been laboriously built up by a boy of ten who laid been presented with a meccano No. 1 set. What further could be done by the builders to disfigure the bridge and Its ideal situation? They did It. They boxed it in with tin-roofed sheds all the way across, painted a dreary brown. And where the bridge reaches the Manly side there is an ugly Unroofed by-way leading crookedly down to the shore level where the trams connect. There are many beautiful bridges in the world: but Sydney need fear no competition In the prize design for the ugliest bridge in tho whole world.
WORLD'S UGLIEST (1924, December 23). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 1 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223570519

SYDNEY, Tuesday — The Premier (Sir George Fuller) this afternoon opened the Spit bridge over Middle Harbour. The bridge cost about £60, 000, and Manly municipal council was responsible for the expenditure. A toll will be charged to cross it. THE SPIT BRIDGE. (1924, December 24 - Wednesday).Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 - 1949), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article193499878 

One not so negative report that also speaks of what occurs today - private enterprise building infrastructure, although not mentioning how they would recoup their investment for decades into the future, as well as a photo taken on the day which, after 136 years of Europeans landing here and walking along the old aboriginal tracks, finally establishes a more coastal direct line to not only Manly, but Pittwater. The second photograph shows a horse pulling a cart at far left of the shot, just proving that although some things had changed, some had remained the same - even in December 1924 - the middle of the Roaring Twenties! - go Sydney!;

The opening of the Spit Bridge for traffic is doubly welcome. Its benefit to all passengers and vehicles between Mosman and Manly is patent, but it is also significant of the now civic spirit, which no longer leans upon the Government. With the growth of this spirit there may presently come a time when private enterprise will finance and construct many public works now left to the Governmenteven rail-ways. Of its appearance, it is unfortunate if it should give the impression that the utilitarian and the ugly are synonymous. It is to be hoped that this reproach will not apply to the George's River Bridge.
THE SPIT BRIDGE. (1924, December 24). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117976373


-After years of waiting, during which punts have dismally failed to lift the motor traffic at the Spit, this temporary bridge was opened to-day by the Mayor of Manly. Though unpretentious, it will be of incalculable benefit to motorists and will give the first direct line of communication with Manly. Photograph taken to-day.


Another photograph taken to-day of the road leading up from the Spit Punt, and also showing the new road (on the right) on to the bridge.
SPIT BRIDGE OPENED TO-DAY (1924, December 23). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117974508

Of course, as with all projects, it's not completed until it's all done and officially tested and then officially opened:

The lifting span of the Spit Bridge was officially opened on Saturday by the Mayoress of Manly (Mrs. A. C. Samuels). Three vessels ―the Sydney Ferries' steamer Karingal, carrying a picnic to Killarney, the Bucra, a powder vessel; and the Public Works Department's steamer, Magdalene― passed through the bridge. The span was lifted in a minute and a quarter, and the three vessels passed through in eight minutes. THE SPIT BRIDGE. (1925, February 17).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16194392 

Spit Bridge Star Photo comp between Nov 1924-June 1925. Image no.: bcp_00983h, courtesy State Library of NSW

The Tolls charged - when first discussed and then published in 1926:

The work of constructing the bridge over Middle Harbour at the Spit la making rapid progress. The whole of the piles have been placed in position, and portion of the super-structure has been erected. The decking of both the Mosman and Manly ends of the structure is well advanced, and preparations are being made to proceed with work on the opening span in the centre.

At a meeting of the Manly Council the Mayor (Alderman A. C. Samuels) reported that he had given the engineer Instructions to proceed with the reconstruction of the approach to the bridge on the Manly side of the Spit.

The council, on the recommendation of the finance committee, decided that the toll for two or four wheeled vehicles (one horse) using the bridge would be 3d Instead of 6d. It was also decided to apply to the Public Works Department requesting that the regulations governing the toll charges be gazetted in accordance with a schedule forwarded to the council.
SPIT BRIDGE. (1924, August 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16166891

MIDDLE HARBOUR (THE SPIT) BRIDGE ACT, 1923. (1926, June 25). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2735. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222996601 


The Spit Bridge, over Middle Harbour, having been open for traffic for twelve months, the traffic returns for that period were made available yesterday. During the period from December 24, 1924, to December 23, 1925, inclusive 581,817 vehicles crossed the bridge, the total tolls collected amounting to £15,486.

The bridge, which cost about £70,000, was built by the Sydney Harbour Trust for the Manly Municipal Council, which body is res-ponsible for the financial and other arrangements. The council borrowed £60,000 for the construction of the bridge, and an additional £10,000 (provided out of revenue) was ex-pended on the approaches to the bridge. The Act under which the bridge was constructed provides that as soon as an amount equal-ling the cost of the structure, and interest and other charges, has been collected, the toll system shall be discontinued. It was originally considered that to free the bridge of debt would take 10 years or 12 years, but on the first year's traffic figures it seems certain that the structure will become free within a much shorter period — probably eight years or nine years.

A conservative estimate is that not less than £7000 or £8000 of the first year's revenue will be available for the repayment of the loan, which was floated at 6 per cent. The interest totals nearly £4000, while the working expenses make up the balance. SPIT BRIDGE. (1925, December 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16270799 

Reducing Congestion
The town clerk, Manly, appeals for the co-operation of motorists in the following letter to the N.R.M.A. 'At a meeting of my council reference was made to the fact that the congestion which occasionally occurs at The Spit bridge could be considerably reduced if drivers of vehicles would assist the toll collectors by having the correct amount ready. Very often a traveller produces a £1 note, which causes delay by reason of the time taken In giving change. Usually only a matter of seconds elapse, but every second is precious, especially when the traffic is great.  THE SPIT BRIDGE (1927, February 16).The Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163409709 

The Spit from Spit Road (Parriwi Road, Mosman) by Samuel Wood - postcard , from Album photonegatives of Killarney, Middle Harbour, Northbridge and The Spit, ca. 1928. Image No.: a1470101h, courtesy State Library of NSW

When the Spit Bridge was constructed across Middle Harbour in 1924, it was anticipated that 15 or 16 years would elapse before the net amount of tolls collected would free the structure from debt. The traffic across the bridge has exceeded expectations to such an extent, however, that it is expected thoe bridge will be paid for within four years— seven years from the date of the opening. 

Last year 768,186 vehicles crossed the bridge, and the total revenue from tolls was £10,417. Since the bridge was opened more than 2,000,000 vehicles have crossed, and the gross revenue from tolls has been £53,000. 

Under the Middle Harbour Bridge Act, power was given to the Manly Council to borrow .£60,000 for the purpose of building the bridge, but the total cost was about £65,000. After meeting maintenance expenses, the amount paid into the sinking fund totals nearly half the amount necessary to relinquish the loan.
SPIT BRIDGE. (1928, January 14). The Maitland Weekly Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1931), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127465577

Serious allegations In regard to the collection of the Spit bridge tolls were made at the Manly Council last night. The Mayor (Ald. V. J. Brady) told, in A Mayoral minute, how a secret check of the number of vehicles crossing the bridge was made over two periods of 16 hours each in April and May. He alleged that there was a total discrepancy of 2838 cars, and added that on the result of the check he was convinced that there was a very serious leakage in the funds of the Spit bridge undertaking. 

On the motion of Alderman Barton, the question was referred to the staff investigation committee for immediate action. The Mayor said that, knowing there had been no attempt to check the bridge traffic, he placed two men to do so, In positions where they could observe everything and yet remain unseen themselves. 
Ald. Trenerry Said that 'the toll system In vogue would not be tolerated in any business office. The investigation committee had some of the men before It recently, he said, asking for Ideas to improve the System, but all the men Interviewed had stated they were delighted with the present system. Ald. Whittle said that many motorists did not wait for tickets. He had known the bridge manager for 20 years, and was sure he was above suspicion. The position was that the manager had to leave the bridge for periods, with nobody in charge.
Since the opening of the bridge in December, 1924, the revenue collected in tolls up to December, 1928, amounted to £77,251 9s 8d. The expenses are heavy, being approximately £8000 a year. These Include £3600 Interest on the £60,000 loan, £1000 for main- tenance charges, and £3000 for wages and other items. At the end of December, 1928, the Manly Council had £28,000 on fixed deposit towards the Repayment of the loan, and at the end of last month the current bridge account had a credit balance of £22,702 12s 2d— a total of £50,762 12s 2d. 
LEAKAGE (1929, May 15). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2 (LAST RACE). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223960956

The Manly Council is beginning, under the pressure of public opinion, to realise that it cannot keep the financial position of the Spit Bridge entirely to itself. Characteristically enough it has confined its confidence to the Minister for Works, and all that he has been vouchsafed is an assurance by the Mayor that the toll cannot be withdrawn before June, as there is still £3000 for repairs to be made up. 
Vague generalities are not enough. We cast no doubt upon the Mayor's assurance, but the public has a human desire to look over the bill and scrutinise the items. What is needed is a balance sheet and a profit and loss account. We desire to have set down in exact figures the capital cost, the interest charges, the repairs, and the revenue and expenditure. Every public company issues such a financial statement. Every charity which appeals for public support annually announces its finances. 
The Manly Council will consult its own dignity by giving the fullest information. No one, whether a public body or a private individual, likes to relinquish any revenue to which it is accustomed. There are always desirable things upon which to spend it. But here an important principle is at stake. 
Unless the public believes that the tolls are lifted as soon as the bridge is paid for, no more toll bridges will be constructed in New South Wales. 
The Government is about to introduce into the Legislative Assembly a Bill authorising the Ryde Council to construct a bridge over the Parramatta River at Uhr's Point. What chance has that Bill of passing if the public is kept in the dark concerning the finances of the Spit Bridge? 
In the interests of the councils responsible for toll bridges, as well as in the interests of the public, frankness is the best policy. Children and officials love secrecy. Both the Minister and the Mayor must drop it. GIVE THE PUBLIC THE FACTS.  STILL THE SPIT BRIDGE (1930, February 12). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article125975742 

The N.R.M.A. council decided at its last meeting, at the instance of Alder-man W. Fyfe Henderson, Deputy Mayor of Mosman, to press further for the publication of the necessary notice terminating the collection of the motor toll on the Spit Bridge, Middle Harbour. Mr. A. E. Rudder suggested that if the toll were continued, the collections might he used as the nucleus of a fund for a permanent structure, but Mr. R. V. Hodgson feared that impecunious treasurers would be tempted to raid the fund. Alderman Primrose, Mayor of North Sydney, pointed out that a permanent bridge at The Spit was linked up with the Manly rail-way question, and it was not likely, he thought, that the railway would be built for years. Mr. A. M. Graham considered that present-day motorists should be relieved from the toll, after having found the amount necessary to pay for the existing bridge, and said it would be, time enough to consider the renewal of the toll when a permanent bridge was actually built.
SPIT BRIDGE. (1930, February 13). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article103868916

Motorists and others using the Spit Bridge over Middle Harbour have cheerfully paid the tolls imposed to pay for the structure. It is expected that the toll system will soon be abolished, as such charges have paid for the bridge. The Spit Bridge gives motorists an idea of the great convenience the Sydney Harbour Bridge will prove when opened for traffic. The above view looks towards the Heads. On the right is the new Spit Road, which leads to Mosman and North Sydney. Harbour and Ocean Scenes North of Sydney (1930, March 19). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160630537

Reclamation work for the Spit Bridge being carried out at Pearl Bay 1935 - photo courtesy State Records of NSW

The Spit, Seaforth in foreground circa 1930s Hall and co Aerials. Image No.: c011690047h, courtesy State Library of NSW

Widening of The Spit Bridge has been completed, and vehicular traffic can now travel across at an appreciatively accelerated speed. The vehicular roadway was widened by taking 18 inches off the pedestrian walk. This was done without any delay to traffic. THE SPIT BRIDGE (1936, March 21). The Sun(Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5 (CRICKET STUMPS). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230831524 

In 1939 surveys for a new bridge were undertaken, but with wartime pressures no money was available for construction works and materials were invested in war defence works.

The Show Boat Kalang at the Spit, Middle Harbour, Sydney, 1940's. from collection Josef Lebovic Gallery collection no. 1 courtesy National Museum of Australia

On May 30th 1949, a bus crash near the approach to the bridge from the Seaforth side killed four people and injured 33, including that of a young Oxford Falls woman who was pregnant with twins and on her way to a final doctor's appointment prior to giving birth. The Inquest, which ran from July until the last day of September, cast some bad light upon the driver, or his inexperience, despite his statements that the brakes had locked - one driver who had had the bus just prior to him claiming he found no fault with it the shift just before. Ultimately 'accidental death' was found and no mention of the road approach among the findings - although the government announced during the hearings that a new four-lane lift bridge would finally replace the old wooden structure and the approaches from the Seaforth side would be improved. Tenders were called for but it was also mentioned that a lack of steel may be an obstacle to commencing.

The tragic 1949 bus crash was followed by another in January 1950  from the Mosman side approach when, fortunately, no one was killed. 

Sydney.—A double-decker bus crowded with passengers crashed through the safety fence near The Spit today and fell 40 feet, landing upside down. Five passengers were killed and at least thirty were injured. Three women were killed instantly. Rescuers said that they were crushed beneath the weight of the bus. The bodies of two were released quickly, but the third was wedged in the wreckage, and it was more than an hour before it was extricated.

As the injured were brought out of the bus, they were laid on the roadway on sheets and blankets provided by the occupants of neighboring houses. The seriously injured were given emergency dressings before being taken to hospital. 

One of the women who were killed instantly was elderly and was accompanied by her husband. Rescuers laid them out alongside each other on the roadway. The man, suffering severe head in-juries, was moaning and calling for his wife, whom he did not know was dead.

The tragedy occurred at 11 a.m. while the bus was on its way to Sydney. The bus was travelling down hill, approaching The Spit bridge, when it got out of control near a hairpin bend. It went right through the safety fence and, toppling over and over, rolled to the roadway beneath. The roof of the bus was smashed in, and persons on the top deck had received the worst injuries.

Bruce Bowers (34), of Manly, who was riding on the upper deck of the bus, said: "It was like a nightmare. We came down from the top of Seaforth and took the left turn to come on to the bridge, but the bus did not pull out of the turn.

"We seemed to drive straight through the railing and over the wall. We somersaulted in mid-air, and glass and people were flying everywhere."

Mr. Bowers said that the bus landed on its roof. Mr. Bowers added that he was too stunned, to move, and lay in the bus until carried out by rescuers. The bus was owned and operated by the New South Wales Transport Department.

The injured, moaning and crying, were lying everywhere. There were not sufficient splints to set broken limbs and householders brought out fruit cases and other boxes, which were quickly broken up and used as splints.

Many people did not know what had happened as they crawled or were assisted from the wreckage, and asked the rescuers where they 
were and what had happened. Some of them suffered complete loss of memory.

The names of the killed are not yet available. One of them was a conductress, but it is thought that she was not on duty at the time as she did not have her bag. Six members of one family were among those injured. The accident is believed to have been caused by the steering gear locking.
5 KILLED; 30 HURT IN BUS CRASH NEAR THE SPIT (1949, May 30). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48594262

Pictures After The Fatal Bus Smash Near The Spit

CRANE : The scene on the Seaforth side of the Spit bridge when a St. Leonards-bound double-decker bus plunged over a 20-ft drop. The crane at the right of the picture is setting the lower portion of the bus on its wheels. DRIVER : Alexander Telford, of Carter Road, Brookvale, the driver of the bus. Telford said the steering wheel locked. DRINK : A rescue-worker giving a drink to a young woman, one of the 32 passengers who were injured. Her young son is seated beside her. INJURED : Ambulance men and volunteers at work preparing injured passengers for the trip up to ambulances waiting on The Spit bridge approach. SEATS : Injured, waiting attention, shown lying on the leather seats of the wrecked bus. The upper deck of the bus was crushed in its 20-ft fall.
Pictures After The Fatal Bus Smash Near The Spit (1949, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18117273

ORDERED Tragic Bus Crash
The Acting Minister for Transport, Mr. W. F. Sheahan, said last night that he had called for a "searching inquiry" into the crash of a double-decker bus yesterday morning, north of The Spit bridge, in which four people were killed and 33 injured. The bus, bound from Manly to St. Leonards, had 45 passengers.
Survivors said it swerved suddenly before crashing through a safety fence and dropping on its side 20 feet sheer below the road.
Mr. Sheahan said the coroner had power to make his public inquiry into the four deaths a searching investigation. He would not at present recommend a further public inquiry.
"If, however, public opinion demands an in-dependent review in a public inquiry then I will raise no objection," the Minister added.
The bus left Manly wharf at 10.38 a.m. Most of the passengers were women on the lower deck. Travelling down the Sydney road toward the bridge, and after rounding a bend, it swerved off the road and fell through the air to the bottom of a high stone wall.
Forty ambulances and 55 police arrived within 10 minutes.
One of the first men to reach the tragic scene was a road worker, Clarence Gordon, of King Street, city. He said :—
"When we rushed to the bus the passengers inside were one mass of struggling, bleeding
"Some were moaning, others were screaming.
"I got an axe from our equipment and chopped away window coverings and the steel rear bodywork to get at the passengers.
"One woman who was crushed under another woman, pinned by the leg under a broken seat, said: 'Never mind about me; help this poor girl, as she is pregnant.' "
She was referring to Mrs. Winifred Mary Fuller, 21, whose body had been crushed.
"We lifted Mrs. Fuller out," said Gordon, "but we could see that she was dead."
When the body of Mrs. Fuller was identified police went to Oxford Falls to break the news to her husband, Sydney Fuller, a bus conductor, who had lived with his wife and daughter, Kay, aged 2½, in a garage at Oxford Falls because they were unable to get a house.
Fuller broke down.
"My wife," he said, "had expectcd to be confined last Saturday. Doctors told her that
probably twins would be born. They asked her to report to the Mater Misericordiae today if the babies did not arrive at the week-end.
"She left me and little Kay, bright and happy this morning, on the way to the hospital for a check up by the doctors."
The driver of the bus attributed the accident to the front wheels being jammed by either the mud-guard or the body, pre-venting him from straightening up for the run on to the bridge. The driver, Alexander Telford, 28, of Carter Road, Brookvale, suffered a sprained ankle.
He told Detective Garlick that traffic was light, and the road was in good order, although damp from rain.
"It was the first trip I made on the bus," he said.
"When I applied the brakes at various intervals from Manly I noticed that they were not gripping correctly, causing the bus to drag to the left. It was my intention to report the mechanical defect at the starting box on the other side of The Spit bridge.
"SPEED 8 M.P.H."
"After rounding the last bend towards the bridge, the bus lurched to the right, though the speed was only between eight and 10 miles per hour.
"I felt the bus grip the wheel and hold it firmly.
"I wrestled with the steering wheel but could not release the grip, and, with the wheels turned slightly to the left, as I was rounding the curve, the bus shot across and struck the safety fence.
"It then plunged through the fence over the embankment."
Mrs. R. Woods, who lives in a flat 200 yards uphill from where the bus left the road, said she saw it turn the corner quite slowly.
One of the passengers, Stanley Burley, of Aubreen Road, Collaroy, who, with seven relatives, was injured in the crash, said in hospital :—
"The bus appeared to be taking some of the hairpin bends a bit quickly."
In their investigations on the smash, Inspector Mackie, Detective-Sergeant Gray, with other police and transport officials, last night inspected the bus.
They could find no marks on the tyres to substantiate the statement of the driver that either the mudguard or body had been jammed against the tyre. There were no skid marks on the road. The bus was an old type.
Mr. Sheahan said :—
"I have called for a searching inquiry to be made not only into the cause of the accident, but also into the method of preparing the bus for the road.
"I shall also seek expert advice on the road condition and the safety of the approaches to The Spit bridge for heavy vehicles." 
"SEARCHING INQUIRY" ORDERED Tragic Bus Crash (1949, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18117201 


Volunteer rescue workers and injured at the scene of the bus crash on the Seaforth side of The Spit bridge, yesterday. In the foreground are the rear wheels of the overturned bus. SCENE AFTER BUS FELL FROM ROAD (1949, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18117199

Quick Start On New Spit Bridge
The Department of Main Roads has told the Manly Council that work on the new bascule bridge across The Spit will start immediately.
The Mayor of Manly, Alderman C R Scharkte, said this yesterday.
He said that the estimated cost of the bridge was about £150,000. It would be about 24 feet above the mean water level, and 42 feet wide.
Mr Scharkie said that the new bridge would carry four vehicles abreast. The present bridge was wide enough for only two vehicles
He added "When it is finished there will be no more traffic jams. At present when the bascule span is lifted to allow boats to pass under the bridge, traffic jams up for hundreds of yards
' But the Maritime Services Board has promised to fix times for the opening of the span on the new bridge '
Alderman Scharkie said the bascule span type of bridge was the only one practicable for The Spit [A bascule bridge is one with a span which can be raised and lowered with a counterpoise ]
He said "Council asked the Maritime Services Board the minimum clearance required for a bridge which would allow vessels to pass under it without the bascule span
'The Board said the minimum height for such a bridge would be 80 feet and we have since found out that the cost of this bridge would be about £ 1 000 000.’. Quick Start On New Spit Bridge (1949, June 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18118262 

Spit Bridge
Sir, - Is the State so bankrupt that it will permit the Main Roads Board to build another bascule bridge at the Spit, when a decent one with no stoppage to traffic could be built for only £1 million and at a height of 80 feet.
Each year the volume of traffic will grow, so I hope common sense will prevail and the matter be re-considered.
Spit Bridge (1949, June 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18118707

Driver sobs, telling dramatic story of fatal Spit bus crash
With tears in his eyes, I and a sob in His voice, I bus driver Alexander James Telford, 28, gave I a dramatic account, in the Coroner's Court today of the fatal bus crash at The spit on May 30. The bus, being driven by Telford from Manly to St. Leonards, crashed 30 feet over a wall, killing four and injuring more than 30 passengers. 
Coroner, Mr. A. R. Raschke, is inquiring into the deaths of Mrs. Winifred Fuller (21), French's Forest; Mrs. Annie Gihbs (64), Rosebery Street, Mosman; Mrs. Mary I. Cust (49), of Grandview Road, Seaforth; and Miss Catherine Engert (71), of Carew Street, Dee Why. Telford, of Carter Road, Brook vale, was asked to tell everything that happened from the top of the. Spit Hill. 
He said: "I came down to the first bend in third gear and around the bend in third gear. I changed into top gear and came down the hill at 15 miles an hour. "I approached the last bend, near the garage, with my foot slightly on the foot-brake to ease .the bus round the corner. "When I was round the corner. and attempted to straighten up to go to the bridge, the wheels were locked. I couldn't straighten up. "Never straightened" "I struggled with the steering-wheel—" I
At this stage, Telford's voice became inaudible and he stared at the floor. It was a minute or two before he was able to continue. Visibly affected, he continued: —"The "The bus never straightened up, hit the fence, and went over.
"Next thing I knew, I was walking up and down outside the bus. I did what I could for the passengers till the other people arrived. Then I was instructed by an inspector to go back to Manly ..
"When I was going round the corner, I noticed that the tyre on the offside front wheel was rubbing on the mudguard. I could hear the rub and I could feel the vibration." 
"Brakes gripping" 
Telford said that after beginning the journey from Manly on bus 1612, he noticed, on the Sydney Road, twice when coming to a stop that the brakes were grabbing the near-side front wheel, causing the bus to veer slightly to the left. He did not do anything about it. The Coroner: Why?— I didn't consider the brakes were dangerous. But I intended to report the matter when I got to The Spit so they could take the bus off the road and see what was the defect. It is only a routine matter. 
Albert Stanley Chambers, Sub-inspector at Manly depot, said that, as a bus driving instructor, he emphasised to Pupils "not to let the 1600 type buses have any liberty, as they did sway." Proceeding. 
Driver sobs, telling dramatic story of fatal Spit bus crash (1949, August 24). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 3 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231053365 


TENDERS for a new bridge at The Spit will be called at the end of the year. Construction is excepted to take two to three years, but steel shortage will be the main obstacle. Picture shows the site of the new structure, which will be double the width of the present "temporary" bridge, and route of the new two-way traffic road which will pass by subway under Ethel Street, near Tramway Avenue, to then join Sydney Road.
PROPOSED PLAN FOR NEW SPIT BRIDGE APPROACHES (1949, September 8). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 21 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230937079

Spit bus tragedy an accident, coroner finds
A finding of accidental death was recorded by the City, Coroner (Mr. A. R. Raschke) today, at the inquest on the Spit bus tragedy. 

Mr. Raschke found that Mrs. Annie Gibbs, 64, Mrs. Winifred A. Fuller, 21, Mrs. Mary I. Cust, 49, and Miss Catherine Engert, 71, died from injuries accidentally received when the bus crashed through a safety fence in Sydney Road, Seaforth, on May 30. The bus, a double-decker, driven by Alexander James Telford, 28, on the Manly-St. Leonards route, crashed near the Spit Bridge and fell 30ft killing four passengers, and injuring more than 30.

 Mr. Raschke said there was no culpable negligence, but added: — "I do not accept acting-driver Telford's statement that his speed was eight to 10 miles per hour. I find the speed was about 20 mph, which, to a competent and experienced driver, would be quite safe. "He had descended the greater part of the hill without difficulty, and I am of the opinion that he considered he was travelling at a normal speed, and did not realise his Speed was about 20 mph, which appears to be excessive for a driver of his experience on this dangerous turn. "On making the turn, on account of his speed, he had swung to the centre yellow line of the roadway, and on straightening up, he turned loo sharply to the left, causing the omnibus to lurch, and I he offside front mudguard came in contact with the lyre, thus creating a situation which required immediate and efficient action." 
"An experienced driver would have applied his brakes immediately, bringing the vehicle to a standstill. 
"I have expert evidence that in a case of sudden emergency, the mental reaction as to the alertness of the driver is two-fifths of a second, and it does appear that Acting-Driver Telford was slow in doing so. 
"Instead or applying his brakes immediately, he attempted to steer the vehicle to the right, but did not have sufficient time or space to do so, collided with the safety fence and overturned over the embankment." "No culpable negligence has been proven, and I return a finding of accidental death." 
The Coroner said a -point that was brought, out was whether the type of bus was one that should be on the road. He was satisfied it was.
Spit bus tragedy an accident, coroner finds (1949, September 30). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 11 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230933490

Four injured when bus smashes into tree at The Spit
Four people were injured — one seriously — when a crowded double-decker bus crashed against a tree while passing a tram on a narrow section of roadway at The Spit early today.
The accident occurred at 6.20 am about 300 yards on the Sydney side of The Spit bridge, an area which has been used by buses during the past two weeks, as police diverted them from the main load to relieve traffic congestion. The injured, who were taken to Manly Hospital by Manly District Ambulance, are: Herbert Bradbury, 31, of Prince Street, Mosman; shock and lacerations. Jean Pearson, 23, single, of Vineyard Street, Mona Vale; head lacerations and shock.
Walter Edward White, 38, boilermaker, of Wangee Road, Lakemba; severely gashed upper left arm. Claude Hunt, 40, of Pittwater Road, Mona Vale. Admitted unconscious with head injuries. Condition serious. The bus, which left Avalon for Wynyard at 5.19 am, was driven by Claude Eric Sims, of Dudley Street, Balgowlah. After crossing The Spit bridge, the bus moved to the roadway on the eastern side of the tramline on the water's edge, which is lined with sturdy trees.
Scramble for safety
While passing a city-bound tram, it lurched to the left and, with a rending crash, ploughed through overhanging limbs of a tree. Windows on the near-side of the upper deck were wrecked. Passengers screamed as glass was showered over them, and limbs of trees tore through the window apertures before snapping. Passengers next to the windows frantically tried to scramble to safety, but the bus continued on for 150 yards, the driver being unaware of the accident. Passengers immediately removed the injured, most of whom were covered in blood and suffering severely from shock. Police were surprised that those taken to hospital were not more seriously injured. Several local residents said that buses passing trams on the present route frequently scraped against the trees, owing to the narrow, sloping roadway. An inquiry into the smash will be held by the Road Transport Department. 

Four were hurt in this bus today at The Spit.

SPLINTERED. The sturdy limbs of this tree were splintered as the bus was driven against them. The limbs tore through windows and bodywork. 
Four injured when bus smashes into tree at The Spit (1950, January 3). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 3 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230701179 

The Department of Main Roads has called for tenders for a new bridge for The Spit. It will be bigger than the old one, and will eliminate much of the present traffic congestion. It will not be a toll bridge.
The acting-secretary of the Main Roads Department, Mr. R. S. Johnston, last night gave details of the new bridge, for which tenders close on October 5.
He said it would have a roadway 44ft wide, allowing four lines of traffic. There would be a 5ft footway on either side, with protective railings to keep pedestrians off the road.
The bridge would have an opening span of the single leaf bascule type to allow shipping to pass through.
The single opening span would swing up into a vertical position.
The substructure would be of concrete and the super-structure of steel.
The superstructure, would have seven 100ft spans. The footpaths would be held on curved brackets cantilevered from the outside main girders.
All the steelwork would be painted light grey.
Mr. Johnston said the opening span would be operated in less than one minute.
When it was closed it would look just like the fixed spans.
The operation of traffic and shipping lights, gates and the opening span would be completely interlocked to ensure the utmost safety.
The new and the old bridges would be close together, so the new opening span would have to be opposite the opening span of the present bridge to allow boats to pass underneath.
For the same reason the new opening span would have to be built in an open position.
Mr. Johnston said, "For some years the present bridge has been unable to carry peak road traffic without consider-able delay.
"The time taken to open and close the bridge for harbour traffic also adds to the congestion.
"The bridge itself has deteriorated and is approaching the end of its useful life."
He added that the present approaches to the bridge would be straightened out.

An artists impression of how the new bridge at The Spit will look. 
NEW BRIDGE AT THE SPIT (1950, May 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27572196 

The Spit Bridge
Sir, - Illustrated in last Saturday's "Herald" is the suggested design of a new bridge at the Spit. Surely we as a community should be past hugging contrivances which hold up traffic whilst a few boat parties and a few odd highmast boats pass through the Spit.
If the Government of this State is notable to provide the wherewithal for building the only practical thing, namely, an elevated steel bridge, then the Federal Parliament should co-operate in the scheme of providing finance for what is really some thing of national importance.
The Spit Bridge (1950, May 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18162952 
The new bridge was due for completion in October 1954. Four years of delay were added by a chronic postwar shortage of building materials, particularly concrete, coupled with regular industrial disputes that lasted in some cases for months. It seemed a nation which had worked side by side in the most horrendous conflict so recently, WWII, was falling apart everywhere it once strove to hold together as the boom of the 1950's, when everyone could have everything if they could afford it, along with new kinds of politics, had changed the face of Australia again:

Spit Bridge meeting
MORE than a hundred workers at the Spit Bridge gave an attentive hearing to Mr. Ray Clarke, Communist candidate for Mackellar, and invited him back again to answer questions on Communist policy.
Spit Bridge meeting (1954, May 26). Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212474487

The Maritime Services Board has refused to reduce the number of openings of The Spit Bridge span to relieve motor traffic congestion between 10 a.m. and noon on Sundays and holidays. Mosman, Manly, and Warringah Councils had asked the board to eliminate the 11 a.m. opening.

Mr. P. H. Morton. M.L.A., for Mosman, notified last night's meeting of Mosman Council of the rejections. The councils felt it was un-reasonable that hundreds of cars should be delayed at 11 a.m. for the convenience of comparatively few harbour craft.
They considered these craft should be prepared to get to the bridge for the 10 a.m. opening.
SPIT BRIDGE PLAN REJECTED (1954, September 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18445183

Spit Bridge Three Years Behind Plan
The new Spit Bridge, due to have been finished last Monday, will not now be completed for at least another three years.
The Minister for Transport, Mr. E. Wetherell, made this announcement in the Legislative Assembly yesterday. He was replying to ques-tions by Mr. P. H. Morton (Lib., Mosman).

Mr. Wetherell said a strike, still in progress, had seriously interrupted construction. The dispute was now before the Arbitration Court.

The bridge was being built by the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co. Ltd., of England, under contract to the Department of Main Roads.
The work was divided into two sections. The first contract covered the manufacture, supply and delivery of metalwork and machinery at a cost of £173,361 (sterling) ; the second was for the assembly and completion of the bridge at a cost of £384,981 (Australian).
The company had asked the Main Roads Department for an extension of time, and the department was likely to consider favourably this application.
Spit Bridge Three Years Behind Plan (1954, October 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18445968

Talks On Spit Bridge Dispute
The Minister for Transport, Mr. E. Wetherell, said yesterday parties in the dispute which has held up construction of the new Spit Bridge, would confer this morningHe said the parties would meet at his request and try to find a solution to the dispute which stopped work on the bridge several months ago.
Mr. Wetherell was replying in the Legislative Assembly to Mr. P. H. Morton (Lib., Mosman). 
Talks On Spit Bridge Dispute (1954, December 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18449072

Spit Bridge holdup goes on
A Labor Council formula to end the dispute, which has held up construction of The Spit bridge since last August, has been rejected by the
company. The contractors, the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co. Ltd., of England, agreed with all the formula proposals except that on the reemployment of a man who was dismissed. The man, a shop steward, was dismissed by the company for allegedly using bad language to a foreman. It was stated today that the only hope of resumption of work on the bridge is for the FEDFA to agree not to press for the man's re-employment. The contract has been let for £558.000.
Spit Bridge holdup goes on (1954, December 16). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 29 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231999769

SYDNEY. — Seaman Neville Cunningham was fined £10 and £5 costs for writing a sign "Ban. A and H Bombs" near the Spit Bridge. The £5 costs was for the Warringah Council to have the sign erased. 
£15 FINE FOR ANTI-BOMB SIGN (1957, May 29). Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236326386

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1954.
Municipality of Manly. Main Road No'. 164—Sydney-road.
Construction of the northern approach to the new Spit Bridge over Middle Harbour. 
NOTICE is hereby given that the levels of Sydney-road— Main Road No. -164, between Whittle-avenue and the northern abutment of the new Spit Bridge now being constructed over . Middle Harbour and of so much of any side roads thereby affected, within the Municipality of Manly, in accordance with and as shown on plans and sections prepared by the Department of Main Boads, 309 Castlereagh-street, Sydney, at the Department's Metropolitan 'Office, at Milson's Point, and at the Municipal Council Chambers, Manly, and duly notified in the ''Sydney Morning Herald" on the 13th September, 1956, and the Government Gazette on the 7th September, 1956, have been approved- The levels are now fixed and/or refuted and will take effect from the date of publication of this notice.

Signed and sealed at Sydney this fifteenth day of March, one thousand nine hundred and fifty-seven.

(L.s.) H. M. SHERRARD.
I, Howard Macoun Sherrard, The Commissioner for Main Roads, have hertto affixed the Official Seal of The Commissioner for Main Roads in the presence of J. Fleming, J.P.
(D.M.R. No. 279-1,247)
DEPARTMENT OF MAIN ROADS. (1957, May 31). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1699. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220353934

Sackings resisted 
WORKERS building the Spit Bridge, mostly members of the Australian Workers' Union, went on strike last Wednesday when about nine workers were sacked on one section of the bridge while overtime was being worked on other sections. Since then there has been little attempt at negotiation by the contractors, Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Company, for a settlement. Mr. C. Oliver, State Secretary of the AWU, said that the union wouia consider contacting the responsible State Minister with a view to settlement. .
Miners fight to save coal industry (1957, March 27). Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236322772

The bridge under construction over Middle Harbour at The Spit is expected to be completed at the end of this year. 
Government Gazette Notices (1958, August 20). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2499. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220370157

No official ceremony was held, and no article appeared to announce it when the new Spit Bridge finally opened on 19 November 1958, costing almost twice as much as first anticipated. Foresight, or hindsight, is a great thing - this second bridge, once opened, soon became akin to the first version, in that it had not taken into account a future it could not see or could not imagine. Many people settled on the northern beaches after WWII and into the 1950's - it was family friendly still affordable place with a healthy safe backyard and beach haven for raising youngsters. With so many of these fathers travelling to the city to work, coupled with yet more people streaming to cool breezes and colder salt water during the hotter months, commuter traffic increased.

Another widening of the bridge – from four to six lanes – was promised in 2002. This was also seen as a bid to stop the state Liberal Party from regaining the seat, which was held by an independent. The promise was reiterated in early 2007, prior to the state election, when Labor Roads Minister Eric Roozendaal said: '… you have an absolute commitment from the Iemma Labor Government to the widening of the Spit Bridge'.

Soon after the election was over, the State Government announced it was ditching its plans to widen the bridge, nominally because of a cost blowout of almost $60 million. Once again, thousands of daily commuters expereinced recurring bottlenecks backing up for several kilometres. On 23 June 2008, the Spit Bridge was stuck open for hours as a result of an electrical fault, and thousands were once again held up indefinitely.
The Spit Bridge is the only lift bridge still operational on a major arterial road in Sydney. It has been assessed as being of State heritage significance, but it is part of persistently inadequate transport infrastructure for Sydney's residents who live north of Middle Harbour.

The most recent idea of The Beaches Link will by pass The Spit bridge altogether if that goes ahead, although a Sydney Morning Herald  report of July 23rd, 2018 "Secret reports show work to start on northern Sydney motorways by 2021" states that will mean the end of the Balgowlah golf course. The opposite party, for the upcoming 2019 election range of promises already ringing out, is this time promising to ditch the plan altogether and spend the billions it may cost in the western suburbs of Sydney.

Either way, also running this Issue, the incumbents have released the Beaches Link Detailed Design on Thursday July 26th, 2018, and that is now open for further community consultation - Visit that page HERE

References and extras

1. TROVE, National Library of Australia 
2. The Murder of David Foley. Shelagh Champion OAM. Pittwater Online News, 2012: Issue 68
3. Spit bridge by Garry Wotherspoon  2010 in https://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/spit_bridge 
4. Mosman Council. The Spit Historical Overview, Local Studies Service, Heritage Mosman Library
5. Secret reports show work to start on northern Sydney motorways by 2021. Jacob Saulwick. Sydney Morning Herald. July 23rd, 2018.


J T. WILSON begs to apologise to the Gentlemen, who honored him with their attendance this morning to purchase the above valuable Property, but in consequence of his attendance at the Offices of the Supreme Court, it was entirely impossible for him to sell at the time appointed, he therefore, respectfully, solicits their attendance on Tuesday next, the 16th instant, when he intends to offer the above Land to public competition.. October 9, 1838. 
MIDDLE HARBOUR. J. T. WILSON Announces, that he has been honored with instructions from the Proprietor, to submit to PUBLIC COMPETITION, at his extensive Sale Rooms, No 74, George-street. On TUESDAY next, the 16th of October, at half past Eleven for Twelve o'clock precisely, the under-mentioned VALUABLE LAND, CONSISTING of Four Allotments at the MIDDLE HARBOUR, PORT JACKSON, and surrounded by the valuable properties of J. Terry Hughes, S. Lyons, and J. Newton, Esqrs. TIIE ALLOTMENTS ARE AS FOLLOW: 
LOT 1-2 ¼ Acres, having a frontage of 1,400 feet to the Middle Harbour of Port Jackson. 
LOT 2--8 Acres, having a frontage of 600 feet to ditto. LOT 12-91/2 Acres, having a frontage of 5 chains "to ditto. 
LOT 14--81 Acres, having a frontage of 5 chains to ditto. 
This Property is situated in one of the most delightful parts of our truly PICTURESQUE HARBOUR, the admiration of all who visit it, and the theme of the whole world. It is scarcely outvied by the BAY OF NAPLES, or the splendid scenery so highly wrought by Dame Nature's fair hand on the Shores of the Adriatic and. Brazils. For the salubrity of the air, this "haven of health and retirement," is admitted by all parties to surpass in purity even that of the much admired clime of ITALY, and a few year's will doubtless see it realise the prophecy of its becoming the MONTPELIER OF NEW SOUTH WALES, For the Merchant who would, after becoming wearied in his' busy occupation of the day, seek retirement, these spots offer an opportunity for erecting A VILLA, where, in the bosom of his family, he would have solace and seclusion, and thus find nature invigoy rated to renew his daily toil. To independent Gentlemen, or those who in seeking " wealth or honour," have in anrteastern climate impaired their constitutions-these spots are s treasure not to be passed over. Here may they, within a few miles journey of the metropolis, breathe the breath of Heaven in all its pristine purity; here may they watch over their families with a parent's fond and tender care; here may they see them rise to maturity in health and loveliness ;.and when in the dissolution of nature, they may be called from them, find that in the purchase of: his Land they have not only secured their health, but also a property that will be double or treble in value every five years. That it will be so, must appear even to the most disinterested, self -evident; the greatest proof of which is the amount the VAUCLUSE PROPERTY. realized at Public Auction a short time singe; visz : ONE HUNDRED POUNDS PER ACRE, enormous, when compared with its value three years ago. J. T. W. in endeavouring to give some idea of the above desirable Property, feels he is perfectly incompetent to the task ; indeed were it in his power, he should deem it his duty to avoid that extensive system of "Land puffing," so universally practised in the public prints. But he is confident, that when intending purchasers have viewed this ELYSIUM, they will rush with eagerness on the day of Sale, to purchase an independence for themselves and their progeny. TITLE-UNEXCEPTIONABLE, being a purchase from the Crown-. Terms highly liberal--declared at time of Sale. 

A MIDDLE HARBOU.R. In addition to the former Sale of Land in the DELIGHTFUL SPOT.. J, T. WILSON Has been honored with instructions by the Proprietor, to offer to Public Competition, on TUESDAY next the 16th of October, at his extensive Rooms, 74, George street. THIRTY Acres of Land, "situate round the .I Sand-Spits in PEARL BAY. It is bounded on the north by the waters of Middle Harbour, and on the east, south, and west by Government Reserves. It is situate within a few minutes walk of the Reserve for the EXTENSION OF SYDNEY. Three Acres or Upwards of it have been cleared and fenced, and it has a never-failing supply of water flowing from ONE OF NATURE'S PUREST SPRINGS which rises between two Creeks. There is upon the ground a neat WEATHER-BOARD COT TAGE, with convenient Out-houses, Fowl-houses, &c. &c. There is also a Salt-pan, capable of holding 304 gallons; and the water is deep enough to allow ANY VESSEL OF MODERATE BURITHEN to load and discharge alongside. To Ship-builders desirous of forming Building Yards apart from the town of Sydney, where they may control their workmen, and thus expedite their business, this is an opportunity which should not be lost sight of. Private gentlemen seeking retirement in the salubrity of climate apart from the busy hum of the city-have now the chance of securing to themselves in the purchase of this land-all that a fairy imagination could paint. The extended view afforded from the summit of a trifling elevated hill on this property, is beyond description-here 'to the east and south as far as the eye can reach, you see rolling on in mighty billows, the boundless' waters of the MAJESTIC SOUTH PACIFIC while to the north and west, the land scenery is so magnificent, that the pen only of a BYRON, a THOMSON, or AINSWORTH, could do justice in portraying it. The Auctioneer cannot omit to point out, that any gentleman possessing a small capital and a knowledge of the MANUFACTURE OF SALT. has now an opportunity of realising a splendid independence-the great and increasing demand for this article is too well known to need comment ; in addition to which, the fortunate speculator Would have the gratification of advancing the interests of his adopted country, by the extended introduction of an article, for which thousands are annually respitted to the mother country. The title is a grant from the crown and the terms will be made mosy and mated at the sale,  Advertising (1838, October 12). The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser (NSW : 1838 - 1841), p. 3 (MORNING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32161516 

THAT much admired Orangery and Orchard, known as the "ECHO FARM," and situated on the romantic waters of Middle Harbour.
The Farm consists of twenty acres, all well and securely fenced in ; and being bounded on one side by a fresh-water creek, possesses the advantage of a never-failing supply of the purest water; it is bounded on another side by the waters of Middle Harbour. There is on it a good substantial weather-boarded House of seven rooms, two stalled stable, men's huts, fowl houses, &c.
There are also (independent of numerous other fruit trees) about two hundred orange trees, the greater part now in full bearing ; on the water side is likewise a vein of good coal.
The Farm, by land from Milsom's Wharf, is about seven miles distant, and by water is computed at twelve miles. Adjoining the Farm is a very extensive run for cattle. The present proprietor flatters himself that he has most effectually done away with the great and only objection hitherto taken to this Farm, he having succeeded in constructing a good carriage road from the former stoppage to the House.
The Farm may be viewed at any time, and further particulars obtained from
Auctioneer and Agent,
365. George-street, opposite the Market-place. Advertising (1844, December 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12420331 

Since Wednesday last, raging and wide-spreading bushfires, caused by the prevailing hot winds, and the unusual heat and dryness of the weather, have destroyed property of considerable value on the North Shore; and it is feared that the lives of two persons (known as John the Frenchman and Joseph Curran) have also been sacrificed. At the time of our going to press, the casualties, as far as could be ascertained, werr as follows:-Mr. Cook's promises, Lane Cove, have been burned, and two of his horses destroyed. Mr. Archbold's premises, furniture, … feet of sawn timber, and twelve tons of hay, burned. P. Simpson's orchard and fencing: G. Clarke's hut and furniture: John Macmillan's orchard and fencing; R. Hyam's hut and furniture : Mr. Murphy's two houses and furniture ; Mr. Ross Donnelly's outhouses ; F. McCudden's house and furniture ; all entirely destroyed. The promises of Colonel Harney, Mr. Berry, Mr. Stirling, and Mr. Bloxsome, have been partially damaged, and almost all the fencing burned. It is to be feared, that no chance of arresting the progress of the main current of the fire presents itself until it reaches the basin of Pittwater. We regret to state that among tho sufferers are several who, with their families, are plunged into utter destitution by this visitation ; but we sincerely hope that the sympathy of the public, if appealed to, will assist in relieving their calamities to some extent. It is perhaps useless non' to express surprise at the absence of all precautions against the attack of a foe whose progress it is so difficult to arrest when once he commences his march of devastation. Here we find valuable plantations entirely unprotected, when by a little labor and outlay in clearing the grass and brushwood, the ruinous consequences we are recording might have been considerably modified if not entirely prevented. Intelligence has also been received that the bush between Wollongong and Kiama was one entire mass of flame. 
Communication-between the two localities was wholly impossible. 
LOCAL INTELLIGENCE. (1850, January 12). Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (NSW : 1845 - 1860), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article59770026 

Peter Ellery of the sandspit

Peter Ellery (1798 or 1800 -1888) - parents Peter Ellery (1760-1843) and Johanna Hicks (17/63 or 1765 -? )
Born in Cornwall, England. Baptism: 21 Sep 1800 - Mawgan-In-Pydar, Cornwall, England

Peter Ellery and Susannah Husband Ellery (nee Poyner 1805 - 1874 - Parents: William Poyner and Susannah Tom) married on March 19thj, 1825. They arrived with their children on the ship Orient on April 4th 1839. Susannah's brother Francis, then aged around 16, sometimes called Frank, came with them. 

'Francis (Frank) Poyner was the brother of Susannah Ellery and travelled to Sydney with the Ellery family on the Orient in 1839. He would have been about 16, but because of his young age, he may have assumed the identity of his older brother John, aged 22. From an 1858 conviction, we know that he was 5 feet 6 inches tall, of sallow complexion, with dark brown hair and dark grey eyes. His arms were hairy, and he had a scar on the corner of his left eyebrow. Frank followed the occupation of seaman, but when he was ashore he lived with Thomas and Lavinia at North Narrabeen. Although he was Lavinia’s uncle, he was only a few years older than she was.' - Shelagh Champion OAM, 'The Murder of David Foley'.

The children who came with them were all born at Pydar/Pyder, Cornwall, according to family records.
Children of Peter and Susannah prior to arrival in Australia:
Lavinia Maria Ellery (1825 - 1865), Harriet Ellery (1827 - 1840) Richard Ellery (1829 - Unknown - possibly August 12th, 1852), Catherine Francis Ellery (1832 - 1896), Kesiah Ellery (1834 - 1867), Johanna Susan Ellery (1837 - 1912).

Ships List for the Orient - Image no.: RS5316/4_4784/Orient_4 Apr 1839/ - from the State Records of NSW; Ships Lists - this gives age of the parents and children on arrival in Sydney

Children born here:
ELLERY  JOHN 920/1849     V1849920 37A PETER SUSANNA H
ELLERY  HARRIET 61/1843 V184361 28      PETER SUSANNA
ELLERY  PETER 921/1840 V1840921 37A  PETER SUSANNA H

Peter's Wife passed away:

Francis Poyner passes away:

Children's marriage:
59/1844      COLLINS                 THOMAS       ELLERY       LAVINIA M               CA
81/1859      HARVEY                  THOMAS       ELLERY       CATHERINE           SYDNEY
2203/1862 STEVENSON          MICHAEL      ELLERY       KEZIA                       MAITLAND
360/1864    MOUNSTEPHEN   RICHARD      ELLERY       JOHANNE S            SYDNEY
873/1871   ELLERY                   JOHN             CHEETHAM SARAH ANN           SYDNEY
2772/1879 MENEER                  WILLIAM       ELLERY       SARAH A                 CARCOAR
1786/1879 ELLERY                    PETER         GRIFFITHS   FANNY                     PADDINGTON

Fanny Griffiths is actually 'Frances' eldest daughter and first born child of of Lewis Henry and Emily Marion Griffiths (nee Gordon). She is 19 when she marries 39 year old Peter Ellery, junior. Her father is a constable and then sergeant in the Water Police in Sydney and then at Newcastle. His son of the same name (Lewis Henry - born in Newcastle in 1875) also becomes a constable - only in Sydney. Although all their children were bound to be remarkable, L H Griffiths stands out for two particular numbers attained through serving in the Boer war and then in WWI where he was mention in despatches for continuously going out, as part of the AFA (Field ambulance) to bring men back in again for months at what we now call ANZAC Cove, Turkey, or 'Gallipoli'. The 1st AFA were based on the beach.

After being sent home due to being ill, he signed up again on landing back here to see the war out - this time working in the No.10 Sea Transport Section AAMC 'A.I.F. where he was assigned to look after what the documents in his file state were 'Mental Cases' and what became those suffering from 'battle fatigue' and which we now refer to, having gathered more knowledge about us, as those suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome.

Those numbers: 

Griffiths, Lewis Henry
Service Number 6
Unit: 2nd New South Wales Mounted Rifles
Conflict South Africa, 1899-1902 (Boer War)
Notes: Corporal 28/09/1901; sergeant 01/05/1902

Griffiths, Lewis Henry
Service Number 893
Unit New South Wales Lancers
Conflict South Africa, 1899-1902 (Boer War)

Lewis Henry Griffiths
Service number 2
Rank: Sergeant
Unit: 1st Australian Field Ambulance
Conflict/Operation First World War: 1914-1918

Fanny Griffiths' parents marriage:

On the 19th instant, by special license, by the Rev.W. Hessel, Lewis Henry Griffiths, of Haverfordwest, Penbrokeshire, South Wales, to Miss Emily Marion, only daughter of Mr. Robert Gordon, late of London, England.  Family Notices (1859, April 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28630068

Her siblings and her birth:
GRIFFITHS  LEWIS H 1875 - not in records, found in Australian War Museum records

Peter Jnr. and Fanny's children:
ELLERY  EMILY E E M                    5974/1879     PETER FANNY G               PADDINGTON
ELLERY  CLARENCE N A              13052/1886  PETER FANNY G               MANLY
ELLERY  CARDIGAN S R              10470/1889   PETER FANNY G               MANLY
ELLERY  CARDIGAN R S              20924/1890   PETER FANNY G               MANLY

Peter Snr. and Susannah's Children's records of having passed away - also further records and insights below this:

Richard and Johanna Susan Mounstephen children:
Loss of their child:

THE FRIENDS of Mr. RICHARD MOUNSTEPHEN are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late beloved BROTHER, William ; to move from his late residence, Bullanaming-st., Redfern, THIS (Monday) AFTERNOON, at half-past 2 o'clock, to Necropolis.
C. KINSELA and SONS, Oxford-street, near Crown-st.
THE FRIENDS of the late Mr. WILLIAM MOUNTSTEPHEN are respectfully invited to attend his Funeral ; to move from his late residence, Bullanaming-street, Redfern, THIS (Monday) AFTERNOON, at half-past 2 o'clock, to Necropolis. C. KINSELA and SONS
George-street, opposite Christ Church ; and Oxford-street.
Family Notices (1874, January 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13330534

The City Coroner (Mr. H. Shiell, J.P.,) held an inquest yesterday, at the Charing Cross Hotel, Waverley, concerning the death of a man named Richard Mountstephen, who met with a full on Thursday at the Centennial Hall.
Johanna Mountstephen residing at Carrington-road Waverley, identified the body of the deceased as that of her husband who was 49 years of age and a native of Cornwall, England; she stated that he was a stonemason by trade, and that he had left a widow and five children. The witness added that he was a man of temperate habits, and that he was not subject to giddiness.
Matthew Collins, labourer, residing at 166 Castlereagh-street, deposed that he knew the deceased who was lately engaged at work upon the Centennial Hall; at about 12.30 p.m. on Thursday a column was lifted a certain height in order that it might be placed upright in a bed which Mountstephen was about to prepare for it; he was standing on a plank about four feet from Mountstephen; the column was suspended by a fall fixed to a lewis on the head of the column; to that lewis was attached the fall, which was fixed to a travelling crane; the column weighed about a ton and a half; it was not resting on anything; while he was preparing the cement with which Mountstephen was to make the bed, the top of the column broke, and the whole of it fell to the ground; it struck the scaffolding as it went down; in its fall it struck against a frieze and broke in two; one half fell into the building, and the other portion struck Mounstephen on the chest, causing him to fall on to the floor below, a depth of about 16 feet or 18 feet; the column was of Pyrmont freestone, and was about 18 inches in diameter at the top; the hole made for the lewis was in the centre, and was fully seven inches deep; he did not notice any flaw in the stone, but he had nothing to do with it; he went to Mountstephen and picked him up; he found that Mountstephen was unconscious; he assisted to put him in a cab and sent him to the Sydney Hospital; Mountstephen died on the way; he had seen about 36 similar columns lifted by the same lewis in a like manner; he afterwards examined both parts of the column, and to him the stone seemed sound; the lewis was in perfect order; the column had been suspended and had been stationary for about five minutes previously to its fall.
Charles McKew, foreman of works at the Town Hall, residing in Taunton-street, Balmain, deposed that he witnessed Mountstephen fall and lose his life; he had been asked by Mountstephen how he was to set the column; he twisted the column round and marked it; he saw Mount-stephen mark the bed below; immediately after that, while he had his hand on the column, it twisted at the top at the spot where the lewis was fixed; the column then fell, striking a frieze 17 feet below, on which Mountstephen was standing; the column then broke in two pieces, and immediately afterwards he saw Mountstephen fall to the ground; while he had his hand on the column a man named Johnson was standing on the same platform with him, and had his hand also upon the column at the time it fell; Johnson fell to the ground a depth of about 35 feet, and received such injuries as to necessitate his removal to the Sydney Hospital; Johnson was still a patient there; could not say what caused the stone to fall; he examined the broken pieces of stone soon after the column fell, and could detect no flaw; the same tackle and lewis used on that occasion had lifted between four and five tons; the column which fell weighed about a ton and a half; the hole in which the lewis had been inserted was perhaps made two or three weeks previously; if the lewis had been wedged in too tight this would not have caused the stone to break; the column was not twisting when it broke.
Dr. F. M. Smith, residing at Waverley, deposed that he had made a post-mortem examination of the body; he found a contused wound over the left eye, and some slight abrasions about the head and body; there had been a great oozing of blood from the left ear during the night; he was of opinion that the man's skull was fractured by the fall he sustained, and that this was the cause of death.
The jury returned a verdict of death from the effects of injuries accidently received. 
CORONER'S INQUEST. (1886, December 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13622712 

MOUNSTEPHEN. — In loving remembrance of my dear husband, R. Mounstephen, who departed this life December 9, 1886.
He left his home in perfect health,
Not thinking death, was near,
Nor dreaming that he never should
Return to his wife and children dear.
Family Notices (1890, December 9). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113747323

MOUNSTEPHEN. - In loving memory of our dear mother, Johanna Susan Mounstephen, who departed this life September 19, 1912.
You are always in our thoughts, dear mother,
'Tis sweet to breathe your name; 
In life we loved you dearly,
In death we do the same.
Inserted by her loving son and daughter-in-law,
Arthur and Emma Mounstephen.
MOUNSTEPHEN. - In loving memory of our dear mother, Johanna Susan Mounstephen, who departed this life September 19, 1912.
In life we loved your dearly,
In death we do the same.
Inserted by her loving daughter and son-in-law, Elsie and Denis Hynes, and family.
Family Notices (1915, September 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 15. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15614617

In The Murder of David Foley by Shelagh Champion OAM we read about the connections between the Ellery family and Thomas Collins through his marriage to Lavinia and her subsequent arrest for murder along with her uncle Francis Poyner, the brother of her mother. Although acquitted, someone murdered this man.

A few years later Lavinia, her husband and Francis Poyner are again named among those, along with the Farrells of Newport, as persecuting the Therry family who then came to 'Mona Vale' farm, named thus by David Foley. See Mona Vale Outrages by George Champion OAM, 2012 Issue 69 and Maria Louisa Therry, Pittwater Matriarchs, 2014 Issue 191.

Lavinia is to stand trial again - just before she does though, this 'accident' occurs:

An inquest on the body of Mrs. Lavinia Maria Collins, who had been found dead at a late hour on Friday night, was held on Saturday at the Pier Hotel, Manly Beach. The following was the evidence adduced :—
Thomas Collins, the first witness examined, deposed : I have been living in the Pitt Water district for thirty-two years. I am a farmer, and live seven or eight miles from Manly Beach. The deceased, Lavinia Maria Collins, aged thirty-nine years, was my wife; she was a native of Cornwall, England. I have been married to her since she was eighteen years of age. She always transacted my business. We had break-fast about nine o'clock on Friday morning, after which she started for Manly Beach. She went with potatoes, cabbage, and butter, in a cart drawn by one horse. She could drive, and the horse was a quiet animal, four years old. I expected her home about dark — a Mrs. Wright accompanied her. She was a sober woman, and all the liquor she would take was a glass of ale. Poyner went to meet deceased ; he is her uncle, and on the best of terms with her. Poyner came home this morning quite wet, and asked for a dry shirt. He said deceased was dangerously wounded at Manly Beach. She had often told me she was frightened to go along the road. I did not believe it. She was once, some years ago, molested on the road. I am satisfied that her uncle would not injure her. When I pressed him to tell me, he said my wife was dead, and he did not wish to tell me so before. From what I saw I should say the dray was overturned by coming in contact with a stump.
By a juror: About four years ago the dray was overturned, and my wife was injured.
Margaret Frazer, wife of David Frazer, stonemason, living near the Camera Tower, Manly Beach, deposed : A road from the beach to the Pitt Water road passes our house. About half-past seven o'clock on Friday evening, deceased came to my place in a cart, and delivered some butter and potatoes. She did not get out of the cart, but from her manner I was led to believe that she was under the influence of drink. I gave her a cup of tea. She stopped about five minutes, and then started the horse at a trot. She was seated in the bottom of the cart, and could see what was in front of her. I was speaking to her until she went about twenty yards from my place. She said she was not frightened to go on the road. "When I last saw her the cart was in the centre of the bush-track. About half-past 11 o'clock, her uncle, Frank Poyner came to my place for a light, saying that Mrs. Collins was nearly dead. He said she was lying on the road ; that the dray had turned over. My husband accompanied him to where she was lying. Poyner is in Collins' employ, and is a middle-aged man. I have seen deceased under the influence of drink previous to Friday. I am satisfied that no person touched or interfered with her.
By a juror: I thought deceased was too fresh from drink to go home on Friday evening. I did not ask her to stop at my place. My husband works in a forge close to our place, and the noise he made while working until half-past eight would prevent my hearing any noise in the neighbourhood.
By Coroner : It was a dark night, and she was not near-sighted. My husband said the dray was not resting on deceased.
Francis Poyner, on oath, said : I am 42 years of age, a native of England, and have been 32 years in the colony. I am a single man, and have been 15 or 16 years living with the Collins's, off and on, as a servant. I was deceased's uncle. Between nine and ten o'clock on Friday morning, I took her, accompanied by a Mrs. Wright, across the lagoon. About dusk I crossed the lagoon again to meet her. Finding she was not there, I went along the road, as is my custom, to meet her. I did not meet her, and came right into Manly Beach, and met two men — I think I know them — sitting by Mr. George Smith's fence. They asked me who I was. I made no reply, and one said, "Is your name Cooper." I made no reply, but passed on. I know Cooper; he lives at Pitt Water. I reached Cook's public-house about half-past eleven, knocked, and inquired about deceased. Mrs. Cook said she had gone home hours ago, and Mr. Cook said that she went towards Frazer's. I went there, and not seeing the cart, I proceeded along the road, and heard the horse whining. When I reached him I found him standing harnessed to the dray, which was overturned, and is now in the same position. I went round the dray and found deceased lying on the ground in the same position as the body is now. Finding her body cold, and that she did not speak, I went back to Frazer's, got a light, returned with Frazer, and then saw that deceased was dead. There was a great deal of blood about her head. The horse was attached to the shafts by one chain only, and the belly band. The straddle was a new one, and the strap passing through it was undone. I saw blood on the left rump of the horse. He is very quiet, and was never shod. I left Manly Beach at daylight. I was on horseback, and it was raining. I told Collins he was wanted at Manly Beach, as his wife was injured. I did not like to tell him that she was dead. He got annoyed at me, and I was obliged to tell him. I never saw deceased the worse for liquor. I have seen her take a glass or two of ale.
By the Coroner: I have gone along the road before, fearing something would happen to her. From what I have seen, I believe the dray was overturned by the wheel coming in contact with the stump on the side of the road. If the wheel came in contact with a stump, the horse, unless frightened, would stop. The stump in question is at the corner of the road. The piece of chain produced is like part of the chain of the harness. One of the links is broken. Mrs. Collins told me that she feared somebody would hurt her on the road. She was not on good terms with Miss Jenkins. 
By a juror : The horse's head was under the shaft, and the collar turned upside down. 
By Coroner : The horse's hind legs were towards deceased ; her head was towards the dray ; the shafts towards the stump. I traced the track of the wheel to the stump, on the top of which there were marks of grazing. Marks of the same kind were on the butt of a tree next to the stump. The ground under the wheel is not torn up ; the soil is sandy, and the marks may have been obliterated by the rain. I saw large nailed shoemarks on the sand. Constable Sheaves was called immediately, and I showed him the marks which led to the body. From what I saw, I thought there had been a scuffle there ; there were marks showing that the horse had stepped about. I saw some blood on the iron on the shafts near the top where the chains are fastened. I saw no blood on the ground under the shaft.
Margaret King, aged 14 years, in Mrs. Fraser's service, deposed to handing deceased a cup of tea. I got up on the cart, and I smelled ale upon her. I saw her vomit up something. She knew what she was doing, but was not in a fit state to take the horse home that
Senior-sergeant Steel deposed: The case was reported at 4 o'clock on Saturday morning. I came down with detectives Lyons and Elliott and made every inquiry. We visited the spot, and the cart was turned round. I found that the portion of the shaft with blood on it came directly over where deceased's head was resting on the ground. I also found that the wheel track and marks on the stump and tree corresponded with the wheel-tire. There is no doubt that the wheel passed over the stump and butt, capsizing the dray, which was slewed round to the left by the horse leaning in the position described. I found two portemonnaies in deceased's pocket, one containing memos, and the other 23s. 3d. On removing the body, I found a black straw hat smeared with blood directly under the head. I do believe the upsetting of the dray was the cause of her death, and I am led to believe that she was under the influence of drink at the time.
William H. Cook, deposed : I keep the Manly Beach Hotel. Deceased frequented my house. She drank in moderation. Her drink was ale. On Friday evening she had three glasses of ale at my place, from four to seven o'clock. She treated people, and was only a little merry when she left, the time near seven o'clock. She took half a pint of rum with her. Frazer's house is about a quarter of a mile from my place. About 11 o'clock Poyner called, and I directed him to go to Frazer's.
By Coroner: As it was late I asked deceased to stop at my place. She declined, saying Poyner would meet her on the road. She has left my house at all hours. The rum was in a small ale bottle.
Jane Grey, deposed: I keep a shop next to the Pier Hotel. Deceased left me some butter on Friday evening. I never saw her so much under the influence of drink as she then was.
Constable Lamont deposed : I found the bottle produced containing rum, in a bag where the occurrence happened.
William H. Cook recalled, deposed : The bottle containing the rum produced, is like the one I gave deceased.
Myles Egan, a duly qualified medical practitioner deposed: I made a post mortem examination of the body of deceased. There was a large scalp wound on the left side of the head. Going to the skull there was an extensive fracture of the parietal and temporal bones, and I believe such injury was the cause of death. The injury was most likely caused by the iron bolt on the shaft of the dray, on which there was blood and hair. The injury was not inflicted with a sharp instrument. Death was probably instantaneous.
The jury returned the following verdict: "We find that the deceased, Lavinia Maria Collins, aged 39 years, died from injuries received accidentally, by the upsetting of a dray, on the evening of the 27th instant."  
CORONER'S INQUEST AT MANLY BEACH. (1865, January 30). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60564901 

Peter Ellery - the Elder and sons; Middle Harbour and Manly Notes:

This may be Richard Ellery, Peter senior's eldest son - and it may not be - the record is placed here as Francis Poyner appears to have been close to eldest daughter Lavinia, may have had a similar relationship with Richard (born 1829) and claimed 'seaman' as his what he did at one time - although there are numerous records on several Richard Ellery 's - which is him, even by approximate dates, remains elusive - it can also be seen that the Ellery family did not hold with publishing Family Notices fro marriages, births and only a few death notices were run:

A LIST of unclaimed letters for the month of July, 1847:—
Ellery Richard, brig "Hope", ...
Government Gazette Notices (1847, August 13). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 855. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230422053

5th June. 
The brig Hope, 220 tons, Miller, was loading at the Mauritius for Adelaide and Sydney on the 24th March. 
ADELAIDE. (1847, May 29). The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List (NSW : 1844 - 1860), p. 507. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161168685

DEATH BY DROWNING.—On Thursday forenoon, as Mr. M'Nab was walking at Rose Bay, he saw a boat with two men in it, drifting towards the shore. One of the men leaped out of the boat, and in about half an hour afterwards his body was washed ashore. Mr. M'Nab took the body out of the water, and went to the Police Office, in Sydney, where he reported the circumstance.

Sargeant Shearman went to Rose Bay, and brought the body to the Infirmary. The other man who was in the boat at the time is named David Power and appears to be insane. He denied having been in the boat. He was detained in custody to give evidence at the Coroner's in-quest. An inquest was held on the body, yester-day, at the Three Tuns Tavern. No person appeared to claim or identify the deceased. It appeared from the evidence, that he was about twenty years of age, and was dressed in a blue woollen shirt, a pair of moleskin trowsers and a cabbage-tree hat. The other person who was in the boat with him was an idiot, commonly called " Davy,'' and can give no information who deceased was. The witness M'Nab stated that the name " Peter Ellery," was painted on the stern inside, and also the boat's name, which he believes to be "Harriett," but cannot perfectly recollect. The words " Middle Harbour," were painted on the stern outside. 

The deceased jumped out of the boat apparently with the intention of swimming ashore, but is supposed to have been seized with the cramp. M'Nab got the aid of four men and they exerted themselves to save the deceased but without success. The jury returned a verdict of Accidental Drowning. We have since ascertained that the deceased, the subject of the above inquest went from the Boatmen's Stairs, in Lower George-street, with a load of manure to Middle Harbour. Going down the harbour his masts were carried away, and the boat was blown into Rose Bay. He anchored the boat off the Hermitage, and jumped over board for the purpose of swimming ashore ; he suddenly threw up his arms and exclaimed " God help me." He then sunk and was drowned. Family Notices (1852, August 14). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60135976 

The above not only gives us an idea of the 'rowboat' Peter Ellery would have used to ferry people across to the sandspit, it also may be recording the death of eldest son Richard - no record of a Richard Ellery is among the New South wales Births, Deaths and Marriages registers. As Peter seniors father, also called Peter, is stated to have died in 1843 in family records sourced - he may have gone back to Cornwall:
Coroners' Inquest.— On Friday an inquest was held before the coroner at the Three Tuns Tavern on view of the body of a young man, name unknown, then lying dead at the Sydney Infirmary. From the evidence of Mr. Peter McNab, residing at the Hermitage, Rose Bay, it appears that at ten o'clock on Thursday morning, he observed a boat off the North Shore (in which were two persons) drifting towards Rose Bay. When she came opposite the Hermitage, she remained about half 'an hour. 

The two persons were both sitting down in the boat; when suddenly one of them (the deceased) leaped overboard. He swam a short distance, but then, threw up his hands, and cried, ' Lord, help me !' He twice screamed out and then sank. This was about thirty or forty yards from where M'Nab was standing. The second person in the boat remained as before, making no attempt to save the other. He is an idiot, known by the name of Davie

Mr. M'Nab immediately ran and got four men, who raised the Hermitage boat, which unfortunately was swamped. Whilst they were hauling her ashore to bale out the water, Mr. M. perceived the body of deceased under the water close to the wharf. He was carried ashore, but was quite dead. The name of Peter Ellery is painted on the stern inside, with Harriet, Middle Harbour (as he Mr. M. believed). Deceased appeared to be about 20 years of age ; he was dressed in a blue woollen shirt, moleskin trousers, cabbage tree hat; and an old pair of boots. Verdict, accidental death by drowning. 
No title (1852, August 19). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114834795

BEFORE the Water Police Magistrate, Mr. S. Smith, and Mr. G. Rowley.
The remanded case, Isaac Moore against Peter Ellery, for perjury, was again brought on for hearing. Mr. Brenan appeared in support of the charge, Mr. Dalley for the defence. The alleged offence arose in evidence given by the present defendant in an action against Moore for trespass, tried in the Supreme Court, when damages were awarded to Ellery. The portion of the deposition stated to be false, was to the effect " That by the erection of the fence" (meaning a fence dividing the land of Peter Ellery, at Parsley Bay, Middle Harbour, from the land of Isaac Moore,) "so erected and put up by the said Isaac Moore as aforesaid, he, the said Peter Ellery had lost the use of a certain road on the west side of the fence for two years, and which said road he had used up to the year 1856-the time of the erection of the said fence ; and that up to that time he, the said Peter Ellery, drove his cattle and horses along the said road." 
Moore now deposed that the road, which Ellery swore he had used, passed through a portion of his (Moore's) ten acre grant ; it was a small pathway commencing at the fence and leading down to the water; Ellery had a road down to the water to the east of the fence, and on his own land; defendant swore falsely when he deposed that he had a right-of-way through his (Moore's) ten acres from 1845 to 1856, he never used it ; and he never did to his, witness's, knowledge, nor had he permission to drive his horses through the land ; there never was a complete line of fence between the two grants until 1856, and the roads joined before it was put up. William Whelan deposed that he had on several occasions used both Ellery's and Moore's roads with horses, and frequently as a foot passenger. Sarah Fowling, who about five years ago had resided at Middle Harbour, said she always went from the usual place where Ellery landed his passengers, following a road which she understood was through his ground, as there was no fence there. The evidence of several other parties was taken, and showed that though they generally used the path by Ellery's house, at times they passed to the westward of the fence, on Moore's land ; but nothing was educed to prove that Ellery had not used the road to the west of the fence as stated in his evidence, alleged to be false. The counsel for the defence was in the course of addressing their Worships, when the Bench intimated that they had decided upon dismissing the case. WATER POLICE COURT (1859, May 4).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13024471 

Manly Beach may now be looked upon as an indubitably recognised place of amusement for the citizens of Sydney. On the occasion of most of the holidays and festive days that are kept by Australians this delightful spot has been selected by pleasure seekers ; and on each of such events we have found that Manly has obtained a steadily increasing reputation. Blending as it does all the beauties and advantages of a secluded sea side nook-of an all but land encompassed bay which the strongest breezes do but ruffle-of a magnificent const line within a few hundred yards of the landing place, upon whose rude and rugged cliffs and jutting headlands and long sandy beaches the ever rolling waters of the wide Pacific beats unceasingly, and of hills and dales and wild entangled bush wherein the stroller may fancy himself hundreds of miles in the far interior, if no careless laugh should reach his ear and break the spell of fancy -possessing all these then it is no wonder that the working men of Sydney-for we are all working men here-should select such a spot to relieve themselves from the care and turmoil of business, or to relax the muscles that have been strained and wearied by manual labour. The additional incitement of a regatta at all times, as we might almost say, " the" favourite amusement of our citizens, caused the presence of a more than usually large number of visitors, at Manly, yesterday ; and as this had been anticipated every available steam-boat in the harbour had been chartered- for the occasion, leaving the Phoenix Wharf at intervals of half-an hour throughout the day. At each departure, these vessels were filled to the utmost of their capacity, and as a matter of course, towards the middle of the day, Manly presented a scene of more than ordinary holiday gaiety. Bands of music, and of course the accompanying dance, were placed in different positions, tea gardens with the usual attendant amusements, and numerous booths for the sale of refreshments, provided occupation for very many; but by far the larger proportion- of the visitors started off for Big Manly, scattering themselves over the sands on the rocky headlands that keep back the mighty ocean. Of course, as the regatta was the main attraction of the day, a very large number of persons lined the beach to witness the different sports, but the continuous arrival of steamers with their loads of visitors materially marred the enjoyment of those on shore by checking the continuity of sight that is so much desired by the aquatic amateur. The chief races of interest were the pulling matches, some of our crack Sydney pullers being pitted against a Melbourne waterman, who has recently gained some laurels here by heating Punch, and who has since been matched to pull against the champion, R. Green. We are glad to say that, notwithstanding the crowding into and out of the steamers, no accident occurred ; and that during the time we were present we did not witness one exhibition of ill-feeling.

The races came off in the following order ;
First Race.-To start at 12 o'clock. For all youths under twenty years of agein dingies, pulling a pair of sculls ; no outriggers allowed. First prize, £5 ; second, £1. Entrance 10s. 6d. Course-From the flag-boat in, Manly, round the flag-boat off " Forty Basket " Beach, and back to starting place,
Star .......James Boyd ....... Pink and blue ...... 1 Lily of St. Leonard's. Peter Ellery ......Dark blue .....2 Rose .W. Deloitte ..... Pink and white...... The Stranger ......George Mulhall......Light blue The Messenger ............. John Dunlop ....Red Jenny Lang......A. M'Neil ......White
The boats made an excellent start, and kept well together for the first two hundred yards, Dunlop then obtained a slight lead, with Boyd second, and Ellery third, but before rounding the first flag-boat, Boyd had passed Dunlop, and obtained a good lend, and within the next hundred yards Ellery also had drawn on Dunlop, and after an excellent race passed him, taking second place, Boyd winning with ease.
Second Race.-For all watermen in bona fide working boats, that have been plying for hire during the lost three months. First prize, £10 ; second, £2. Entrance, 10s. 6d. Course-From flag-ship in Manly, round a flag-boat off " Forty-Basket " Beach, thence round a flag-boat near Dobroyd Point, back to the starting boat.
Terror .......... H. White .... Black .... 1 Prince Albert... George Nash.... Blue and red.... 2 Lucy Campbell..... Richard Green ... Blue, with star ... 3 Monte Christo... George Mulhall... Light blue with red cross.... 4 Lizzy .....Patrick Connelly.... Blue and white... . 5
The meeting of R. Green and White in heavy boats was a matter of considerable interest to the spectators, and a tremendous struggle took place from the start between these two men, the others being soon thrown out of any chance of winning. Green kept a slight lead for half a mile, when White drew on him, and in a few moments took first place, which he maintained to the finish. After rounding the second boat, Nash, who had been pulling well throughout, gradually gained on Green also, and succeeded, to the surprise of every one, in passing him, thus securing the second prize. The boats came in as follows-White first, Nash second, Green third, Mulhall fourth, Connolly last.
Third Race.-For all sailing dingies not exceeding twelve feet on the keel. First prize, £5 ; second, £1. Entrance, 10s. 6d,
Foig-a-ballagh......Robert Yeend ......Green
There being only one entrance, there was no race.
Fourth Rack.-For all second-class yachts. First prize, £l5 ; second, £5. Entrance, £2 2s. Course From flag-ship in Manly, round the light-ship and Sow and Pigs, back to flag-ship ; twice over.
Emma........... M. P. Josephson ...... Blue with crest Gitana .....W. M'Quade ...... Blue peter  Blue Bell.... W. Watson .....Green and white.    
The Emma got the start, and won by a considerable distance ; Blue Bell second, although she carried away her throat halyards soon after starting. The breeze was too light to test the quality of sailing boats.
Fifth Race.-The grand match of the day for all men in wager boats, pulled by sculls. First prize, £25 ; second, £5. Entrance, £1 Is. Course-Same as second.
Electric Spark. James Punch .... White .... . 1 Old Joe.... . H. White..... . Black ..... 2 William Prescott ... Thomas Day ... Red.... 3 Star of Peace. James Green . Pink and blue.
Perhaps three better pullers never started than Punch, White, and Day. The result of the late match naturally pointed out White as the probable winner ; but from the style of Punch's pulling, showed that either his condition, or some other cause, had considerably improved him. He took the lead from the start, was never pushed, and won with ease. Day kept second place for half the distance, when he was collared and passed by White, who came in second. J. Green gave up.
Seventh Race - For all bona fide watermen's boats, pulled by a pair of oars, that have been plying for hire during the last three months. First prize, j £10 ; second, £2. Entrance, 10s. 6d. Course-Same as second race.
Electric. T. Day and H. White. . Black Edith . J. Punch and R. Green.... White Lizzie Green . G. Green and J. Green. Blue.
This was the finest race of the day, and, from first to last, was pulled with a pluck and determination to win that could not be excelled. At the start. Lizzie Green took the lead, with Edith second, and Electric close alongside. In this order they pulled the first mile, when Lizzie Green dropped astern. In rounding the first flagboat, Edith, having a slight lead, fouled the Electric, but got clear again almost immediately. In pulling for the second flagboat, Electric pulled clean up to the Edith, and would have passed her, but a foul again took place, apparently from the Edith refusing to give place ; on getting clear, Edith still kept the lead, and, although pushed hard by the Electric, came in first by half a boat's length. A protest was handed in by White and Day.
Sixth Race.-A private match was made between three boats pulling two pair of paddles, which, after a splendid race was won by the Prince Albert.
Seventh Race.-Two gigs and two dingies, to start at the same time - twenty minutes time allowed. Prize, £3 each. Entrance, 6s.
Dingy-Rose ... .W. Deloitte... .Pink and white Gig-Undaunted....Edward Chisholm... White and red Second dingy-Pet of Manly..... Harry Whalan ....Blue Second gig-Mary.....W. Mileswater .....Red.
The dingy in one event and the gig in the other, carrying off the prizes. THE MANLY BEACH REGATTA. (1859, May 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13025355 

A pelican (Pelecanus conspicellatus), from a sand-spit in the Middle Harbour: By Mr. Peter Ellery, Middle Harbour. DONATIONS TO THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM, DURING JUNE, 1860. (1860, July 7). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60412889 

A VERY large public meeting was hold at the Pavilion on Monday evening, the Mayor (Mr. T. Rowe) being the chairman, at which the following proceedings occurred :
The MAYOR addressed the mooting shortly, setting forth the object of its being called, and explained that he had remained in Manly during the morning to watch the condition of the buildings destroyed by the fire, with a view to preventing accidents from the walls falling. He then read the requisition, signed by the inhabitants of Manly, asking him to convene a meeting, which he had in concert with the aldermen, however, forestalled. He referred with regret to the late disastrous fire, and pointed out that, although no destructivo fire had occurred previously in Manly for some twelve years, they had now received a terrible lesson; they must be prepared for such a contingency, and it would be a shame not to take prompt action now. Some persons might say it is like shutting the stable door after the steed is stolen ; but he begged to say it was not too late to save other steeds-not too late to form a Manly Fire Brigade - and this should be done to-night. (Applause.) Great honour was duo to the noble fellows who worked so bravely and well as salvors on Sunday night. (Cheers.) He would tell them what he had done in Sydney that day. He had called upon Mr. Torning-the father of the fire brigades of Sydney-and from him had obtained useful data as to the cost of engines and plant and the formation of a fire brigade at Manly. An engine and 250 feet of hose, and all necessary appliances, could be obtained for a sum of £200, or somewhat loss, including rough uniforms for the volunteers. An entrance fee of about 5s. and annual subscription of 2s. 6d. would constitute membership and he hoped to see all ranks, members of Parliament, ministers of religion, and all classes represented in the Manly Brigade. (Cheers.) He hoped that the brigade would be enrolled that night, and a committee ap-pointed to wait upon the insurance offices to obtain their assistance and contribution. (Cheers.) Mr. Torning was willing to come down and initiate the brigade in its work. (Cheers.) He regretted that their friend, Mr. George Thornton, senior, was absent from illness, and he was sure the meeting deeply sympathised with the Rev. Mr. Willis, their pastor, who, as they knew, whilst absent in Sydney officiating in Canon Stephen's diocese, had bad his house destroyed by fire. He would ask that gentleman to move the first resolution. (Applause.)
The Rev. Mr. WILLIS said he deeply thanked every one present, and all those who had assisted to rescue his furniture from destruction, Mr. Goold and many others particularly, and ho could only say that he held human nature in higher reverence than ever since what had occurred during his absence from Manly on Sunday. (Cheers.) He would now move,-"That it is highly desirable that a fire brigade be formed in Manly without delay, and immediate steps be taken to obtain a suitable engine, &c." He would willingly join it himself, and in the event of a similar disaster we should, with properly trained men, be enabled to avert much of the loss ; and he would be most happy to contribute to the cost of the brigade. (Cheers.)
Seconded by Mr. LAMBOURNE, who thought, however, that the insurance companies should provide the necessary engine, &c.
The resolution was then put and carried.
Mr. Alderman HAYES rose to move the next resolution, " That a committee, consisting of Mr. Rowe (Mayor), Rev. Mr. Willis, Rev. Mr. Lloyd, Messrs. G. Thornton, J. Woods, A. Hilder, Russell, Meares, Adrian, and the mover (with power to add to their number), be appointed to carry out the object of the foregoing resolution." The mover was of opinion that the late fire may prove a blessing to tho Manly people yet if it is the cause of stirring them to ensure themselves against any similar disaster. Ho thought too that it was a great thing to have obtained the promise of tho Postmaster-General that Manly shall not again be cut off from telegraphic communication with Sydney at any hour of tho day or night. (Cheers.) He also thought the steam company should keep a steamer at Manly every night, which it might easily do. (Cheers.) He had brought under the notice of some of the insurance companies the conduct of the salvors at the fire last night ; and he would conclude by saying that Mr. J. T. Smith (who was ill) had asked him to return thanks to the noble volunteers who had saved his house and property on Sunday night. (Cheers.)
Mr. AUGUSTUS MORRIS seconded the resolution, which was put and carried.
Mr. Alderman HILDER rose to return thanks also to the men who had saved so much property, some of his own amongst it. But for their endeavours some £2000 worth of furniture would have been sacrificed, and that loss would have fallen chiefly upon the insurance companies, who should therefore be asked to give help to the proposed Manly Fire Brigade-(cheers)-and that they will give it he felt sure.
The CHAIRMAN then read an extract from the Echo, reporting what had been done by the Postmaster-General in respect to the telegraph office hours and an extra postal delivery for Manly.
Mr. M. RUSSELL begged to move, before the concluding resolution was moved,-" That it is the opinion of this meeting that, whilst fully recognizing the value of the services rendered by the male salvors at last night's fire, it is right that it expresses also its admiration at the conduct of many of the lady spectators, who also worked bravely and well, as many of us saw, in the work of saving property, and entitled themselves to our warmest admiration." (Applause.)
Mr MEARES seconded the resolution, which was carried unanimously.
The Rev. Mr. WILLIS then moved,-" That the Mayor and Mr. Hilder wait upon the insurance offices interested and seek to obtain for the salvors some recompense."
The MAYOR said he would be glad to do so.
Mr. Jons WOODS would move amendment. He thought this motion would reflect. no credit on the Manly people. He should prefer that whatever was necessary or right to be paid to these volunteers should ho paid by the Manly people themselves ; but that we should go to those insurance companies and ask them to help us in the matter of our fire brigade. That was the proper course, he contended ; he did not believe a man amongst the salvors expected anything, but still they should get whatever was right to indemnify them against any loss sustained by damage to clothing.
Mr. Alderman HAYES thought the insurance companies should be asked first, and the Manly people supplement the money obtained, and ho was certain the companies were prepared to reward the salvors.
Mr. SAILLARD, as a working man, declared that the working men of Manly would, to a man, be ashamed to put in a claim for any reward. If the companies thought they had earned it let them give it without being asked. (Cheers.) The working men wanted none but voluntary offerings.
A somewhat lengthy discussion then ensued on the subject of asking the insurance companies to reward the salvors, in which Mr. Hayes, Rev. Mr. Lloyd, Rev. Mr. Willis, Mr. Braun, Mr. Hilder, and Mr. Woods took part.
Mr. AUGUSTUS MORRIS wished to know whether the resolution meant to recognise and pay for the work done by the salvors, or merely a recouping for loss occasioned by damaged clothing ? If the former, he would strongly deprecate it, for the men did but a duty* and a duty which any of us were ready surely to return, if necessary, to them. (Cheers.) He believed the men would refuse to accept payment for more than their losses. (Applause.)
Mr. J. WOODS then moved his amendment,-" That the Mayor be authorized to expend such sum as he considers necessary to indemnify the salvors against any losses they may have sustained." And the mover offered to become one of a guarantee committee to furnish the necessary funds. A large number of other gentlemen also gave their names for the same purpose ; and Mr. Woods's amendment was put to the meeting and carried.
Mr. WOODS then moved that the meeting be adjourned to such time as would enable the committee to wait upon the insurance companies, and ascertain the extent of the assistance they would give to the Manly Fire Brigade Fund ; and this was agreed to.
Mr. Alderman HAYES moved that a roll be opened to-night, and names entered of persons willing to become members of the brigade. Mr. BURSILL seconded this, which was carried ; and some thirty or forty names were given in.
A vote of thanks was proposed to Messrs. Adrian and Turner for the use of the Pavilion on this and many similar occasions ; and after a similar compliment had been paid to the chairman, the meeting was dissolved.
A spectator of the fire describes the scene as having been almost grand to witness-albeit, of course, most painful the ruddy glare of the flaming buildings being reflected in the waters of Manly Cove in a brilliant manner, and with an intensity to eclipse at times the bright moonlight itself ; and we are assured that to the exertions of a party of young men (notably Messrs. Woods, Tiddy, Cook, P. Rowe, Ellery, Farrell, Hoare, Wagstaffe, and Milesvvater) it was mainly perhaps due that the fire did not spread to adjoining buildings; whilst it is also a fact that several fair ladies performed feats of strength and determination in helping to remove massive pieces of furniture from danger which were as unusual to see displayed as it is pleasant to record. THE LATE FIRE AT MANLY. (1877, May 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13390556 

TW. BOWDEN is instructed to sell by auction, at the Land Sale Rooms, 154, Pitt street, THIS DAY, February 16th, at 11 o'clock, 
LOT 1.-A farm of 66 acres, purchased from the Crown by John Barton, being lot No. 77, lying opposite the Sandspit, north of Dodd's and Bligh's grants.
LOT 2.-A forty-six acre farm, with extensive frontage to Middle Harbour after passing the Sand Spit, and near to the entrance of Bantry Bay, bounded on the north side by Bligh's 48 acres purchase.
LOT 3.-A 20 acre farm, east of the Sand Spit, bounded on the west by Fisher's grant of 30 acres, at the head of Parsley Bay, which separates this farm from the waters of Middle Harbour.
All grants from the Crown. Advertising (1865, February 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13101357 

FOR PRIVATE SALE, in one lot, cheap and easy terms, 50 ACRES, Middle Harbournear Mr. Ellery’s land; excellent. Apply Mr. REDMAN, Solicitor, York-street. Advertising (1868, February 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28609237 

CAUTION.-Ministers and others are cautioned against celebrating a MARRIAGE for my Son, as he is under age.
PETER ELLERY, Middle Harbour.
December 24th, 1867. Advertising (1867, December 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13153695 

This (above) is John, born 1849 - he married in 1871:

He and Sarah had eight girls, one born the year John passed away in 1884. Marion E Ellery, born 1884, also passed away that year- Sarah died just two years after him. Selina died as a child too, passing away in 1891. 
ELLERY  ETHEL M                       5226/1872  JOHN SARAH A       ST LEONARDS
ELLERY  ALICE M                        6902/1878  JOHN SARAH A       ST LEONARDS
ELLERY  MARION E                  11943/1884 JOHN SARAH A         MANLY

Ellery-parade, Manly
Department of Lands,
Sydney, 13th May, 1881.
IT is hereby notified, for public information, that His Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, has been pleased to approve of the appointment of the undermentioned gentlemen as Trustees of the portion of the General Cemetery at Radborough, Manly Cove, set apart for Burial Ground for Independents :—
Messrs. Peter Ellery. Francis William Parker. John Hardy.
JAMES HOSKINS. Government Gazette Appointments and Employment (1881, May 13). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 2666. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221680338 

THE FRIENDS of Mr. PETER ELLERY, Sen., Middle Harbour, are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his deceased DAUGHTER, Harriett; to move from his residence, at 12 o'clock, on TUESDAY, 11th July.  Family Notices (1882, July 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28380862 

THE FRIENDS of Mr. PETER ELLERY, Sen., are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his beloved  SON, John ; to move from his late residence. Middle Harbour, SATURDAY AFTERNOON, at half-past 3 o'clock. Family Notices (1884, October 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28367176 

THE FRIENDS of the late SARAH ANN ELLERY, relict of the late Mr. John Ellery, are respectfully invited to attend her Funeral ; to move from her late residence, The Spit, Middle harbour, TO-MORROW (Thursday), 9th Instant, at 12 o'clock, for Manly Cemetery. Family Notices (1886, September 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13637161
ELLERY  SARAH A 6278/1886 Parents: SAMUEL HANNAH Registered at: MANLY - NSW BDM's records

Mr. Peter Ellery, of Manly, died suddenly, aged 89 years, at Middle Harbor, at 1 o'clock on Thursday. Dr. Watkans states that the weak action of the heart was the cause of death. Brevities. (1888, December 17). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108118266 

ELLERY  PETER 6267/1888 Father: PETER DIED MANLY MANLY - NSW Births deaths Marriages register

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
In the will of Peter Ellery, late of Middle Harbour, in the Colony of New South Wales, farmer, deceased.
NOTICE is hereby given that after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication hereof in the New South Wales Government Gazette, application will be made to this Honorable Court, in its Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, that probate of the last will and testament of the abovenamed deceased, who departed this life at his residence, Middle Harbour, on the 14th day of December, 1888, may be granted to Richard John Horner Jenkins, of Sydney, one of the executors in the said will named, the other executor, Thomas William Mathewman, having renounced and disclaimed.—Dated this 26th day of March, a.d. 1889.
Proctor for the said Executor,
Williamson's Chambers, King-street, Sydney. ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1889, March 29). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 2447. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223992148 

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
In the will of Peter Ellery, late of Middle Harbour, in the Colony of New South Wales, farmer, deceased, intestate.
NOTICE is hereby given that the accounts in the above estate have this day been filed in the office of the Supreme Court; and all parties having claims on the estate, or being otherwise interested therein, are required to come in at my office, Supreme Court-house, King-street, Sydney, on or before the 4th day of November, at the hour of 10 o'clock in the forenoon, to inspect the said accounts, and, if they think fit, object thereto.—Dated at Sydney, this 14th day of October, a.d. 1890.
(l.s.) T. W..GARRRTT,
Registrar. John Williamson & Sox,
Proctors for the said Trustees and Executor,
Williamson's Chambers, 163, King-street, Sydney. ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1890, October 17). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 8076. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221643847 

APPLICATIONS having been made to bring the lands hereunder described under the provisions of the Real Property Act, Certificates of Indefeasible Title will issue, unless Caveats be lodged in Form B of the said Act, on or before the date named opposite each caoe respectively.

No. 8,333. Middle Harbour, at the Punt, 7 acres 0 roods 7 1/4 perches. 2 acres 0 roods 31/4 perches, 2 roods, and 18 3/4 perches,—are parte of 30 acres granted to John Burton. - Peter Ellery. Middle Harbour. 28 May, 1891.
NOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT. (1891, March 20). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 2143. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224307731

...and Peter Ellery, stonemason, Middle Harbor, were each fined £2 for non-attendance as jurors, in addition, to a similar fine imposed yesterday.
ABSENT JURORS. (1895, November 15). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108085305

ELLERY. —July 14, 1929, at his son's residence Glenbrook Kempbridge-avenue Manly, Peter Ellery beloved father of Harold, Byron, Clarence, and Cardigan Ellery, aged 89 yearsBy request no mourning. Family Notices (1929, July 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16548396 

ELLERY.-October 18, 1930, Fanny Gordon Ellery, eldest daughter of the late Lewis Henry and Emily Marion Griffiths, aged 70 years. Family Notices (1930, October 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16723670

ELLERY.-The Relatives and Friends of the late Mrs. FANNY GORDON ELLERY are invited to attend her Funeral; to leave Wood Coffill's Mortuary Chapel. 810 George-street. city. THIS MONDAY, at 2 p m., for Church of England Cemetery, Rookwood. By road. Motor funeral. 
Family Notices (1930, October 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16723911


Father's death
GRIFFITHS. — May 21, 1915, at his daughter's residence, Conville, Campsie Street, Campsie, Lewis Henry Griffiths, late sergeant Water Police, Newcastle, and of Haverford West, South Wales, in his 81st year.
GRIFFITHS.— May 21, 1915, at 'Conville' Campsie Street, Campsie, Lewis Henry, dearly loved husband of Emily Marion Griffiths, and father of Fanny, Lena, Martha,Tom, Lewis,and Addie; His end was peace. - 
GRIFFITHS.— The Friends of the late Mr. LEWIS H. GRIFFITHS, late Sergeant of Police, Newcastle, are kindly invited, to attend his Funeral; to leave his son-in-law's residence, "Conville," Campsie Street, Campsie, TO-MORROW (SUNDAY) AFTERNOON, at  1.30 o'clock,  for the Church of England Cemetery, Rookwood. .
GRIFFITHS. — The Friends of Mrs. E. M.GRIFFITHS and Messrs. F. and T. GRIFFITHS are kindly invited to attend, the Funeral of her late dearly loved husband and their father, Lewis Henry; to leave "Conville," Campise Street, Campsie, TO-MORROW (SUNDAY) AFTERNOON,- at 1.30 o'clock, for Rookwood Cemetery.
GRIFFITHS.— The Friends of Mr. and Mrs. L. H. GRIFFITHS are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their late dearly loved father, Lewis H.; to leave "Conville," Campsie Street, Campsie, T0MMORROW AFTERNOON at 1.30, for Rookwood Cemetery.
GRIFFITHS.— The Friends of Mr. and Mrs.. J. RODGERS. of Newcastle, are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their late dearly loved father, Lewis H. Griffiths; to
leave "Conville," Campsie Street, Campsie, TO-MORROW AFTERNOON, at 1.30 o'clock, for Rookwood Cemetery. '
GRIFFITHS.— The Friends of Mr. and Mrs. J. CONRAN are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their late dearly loved father, Lewis Henry Griffiths; to leave "Conville," Campsie - Street, Campsie, TOMMORROW AFTERNOON, at 1.30 o'clock, for Rookwood Cemetery.
Family Notices (1915, May 22). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239046609

Mother's death

GRIFFITHS.-November 12, 1923, at her son's residence, Apsley, Byrne-street, Marrickville, Emily Marion, dearly beloved mother of Fanny, Lena, Martha, Addie, and Lewis, aged 83 years. Family Notices (1923, November 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16110828

CONRAN.— Nov. 12, 1923, Emily Marion, dearly loved and loving mother and grandma, of A. and J. Conran, Marion. Joe, Eleanor, and
Ina, born Nov. 21, 1839, Bloomsbury Square, London.
GRIFFITHS.— The Relatives and Friends of the late MRS. EMILY MARION GRIFFITHS are Invited to attend her Funeral, to leave her late residence, "Apsley," Byrne Street, Marrickville, THIS WEDNESDAY, at 1.15 p.m., for Church .of. England Cemetery, Rookwood, via Lewisham Station. WOOD COFFILL LIMITED.
GRIFFITHS. — The Relatives and Friends of Mr. and Mrs. L. GRIFFITHS, Mrs. F. GRIFFITHS. Mr. and Mrs. J. RODGERS, Mr.
and Mrs, L. HARRIS, Mr. and Mrs. J. CONRAN, and FAMILIES are invited to attend the Funeral of their beloved mother and grandmother,
Emily Marion Griffiths, to leave "Apsley," Byrne Street, Marrickville, THIS WEDNESDAY, at 1.15 p.m., for Church of England Cemetery,
Rookwood, WOOD COFFILL LIMITED. Family Notices (1923, November 14). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245992744

GRIFFITHS.-November 12. 1923, at the residence of her son, Lewis, Byrne-street. Marrickville, Emily Marion, aged 83 years, relict of the
late Lewis Henry Griffiths, for many years water police sergeant at Newcastle, mother of L. Rodgers, New Lambton, 413. Family Notices (1923, November 24). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139606251

At a meeting of the Manly, Warringah, and Pittwater Historical Society, Mr. P. W. Gledhill, honorary secretary, delivered a lecture on the history of The Spit ferry and related some interesting facts regarding the early history of Manly.
Mr. Gledhill said that in 1822 the road to Manly was by way of Hunter's Hill, Gordon, Lane Cove, Pittwater, Narrabeen and Balgowlah, and that at that time there were only two families, Pickering and Whalan, residing at Manly. In 1850 12 families had settled around North Harbour in a collection of huts. These early residents included John Whalan, Matthew Pickering, Thomas Collins, Samuel Wilson, Barnabas Smith, Benjamin Skinner, William Parker, Robert Mildwater, Thomas Miles, John Fell, Robert Symon, and H. G. Smith. There were also a few timber-getters in the locality. Some of these early families now have descendants in the Manly district. In 1868 Mr. James Heaton, father of Alderman Heaton, and member of the present Manly Council, settled in Manly.
In 1850, Mr. Gledhill continued, Mr. Peter Ellery first started his hand punt at The Spit, there being at that time only a track through the thickly-wooded bush from The Spit to the road at what is now Balgowlah. The charges made for crossing in The Spit punt at that time were: Horse and trap, 1/6; foot passengers, 6d each. In the 'Seventies the road was formed to Balgowlah, and Mr. Blackert, now residing at Harbord, was the overseer of the work. The first divine service in the vicinity of The Spit was held at Mr. Ellery's residence on September 17, 1871, the Rev. Edward Smith, rector of Manly, conducting the service. The first ferry service was established in 1858 by the steamer Phantom, the single fare from Sydney being 1/6. HISTORIC MANLY. (1924, November 21).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16169946 

Mr P W Gledhill, honorary secretary of the Manly, Warringah, Pittwater Historical Society has suggested to the Manly Council that the land at the former terminus of the Manly-Spit trams should be converted into a public reserve, and that the Government be asked to hand it over for that purpose Mr Gledhill pointed out that Mr Peter Ellery first operated his hand-driven punt from this area In 1857. Mr Gledhill also suggested that the tram track be obtained for a scenic path RESERVE AT THE SPIT. (1939, November 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17634914 

A granite monument, commemorating the beginning of the punt service at The Spit in 1850 and the opening of the first road to Manly, was unveiled on the site on Saturday afternoon by Mr. Aubrey Halloran, on behalf of the Manly, Warringah, and Pittwater Historical Society. The Mayor of Manly, Alderman Miller, presided. - Sydney Morning Herald (NSW), 11 May 1942.

Ellery Hand Punt Memorial, Government Printing Office: 7/1948. Image no.: d1_43380h courtesy State Library of New South Wales.

Also: Ellery Parade Seaforth - also Ellery Park at The Spit

Mr. MACLEAY moved, pursuant to notice, ".1. That in the opinion of this House such additions should be made to the fortifications of Port Jackson as will prevent any. ship from taking up a position from which she can injure the town or shipping without being herself exposed to fire.. 2. That with this view this House recommends that the guns'lately received from England, with any others which may be available for tho purpose, be immediately mounted on Fort Phillip and Clark Island. 3. That the" foregoing resolutions he embodied in an address to his Excellency the Governor." The hon. member said he had placed this motion on the paper because he could see that, unless some steps were taken by the House to bring a pressure on the Government, it would in this, as was usual in most matters, do nothing. (Hear, hear.) Tho Government, in fact, had got so much m the habit of being driven lately, that unless they were actually forced to take action, they would do nothing, even in a matter of this importance. He (Mr. Macleay) did not put forward these resolutions as embodying his opinion on tho question of harbour defences, and what those defences should consist of. That was a question that could be more properly debated at a future time, or be an appropriate subject of enquiry by a select committee. His object was simply to make the most of things as they are-to render our existing means of defence of some use in keeping out an enemy. At present, we have a great many guns mounted, at a cost of £80,000 or £100,000 ; but it must be very evident from tho plan of the harbour which he held in his hand, that any ship could come into the port and take up a position in which she could inflict destruction on the shipping and town, without' being herself exposed to a single shot. It was under these circumstances that he had placed this motion upon the paper. There were several places in which hostile ships could lay without danger from our guns as at present disposed, such as behind Bradley's Head, in Mossman's Bay, &c. It was not necessary that the battery on Clark Island should be of groat strength ; an enemy's ship of sufficient power would'engage the battery, but if not strong enough would, on being exposed to its fire, get out of range. Another reason why some other precautions should be taken was, that a steamer could in the night run post our batteries and find shelter in Darling Harbour, Lavender Bay, or behind Goat Island, where she could do much damage without being exposed to any of our guns.'In view of this he would suggest tho placing of two guns on the Flagstaff Hill. No battery was requisite. The advantages afforded by these RUM being thus placed, would, be that whilst they would bear upon points not within range of any of our batteries at present, and that with a plunging fire, no ship laying in the waters above Dawes Battery could elevate its guns sufficiently to assail them. He believed that tho placing of these guns, two on Clark Island and two on Port Phillip, would be making the beat of our present system of batteries, bad as it was. It was as well to make what batteries we now had for service as'effective as possible, rather than be compelled at some future time to adopt such defensive steps hastily. It was very evident that owing to the construction of iron Plated Vessels, the general system of fortifications would shortly undergo a great change. In the meantime it ...
effective as they were capable of being made against ordinary vessels of war. He looked upon the fortification of Garden Island or Point Piper, as had been proposed, as a mere addition to the present batteries, without any variation from their points of defence. He hoped that the House would assent to some proposition of the kind he had proposed, as it seemed highly desirable that some understanding should be come to on the matter, and something should be done immediately.
Mr. PIDDINGTON seconded the motion.
Mr. SADLEIR was glad this question had been brought forward, though it was dealt with only to a partial extent. He referred to the necesrity of defending tho mouth of the Hunter as well as tho city of Sydney. Ho did not think the House should at once decide upon the point where these guns were to bo placed, but merely to assert. that they should be so located as to secure the object in view. Tho batteries should be few and na serviceable as possible.. He thought Bradley'B Head was a suitable place for a fortification. A hostile force might land there, and assail tho city from the heights. He thought tho proposal to carry a ship canal from Botany to Johnston's Bay was worth some consideration, be as to enable us to block up the harbour against invading ships, a mode of defence very frequently resorted to in modern warfare. Batteries wore of very little use for the defence of a harbour of a dark night when vessels wore coming in-vessels which might be friendly or otherwise Without some means of ascertaining the character of such vessels they would be likely to gain admittance, because when hailed they would of course give such a reply as best suited their purpose. It would be very desirable to have what guns they had put up in position. It must be obvious to all that some mode of defence was particularly necessary for this harbour, which was in a comparatively defenceless state. How easy, for example, it would be for any man-of-war that should make its way past tho entrance of the harbour to lay Government House in ruins. The Houses of Parliament also were very much exposed, and though the livos of hon. members might not bo endangered if theso buildings wore bombarded, the records of the colony would be likely to be destroyed. (Hear.) He proposed to omit the words "Fort Phillip" and "Clark Island," and to substitute in lieu thereof the words " best position for the same."
The amendment having been seconded,
Mr. DRIVER said that most persons wore of opinion that'tho money which had been spent in the fortification of this harbour had been so much money wasted. (Hear, hear.) He believed that to place in the harbour was worse adopted by its situation for a battery than Clark Island. He did not pretend to a knowledge of engineering, but ho had a knowledge of the localities it was proposed to defend, and certainly a battery at Clark Island would be perfectly useless. No more "suitable place for batteries could be found than North Head, Middle Head, and the South Reef. If it were objected that Middle Head was of too great an elevation for the guns, the same could not be said of a battery erected on the South Roof, for which there was ample material available. What was to prevent a vessel going up Middle Harbour, and, stationing herself above or below the sandspit there, opening fire upon the city. Ho thought tho best way to deal with the whole matter affected by this motion would be to refer it to a select committee.
Dr. DALGLEISH thought it would be premature to take steps for the fortification of the harbour in tho present state of offensive and defensive armaments. These were still In transition, fresh discoveries succeeding each other daily. By the telegraphic despatch that day received from England it was found that armour plates could no longer be depended upon, but were easily to be penetrated by the new Armstrong gun. The result of this had been that fortifications had been stopped everywhere in the mother country. He thought that they would be guilty of folly if they were, under these circumstances, to lay out money in fortifications. The wisest course would be to send tho guns back to the mother country. If anything was done for the defence of the colony, it must be done in some other shape beside that proposed. What was required was, in his opinion, a steamer of such powers and proportions as would be likely to be most serviceable (A laugh ) Honorable members might laugh, hut that was his opinion.The only way to protect a harbour was to meet the enemy by the some means as he took to attack it. We wore seldom without steamers in our port or on our coast, and since there had been any prospect of war we had never been without the amplest protection. Still he would be inclined to vote a reasonable amount for a local war steamer ; but would not sanction tho expenditure of public money on these fixed batteries along the coast, which were of no use but to cause an outlay of money, ,
Mr. MORIARTY said they must take the question of defences in all its bearings, and must admit that such vessels as the Warrior, or the formed iron ships now building in France and America were capable of changing the whole system of attack, and of necessitating a correspondance change in the system of defence. But such vessels could not be produced at n moment's notice, and all tho colony was as yet required to do, was to prepare herself against any sudden attack by such means as could be readily brought against her. Ho was quite satisfied that a system of defence could be contrived fully equal to securing the safety of the port, provided they only had sufficient men to man tho works that would be erected. This, again, might be assured, for with a proper system of volunteering, and with tho addition of militia and fencible corps, the country would be in a position to meet any force that could be brought against her. An army from Franco or America could not be fitted out for the attack of this colony without the knowledge of Great Britain ; and so long as we were connected with her, she would give us her protection. That connection, he hoped, would long exist, as he was not one of those who were disposed to run down his native country, or to excite rebellion amongst her people. If hon. members would look at a chart of Port Jackson, they would see that the statement of the hon. mover was a perfectly correct one. There were in the colony, plenty of navy ordnance, which could be fixed upon Clark Island, ....
NEW SOUTH WALES PARLIAMENT. (1862, June 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13229933 

Francis Poyner

Francis (Frank) Poyner was the brother of Susannah Ellery and travelled to Sydney with the Ellery family on the Orient in 1839. He would have been about 16, but because of his young age, he may have assumed the identity of his older brother John, aged 22. From an 1858 conviction, we know that he was 5 feet 6 inches tall, of sallow complexion, with dark brown hair and dark grey eyes. His arms were hairy, and he had a scar on the corner of his left eyebrow. Frank followed the occupation of seaman, but when he was ashore he lived with Thomas and Lavinia at North Narrabeen. Although he was Lavinia’s uncle, he was only a few years older than she was.


POYNER - The Funeral of the late Mr. FRANCIS POYNER took place in Church of England cemetery, Rookwood, 9th inst. Owing to error, was advertised as Mrs. Francis Poyner. Family Notices (1911, October 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15280264

Relative? - death record:

Some records found:

On Saturday afternoon, the adjourned inquest on the body of David Foley was continued at the George-street Police Office. Francis Poyner, and Lavinia Maria Collins, wife of John Collins, were in custody charged with the murder. His Worship the Mayor was on the Bench, to assist in the enquiry.
The first witness called was Peter Thompson, constable, residing at the North Shore, who apprehended the prisoner, Francis Poyner, at Pitt Water, on the morning of the 10th November ; the prisoner was at the door of a man named Collins, at five o'clock in the morning ; when told he was apprehended for the murder of Foley, he said he had nothing to do with it ; two guns were found in the house, one a rifle which the male prisoner said he had bought from Collins, and which had not been fired out of since it came into his possession ; the prisoner was agitated, and shaking when he was arrested
Sergeant Darley, of the Sydney Police, stated, that he assisted in the apprehension of the prisoners, and having forwarded them to Sydney, returned to search the house, where he found the trousers produced, which appeared to be marked with blood; he also found some percussion caps, slugs, and small shot ; both prisoners denied having ever seen or known of any bullets or slugs being in the house.
Sarah Foley, daughter of the deceased, stated that her father left his home on the morning of the 8th November, to go to North Harbour, to take butter and other produce ; he had a horse and cart with him, and a man to take the produce in to Sydney ; his usual time of return was about two o'clock, but as he had not returned, about sunset, witness with her mother and her sisters went out in search of him; witness was called to by her sisters, and on going found the cart upset, and the horse down ; the horse was alive, and under-neath the cart she found her father ; there was a small quantity of blood from his body, and he was quite dead and cold, and his hat was off; with the assistance of her sisters they put the body in the cart and took it home; the hat of the deceased was found about two hundred yards from the cart, which was about a mile from the house of the deceased ; was a witness in a charge of robbery brought by the deceased against a man named Collins ; a few days be-fore the murder, Collins was committed for trial ; the ground was very sandy where the cart was, but did not see any peculiar marks in it ; there were footsteps on the footpath approaching the cart, but the ground was too sandy to see the point to which they came; on taking the clothes off the deceased, there were two wounds on his body.
Mary Anne Foley gave similar evidence.
Both the foregoing witnesses stated, that when they went to attend the search of Collins' house, when the charge of robbery was made, Poyner was there; they saw two constables there; there were two guns in the house, and one with a strap attached to it, Poyner said it was his property; it was examined by one of the constables.
Dr. Tierney, surgeon, deposed, that he had made a post mortem examination of the body of the deceased, and that he found two wounds in the chest, inflicted by gun-shots, apparently fired from behind. There were other slight wounds and abrasions on the face and head. The gun-shot wounds would at once cause death. The stains on the trousers produced appeared to him to be blood stains. They were so, to the best of his opinion.
William Dawson, living at Pittwater, stated that the prisoner called at his house on the morning of Thursday, 8th November, about half past ten o'clock in the morning. He staid about fifteen minutes, and called at the next house. About eleven o'clock, he went towards home; he had a horse and cart with him. About 12 o'clock, the prisoner Poyner called at his house with a tub of butter for witness to take to Sydney. He left the tub of butter and went towards home; he lived with Collins.
William Wheeler: Saw the deceased and the prisoner at different times, going to North Harbour on the morning in question, - They had both of their horses and carts with them. About 12 o'clock saw .the prisoner Poyner returning home. Foley had gone past about half an hour before. The prisoner was going home at a smart pace - faster than Foley, prisoner went a short cut through the stock-yard of witness, and at the pace he was going would easily overtake Foley before he reached home ; knew the man (Collins) had been committed for stealing from Foley; had never had any conversation with either Foley or the prisoner about the matter; saw the prisoner about 6 o'clock in the evening of the 8th November, he was coming towards Sydney, on a white horse; he was trotting; at the rate he was trotting it would have taken him about an hour to have come from within a mile of Foley's house.
James Jenkins: Lived on the road leading from North Harbour to Foley's house; saw the prisoner pass on his way about 12 o'clock on Thursday, the 8th November; prisoner asked him if Foley had passed that way, and he said he had; they went on together for about an hour, and prisoner remarked that he wondered how far Foley had got a head; witness said he did not know; he did not manifest any desire to get rid of witness; saw him again about 5 o'clock in the evening on a white horse, riding towards Sydney.
Two or three other witnesses were examined to the same effect.
Benjamin Yabsley, residing in George-street, Sydney, remembered seeing a man named Collins and the prisoner Poyner in his shop on the evening of Thursday, the 8th of November, between 7 and 8 o'clock ; they both went out together.
Michael Cummerford: Knew the deceased and Thomas Collins; remembered meeting Collins on the North Harbour Road on the 8th November, in the morning, and he wished witness to make the matter up between him-self and Foley.
Thomas Roberts deposed to having put Thomas Collins on board the schooner Fancy, on Friday morning, the 9th November.
The female prisoner was at once discharged, there being no evidence against her.
Mr. Nichols, who attended the enquiry on the part of the prisoner, under the permission of the Coroner, addressed the Jury in an argumentative speech, in which the law respecting circumstantial evidence was very lucidly explained.
The Coroner summed up at great length.
The Jury retired for some time, and returned with a verdict of wilful murder against Thomas Collins and Francis Poyner. CORONER'S INQUEST. (1849, November 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12908774 

Before his Honor the Chief Justice.
Thomas Collins was indicted for that he, on the 8th November, in and upon the body of one David Foley, feloniously and maliciously did make an assault, and with a certain gun loaded with gunpowder and ball did inflict certain wounds, of which the said David Foley instantly died; and Francis Poyner was indicted as aiding and abetting in the said assault, and therefore both parties were charged by the Attorney-General with the wilful murder of the said David Foley.
The Solicitor-General conducted the case for the Crown; counsel for the prisoners Messrs. Foster and Holroyd:- Attorneys, Messrs. Nichols and Williams.
On the application of the prisoners' counsel, the prisoners were tried separately. The case of Francis Poyner being taken first.
The following is the evidence taken in this case.
Sarah Foley, sworn. Was widow of the deceased David Foley. On the 8th November, deceased left his house between six and seven o'clock in the morning, with a cart and horse, with some calves and butter, which he was going to take to North Harbour-a distance of twelve miles. It was on a Thursday. His man was with him, but was not to return with him. Thomas Collins' house was about two miles from Foley's, on the road towards North Harbour. The next house on the road was James Jenkins', about a mile further on ; the next William Jenkins, about a mile further; and the next William Wheeler's-about a mile and a half from North Harbour; expected her husband to return about three or four o'clock ; he did not return ; about five or six o'clock, witness and her two daughters went out in search of him, they found him about half a mile from the house, being on his face and hands, under the cart ; the off side rail of the cart was on his back-his head and shoulders being under it ; he was quite dead and cold ; the horse was on his back ; there was nothing in the road to upset the cart ; witness and her daughters took the body from under the cart, and laid it on its back ; they then un-harnessed the horse, and righted the cart, and placed the body in it ; there were two holes in the left breast, through his waistcoat ; there was a good deal of blood on his waistcoat and in the cart ; there was but little blood on the spot where he lay ; it appeared that he had fallen backwards when shot, in to the cart ; the next morning before sunrise they found the hat of deceased about a hundred yards behind the place where the cart was found turned over; there were tracks of the cart from the hat to where it was turned over, but they turned off the road at that spot ; judged that the murder had been committed a little beyond the place where the hat lay, because there was a kind of a screen made of bushes just by; the screen was high enough to hide a man; there was blood all along the floor of the cart, and in the side rails where deceased sat to drive; the deceased had nothing with him to be robbed of; he had no watch or other valuables about him; did not know of Foley having any quarrel with any one except Collins; never saw any native blacks about the place; the body that was viewed at the inquest was the body of her husband David Foley; Poyner lived with Collins as a servant; had seen him take Collins to North Harbour every week for some months before; the body was taken to Sydney the next morning, in the same state as when it was found; except that the face was washed and the waistcoat opened; there was no house nearer than two miles to her house; Collins' house was nearest on one side, and Farrel's on the other; Collins generally went to his house through the lagoon; the other neighbours went round.
Cross-examined: Her husband was once district constable at Pittwater; it was about six years ago; he held the office for two years; during that time he prosecuted one man for maiming cattle and burning a stack.
Sarah Foley, daughter of last witness, corroborated her evidence: remembered being present with her sister at a search made at Collins' house for some things stolen from her father; Poyner was there part of the time during the search; a piece of print on a quilt was found, which witness identified as her sister's ; Collins was brought up before the magistrates about stealing some tin dishes and this piece of print; and on the 11th of September he was committed to take his trial; believed he was to be tried on the 12th November; the trial had not taken place at the time of her father's death ; it was to have taken place a few days after; had seen Poyner before this at her father's house; never knew her father and Poyner to have any words.
Cross-examined: The deceased, her sister, and herself, and two constables, were present at the search; identified the print by the pattern and a joining in it; swore to the tin dishes, because she had often used them.
Mary Anne Foley, another daughter, gave similar testimony, and added that at the search they found two guns in Collins' house, one of which, a rifle, was claimed by Poyner.
Bartholomew O'Brien, Doctor of Medicine: Examined the body of David Foley on the 9th November, in a house in Lower George-street. The Doctor read his notes of the examination, the substance of which was, that death was caused by two gun-shot wounds on the anterior part of the thorax, corresponding with similar wounds on the posterior thorax, the wounds appearing to have been inflicted from behind.
Lawrence Kerwin, constable in the Sydney police, had charge of the body of the deceased; it was brought over by two watermen, accompanied by Mrs. Foley and her daughters; the body was examined by Dr. O'Brien and Dr. Tierney.
Sergeant Darley, sworn, deposed to having apprehended the prisoner at Collins' house on Friday, the 9th November; found the trousers produced under a bed on which Collins was sitting; also some slugs or large swan shot at the corner of another bed; there were two guns at the house, the locks of which appeared to have been recently oiled; there were some red marks on the trousers; could not swear whether they were marks of blood.
Dr. O'Brien recalled: Believed the marks on the trousers, small spots, were from blood, but could not swear it; the bullets produced could not have produced the wound on the body; they were too small.
Peter Thompson, constable at the North Shore, was examined to similar effect.
William Dawson, sworn: Lived at North Harbour, and kept a boat for the conveyance of produce to Sydney for hire; remember on the morning of the 8th November, about ten or half-past ten, Foley coming with a cart, and a calf, and some butter, which he left with me to take to Sydney; he also left his servant with me to take him over; he staid about a quarter of an hour at the hut of witness, and then went to a neighbour's house to get some cabbage plants; he had to go off the road to get the plants; he might have been detained about half an hour, and started again on his way home about eleven o'clock; Poyner came to this house with some butter about an hour after Foley came; he left his produce, and went away in about five minutes; saw no fire arms with him; he started on the same road as that by which Foley returned about half an hour after him; had no conversation with him about Foley; there was only one road back to Pittwater.
William Wheeler: Lived at Manly Cove, about one mile and a half from North Harbour; saw Foley go by with his horse and cart towards North Harbour, about 10 o'clock, and Poyner went by after him about 11; Foley returned about 11, and Poyner about half-past 11; Poyner's mare was walking smartly, Foley's at about his usual pace; Poyner went a short cut through his stock-yard, Foley kept to the road; Poyner passed again on horseback towards North Harbour, about 6 o'clock in the evening; he was dressed the same on both occasions; he wore what was apparently a blue shirt and fustian trousers: saw no gun with the prisoner either in the morning on the evening.
James Wheeler swore: Remembered meeting prisoner on the 8th November last ; prisoner was returning home, and witness towards North Harbour; it was about four miles from North Harbour, and five miles from where Foley was shot; it was about half-past twelve; James Jenkins was a little before prisoner with his dray; prisoner said he had left a parcel for witness, and witness said he was a gentleman; had passed Foley on the road about ten minutes before. Cross-examined: Poyner and Foley were in the habit of bringing their produce to market about once a week.
James Jenkins sworn: Resided at Pittwater, about a mile on the North Harbour side from Collins'; remembered travelling in company with the prisoner from North Harbour, on the 8th November ; travelled with him for about three miles ; prisoner was behind witness, and could have passed him, but did not; he asked witness whether Foley was gone on ahead, and witness said he was, and they could see his track; when they had gone on within a mile and a half of witness' brother's house, prisoner said he wondered how far ahead Foley was; witness called at his brother's, but Poyner went on; asked Poyner how he thought the affair of Collins would go on about stealing the pans; but he made no answer; I saw Collins during the day near North Harbour, about a quarter past eleven; he was going towards North Harbour.
Cross-examined: It was about a quarter of a mile from North Harbour that he met Collins, at about a quarter past eleven o'clock; did not see Collins again that day; prisoner overtook witness about three miles from North Harbour, and they went on together as far as his brother's, which was two miles from Collins'; witness was first all the way.
William Jenkins: Lived on the road from Pittwater to North Harbour, about one mile and a half from Collins'; remembered seeing Foley going to North Harbour at nine o'clock in the morning, and Poyner about ten; Foley returned past his place about one o'clock, and Poyner came up with witness's brother ten minutes or a quarter of an hour after; his brother stopped, but Poyner went on at a trot.
Cross-examined; There was a short cut through Wheeler's stockyard; Foley never went through it; believed he was not allowed to go through it.
Ann Jenkins, wife of James Jenkins, deposed that she saw Foley pass on his way to North Harbour about seven or eight o'clock; prisoner passed about an hour and a half after; Foley returned about half-past one, and prisoner about a quarter of an hour after, Foley was half a mile ahead; he got off his cart and took the slip panels down, and took his cart through, and put them up again; Poyner did the same; Foley was going his usual pace, the prisoner faster than she had ever seen him go before; saw Poyner again in the evening, about 5 o'clock; he was on horse-back, going towards North Harbour.
John Farrell, residing at Pittwater, deposed that he knew the prisoner about five or six years; knew him first as a seaman in the coasting trade; he had been to sea several times since; he had resided at Pittwater about four or five months this last time ; remembered having some conversations with prisoner about Foley; the first was about twelve months ago, when he said Foley had accused him of stealing a bottle of gin out of a bag of barley; he said Foley was a cantankerous fellow; the last conversation he had with him about Foley, he said he would have satisfaction out of him; it was about the bottle of gin and the dairy robbery, for which Collins was committed; this conversation was about three weeks or a month after Collins was committed.
Lavinia Maria Collins, sworn: Was the wife of Thomas Collins: Knew the prisoner he lived with her husband as servant ; remembered his going to North Harbour on the 8th November; he came back about two o'clock ; did not see Foley; Poyner came home through the lagoon; Foley generally came home round the mouth of the lagoon; when he came home he went to put the horse in the stable; after that he carne to dinner and then sat down on the sofa; dinner was not quite ready ; witness asked him to nurse the child awhile, which he did; he then went out into the paddock and cut two bundles of oats for the cows; he then went to spread some dung on a piece of ground to plant corn ; he said he wanted to go to Sydney to get himself a pair of shoes; witness said if he must go, he must, but he must get the cows in in time for her to milk; witness called him when she was ready for the cows, and after he had brought them, he took the gray horse and went to Sydney; had never made any statement to any person that Poyner when he carne home, would not wait for his dinner, but went out with his gun.
Cross-examined: After he had cut the oats for the cows he worked for about an hour in the field; he was in sight of witness all the time; did not see him take a gun out of the house all the day.
Benjamin Yabsley deposed he was a shop-keeper in Sydney, and remembered Collins coming to his shop about five o'clock on the 8th November; the prisoner came about eight o'clock and stood at the door, and Collins went and spoke to him; he said, "Well, Frank, are you come for your shoes?" He then went and spoke to him at the door.
Mr. Foster submitted there was no case at all.
His Honor said he always felt the greatest reluctance to withdraw any case of murder from a Jury, and he should not do so on this; but he would ask the Jury, having heard all the evidence for the Crown, whether they wished to hear the learned counsel, or whether they were prepared to give their verdict now.
The Jury, after consulting for a minute or two, said they wished the case to proceed.
Mr. Foster then addressed the Jury at length, contending in his remarks on the evidence that there was not one shadow even of circumstantial evidence to fix the prisoner with the charge; whilst the evidence of Mrs. Collins clearly established the innocence of the prisoner.
His Honor summed up at length, stating the law to be, not only that the evidence must be such as to leave no reasonable doubt of the guilt of the prisoner, but such as to be inconsistent with any other circumstances.
The Jury, without retiring, immediately acquitted the prisoner. LAW INTELLIGENCE. (1849, December 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3 (Supplement to Sydney Morning Herald). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12914757 

Poyner, Francis, dealer, 192 Elizabeth-street.  - Sands directory 1858-1859.

(Before Mr. Justice Therry.)
John Williams, alias Fransis Poignard, was arraigned for having at Long Reef, in the district of Pitt Water, on the 4th day of July last, stolen one horse, the property of an unmarried female, named Elizabeth Jenkins.

The prisoner pleaded not guilty, and was defended by Mr. Butler; the Solicitor-General prosecuted. - The evidence went to show that the prosecutrix on the day named in the indictment, left the horse in a paddock at the rear of her house, together with some other horses, also her property. On the following morning she missed it, and informed the police of her loss.

Some short time after the horse had been stolen, Constable Condick arrested the prisoner near the Haymarket, and finding upon interrogation that he could give no satisfactory account either of himself or the horse, he took him into custody. Subsequently Miss Jenkins identified the horse found in the prisoner's possession, as that which had been stolen out of her paddock some few days previously.

Prisoner had attempted to sell the horse to a publican, residing in Campbell-street, but being unable to show how he became possessed of the animal, and having beside made several contradictory statements, the former declined coming to a bargain. Prisoner, when residing at Pitt Water, went by the name of Francis Poignard, when attempting to dispose of the horse he assumed the name of John Williams.

His Honor summed up at considerable length, and the jury having retired for about three quarters of an hour, they returned with a verdict of guilty. The prisoner was sentenced to four years' imprisonment, with hard labour, upon the roads or other public works.
The Court adjourned until 10 o'clock, this (Tuesday), morning.
SECOND COURT. (1858, August 3). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60426122

Second Court.
Before Mr. Justice Therry.
John Williams was indicted for having, at Long Beef, on the 4th of July last, stolen a horse, the property of Elizabeth Jenkins.
The prosecution was conducted by the Solicitor-General. The prisoner was defended by Mr. Butler.

The prisoner lived at Pitt Water, within a few miles from the residence of the prosecutrix, Miss Jenkins, and had done so for many years. There could be little doubt that the horse subsequently found in the possession of Williams was the property of Miss Jen-kins, and the material question was whether prisoner had taken the animal feloniously, or under the impression that it was one of his own, to which it bore a peat resemblance. The prisoner had brought the horse to Sydney, and, having offered it for sale at a public-house near the Haymarket, ultimately made a bargain to sell it to a person named Rayner. Prisoner asked £25 for the horse, but agreed to take £16, and to allow the drawing capacity of the animal to be tested. Before paying the money Rayner required the prisoner to bring some ! person who knew, and could vouch for him. As some time elapsed before the prisoner's return, Rayner began to suspect prisoner's honesty, and communicated that suspicion to the police. Prisoner subsequently came back with a declaration that he could find no one who knew him, and was taken into custody. 

Miss Jenkins valued the horse at £40, and another witness valued it at £30, but Rayner thought the animal was not worth more than the sum he had agreed to give for it. It was not until after the prisoner had been thus apprehended on suspicion, that it was ascertained that Miss Jenkins had lost a horse. Prisoner said that he had come from Broken Bay, that the horse was his, and that he had bred it. It turned out that, although the prisoner gave his name as Williams at the time of his apprehension, and when bargaining for the sale of the horse, his real name, or that under which he had always passed at Pitt Water, was Francis Poynard, Of two horses which prisoner had, one, as already stated, bore a very close resemblance to the animal claimed by Miss Jenkins, being of the same stock, both of the same colour, and both unbranded. There was a peculiar mark upon the horse belonging to Miss Jenkins, but not in a place where it was readily observable, and when she first reported her loss to the police she had made no mention of this mark. But Miss Jenkins swore positively to the horse, and declared that it had been taken out of her paddock, which was too secure to allow of the animal straying. 

The prosecutrix was questioned at the instance of the prisoner himself as to the character which he had borne, but her answer was that this had been bad; and no evidence was given to rebut or weaken the inference against the prisoner which was thus raised. Some evidence was given for the purpose of showing that Miss Jenkins had acted with ill-feeling in this matter, and that her testimony was open to doubt. This evidence, however, amounted to nothing, and need not be reported.

After addresses from both counsel and a lengthened summing up from his Honor, the jury retired for about three-quarters of an hour for the consideration of their verdict. At the end of this period they found the prisoner guilty. The learned judge, who stated his perfect concurrence in this verdict, and his full conviction of the truthfulness of all Miss Jenkins' statements, sentenced the prisoner to four years' hard labour on the roads, or other public works of the colony.
SECOND COURT. (1858, August 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13018440

BEFORE the Water Police Magistrate, with Mr. J. I. Kettle, Mr. E. Roper, Mr. J. Williams, and Mr. N. D. Stenhouse.

Frank Poyner, of Pittwater, was charged with stealing and driving away fourteen cows and three calves, the property of James Therry, of the same place, and John Farrell, Thomas Collins, Mary Ann Farrell, and Lavinia Collins were charged with receiving, harbouring, and maintaining the said Frank Poyner, well knowing that he had committed the said felony. The offence charged was alleged to have been committed about the 8th of July last. Mr. Roberts appeared for the prosecution, and Mr. Dalley, instructed by Mr. Driver, was for the defence. A portion of the evidence for the prosecution was heard, and the taking of further evidence was adjourned at a late hour in the day.
WATER POLICE COURT. (1864, October 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article30934701

View near Pitt Water, N.S.W., the Pacific Ocean in the distance: 1 print : wood engraving ; 14.5 x 20.2 cm by Walter G Mason, 1820 - 1866 - Created/Published [Sydney : J.R. Clarke, 1857] - nla.obj-138439841-1 - courtesy National Library of Australia. This is taken from the point of Bushrangers Hill overlooking Newport - Walter G Mason, 1820 - 1866 information here

ANOTHER CHAPTER IN THE MYSTERIES OF PITT WATER. — We gave a few days since, under the heading of " The Story of Mona Vale," an account of some extraordinary crimes and occurrences which have taken place during the last twenty-five years in the Pitt Water district. The unaccountable impunity from punishment which the perpetrators of these crimes enjoyed for a number of years had at length come to an end. One of them had been convicted, and three or four other persons, who were suspected to have been implicated, had been committed for trial. Amongst them were Collins, the husband, and Poyner, the uncle of the unfortunate woman, the circumstances of whose untimely death will be found detailed in another column. The disclosures attending the conviction of Farrell, and the committal of his neighbours, had naturally attracted considerable attention, and been the cause of much conversation at Manly Beach, from the close proximity of the two neighbourhoods, and the fact that most of the parties were well known there. 

The female portion of the Therry family, whose losses and persecutions have lately excited a very painful sensation, had also become residents at Manly Beach, under circumstances which caused them to be regarded with much sympathy. In such a state of things, it is not to be wondered at that the greatest excitement prevailed at Manly Beach on Saturday morning when it became rumoured that Mrs. Collins had been found dead by Poyner, at a late hour of the previous night, under circumstances which justified strong suspicions of foul play, within a very short distance of Mrs. Therry's residence. Of course, all manner of improbable and absurd statements quickly got into circulation, and when the various rumours reached Sydney on Saturday afternoon they agreed in but one point — that Mrs. Collins had been murdered, by having her throat cut. A perusal of the evidence given at the inquest on her body will satisfy every one that there was not the slightest ground for believing that her death was otherwise than accidental — although the fact that it occurred within a few yards of the residence of the Therry family, was a sufficiently remarkable coincidence to excite remark. Mrs. Collins, as will be seen by the evidence given at the inquest, was the niece of Poyner, and it was her evidence which saved her uncle when tried for the murder of Mr. Foley, a previous occupant of the Mona Vale Estate. Poyner, in his search for Mrs. Collins, on Friday night, stumbled on her body in the dark, and in his attempts to discover whether she was dead or alive became dabbled with her blood. In this state, he alarmed the neighbours, and his appearance in that condition, no doubt, tended to excite suspicion of foul play. 

Mr. Brown, of the Steyne Hotel, was the first to take prompt steps to make the police authorities acquainted with the occurrence, by sending off a boat's crew to Sydney with the intelligence shortly after the body was discovered. The unfortunate woman's death appears to have occurred by the iron at the side at the dray striking her, as the vehicle fell over, across the back of the head and neck. In this position she lay while the horse, in its struggles to free itself, gradually dragged the dray around, down hill, thus inflicting a horrible wound, and almost severing the head from the body. 

With reference to the statement of Poyner, that the deceased woman was in fear of Miss Jenkins, it is due to that lady to say that Poyner has lately served a sentence of four years on Cockatoo, for stealing a horse, her property ; and any statement he might make of such a character ought not to receive the slightest attention. Mrs. Collins, when leaving Manly Beach on Friday night, on being asked if she was not afraid of travelling through such a district at night said ; "There are men down there who are afraid to travel by day, but I am not afraid to travel at any hour." 
No title (1865, January 30). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60564906 

See above - CORONER'S INQUEST AT MANLY BEACH. (1865, January 30). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60564901 

BEFORE the Water Police Magistrate, and Messrs. J. Williams, J. Stewart, Goold, Elliott, and Thompson.
SUMMONS SHEET. —James Wheeler the elder, James Wheeler the younger, and Frank Poyner, were summoned by James Wilson, charged with wilfully and maliciously destroying a fishing-net valued at £5, the property of complainant. Defendant stated that on the night of the 5th instant he and several others proceeded to Narrabin Lagoon to fish. They camped for the night on Jenkin's land, and at daylight complainant went for his net which was a short distance from a hut in which he had camped. On the way there he saw Wheeler, the elder, running away from the net. On going to the net complainant found that it had been damaged and rendered useless. The elder Wheeler had previously had a conversation with complainant, during which Wheeler told him that if he went fishing at the Narrabin Lagoon he would come to grief. Two witnesses for the prosecution deposed to having seen defendants on the night of the 5th October at the net, but could not state positively what they were doing there.
In the absence of a material witness (Mr. Watt) the case was adjourned until Tuesday week.
WATER POLICE COURT. (1871, October 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13246895

Destroying a Fishing Net. — The Pitt Water People Again

James Wheeler, the elder, James Wheeler, the younger, and Frank Poyner were charged with having, at Narrabeen Lagoon, near Pitt Water, destroyed a fishing net of the value of L5, the property of James Wilson. Mr. Gannon appeared for the complainant, and Mr. Driver for the defence. The evidence disclosed that on the night of the 5th instant, between 10 and 2, the fishing party, consisting of Wilson, Sly, and Pashley, were camped in a gunyah on Miss Jenkins's property, which runs down to Narrabeen Lagoon. Pashley was aroused by hearing a peculiar whistle, and called Sly, who aroused Wilson. Pashley and Sly went out through some rushes to where the net with which they were fishing was stretched out to dry. They there saw the two Wheelers and Poyner standing on the net. The younger Wheeler came off the net and walked towards them, close to the rushes.            

They saw Poyner with a can or jar in his hand. He poured something out of the can on to the net. They were on the net about ten minutes, and then went away. When Sly called Wilson, he (Wilson) went in the direction of the only path anybody could take from the net, to get away from the lagoon, and saw the elder Wheeler running away from the net. He also saw two other men, but could not tell who they were. In the morning they examined the net, and took it up in their hands, but it fell to pieces. Evidence was given that sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) had been poured on the net. The defence set up was that Wheeler and his son never left their house, at Narrabeen on that night, and that Wilson stated he did not know whether it was old or young Wheeler that he saw. The witnesses for the complainant were Wilson, Pashley, Sly, and Mr. Watt, Government Analytical Chemist; and for the defence, Mrs. and Miss Wheeler, John Farrell, Mileswater, and Skinner. — The bench disagreeing, there was no adjudication. Thomas Wilson, of Mona Vale, Pitt Water, complained that on the 6th instant, Sarah Farrell temporarily impounded four head of cattle, and neglected to feed and maintain them. — The case was not concluded when we went to press. — Mr. Redman appeared for the complainant, and Mr. Driver for the defence. Police Courts, This Day. (1871, October 31). Evening News(Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129969185

Before Mr. Hale.
James Thomas Pashley was charged by James Wheeler, the elder, of Narrabeen, farmer, for that he did on the 23rd day of October, at the Water Police Court, during the hearing of the cause Wilson v. Wheeler and others, falsely, wickedly, wilfully, and corruptly commit wilful and corrupt perjury. The information further stated that prosecutor had reason to believe that defendant was about to leave the colony. Mr. Hellyer appeared for the prosecution ; and defendant, who pleaded not guilty, was represented by Mr. David Buchanan (instructed by Messrs. Gannon and Curtis).

James Wheeler, the elder, deposed : I am a farmer and house proprietor, residing at Narrabeen ; I have lived there about thirty years, and was there on the 5th October last ; on the night of that day I was at my residence, and did not see Pashley at all during the day ; the nearest part of Miss Jenkins's property is about a mile and a-half from my house ; there is a place called the Fisherman's Hut, on Miss Jenkins's property ; I remember seeing a net thereon the Thursday ; I was charged before Mr. Cowper and Mr. Williams with destroying the net ; the net covered 500 yards from one end to the other ; on the 5th October I was not at the Fisherman's Hut, either at dark or at any other time ; my wife, daughter, and sons, were stopping with me that night, and Poyner was on the premises that day, having come there the previous night ; Poyner was there on the night of the 5th ; Poyner left my house on the night of the 5th October to go to the net house, where he slept, and I did not see him after that ; my son James Wheeler was at home on the night of the 5th October, and went to bed before I did ; he retired somewhere about 10 o'clock ; I was not out of the house after 10 o'clock that night ; on the night of the 5th October I was not off my premises with at the said Frank Poyner ; I did not go to Wilson's net ground of Miss Jenkins, near night ; I was not on the night, nor was I on the net; I was not on the net with Frank Poyner that night, nor did I on that night say to him while standing on the net, " Here's the bunt, Frank ; " the night of the 5th October was stormy, and bad weather. James Wheeler the younger, son of last witness, gave evidence in corroboration of prosecutor's statement that neither he nor his father left the house on the 5th October after going to bed, and did not see a net at the fisherman's hut on Miss Fisher's property on the 5th October. Francis Poyner gave similar evidence, and the case was adjourned until Friday next.
WATER POLICE COURT. (1871, November 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13248411

Department of lands, Sydney,
1st September, 1885.
ATTENTION is directed to the notification in the Government Gazette of this date, in reference to the proposal to grant Special Leases, as hereunder mentioned.
Any objections lodged on or before the 28th instant will be duly considered.

Francis Poyner, Jetty, Long Cove ; Executors of the late James Leslie, Jetty, Alexandra Bay, Lane Cove River; G. F. Want, Jetty and Bathing-house, Double Bay ; The Holt-Sutherland Land Company, Limited, Jetty, Georges River ; William Gill, Store, parish Heathcote, county Cumberland; Rowe and Smith, 4 portions Illawarra railway line.

Department of Lands, Sydney, 1st September, 1885. LEASES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES. (1885, September 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13598988

Iron Cove is a bay on the Parramatta River, in the inner-west of Sydney. In the early days of the colony the area was sometimes known as Long Cove, presumably for its long narrow shape. The origin of the name 'Iron Cove' is unclear. In his book on Sydney Harbour, P.R. Stephensen suggests that the name is derived from the iron shackles worn by convicts from Cockatoo Island who were forced to work in the area around the bay from 1839. However, he goes on to note that this is merely "a surmise". Another possible explanation for the name is that it was derived from the Ironbark trees that used to grow there. The island in the middle of the bay is called Rodd Island, in honour of Brent Clements Rodd. Iron Cove is crossed by the Iron Cove Bridge, which was first opened in 1882 and links Rozelle and Balmain to Drummoyne. The original bridge was replaced in the 1950s.

IF M. COOPER, Summer Hill, does not claim his BOAT within seven days, it will be sold to defray expenses; and also a CANOE will be sold. 
F. POYNER, Leichhardt.
Advertising (1887, October 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13677535

Eager for Fight.
Newcastle, This Day.— Jerry Marshall expresses himself anxious to have another "go" at his' recent conqueror, Frank Poyne, for £26 a side.  COUNTRY. (1888, March 20). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 5 (FIRST EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229944653

Sir George Warburton Fuller KCMG

Sir George Warburton Fuller KCMG (22 January 1861 – 22 July 1940)  served as the 22nd Premier of New South Wales, in office from 1922 to 1925 and for one day in December 1921. He previously served in the federal House of Representatives from 1901 to 1913, representing the Division of Illawarra, and was Minister for Home Affairs under Alfred Deakin from 1909 to 1910.

Mr. Fuller was born in Kiama, New South Wales and was educated at Kiama Public School, Sydney Grammar School and at St Andrew's College at the University of Sydney. He received a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in 1879, and a Master of Arts in 1882 from the University of Sydney. He studied law under Sir William Patrick Manning (eminent judge and university chancellor) and became a barrister in 1884.

Sir George Fuller, Premier 1925, Image; Government Printing Office 1 - 15377, courtesy the State Library of New South Wales.

State politics
From 1915 to 1928 Fuller represented Wollondilly for the Liberal Party and, from 1916, the Nationalist Party. In part of 1916 and 1917 he was leader of New South Wales' Nationalist Party and he became Colonial Secretary (the second most important cabinet position) in 1916. In 1917 his heavy-handed handling of a strike by rail and tramway workers against the introduction of time cards antagonised the unions and led to a general strike. His promise of higher pay and improved seniority benefits to workers returning to work split the rail unions for most of the twentieth century and the different employment conditions lasted until the Lang Government was elected. His action were seen by supporters as the decisive leadership required in wartime. 

In 1919, he expanded the state-owned fishing trawler fleet "to provide cheap fish for the mass of the population".
On 3 June 1919 he was appointed as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George for his service as Colonial Secretary.

Labor won the 1920 election and Fuller became Leader of the Opposition. In 1921 he took advantage of the death of John Storey to defeat James Dooley's Government on a motion of no confidence and as a result was asked to form a government. But Fuller himself had to give up the Premiership after only seven hours, after losing another motion of no confidence and Dooley returned to office. In the 1922 state election, Dooley was defeated and Fuller became Premier once again. 
His government began the construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. This time his tenure lasted till the 1925 state election, won by Labor's Jack Lang.

Shortly after Lang's victory, Fuller resigned from the Nationalist leadership in favour of Thomas Bavin. From 1928 to 1931 he was the state's Agent-General in London. He died in the Sydney suburb of Darlinghurst.
Wikipedia contributors. (2018, July 11). George Fuller (Australian politician). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=George_Fuller_(Australian_politician)&oldid=849869275

William Scott Fell 
(20 July 1866 – 7 September 1930) 

W. Scott Fell was an Australian shipping merchant and politician. He was born at Elleray Villa, Rosneath, Dunbartonshire, Scotland and educated at Dollar Academy and Graham's Academy, Greenock, Scotland. After his father's death, he migrated with his mother, reaching Sydney in 1879. He set up as a broker and then had mixed success as a shipping and coal contractor, but had achieved success by the outbreak of World War I. He married Emma Catherine Bain in September 1889, who passed away prior to him:

The funeral of the late Mrs. W. Scott Fell, which took place yesterday at Balgowlah Cemetery, was very largely attended. The Rev, D. R. McDonald conducted a service at his house, and also officiated at the grave. The chief mourners were:- Messrs. W. Scott Fell (widower), Jack Fell and Bain Fell (sons), W. Etherington (son-in-law). Captain A.. Fell and Major Donald Smith (brothers-in-law), Lieutenant A. J. Fell, Lieutenant L. W. Smith and Lieutenant E. A. Smith (nephews).
OBITUARY. MRS. SCOTT FELL. (1919, May 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15840451 

As an Independent Liberal, Fell had failed in bids for the Legislative Assembly seats of Middle Harbour in 1907 and Mosman in 1913. In 1922 he won North Shore as an independent coalition candidate - and that was why he was present at the opening of the first Spit Bridge.

Mr. William Scott Fell, M.L.A., the independent business candidate for Bourke Ward, was born at Kilcreggan, Scotland, 58 years ago, his father being the late Captain John Wilson Fell, shipowner, of Glasgow. Having received his early scholastic training at Dollar Academy, Mr. Scott Fell arrived in Sydney in March, 1879. Early in his commercial career, shipping pursuits claimed his attention, and as a young man he founded the firm of Scott Fell and, Co.. of which he is the sole proprietor. In 1920 he founded Inter-State Steamships, Ltd., of which he is managing director, having as his co-directors, his two sons, Mr. Bain Scott Fell and Mr. John Scott Fell. These two enterprises direct or control a number of steamers, including the Iron Age, Iron Chief, Iron Crown, and Iron Monarch. Mr. Scott Fell, in 1922, offered himself to the electors of North Sydney for a seat in the Legislative Assembly as an independent Nationalist, and was returned by a handsome margin. He is now offering his services to the electors of Bourke Ward, as an alderman, at the request of the Martin Place Extension Committee and a number of prominent citizens. MR. SCOTT FELL'S CANDIDATURE (1924, November 28). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245479398 

Member of the NSW Legislative Assembly 25 Mar 1922 02 Apr 1927 5 years 9 days
Member for North Shore                                 25 Mar 1922 18 Apr 1925 3 years 25 days
Member for North Shore                                 30 May 1925 02 Apr 1927 1 year 10 months 4 days

In 1926 he slandered a fellow-politician Alfred Reid and had to pay £30. He resigned in 1927 to contest a Federal by-election for Warringah but lost. He was described by the Bulletin(10 September 1930) as 'a go as-you-please Nationalist, with stubborn views of his own on most subjects'. [a.]

We remember him best through his association with Pittwater - he had a house that was part of The Oaks - late called La Corniche, at Mona Vale that was broken into once by a wanderer and became the refuge of those living in the premises of the larger 'La Corniche' building when that was destroyed by fire in January 1912. He also has another association with Pittwater through O.G.S. Lane (Newport) Mr. Fell was bankrupted in 1895. He discharged his debts in full on 23 March 1903; meanwhile he had been managing W. Scott Fell & Co. then owned by O. G. S. Lane:

One of the boarders tore the telephone from the wall and carried it outside. Later in the day an electrician fitted the instrument to a fence. The boarders were thus enabled to telephone to their friends and arrange for a supply of clothing. Accommodation was provided for the homeless people at Mr. Scott Fell’s house. Madame Reineud lost about £10,000.worth of furniture and fittings. The building was owned by Mr. Arthur Rickard. The total damage is estimated at over £30,000. The building, when constructed some years ago, cost £30-000. It possessed its own polo ground and racecourse, the latter afterwards bang converted into golf links. BIG FIRE AT MONA VALE. (1912, January 9). The Border Morning Mail and Riverina Times (Albury, NSW : 1903 - 1920), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article109730918

Even the pets of the house were though one had a lucky escape. It was a little white pussy, and it mewed and mewed pitifully on the window sill of a room from which smoke was already issuing. One of the girls attached to the staff saw its plight and darted into the building and out again with her charge in a few seconds. Mr. Scott Fell, who has a house in the grounds of La Corniche, provided accommodation for the boarders for the rest of the night. 
Below: Mona Vale Hydro, the scene of a disastrous fire which occurred in the early hours of this morning.  

BROCK'S MANSION BURNED. (1912, January 8). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), , p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222004219

New Zealander Committed for Trial. 
SYDNEY, June 28 
Norman Edwin Keals, 27 years of age, a native of New Zealand, was before Mr. Smithers, SJM., at the Manly Police Court this morning on several charges of breaking-and entering, and stealing. Constable Jones, watch house keeper at Manly stated that on June 17 accused voluntarily made the fallowing statement and signed it:— 'In November last I was in Glenbrook looking for work. I came across a tent in an Emu Waitts camp belonging to Arthur Thompson. I went into the tent, and stole a bicycle from there, I rode the bicycle to Dawsott, and exchanged it for another which I found leaning up against a church. I afterwards saw in the papers that a … man, named Ellis was, fined £10 at the Penrith Court for stealing a bicycle from Thompson's tent. I did not know Ellis, and he had no part or share in the stealing of the bicycle. Afterwards I obtained a job on the railway; at Glenbrook till February, when I left. When... the' Salvation Army Industrial Farm at Deewhy. I entered the dining room, where I obtained some food. I afterwards stole a bicycle from there. I rode to Pittwater that evening, I entered Simpson's store at Bayview, and stole some tinned fish, biscuits, post cards, and about 2/0 in silver, also some bottles of soft drinks. These things I put in a boat there, and sailed down the bay. I got into broken water and the boat, capsized, I got ashore on to the rocks, where I spent the night. Next day I took a boat belonging to Dr. Stiles, in front of his house, which I entered, and from which I stole some food at Mackerel Beach, Broken Bay. I pulled to Careel Bay. I stole two coats, trousers, and shirts from a tent there. I went to Manly that night, and from there to Sydney, where I pawned my watch. I went to Taree and stole some clothes and money. Then I boarded a steamer at Newcastle and returned to Sydney. After working at Balmain for a while I went to Seven Hills with the intention of leasing a farm there. I failed to get a .farm, and on, my, return to Sydney I bought a revolver, with which I intended to commit suicide, I went to Manly and to the Salvation Army farm at Dee Why, where I stayed for a few days in a hayloft. From there I went to Newport, and after a few days I broke into Scott Fell's house at Mona Vale, and stayed there for a few days, and lived on food that I found in the house. I left Scott Fell's house and went to another furnished cottage owned by Edward Scott, where I broke in and remained until I was surprised by a party of week-end campers. I jumped out of a window and ran a-way, but they caught me and seat for a constable and gave me in charge. ...REMARKABLE CONFESSION. (1912, June 28). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228856742 

Messrs. Kirton & Earnshaw, Ltd., and Lane & Dawson, Ltd., held their annual sports meeting at Farrell's Beach, Newport, on Monday last, the chief attraction of which was a cricket match between the staffs of the two firms, won by the former by 8 wickets.
Mr. R. K. Waley, of Messrs. Kirton &Earnshaw, Ltd., was the highest scorer, compiling' 59 runs. His innings was a very bright one, and was made up of almost entirely boundary hits. Lane. & Dawson, however, turned the tables at other branches of sport, and were successful in running relay race and also defeated their opponents at golf and 'shooting the breakers.' 
The staffs spent the weekend at the respective homesteads of Messrs. Lane and Waley, the sports being contested on the grounds, of 'Wahgunyah,' the residence of Mr. O. G. S. Lane. Messrs J Kirton & Earnshaw, Ltd., provided a very nice luncheon on the day of the sports, and, altogether, a very pleasant time was spent. SHIPPING CRICKET. (1922, December 14). Daily Commercial News and Shipping List (Sydney, NSW : 1891 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article159694085 

Politician William Scott Fell working at his desk, Sydney, 23 May 1927, 1 - from 'PIC/15611/12421 LOC Cold store PIC/15611 Fairfax archive of glass plate negatives', nla.obj-162522937-1 - courtesy National Library of Australia.

Mr. Fell died of a stroke in his Macquarie Street, Sydney home and was survived by his mother, two sons and three daughters. His brother, David Fell, was also a state politician. 

Death of Former M.L.A.
Following an illness of several weeks, Mr. William Scott Fell, a leading shipowner and general merchant, and a former Independent Nationalist member of the Legislative Assembly, died at his residence in Macquarie-street last night.

Mr Scott Fell was head of the firm of Scott Fell and Company, which conducts the business of shipping agents freight contractors general merchants, and coal exporters He was also managing director of Interstate Steamships Ltd and Maitland Main Collleries Ltd
Born at Kilcreggan, Scotland in 1866 Mr. Scott Fell was a son of Mr. John Wilson Fell a shipowner of Glasgow. He was educated at the Dollar Academy and Graham s School, Greenock, Scotland and came to Australia In 1879 In 1922 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly as Independent Nationalist for North Shore, but In 1927 resigned his seat to contest the Federal by-election for Warringah against Mr. Archdale Parkhill, who was elected.

Mr. Scott Fell was closely associated with patriotic movements during the war, and always showed himself firmly opposed to Bolshevism For many years he occupied the position of president of the British Empire Union of Australia He was a fellow of the Royal Geographic Society and a Freemason His recreations were golf and swimming.

He is survived by two sons Messrs W B Scott Fell, of Double Bay, and J W Scott Fell of Killara, and three daughters Mrs H L Wheeler, wife of the ex-Mayor of Newcastle (Colonel H L Wheeler), Mrs W Etherington of Mosman and Mrs. B P Anderson Stuart of Darling Point.
After a service at the Mosman Presbyterian Church, Belmont-road at 2 30 p.m tomorrow, the funeral will leave for the Manly Cemetery The Rev D P Macdonald will officiate MR. SCOTT FELL. (1930, September 8).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16701244 

The funeral of Mr. William Scott Fell took place from the Mosman Presbyterian Church yesterday to the Manly cemetery Rev D P Macdonald officiated at the church and at the graveside both services being largely attended A Masonic service conducted by the Worshipful Master and officers of Lodge Mosman followed.
The chief mourners were Mrs J Tinaker (mother) Messrs W B Scott Fell and J W Scott Tell (sons) Mesdames H L Wheeler W Etherington and B P Anderson Stuart (daughters) and Messrs Wheeler, Etherington and Anderson Stuart (sons In law)
The Premier (Mr Bavin) was represented by his private secretary Mr Arthur A Fowles the Speaker (Sir Daniel Levy) by the Sergeant at Arms Mr H L Harnett and the Attorney General (Mr F S Bojee KC) by Mr A G Smith.

Among others, present were the Lord Mayor of Sydney (Alderman R S Marks M L A) the Town Clerk of Sydney (Mr W O Layton)Sir Frederick Waley Messrs Niels Storneker (Consul for Norway) Ian Nelson (Vice Consul for the Argentine Republic) Mat King, Lieutenant-Colonel T A J Playfair, Dr H C McDonall (British Empire Union) Captain R Holdridge (Sydney Deep Sea, Pilots). Mr G D Williams (Deputy Director of Navigation), Captain J Cuthbert (Harbourmaster), and Captain J R Stringer (League of Ancient Mariners) Dr G W Waddell (representing Messrs Minter Simpson and Co ) Messrs E P Simpson, C Minter, A S Hoskins, Cecil H Hoskins, W R McCourt and F B Langley (Clerks Assistant Legislative Assembly) Rev Dr Carruthers and Alexander (representing the committee of management Mosman Presbyterian Church) H H Newell (representing the Kirk Session) Staff Captain George Thomas Salvation Army, the Mayor of Mosman (Alderman Buckle) and Aldermen Holmes Stevenson and W I Henderson Mr L C Wellings (Town Clerk of Manly representing the Manly Municipal Council) Mrs. S E Downs, Mr. Eric Fell Smith (nephew) Mrs R Anderson and the Misses H and D Anderson Dr W P Wippell Dr A R Colwell Dr R V Minnett, Mr J A Minnett Captain Osborne, Messrs Alwyn Gorman (Hardie and Gorman Proprietary Ltd ) SP Ward Arthur O Wilson, Albyn A Stewart and E B Wareham (NSW Interstate Steam Ship Owners Association) Captain F W Davies (Andrew Weir and Co London) Messrs T Brarg (Southern Collieries) R Anderson, P Ogilvie, Theo H Hill ex M L A, James Singer, J Banks, A Piper, J Banks, Adrian Mackenzie and Mrs. Mackenzie, W O Gimbert, J W Roberts, S Dickson, A K Broadhead, R Anderson, E L Cartwright, D McKenzie, N D Wheeler, G H Barron, W G F Leask, J A Kethel, R Eedy, E M Hughes, E W Adams, K J Moodie, T Carolus, Scott Anderson, Neil Barclay, William Lambert, R Kerr, J F Tait, F A Royle, L J McConnan, W Morey, H M Mackenzie, D Lotherington, E Turley, F Gibson, J P Brindley, F Staffman, J B Doutty, J E Morris, H L Hannan, C V Murphy, J Fraser, D Levien, Allan Vaughan, W Irneman, W C Macdonald, R C Thorne, R W Best, E D Thomson, Reg Inglis, F G Sims, L R Nettheim, W Shaughnessy, J P Gold, W Overell, C Dillon, O Oiegg, F G Catterall, H W Elkin (a former secretary), R Old, W E Booth, Herbert M Blair, Claud and Ronald Willmott, H A Hutchison, F G J Hughes, F Smythe, H Goldring, R Bates, A Hendv (Australian Iron and Steel Co, Ltd ), T Morgan (Southern Coal Owners) B Macdonald, F Browne, W Balfe, R W Miller, J Patrick Junior, F Underwood, J Radford and R Sainsbury,,L J McConnan, H O Wallen, J Dudgeon and P Canny (National Bank of Australasia) H Roy Higginson (Aberdeen and Commonwealth Bank) Randal W Carey, J B Williams (Burns Philp and Co Ltd ) W H Hickson (Sydney Marine under-writers) W Archibold (representing H O Sleigh), I Ruwald and P Bercnsen (representing Mr George Twohill), Lionel Sutton, A E Rudder, E L Cartwright (Lloyds) G H Alderton (Cessnock Collieries Ltd ) Aubrey G Michael (representing Mr D F Stewart of R S Lamb and Co Ltd ), L A Dimant (Jute Industries Proprietary Ltd ), T Carolus, Fred Brown, Arthur E Morris (representing Messrs R Towns and Co ) H G Bastian and W A Bryant (representing Sir Allen Taylor and Co Ltd ) K A and C W Bennett (Bennett and Wood Ltd), Telford Simpson (Union Bank) L A Minnett, Arthur W R Davis, F N Borchardt, C G Pratt (Pacific Coal Co, Ltd ) L R Davis JAR, Patrick (James Patrick and Co Ltd, shipowners) John O Waterman (Harrison and Attwood) F J Walker, Alfred Murdoch, George Durle, W Arnomnn (Johnston and Lynn Ltd Perth Western Australia) Arthur W R Davis, Albert Sims, Charles B Reed and Frank G Murdoch (Gibbs Bright and Co Ltd ) W A Mackay (Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co ), N C Stapledon (McIlwraith McEacharn Ltd ), J H Earnshttw and B W Kirton (Shipping Newspopers Ltd) C H Hughes (Union steam Ship Co) J T S Gordon (Birt and Co Ltd ) E W Austin, president R T McKay, W O Connor and S G Barnes (Sydney Harbour Trust) R N Kirk and Charles V Potts (Broken Hill Proprietary Co, Ltd ) W P Eady (Rylands Bros, Australasia Ltd ) Arthur G Wilson, Noel S Morris (American Trading Co of Australia) Albert Sims, G T Robins (Huddart Parker Ltd) W J Lormer (Howard Smith Ltd ) F C V Lane, T M Banks, M R N Pattrick (Kirton and Earnshaw Ltd ) Harold Asher (Excelsior Collieries and Coke Works, Ltd ) Ivo Clarke (G S Yuill and Co Ltd ) Ernest G Wesland (Southern Coal Owners Agency) * Clifford Jones (Myers and Co ) F de Gruchy and G H Ruse (Commonwealth and Dominion Line Ltd ) Bernard Kirton (Thirroul W WII) I Higgins, O C Weldon (W G Deuchar and Co Ltd) Arthur W Smith, E O Gray, C A Broadbent, Alexander A Smith (Smith and Lane) Blair McDonald (R N Kirk and Co ) DO Cook (Nobel Australasia Ltd) John D Thistlethwaite (Walsh Island Dockyard) W E Booth (MCSMS David Fell and Co) T M Banks, Maurice Hughes, C F Mallett (Northern Coalliers Owners Association). A C Laman, Arthur E Waddell (Coupland and Waddell) Archie G Hendy (Australian Iron and Steel Ltd) and George A Parkhill.

Messages of sympathy were sent to the relatives by the Governor (Sir Philip Game) the Premier (Mr Bavin) and the Acting Premier (Mr Buttenshaw) and others _ ...
Messrs Archdale Parkhill MP, N D Wheeler, A Bryant, F C Jones, J M Bolton A Dalton, B Dalton, E and P W Hines, P. Haigh, R Slomon, R T McKay, G D Williams, D Cook, C G Pratt, G Alexander, R D Brennan, T Conlly, A Tedder, H R Baker, C Dillon, Captains Binney, Scott, Olsen and Millington and  Alderman Blue (North Sydney) MR. W. SCOTT FELL. (1930, September 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 15. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16700107 

There was a problem with his estate after he passed away, a tax problem - which may be why this appeared 16 years after his death:

OVERDUE RATES.—Shire of Warringah.—Land to be Sold for default.—The following persons are required to take notice that the Council of the Shire of Warringah has applied lo the Public Trustee to sell the land specified below against their names, of which they appear to be the owners or in which they appear to be interested* for overdue rates amounting to the sums mentioned in each case; and that in default of payment forthwith to the Public Trustee of the said rates and all interest charges and expenses in connection with the said applications and proceedings by the Public Trustee, the said laud will be offered for sale at public auction by Robey Hanson and Strong Proprietary Limited at the … Hall, Pittwater-road, Dee Why, on the 28th September. 3046. at 2.30 p.m. on behalf of the Public Trustee:—

Frederick Greig Anderson, of North Sydney and Crows Nest, and William. Scott Fell, of Sydney; overdue rates. £74 7s.; land, lot 14, d.p. 31.183. Wheeler-parade, Dee Why.
Elizabeth Grace Greig. of Newport, and estate of Elizabeth Grace Greig; overdue rates, £43 13s. 4d.; laud, portions 118 3 39. Attunga-road. Newport.
Cecil Alfred Middleton Hawkins, of Goulburn, as executor of will of Hubert Middieton Hawkins and Henry Arthur Duffm and Hemy Dufiin. of Deuman; overdue rates. £45 7s. 13 d.; land, lot 2G, d.p. 13.108, Park-street, Mona Vale.
Ernest Walter Hodges, of Darwin; overdue rates, £29 2s. 7d.; land, lot 2S. section IS. d.p. 12,928, Anzae-avcnue, Collaroy.
Selina Lewis, of Waverley and Brookvale; overdue rates, £34 Is. 2d.; land, lot 1, d.p. 7.884, Irrawong and Merridong roads. Narrabeen North.
James Madden, of Pittwater, and estate of the late James Madden; overdue rates, £50 16s. 13d.; land, lot 9, section 1, George-street, Careel Bay, Pittwater.
James Madden, of Pittwater, and estate of Michael Madden; overdue rates, £35 4s. 3d.; land, lot 1, section 12, Patrickstreet, Careel Bay.
Narrabeen Beach Estates Limited, Septimus Wharrie Macpherson. of Mosman, and Ralph. Andrew Miller Mills; overdue rates, £100 15s. 3d.; land, pt. por, 46, Warriewood and Pittwater road. Narrabeen North.
Priscilla Phoebe Nelson, of Bora Ridge, via Coraki, and Reseive Creek, via Murwillumbali; overdue rates, £4G Qs. 8d.; land, lot 38, d.p. 13,308, Darley-street, Mona Vale.
Alfred Thomas O'Brien and Elizabeth O'Brien, both of North Sydney, and Alfred Thomas O'Brien, Jnr., of North Sydney; overdue rates, £48 12s. lOd.; land, lot 2, d.p. 7,593, Alleyne-avenue, Narrabeen North.
Bobert Edward Parsons, of Baulkham Hills and Castle Hill, and Edward John Harris, of Baulkham Hills; overdue rates, £60 16s. 3d.; land, lot 56, section B, d.p. 5,464, Elimatta-road, Warriewood.
William Simpson, of Palm Beach; overdue rates, £54 12s. 2d.; land, lot 85, d.p. 10,782, Whale Beach road, Whale Beach.
Arthur Jabez Small, of Sydney, Avalon Beach Estates Limited and Gertrude Elizabeth Austin, of Ashfield; overdue rates, £99 36s. 9d.; land, lots 124-125, d.p. 16,902, New Barrenjoey road, Avalon.
Henry Clarence Williams, of Manly, and Jean Rothery, of Sydney; overdue rates, £48 6s. 9d.; land, lot 2, section E, d.p. 11,373, Old Pittwater road, North Manly.
Elizabeth Wilson, of Manly, and Francis Joseph Seage, of Manly; overdue rales, £316 7s. 30d.; land, lots 162-164, d.p. 3,780, Victor-road, Dee Why West.
M. C. NOTT, Public Trustee, 19 O'Connell-street, Sydney.
451—£3 7s.
OVERDUE RATES.—SHIRE OF WARRINGAH.—Land to be Sold (1946, August 23). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1932. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224792137 

The Taxation Matter - on Appeal document decision:
[HIGH COURT OF AUSTRALIA.] SCOTT FELL AND OTHERS .... APPELLANTS; THE FEDERAL COMMISSIONER OF TAXATION RESPONDENT.  ...... . 11 ('OF A Estate Duty (Cth.)—Assessment—Dutiable estate—Deductible debts at date of death— ];il4 Income tax unpaid by deceased—Tax partly remitted after death—Estate Duly W - ' Assessment Act 1914-1928 (No. 22 of 1914—^0. 47 of 1928), s. 17—Income Tax SYDNEY , Assessment Act 1922-1934 (No. 37 of 1922— No. 18 of 1934), ss. 52, 54 (1), -'"!/• 30 ; 57 (1), 67, 95. S, nl ]*> Income tax assessed in respect of the income of a taxpayer remained unpaid Williams J. at his death and a part thereof, after objections had been disallowed by the Commissioner, was subsequently remitted by a Board constituted under s. 95 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1922-1934. Held that, until the part thereof had been remitted, there was an existing liability to pay the full amount of the tax as assessed, therefore this amount was deductible from the gross value of the deceased's estate as being a debt " due and owing by the deceased at the time of his death " within the meaning of s. 17 of the Estate Duly Assessment Act 1914-1928. 
APPEAL from the Federal Commissioner of Taxation. William Bain Scott Fell, John Wilson Scott Fell and Linda Wheeler, the executors and executrix of the will of William Scott Fell, who died at Sydney on 7th September 1930, appealed to the High Court against the assessment by the Federal Commissioner of Taxation of the estate of the deceased to Federal estate duty, on the ground that the Commissioner had not allowed as a debt deductible from the estate of the deceased under s. 17 of the Estate Duty Assessment Act 1914-1928 the whole amount of income taxes as assessed during the lifetime of the deceased but remaining unpaid at the date of his death, instead of the balance thereof remaining after some of those income taxes had been remitted under s. 95 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1922-1930 by a Board constituted under that section. The appeal was heard by Williams J., in whose judgment the facts and relevant statutory provisions are sufficiently set forth. Weston K.C. and Kerrigan, for the appellants. Maughan K.C. and Holmes, for the respondent. Cur. adv. vult. WILLIAMS J. dehvered the following written judgment:— Sept. 12. This is an appeal by the executors of the estate of William Scott Fell deceased, who died at Sydney on 7th September 1930, against the assessment by the respondent of his estate for the purposes of Federal estate duty. The evidence consists of a statement of facts tendered by Mr. Weston on behalf of the appellants and agreed to by Mr. Maughan on behalf of the respondent subject to relevancy and to the production of documents therein referred to when called for. The only paragraphs to which Mr. Maughan objected as irrelevant, namely pars. 5, 7, 15, 20 and 24, were not pressed by Mr. Weston and all documents or copies thereof called for by Mr. Maughan were produced and put in evidence. In addition Mr. Weston withdrew par. 11 of the statement of facts which was subsequently replaced by a new par. 11. On 27th March 1931 the appellants made a return for the purposes of duty in accordance with the Estate Duty Assessment Act 1914- 1928 in which they showed the assets in the estate to be of the value of £75,962 and the liabilities to be £20,628, leaving a balance for duty in round figures of £55,000. But the liabilities did not at that stage contain any amounts in respect of unpaid Federal Or Ne w South Wales income taxes, although the existence of these liabilities was referred to. During his lifetime the deceased had been assessed in respect of the years 1915-1916 to 1927-1928 inclusive for Federal income taxes (including additional penal taxes) amounting to £179,156 and notices of these assessments had been given to him more than sixty days before his death. He had also during his life been assessed for State income taxes which had become due and payable in his lifetime amounting to £22,881, in respect of which he had paid £5,000, leaving £17,881 unpaid. After the date of his death these assessments for State income taxes were amended and the outstanding liability reduced to £6,091. After the date of his death Federal income taxes for the years 1928-1929 and 1931-1932 were assessed, amounting to £32, and State income taxes in respect of the years 1929-1930, 1930-1931 and 1931-1932, amounting to £1,300. The deceased had prior to his death lodged objections against all the State and Federal income tax assessments which had then been issued. ... In Full HERE

Extra extras:

Our Metropolitan Suburbs: North Shore.
(Continued from last issue.)

TERE are no very remarkable houses at North Shore. ' The Ranges,' at Mossman's Bay, is a very old house, but the oldest house is generally allowed to be the late Mr. Alex-ander Berry's residence, Lane ,Cove-road, and which is known as ' The Crow's Nest.' Mr. Edward Woolstonecroft built this house in 1820, the site it occupies being part of a grant received by Mr. Berry from Governor Bligh. Mr. Berry came out to Sydney as commander and owner of a trading vessel in 1808, and it was after the deposition of Governor Bligh that he made arrangements with the then existing Government to trans-port in his own ship the convicts from Norfolk Island to Derwent Island, Van Dieman's Land, which contract he successfully carried out. Mr. David Berry, of Shoalhaven, is the sole surviving member of the Berry family.


Mr. Michael McMahon, whose portrait we give in this issue, is one of the oldest residents of the North Shore, and has probably done more for that locality than any one connected with it. Apart from the vigorous execution of his municipal duties as mayor of tho Borough of Victoria, he has exerted himself as a good citizen in many matters of local improvements, and was mainly instrumental in starting the steam ferry. In the early days his perception of the value of the materials to be found in the colonies led him to establish a brush-making industry, in which an article was produced never excelled before nor since in the history of Australian manufacture. His property at the Point named after him, which we describe later on, is one of the most exquisite sites in the city of Sydney, and on the beautifying of it the proprietor has spent much of his leisure, transforming it, with the best of taste and no little skill, from a waste into a place of shade and pleasant vistas, a spot on which the eye rests with delight. Amongst the many matters of importance in which Mr. McMahon has figured, he was the leader of the agitation for the North Shore bridge, a bill for the construction of which was to have been introduced when the Government went out; he was also prime mover in an attempt to obtain steam punts for the Shore, and £40,000 was actually placed on the Estimates when a somewhat similar catastrophe occurred ; latterly he has devoted himself to securing the Railway to Milson's Point, in which he has been successful, although his efforts have cost him a considerable sum in actual cash. It is by no means improbable that Mr. McMahon will yet live to see the two former measures become accomplished facts.


We give on this page a portrait of the Council Clerk of North Willoughby, Mr. James Anderson. He is an old army man, and was through the Crimea in the Royal Engineers. After serving his country faith-fully for a number of years, Quarter-master Sergeant Anderson was discharged in 1870, at his own request, but, as he says, he is 'fit for service yet.' He holds the silver medal for the Crimea, with clasps for Inker-man and Sebastopol, the Sultan's medal for the Crimea, and medal and highest gratuity for long service and good conduct. This is a record of which any man might be proud In the past thirteen and a-half years Mr Anderson has held the position of Town Clerk, which he now occupies, and has won for himself the respect and esteem of his fellow-townsmen.

Council Clerk, North Willoughby.

The sketch we give of St. Augustine's Church shows the building erected for the purpose of holding divine service by the English Church community at Neutral Bay. The Rev. Gr. North Ashe is rector of the parish.


The oldest resident at North Shore is Mr. W. G. Matthews, who has lived at Berry's Bay for nearly sixty years. Mr Matthews is agent for the Berry Estate, and is still as active as a young man, while his memory is as vigorous as ever. He is a most genial and entertaining companion, and a really admirable raconteur. Mr. Matthews is unquestionably the best living authority on all matters connected with North Shore, and his reminiscences are full of interest. He is possessed of a very keen sense of humour, and relates some of his experiences with inimitable drollery. He landed in Sydney in 1834, at which time the upset price of land at North Shore was five shillings per acre. Governor Darling allowed the settlers to build houses around the Shore, and such of these persons as chose to send in a claim subsequently for the land they occupied invariably had such claim allowed. Oh for the good old days over again !


Berry's Bay, so Mr. Matthews informed the writer, was originally called Woolstonecroft Bay, after Edward "Woolstonecroft, who, by the way, was once offered a Crown grant by Governor Macquarie, comprising the entire site occupied by what is now known as "Woolloomooloo. This offer Woolstonecroft declined, preferring North Shore, where he subsequently settled on an extensive grant which he received from the Crown. New South Wales Governors had a right royal way in those days of giving acres, or even hundreds of acres, away almost for the asking.

Mr. Matthews remembers when bushrangers used to frequent North Shore, and was upon one occasion accosted by the redoubtable "Possum Jack ' himself, as infamous a rascal probably as ever . set foot in the colony, which is saying a good deal. Mr. Matthews was shooting birds in the bush at the time, when suddenly a gruff ' Hello ! What yer doin' here?' caused him to turn round, and he found himself standing face to face with Mr. 'Possum Jack. ' And pray what are you doing here ? ' replied Mr. Matthews, instantly covering his interviewer 
with, his gun. Jack, who was armed to the teeth, smiled grimly as he toyed with a revolver of decidedly formidable appearance. 'What's yer name?' was his next question. ' Matthews.' ' Matthews, hey ? Oh, you're all right; I've heard about you,' and off stalked Mr. Jack without another word. That was the day of assigned convict servants, and some masters didn't treat these men well. The convicts could not retaliate themselves, but they generally contrived to summon out-side assistance to their aid when necessary, and it was to pay off old scores on his friends' behalf that 'Possum Jack visited North Shore on the occasion in question. Mr. Matthews' reputation as a kind 'boss' and good fellow probably saved his life.

Convicts were frequently flogged by their masters' orders in those days, and 'Possum Jack, an escaped convict himself, delighted to get hold of some tyrannical ' boss ' and say to the grinning 'hands,' ' Here, tie him up and give him fifty lashes, and let's see how he likes it himself.'

Amongst the ti-tree on Berry's Estate, and not very far from Lane Cove-road, may still be seen carved on a large flat rock the outline of a shark. Within the shark is the figure of a man. The shark is rudely drawn, but the representation of the fish is nevertheless a very faithful one. This carving was done by the blacks, not even Mr. .Matthews can say how many years ago. But it was a tribal mark, and served to define the bounadry separating the Northern blacks from the Southern ones. Such drawings or carvings were very common at the North Shore, but time-and the irrepressible larrikin-have effaced nearly all of them now.

The illustration we give of Mr. Matthews' late and present residence are interesting in so far as they demonstrate the style, in No. 1, of the ' bad old times ' when houses were built by convict labour, and, in No. 2, of the peaceful, homelike cottage of the present day when architecture itself has cast off its rigid rule which adhered strictly to the necessary and now embraces the conveniences and beauties unknown in the old barbaric days.


Leaving old memories behind us of daysmany of which were best forgotten, except as illustrating the truth of the maxim that 'out of evil cometh good'-let us turn more particularly to North Shore of to-day, and mark the many evidences of a fast approaching period of great prosperity.


In the first instance the value of property will, at an early date, he materially increased by the great improvements which are now being elected in the means of commutation First of all, the branch line from Pearce's corner to North Shore, which had its terminus at Gore's Hill, is now being extended, its route crossing the Lane Cove-road just beyond the Crow's Nest, from whence it will run through the Berry Estate and thence by the shores of Lavender Bay to Milson's Point. This will prove of substantial benefit to the trade of North ¡Shore, although the most culpable delay has been caused by reason of the failure on the part of the Government to call for tenders for the third and final section, the second, of twenty-seven chains, ending in the most idiotic manner in a spot in the bush, where it will be of use to no one. Following the old-fashioned custom of colonial Governments, the most elementary business principles have been neglected, and the interest for money expended will be lost to the country until the completion of the final section.

The next improvements in communication will be the extension of the tram service to Falcon-street, and that portion of the Berry Estate which was last subdivided, on which, by the way, are now built some of the prettiest cottages to be found about Sydney. This will require, we are told, no extension of plant, as the  power to embrace the additional district ; thirdly, a tram service, owned by a syndicate, and authorised by Act of Parliament, is already being laid to the Spit and Manly, so that very shortly the evil from which the public has so long suffered will be entirely remedied.

Whilst upon the subject of trams, we must congratulate North Shore in possessing in the cable method, the only proper description of motive power in the city of Sydney. It is a positive relief for one accustomed to the locomotion provided in South Sydney to seat himself in the clean, comfortable carriages of the North Shore service. No dirt, no noise, and, above all, no danger to human life The primary cost is, doubtless, great, but we hold that with the means at hand to remedy this evil, which blights the southern suburbs, the Government have no right to I neglect them, and they are equally, if not more, responsible for the death of innocent ft men, women, and children than are the !'? guards and engineers connected with them.

The indescribably awful accidents which have occurred are sufficient to make any but long-suffering English rise in rebellion, and those who could remove this evil, but will not, may rest assured that the curse of many a widow and orphan will follow them to their graves.


There is a very large proportion of the population of Sydney who are utterly unaware of the many beauties to be found about North Shore. Taking the route to Lane Cove, one arrives, within a very few miles of Milson's Point, at virgin bush, growing on the Berry Estate, through which the road passes, a dusky remnant of the past, with its dark recesses apparently as solitary as when occupied by the blacks. Now and again, through the trees, one can catch exquisite glimpses of blue distance and still bluer bays, into which wooded points slope gently, whilst many a pretty villa nestles amidst the surrounding greenery. Stand, for instance, at the junction of the Lane Cove and Greenwich Roads, three hundred feet above sea level, and note the glorious prospect that stretches out before you. There are Lane Cove, Hunter s Hill, Five Dock, Ashfield, Burwood, Summer Hill in fact, the whole western portion of the 'city, in one splendid panorama, with the harbour waters all dotted with shipping, and away in the far distance the Blue Mountains, delicately traced against the sky. The air here is a very different thing to that which we inhale in the crowded streets of the city, although the smoke or haze which overhangs the distant suburbs lends, from our point of vantage, an air of mystery which hides from us the unartistic realism of bricks and mortar. One looks upon it as on some exquisitely painted drop scene, and one wonders idly, as if it were a matter of no moment to us, but merely part of a pleasant dream, as to what manner of people they mi«;ht be why inhabit all the distant city which is placed there evidently for our gratification.

Not a quarter of a mile from this point, following the road which leads along the heights, and which presents everywhere the most exquisite views we come upon the Gore's Hill Estate, with Mr. G. K. Whiting's beautiful house and grounds situated in one corner, affording ample proof of the quality of the soil, and the possibilities of the combination of taste and money, with the advantage of position. This estate, which is the property of the Land Company of Australasia-whose well-known business-premises ' occupy the corner of Pitt and Bridge streets, 
City-extends along the road for a distance of over half a mile, every foot of it commanding the scene which we have already described. For villa sites we can conceive nothing finer. Nor is one isolated, as might be supposed, for 'buses ply along the Lane Cove Road, and the railway line is within easy walking distance, yet not so close as to thrust itself into objectionable notice.

On another part of this estate we hare an industry in full work-one of which the Shore may be justly proud-the Gore's Hill brick works, destined in the future, doubt-less, to be the potteries of New South Wales. Underlying the whole estate is a bed of capital blue shale, with pipeclay immediately above it, and at these works which, by the way, are the largest in the colony-are manufactured those splendid, yellow - coloured, double - pressed bricks, of a consistency like flint, so compact are they, which one sees in the building now being rapidly erected by Mr. Dean - 'The Australia' hotel in Castlereagh-street. 

A visit to these works, of which we give an illustration, is most interesting. The shale is excavated from a pit about four chains square and about forty feet deep, where it is tempered with water, mixed, and then drawn up, by steam, in trucks to the works. Here it descends by a hopper, and is passed through a double set of rollers, which render it finer than the finest sand. From this process it emerges in a solid cake, and is passed through the wire cutter, which separates each brick, or forms them into those shapes which are used for sewerage work, the facing of house fronts, and all descriptions of fancy work. From here the embryo bricks pass to the sheds, where they undergo double pressing in a hand machine, and they are then stacked until completely dry. Their next journey is to the kiln-and such a kiln. Not the square, smoky, ugly mass with which we are all acquainted, but one known as the Hoffman kiln, an oval building two hundred feet in length, from the centre of which tapers a chimney stack a hundred and thirty-six feet high. Inside the building are sixteen chambers, to any or all of which heat mav be ap-plied. Each of these is capable of burning twenty-two thousand bricks. Above the chambers is the feeding room, extending the whole length of the building, and through the perforations in the floor the fire in the various chambers is fed with tar or exceed-ingly tine coal, the draft below carrying the heat in such a manner that the bricks are red-hot for a distance of some thirty feet from where these materials are supplied.

We have here briefly described the making of what is known as the double pressed plastic brick, as the most finished article known in the trade. In addition the works turn out thousands of the ordinary dry pressed bricks hourly, besides the ordinary wire-cut plastic and semi-plastic article.

The extraordinary demand for the excel-lent work turned out-the Company having now in hand huge contracts for nearly nine million ordinary bricks and half a million double pressed-have deterred them from paying attention to the more elegant articles of pottery and tile ware, such as are employed for roofing and flooring, but without a doubt this will all come m time. The materials at hand are of the very best and choicest, and as the manager, Mr A. H. Collings whose whole heart seems to be in his work, remarked, they are fitted to make anything, even being sought alter by amateur and professional sculptors.

The works seem to he going on without a single hitch, and are a credit to the management and all connected with them.

(Continued on page 20.) Our Metropolitan Suburbs: North Shore. (1889, September 5). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63621962

By E. D. H.

It in an axiom with the people of Sydney that Port Jackson offers the finest facilities for yachting' in the world. The latent authorities on the subject are Messrs. Charles Maclaurin and W. L. Hunt, who thus begin their new ' Yachtsman's Guide ' : —

'We have seen no place more suitable for yachting than Sydney and its neighbourhood. True, we have no Clyde, though our three little ones, Port Jackson, Port Hacking, and Broken Bay, would make a brave show alongside that famous estuary; but then we have no Clyde weather; and Clyde weather is a torment to the soul. The Thames is to Sydney as a mud-heap to a mountain, in beauty at least ; the Solent, with its six -Knot currents and tearing sou'- westers, is out of court. We have never been in America. The Mediterranean suffers from a superfluity either of calm or of wind, nor is there a Port Jackson in all its coastline. In Australia there is no other place like ours; and, seeing these facts, it is little wonder that two or three thousand folk disport themselves upon the harbour waters every Saturday. The only yachtsmen who could challenge Port Jackson would be the New Zealanders, on behalf of the unique wonders of the Hauraki Gulf in the North Island, and the lovely Pelorus Sound in the South, with its 250 miles of coastline studded with inlets and islands and its background snowclad mountains. But the Hauraki Gulf is often rough water, and to get to the narrow entrance of the lake-like and beautiful Pelorus Wellington yachtsmen have to cross the often turbulent 18 miles of Cook's Straits. To reach the beauties of Port Jackson there is no open sea passage required, and unquestionably it is a unique pleasure-ground to surround a great city. 

Volumes might be written, and have been written, on the various arms of Port Jackson, and every eniiuent man who has come to us has been led to eipaliate on its beauties till the question. 'What do you think of our beautiful harbour ?' had to be dropped because it had become a byword. We are not going to write of the whole port, therefore, but of one arm of it — the most beautiful, because so far the least tampered with by man. This is Middle Harbour, of bays of which we to-day publish some new pictures. That Middle Harbour should have remained so free from occupancy by commerce at first surprises the visitor, but the immunity from that disfiguring agency so far enjoyed — and which every pleasure-loving Sydneyite trusts may continue to be enjoyed — is owing to the 9ft. bar at the entrance and the fact that the shores are generally t o steep to permit easy access landward. So Middle Harbour has been preserved to us as one of nature's pleasure-grounds, much as nature left it and every Sunday and every holiday may be seen dotted with white sails and thronged with pleasure craft of all sorts, to say nothing of the harbour pleasure steamers which empty out their thousands, intent, with the vandalism which, unfortunately, is a characteristic. of the British crowd even in the colonies — we are told that one of the characteristics of those remarkable people, the Japs, is the absence of this unpleasant trait — on the destruction of wild flowers and ferns, once so striking a feature of the shores. 

It can safely be said that Balmoral Beach i6 one of the most beautiful, if not the most beautiful, of the many lovely pleasure places around Sydney. Here, divided by a peninsula which has been set apart as a recreation ground, and provided with seats and so on, are the two splendid beaches of Edwards Bay and Hunter's Bay, lapped by dear waters, backed by great trees, miles of firm white sand on which children daily gambol, ideal places for a family picnic. On the last visit of the writer hundreds of children were playing in the water ; young men had set up wickets on the hard sand and were indulging in a game of cricket ; the new baths erected by the Mosman council were thronged, and the elders of the families were to be seen indulging in al fresco luncheon all along the green fringe to the white sands under the shade of the trees. Of the two pictures of Balmoral which we publish, one gives a glimpse of the cave-pitted, isle-like peninsula ; of Hunter's Bay beach ; and of the baths. Concealed in the greenery is a very pretty road debouching on the baths from that singular new suburb on Mosman heights, which appears to have sprung up in a night, and on the beach are the tall tripods used by the resident fishermen to watch for shoals of mackerel and the'Iike in the clear waters of the bay. The other Balmoral picture is taken from the opposite side of tbe peninsula, looking on the Edwards Bay beach and up the main road from the city and the heights behind Neutral Bay. 

This last picture incidentally affords a glimpse of the ' camps ' which are specially dealt with in a series of detailed views, and are sufficiently interesting to call for notice for themselves. Camp life is a unique feature of Port Jackson. The colonial dearly loves the open air and dearly loves a picnic. He wilt brave mosquitos and ants and other plagues of the camper freely for the joys of the fresh air and the morning and evening sea bath and the freedom and unconventionality of the life. Wherever there is a bit of wild nature in Port Jackson there is to be found a camp, but the favourite district skirts the northern shores, from Mosman's right round to the Middle Harbour. 





Nearly all the Sydney artists have lived in one or other of these camps till matrimony claimed their souls and bodies and required them to live in edifices of brick and stone and wood. Poets have sung of them — has not even Professor Marshall Hall, in the most glowing but least erotic of his verse, praised the camp of his cousin, Arthur Streeton, as a sort of new Eden ? Is it not even maliciously said that but for his apostrophes of Sydney and its enthralling beauties, human and terrestrial, Melbourne people would [ not have been so aroused by the obvious and painful blemishes of the musician's muse ? Be this as ; it may, some of the camps have become famouH in ! song and story and paint, and the most famous of these is, perhaps, the one illustrated by us in Ed- j wards. Bav, Balmoral. 

Such a camp as this is a very different affair from the primitive tent and fly ' which  was the genesis of most of the camp quarters. By steamer from Sydney to Mosman's Bay, thence by electric tram for a mile or so, and a few minutes' walk through the bush, three-quarters of an hour all told, brings one to the Euroka camp. As will be seen by our illustrations, one only needs to visit this wonderland of a camp abode to disperse all ideas of the 'roughing it ' element in camp life. Why, these Euroka campers are perfect sybarites ! They have all the attention 
and comfort, aye, even luxury, which a bachelor can command. This has been the residence for the past nine years of Messrs. A. E. Sefton, Percy and F. H. Hayles, and Sam and Phil Isaacs, who while away their leisure hours in or about their arcadian canvas home. The various canvas houses are divided by garden beds full of brightly-coloured and richly- perfumed flowers. The dining tent is floored with round wood blocks. The 'drawing-room ' looks out through its canvas flaps on a scene of entrancing beauty, ever varying as the lights change, and within there are carpets and lounge chairs and a piano, and all the luxuries and refinements of a home, while the noise of tram and 'bus and the dust and grime of a city are as though they existed not. This typical Port Jackson camp is dwelt in for nine months of the year, the inmates leaving it for the other three to their cook and caretaker while they seek warmer quarters for the winter. The set of camp photographs were taken by Mr. R. D. Beames, who was at one time a dweller in the tents. Al the other photographs are by our own photographers. 




Leaving Balmoral beach, the next point of interest is Clontarf, on the opposite shores, a favourite pleasure ground, ill-omened as the scene of the insane attempt on the Duke of Edinburgh. Then we come to bay after bay and inlet after in-let within ' the Spit,' which singular peninsula encloses Middle Harbour proper, the paradise of the boating man, leaving only access by the comparatively narrow channel which the steam punt crosses. This spit road is one of the most beautiful out of Sydney, and if the visitor on cycle, trap, or foot will leave the road after he has crossed to the Manly side he will find the point of view of the artist who has drawn for us the new sketch of Middle Harbour which is given this week and which looks over a superb panorama of water and wooded point and bay right out to the allenclosing headlands at the entrance to Port Jackson — the magnificent series of harbours which Captain Cook passed by under the impression that it was a mere boat bay, heedless, according to the unveracious legend, of the informing cries of the Hon. and venerable George Thornton fishing at the Gap.

ABOUT MIDDLE HARBOUR. (1898, December 31). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1620. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163813375

The Spit - circa 1929 - William Riddle's boatshed with 'Riddles' on the roof - Image No.: a1470196h, courtesy State Library of NSW

Roads To Pittwater: The Sandspit Punt And Spit Bridge - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2018.