December 17, 2017 - January 13, 2018: Issue 342

Windsor Bridge: Planned Destruction of historic Link with a pittwater connection

View of Part of the Town of Windsor, ... / Taken from the Banks of the River Hawkesbury. Drawn and Engraved by P. Slager, Sydney. Dedicated to Mrs Macquarie, ca. 1777-1855. Image No: a990071h, courtesy State Library of NSW
For the past few years residents of the Windsor community have been sending us updates on the proposed and then pushed through plan to remove the historic Windsor Bridge at Windsor. Their updates remind Pittwater that one of our earliest landowners, in Andrew Thompson, the gentleman who was granted the island we call Scotland Island, had a connection with this Hawkesbury village during the formative years of Europeans settling in this place and that the Hawkesbury, still interconnected through their waterways, are one place to those who move by water.

The planned destruction of this bridge is also a reminder that the first version was built by this early Pittwater gentleman:

General Orders.
WHEREAS by the General Orders of May 25, 1802, His Excellency was pleased to grant to Andrew Thompson, settler and Constable at the Green Hills, Hawkesbury, a lease for constructing a Floating Bridge over the South Creek, to facilitate the communication between Sydney, Parramatta and Hawkesbury, which has been of the greatest service to the settlers in that District and to the inhabitants in general,
as specified in the said Order. And whereas the Tolls on the said Bridge have not been sufficiently explicit under the different heads of Persons, Carriages, Draught and Stock Cattle, and other Stock, the Governor has judged it necessary, with the consent of the Proprietor Lessee to make the following Reductions and Alterations in the Tolls demandable on passing the said Floating Bridge. per ana. For each Foot Passenger 4s or Per ana £1 10 0 Each Horse, single or draught 2s 6d or £2 10 0
Waggons or four-wheeled Carriages taking more than half a ton lading 1s 6d or £1 10 0 For each Cart or Carriage with two wheels loaded or not 1s 6d or £ 1 10 0 For each head of Cattle whether in draught or not 1s 6d or £1 10 0
Each sheep under a score 2s
Ditto by the score, 2s 6d or £210 0 Swine or Goat the same as 2 Sheep,
It is to be understood that for the above Toll passenger, horses, carts, or carriages are to pass and repass once in the same day on the same Ticket.
Thereafter Regulation of the Order of May 25, 1802, respecting keeping the Bridge in repair Individuals &c. passing the Bridge on Government Service in the actual execution of Public Duty and the penalties prescribed by that Order do remain in force.
General Orders. (1806, March 9). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

We are further reminded of the connection between our two communities in the naming of Haystack Point at Newport, which also stems from our estuaries connection to the Hawkesbury and a flood during which Andrew Thompson rescued many when the lace was still called Green Hills:

The extensive damage done by the flood cannot yet thoroughly be ascertained :—though it is known, that many individuals have lost every thing they possessed, and that several have perished in the deluge, which was never before known to arrive to so great a height by from eight to ten feet. What rendered its progress still more destructive was, a false notion of security which many had imbibed, from the supposed confidence that there never would be another heavy flood in the main river, though without assigning any cause for such an idea ; to which the recent alarms seemed to give a colour, as each succeeding fresh had abated without any damage, save that sustained from the overflow of the South Creek.

The first appearance of this distressing inundation was observable on Thursday the 20th instant ; the River, discoloured, having risen several feet above the high water mark. The settlers on the low grounds, known from former doleful experience to be subject to disaster, were now preparing for the consequences ; but in the course of the night the rise abated, and the next morning apprehension had totally subsided. The incessant rains on Friday and Saturday night gave a new turn to expectation ; and by day-light on Saturday morning a scene of horror presented itself in every quarter. It was by this time nearly as high as on the 2d of March 1801 ; many farms were then under water; the rain continued without intermission, and a rapid rise was in consequence observable. The measures adopted by THOMAS ARNDELL Esq. for the preservation of lives, were actively carried into execution by Mr. Thompson, Chief Constable ; who in one of his boats saved the lives of a hundred persons, whom he took from the tops of houses, and rafts of straw floating on the deluge. He had two more boats employed in the same humane work, and by means of these also a number of lives were saved.
Mr. Thomas Biggers, often at the risque of his own life, saved upwards of 150 men, women, and children ; and others who possessed boats, particularly the District Constables, were very active in this benevolent duty.

In the course of this dreadful day upwards of 200 wheat stacks were swept into the stream and carried down the river with incredible velocity; stock of all descriptions were seen floating about and on the tops of the stacks, but could not be saved for want of boats, those of Messrs. Thompson, Biggers, and others being constantly employed taking the settlers families from the roofs and ridges of the houses, where many had for whole hours clung despairing of assistance, and expecting to be shortly washed into the watery waste. Towards Richmond Hill it seemed to abate on Saturday evening; down the River it still rose—The distress and horror of that evening can neither be described or imagined.—The day heavy and gloomy, the night fast approaching, torrents of rain pauring with unabating fury ; and not a house except at the Green Hills to be seen, the roofs of one or two of the highest on the opposite side of the water being then only visible. Muskets were discharged by the settlers from trees and roofs all day, and great numbers had been taken up, and left safely on the higher grounds; but many were devoted to undergo a night of horror the most inexpressible : in the evening the dismal cries from distant quarters, the report of fire-arms dangerously charged in order to increase the noise of explosion ; the howl-ing of dogs that had by swimming got into trees, all concurred to shock the feelings of the few that were out of the reach, but were sorrowful spectators of the calamity they could not relieve. On Sunday morning the rigor of the weather abated ; and in the course of the day the water on the high lands shewed a disposition to run off. Nearly 300 persons, saved from the deluge by the humane perseverance and incredible exertions of the rescuers, were released from a state of actual famine by a supply sent from the Green Hills in consequence of HIS EXCELLENCY'S request to Mr. Arndell to afford the sufferers every as-assistance and relief.

Five persons are known at present to have lost their lives: one of whom was a labourer at Richmond ; the others at Chalker's farm, viz. Walter Scott, a shoemaker, who has left a large family to deplore his destiny, & James Burns, with two women, one the wife of Benjamin Coolen, the other the wife of J. Cowan. Three of these unfortunate persons had taken shelter in Chalker's house, there hoping safety : but alas ! the highest & the lowest situations seemed alike devoted, and security was no where to be found. Chalker was in turn compelled to fly for safety ; and taking to his boat with a boy five years of age, and the above three, by fatal accident the boat upset, and they instantly perished. The child was the first object of Chalker's care, as an endeavour to save either of the others must have failed, and been at the same time fatal to himself, as the distance he had to swim was little short of a mile. The child at his desire threw his arms about his neck and instead of giving way to terror, endeavoured to embarrass his preserver as little as possible, and occasionally to chear him with the assurance, that they were almost out of danger.

Among some other wonderful escapes was that of William Leeson, settler, who with his mother, wife and two children, and three men, was carried from his farm upon a barley mow. They were driven by the impetuous current nearly seven miles ; and were taken off in the dark by Rich. Wallis, with the greatest difficulty.

The amount of stock lost must indeed be serious and considerable, though a quantity of different kinds was picked up, after the settlers with their wives & children were removed from danger.

Many of the stacks of wheat and barley that were floated off were forced by the current into the ocean; upwards of sixty were seen by one observer to clear Cumberland Reach, and twenty were seen by two lime burners in a very short space of time, drifting towards Pittwater where they had but little obstruction to encounter: upon some of these were many pigs, dogs and prodigious quantities of poultry, a great many of which took flight and got to land as they occasionally approached the banks.

By Wednesday about noon the water had fallen about 12 feet ; but none of the grounds about the back farms were at all fordable. Many of the stacks that had broke loose have been secured: Indeed, nothing but the activity of the Officers of Government, & the readiness with which their commands were generally executed, could have left one single hope to this extensive settlement, which had no other appearance than that of an immense sheet of water. And although distress was visible in every countenance, and universal horror prevailed, yet could there be found beings so destitute of the common feelings of humanity as to refuse their aid in preserving the lives and property of the unhappy sufferers. This inhuman conduct was immediately represented to His Excellency by the Rev. Mr. Marsden and Thomas Arndell Esq. who were on Thursday joined by C. Throsby Esq. with 8 Constables : and in consequence of their representation His Excellency was pleased immediately to issue a General Order to render what was so of itself criminal, viz. refusing assistance at a juncture, when not only lives and property, but the welfare and very subsistance of the whole Colony was at stake. On Wednesday and Thursday 125 Labourers from the Public Works at Parramatta and Castle Hill, were sent under their overseer, together with 27 volunteer Soldiers, to give every assistance the Magistrates might direct, in saving as much wheat and growing maize as possible, by drying the former, and pulling and shelling the latter. The road between Hawkesbury and Parramatta was also in a dreadful state of flood, no communication being practicable but along the elevated grounds, occasioning the prodigious circuit : the Race Ground was nearly covered, and the Ponds, the foot of Lapstone-hill, and various other parts of road were not at all fordable.

Much apprehension was entertained for the fate of the Settlers on the Nepean; from whence some satisfactory intelligence has been received, but no certain accounts of the extent of losses at that place or the Hawkesbury can as yet be depended on ; Yet it is sufficiently obvious, that but little short of the present destruction of private property in that Settlement is the consquence of this uncommon deluge ; which, like those of the nile, may conduce to the abundance of future crops.

HAWKESBURY, MARCH 27. (1806, March 30). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

It was as the result of saving more people during an 1810 Hawkesbury flood that this early Pittwater man fell ill and succumbed to his illness. 

On November 16th an Upper House Inquiry was announced:

16 November 2017: Media Release
An Upper House committee has commenced an inquiry into the Windsor Bridge replacement project. The committee is chaired by the Hon Robert Brown MLC of the Shooters, Fishers and Farmers Party and the committee includes representatives of the Liberal and National parties, the Australian Labor Party and the Greens. 

Mr Brown said, ‘The Windsor Bridge has considerable historical, economic, and social significance for the people of the Hawkesbury area and the wider Sydney region. This inquiry will examine the NSW Government’s proposals to replace this important piece of infrastructure’. 

Mr Brown continued, ‘The committee will consider, among other things, the justification for the replacement of the bridge; the options presented to the community; and the economic, social, and heritage impacts of the proposal’. 

The committee is currently accepting submissions and the closing date is 28 January 2018. Submissions should be lodged online on the committee’s website at: 

The committee will hold public hearings in the new year. 
For further information about the inquiry, including the terms of reference and guidelines for making a submission, please visit the committee’s website at: 

Our Windsor counterparts are asking that we here, who have such a strong passion for heritage and historical spaces, add our own efforts to those of theirs. How effective this may be when Windsor residents have occupied the site for years, sent over 45 000 letters opposing the destruction and even court action being taken by residents in 2015, remains to be seen. A new policy by our current government of the community being told they may only address what is proposed in the documents where feedback or 'having your say' is invited, and that granting licence to ignore all that opposed in the same as 'not addressing the criteria', is feeding a groundswell of anger that will not abate, no matter how many blue ribbons you fly. This is becoming a sticking point, a self-evident failure of the worth of any words issued and a disappointing development for all who hold firm to seeing something noble in and as part of that Australian political party.

Windsor correspondents have stated this week;

"There are 3000 heavy trucks currently passing over Windsor Bridge with no weight limit, and that is expected to rise to 5000 after the Penrith Lakes Scheme finishes in 12 months time, as those trucks will be going up to the Putty sand mining. We were told this by a truckie whistleblower who works on the Penrith site. 

"We have put in many submissions for National Heritage Listing, the last was 12 months ago but Josh Frydenberg is stalling, said a decision will be made in April.....the same time as the work will begin. "

"The Windsor Bridge has been checked by independent ex RMS bridge engineers and found to be completely safe. We wish to retain that bridge for local traffic and have a bypass built for the heavy traffic. The loss of heritage value due to the new high bridge destroying the heritage vista, the uniqueness of the Thompson Square conservation area, through which this project is slated to funnel arterial traffic through Australia's oldest square, destroying it's heritage value forever, is not being taken into account. The plan should be modified so the road goes around the heritage area, as it has in other heritage places in New South Wales."

"The find last week by the 'archaeologists' of the brick barrel drain that Macquarie ordered to be built in 1814 which is the "Smugglers Tunnels" of Windsor, underlines what should be saved for those living now and future generations to see and experience. Highly destructive salvage archaeology is being done right now in the lower reserve, where excavators are digging the foundations down to bedrock

Another media release on this matter from this week:

Windsor Bridge Work Must Stop
Thursday December 14th, 2017
Federal Member for Macquarie, Susan Templeman, has called for the Windsor Bridge project to cease immediately following the discovery of two sections of brick barrel drain, dating back to 1814.

NSW Roads and Maritime Services uncovered the 200 year old brickwork during preliminary excavation work at Windsor’s historic Thompson Square, the oldest public square in Australia.

“This latest discovery reinforces that the NSW Government’s actions are environmental vandalism of the highest order.

“Giant, mechanical excavators are crushing the remains of Australia’s heritage, and incredibly precious Indigenous artefacts”, Ms Templeman said.

“Works must be stopped immediately so that archaeologists and local Darug elders can assess the historic site and preserve the historic Thompson Square.

“I have written to the Minister on a number of occasions, urging him to grant Emergency Heritage Listing to the Square to prevent the NSW Government from pursuing this short-sighted and incredibly irresponsible project,” she said.

As well as the barrel drain, it’s understood that many Colonial remains and Aboriginal artefacts predating 1811 have been uncovered. An historic Telford-style road, possibly the original road from Sydney to Windsor, and a Francis Greenway-designed wharf are also in the development’s firing line.

Labor supports an emergency heritage listing to Thompson Square, and a feasibility study for the construction of a Third Crossing – a genuine solution to the Hawkesbury’s traffic problems.

“There is no doubt the site hold a number of values that help tell the story of Australia’s heritage. It’s extraordinary that the Government is looking the other way rather than acting to protect the site” Mr Burke said.

“The NSW Government is planning to build a bridge that won’t solve the traffic problems but will destroy unique heritage in the process. The end result will be a modern, concrete structure that still causes traffic congestion through the historic heart of Windsor” said Ms Templeman.

Pittwater Online will be visiting Windsor as part of our Summer investigations into places further afield with Pittwater connections. A followup will run in 2018 - perhaps more follow ups with follow that.

Below runs a more recent Media Release from a sister community residents association, and one by the National Trust, started by Annie Wyatt; yet another Pittwater connection there - and some of our own research, which backs up all being said. 

Those who have not read our Andrew Thompson, Pittwater Patriarch page will find it here


The NSW Premier is gleefully spending $2,000,000,000 to upgrade 2 football stadiums.
Yet the Hawkesbury is told there is not enough money to bypass Australia's 3rd oldest town.
This is a media release prepared by HRRA and which has been sent to over 150 media outlets worldwide today.

"RMS is perpetrating vandalism using secretive and draconian measures on a massive scale in Windsor NSW with the full blessing of Gladys Berejiklian.

A concrete wound is to be inflicted upon this significant heritage space, Thompson Square. The scars will never heal.

All for no benefit to the local community, the state or the Nation. The new roadway and bridge are not a traffic mitigation project.

The RMS themselves have stated that the new infrastructure will be “at capacity” when it opens (after 2 years of construction traffic chaos.)

There is no ‘budget’ for the project. It “will be funded until completed” according to the NSW Treasurer. Around $30M has already been spent and construction has not yet begun. Not bad for a project which was initially announced as having a budget of $25M in total.

The Windsor Bridge Replacement Project is a writhing mass of obfuscation, with ruination and erasure of nationally significant heritage and archaeology being perpetrated right now.

There is a ‘salvage’ compound in the Square, ostensibly in order to ‘salvage’ the archaeological remains which are to be destroyed by this politically motivated project. However, the RMS are using backhoes, breaking convict made bricks, digging deep into the colonial layers, and moving on down, further back through time into Aeolian dunes which contain ancient artefacts estimated to be 34,000 years old or more.

They are using backhoes. This is not archaeology. This is wanton, offensive destruction.

The RMS have ramped up the secrecy are now using draconian methods in order to prevent members of the community from even seeing what it is that is being destroyed.

Yesterday (4th December 2017), a 360 degree ‘guard tower’ was installed, fitted with a pan-tilt-zoom camera, multiple fixed cameras, on board DVR recording all camera 24×7, long range movement sensing devices, night vision infrared lighting, VOIP public address system and speakers which are used by remote security guards to ‘warn off’ anyone who approaches the compound. The warning given is that the police have been called. In addition, the RMS have now wrapped the compound fences in full block out material, replacing the shade cloth which was there originally.

What are the RMS trying to hide? Why is the community being treated with such contempt? An Upper House Inquiry was announced into this project on 16th November 2017, yet the destruction and secrecy not only continues, but appears to be getting worse and more desperate.

We know there have been a large amount of finds on the site, including a potential brick barrel drain, constructed in 1814 by John Howe at the order of Lachlan Macquarie, which is unique in terms of being the earliest public infrastructure of its kind in Australia. There is also historical evidence that structures dating back as far as 1795 may be found. This exact site contains some of the oldest and potentially most significant colonial archaeology in the country. This fact is well documented, including by Governors Macquarie, Philip, Bligh and Hunter.

How do we know what’s been found? Because members of the community took photos over and through the fence prior to yesterday’s 1984 Big Brother guard tower installation.

Thompson Square is older than Port Arthur. It is older than Hyde Park Barracks. It is older than most of the remaining heritage in The Rocks. In fact, the earliest known remnants in The Big Dig under the YHA in The Rocks date to the same age as the establishment of the site Thompson Square, 1795.
The RMS and NSW Government are RIPPING THE GUTS OUT of our national history, are using backhoes to do it and are treating the community with contempt.

Dominic Perrottet, the Member for Hawkesbury and Treasurer for NSW, the Minister for Roads and the Premier have repeatedly ignored requests to meet with the community about this issue, despite a 5 year long, 24/7 occupation of the site; 45,000 individually signed letters in opposition to the project, thousands of emails, protest rallies, a Call for Papers, national television coverage and now an Upper House Inquiry.

Our community deserves the representation due to us."

(Photos: supplied by the community)
Written by Venecia Wilson, President of the Hawkesbury Ratepayers and Residents Association. 

Save Windsor from the RTA

December 12, 2017: CAWB 
Why should we care about the brick barrel drains of Thompson Square? They're just drains, right?

Actually they're probably sewers. At least that's how Macquarie described them in the contract he issued for their construction. In fact, they are the oldest known example of this type of public infrastructure in Australia and for that distinction alone they're pretty amazing.

But let's just have a quick look at their historic context: whilst today we take for granted wastewater systems, deaths from waterborne diseases have been a problem throughout history. Sanitation is necessary for a healthy life, and would be have been necessary for a healthy colony.

In 1858 an Australian commentator describes an absence of drainage in the Rocks, with sewage trickling down walls and soaking into foundations… but there was no trickling sewage in Thompson Square.

Thompson Square had its brick barrel drains, commissioned by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1814: an example of the Governor's interest in good town planning.

The drains, along with the paved roads of Thompson Square, demonstrate the importance of Windsor to Colonial authorities who invested public funds in this port town through which so much of the colony's produce was shipped.

These rare and remarkable archaeological relics may also have much to tell us about life in the early colony and help to identify other early, associated structures. Their construction may reveal much about the technical skills and knowledge of the day, the quality of the brickwork an indication of the level of skills available in New South Wales c1814.

Finally if all this isn't enough, our humble drains, rarely seen over the past 203 years represent an asset that still has the potential to contribute to the economy of the Hawkesbury today, as such increasingly rare archaeological relics attract tourists keen to know more about historic locations, such as Windsor.

They are old, they are important, and they need to be protected from the Government's poor excuse for a new bridge.

Thompson Square, Windsor

Initiative NSW: National Trust
Thompson Square and its pre-Macquarie archaeology, threatened by road and bridge work, must be kept intact.

In 1975 the Trust listed on the National Trust Register the Thompson Square Precinct. This village square was planned by Governor Macquarie in 1811 when the town of Windsor was known as Greenhills.

Governor Macquarie named the square in honour of Andrew Thompson, noted emancipist, Justice of the Peace and Principal Magistrate for the district who had taken up residence there in 1801.

The Thompson Square Conservation Area was listed on the State Heritage Register in April, 1999 and Thompson Square has been nominated for listing on the National Heritage List.

The site is likely to contain remains from the pre-Macquarie era settlement and since its 1975 listing of Thompson Square the Trust has looked forward to the re-routing of the highway around the town of Windsor. 

In 2008 the NSW Government announced it had committed $25 million to replace and raise Windsor Bridge. The announcement followed investigations by the RMS (formerly RTA) into the condition of the existing bridge. An Environmental Impact Statement was placed on public exhibition in December, 2012 and the National Trust, in a submission, expressed deep concern at the likely adverse impacts on Thompson Square.

This plan was approved in late December, 2013, but was challenged in the Land & Environment Court by local group Community Action for Windsor Bridge (CAWB). CAWB has continuously occupied Thompson Square for more than twelve months and the NSW Government recognised the CAWB volunteers with a Heritage Volunteers Award for 2014.

In May, 2014 the Construction, Forestry, Mining and Energy Union placed a Green Ban on Thompson Square.

The Trust believes Thompson Square and particularly its pre-Macquarie era settlement archaeology must be kept intact. The Trust is urging the construction of a by-pass to Windsor as the adverse heritage impacts on Thompson Square, to the historic buildings to the north of the Square and to the archaeological heritage in the Square are unacceptable.

The Trust does not believe that there is any firm evidence justifying the removal of the present bridge which the Trust believes should be retained for its heritage significance and to serve as an access way for local traffic, pedestrians and cycling.


The Windsor Bridge, officially called the Hawkesbury River Bridge, Windsor, a beam bridge across the Hawkesbury River, is located in Windsor in north–western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The bridge was built in 1874 for horse-drawn vehicles and foot traffic and now carries road traffic. The bridge is listed on the NSW State Heritage Register.

The Windsor Bridge has a high level of historic, technical, aesthetic and social significance as an important historical and physical landmark in one of the State's pre-eminent historic towns, and in the wider Sydney region. It is the oldest extant crossing of the Hawkesbury River. Together with the successive crossings upstream at Richmond, this bridge has played a major role in shaping the history of the Hawkesbury area, functioning for well over a century as an all important link between the communities on either side of the River and as an essential component in a through route of importance in the development of the Sydney region. The series of major alterations to the structure since its construction articulate the continuing difficulties of negotiating a crossing of this major waterway with its frequent floods. The Windsor Bridge has landmark qualities as one of only two bridge crossings of the Hawkesbury River in the Hawkesbury area and as such it defines the surrounding network of roads. It is a large structure, and although simple in appearance, impressive. The bridge represents a major engineering project in the State for its time. 

The addition of a reinforced concrete beam deck to replace the timber deck in the 1920s is a relatively early use of this technology. The River and this crossing of it has defined the life of several generations of local inhabitants on both sides of the River. As the suburban outskirts of Sydney widen and come closer to the still distinct and distinctive Macquarie towns, the rich history of the area and its physical remains become increasingly important to the community's sense of identity. The Windsor Bridge is thus an important part of Windsor's history and identity.
— Statement of significance, Heritage and conservation register, Roads & Maritime Services, 21 October 2004

In December 2013, the Government of New South Wales gave planning approval to the construction of a new bridge to replace the existing 1874 Windsor Bridge due to claimed safety reasons, that have been disputed. The old bridge is to be demolished after the new bridge opens. Roads & Maritime Services proposed to construct the new bridge 35 metres (115 ft) downstream from the existing bridge. The approach road to the new bridge is proposed to be built along one side of the Thompson Square, Australia's oldest public square. The new bridge proposal is objected to by the local community on the grounds that it would keep heavy traffic in a historic town centre and it would destroy the town’s character and heritage. In October 2015, a legal challenge to stop the new bridge failed.

Opening of the Windsor Bridge.

THE formal opening of the new bridge over the Hawkesbury, at Windsor, took place on Thursday, and the event was attended with festivities of a character and extent which the oldest inhabitant of that comparatively venerable town declared were never surpassed. The concourse of people was far larger than ever before gathered together in the town, and was variously estimated at 6000 to 7000. 

The general arrangements were very good, and satisfactorily carried out in most particulars. Shortly after the arrival of the 11 o'clock train from Sydney with numerous visitors, the procession formed at the Town Hall. First in order were the clergymen of the district, amongst whom we noticed the Rev. Mr. Wood, Rev. Dr. Sheehy, Rev. Father Byrne, and the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson. Next followed the representatives of the district and town, and other members of the Legislature, viz. : The Hon. J. S. Farnell, Minister for Lands ; Messrs. Piddington, Moses, Driver, O'Connor, West, and Greville ; also, Mr. John Rae, Com-missioner for Railways Immediately following came the Mayor (Mr. McQuade) and the aldermen of the municipality. After these came the Windsor Volun-teer Band, discoursing sweet music, and the Volunteers and Fire Brigade. The Sons of Temperance, in full regalia, and the Oddfellows, with their staffs and banners. After these came the schools of the town and district, amongst which were noticed the banners of the Public and Catholic schools. The children in the procession numbered 570. The procession proceeded along Macquarie-street to Dight-street, and thence through George-street to the bridge, where the Hon. John Sutherland, Minister for Works, joined in, and the band played appropriate airs. The Richmond Volunteer Band headed the procession of the school children. After parading across the bridge and doubling back, the procession, halted. The ceremony was then commenced. 

The Hon. JOHN SUTHERLAND delivered an address, in the course of which he complimented the people upon having such a fine structure, and on the importance of the work. He narrated the facts connected with its erection, and pointed out why a low-level bridge was erected in place of a high-level structure. While the former cost but £10,000, the latter would have cost upwards of £60,000. In regard to levying of tolls, he promised that there would be no charge made for foot passengers (cheers), and that the scale of charges for animals and vehicles would be as low as that of any other bridge in the colony - (applause)—and would, he thought, bear favourble comparison with the charges levied on the bridge higher up. (Applause ; and a voice ; The Richmond bridge belongs to a company.) Mr. Sutherland then, amidst tumultuous cheers, named the new bridge the Windsor Bridge, and declared it open to the public. He added that as the postman required a rest, the bridge would be free to the public, and no tolls would be levied till Monday next. (Cheers.) 

Loud cheers were then given for Mr. Sutherland, and the band played, the National Anthem. The children were then marched past to Mr. Miller's paddock, Macquarie-street, where they were regaled with cakes, buns, and sweets. In various parts of the grounds were also erected Punch and Judy shows, and other diversions for the amusement of the children. 

Above the bridge on the hill-side many hundreds were assembled, and witnessed the roasting of a fine bullock. This ceremony is time-honoured on the Hawkesbury; and the inhabitants appear to understand how to roast a bullock to advantage. 

The next event on the programme for the day was the public luncheon, which commenced at half-past 1 o'clock, in the School of Arts. About 100 gentlemen sat down to a capital repast. The Mayor of Windsor occupied the chair. On his right sat the Minister for Works, and on his left the Minister for Lands. Mr. J. B. Johnston occupied the vice-chair. All the old families on the Hawkesbury had representatives, and probably a majority of those present had been a quarter to half a century resident in the district. 

After the usual loyal, toasts " the Queen," " Prince of Wales," and " the Governor"— 

The CHAIRMAN gave the toast of " the Ministry." (Cheers.) He said that he felt it a high honour to be allowed to give this toast. He spoke of the Ministry collectively, and thought it a fine thing for Australia that they had such men at the head of affairs. (Applause.) 

The Hon. J. S. FARNELL rose, amidst cheers, to return thanks. He was not quite certain whether he was the proper person to respond, as he had an older colleague present. But he understood that the labour of speech-making was to be equally divided, and he had no objection to do his part. The task allotted to him was a simple one. His friends around gave him credit for making long speeches. (Laughter and cheers.) Well, it was his intention to show, by example, how to make a short speech. (Hear, hear.) He thanked them heartily for the toast. According to their worthy Mayor and chairman, this Ministry would never change, but go on for ever. (Applause.) But everything must have an end. It was the first occasion as a Minister that he took part in the opening of a bridge. He hoped to be spared to take part in many more, and to be enabled to bridge across many of the differences now existing between the people of this colony. (Loud cheers.) He again hoped that they would long worthily fill their offices, and that those present would live to see them. (Cheers and applause.) 

The Hon. JOHN SUTHERLAND next rose to propose a toast. He had never before seen anything christened without water, but he supposed that they had enough of that, and that was the reason of its absence at the ceremony that day. (Laughter.) He proposed " Success to the Windsor Bridge." (Cheers.) He hoped that it would last longer than the youngest child who had passed over it that day. (Applause.) If it were not very ornamental, it was most useful, and they would agree with him that it was better to have this low level bridge than no level. (Applause.) He repeated, in reply to a query from a member of Parliament present, that, as they could not construct a bridge for nothing, it was his duty to put a toll on it ; but he promised that that toll should be the lowest possible. (Cheers.) 
Mr. S. TUCKERMAN returned thanks. 

The CHAIRMAN then proposed " The Parliament.' Messrs. Piddington, Driver, and Moses responded.— Mr. J. B. Johnston proposed the " Architect and Con-tractors." Messrs. Morrell and Turnbull responded.— For the " Agricultural and commercial interests," Messrs. A. Dight and Greenwell, respectively, responded ; and for the " Ladies," Mr. Holland responded. In the evening a public ball was given, in the old barrack-room, which, I believe, passed off successfully. It should be mentioned that the town of Windsor was gaily decorated—flags flying from nearly all the houses in the principal streets ; and on the bridge were festoons, floral arches, and the flags of all nations. Opening of the Windsor Bridge. (1874, August 21 - Friday). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from 


THE want of a bridge over the Hawkesbury river at Windsor has been felt for many years. In 1864, Mr. J. A. Cunneen presented a petition from the inhabitants of the district for the erection of a bridge at Windsor, but it was not until June, 1871, that the Legislative Assembly voted the necessary funds for the construction of a low level bridge.

There was much diversity of opinion as to the advisability of constructing a low level bridge at the site proposed, as the floods rise there to a height of more than 50 feet above low water. The Commissioner and Engineer for Roads was, how-ever, instructed by the Government to prepare designs for a low level bridge, and to invite tenders for its construction. Mr. Andrew Turnbull's tender was accepted in December, 1871 ; and the work began on the 15th January, 1872.
According to the original design, the total length of the bridge was to be 406 feet, composed of eight main spans of 44 feet each, and of two approaches 32 feet and 22 feet respectively, The abutments were to be of timber ; and the nine intermediate piers of cast iron cylinders and screw piles braced with strong wrought iron beams. The screw piles and cylinders to be sunk to the rock, and lewised thereto by heavy wrought iron bolts, previous to being filled up with cement concrete.
In October, 1872, three of the iron piers had been sunk 4 feet into the rock to the depth of 25 feet below river bed ; each column was lewised with four-inch bolt and filled up with strong cement and concrete, supporting a ring of 9-inch radiating bricks ; enclosing a cone of concrete to the top of the pier.
From the nature of the strata found in sinking those piers, it became doubtful whether screw-piles could be used, as the bed of the river to the rock consisted of drift timber, silt, and boulders deposited by floods.
A test screw-pile, 2 feet 6 inches in diameter, was, however, put down in the middle of the stream ; but the rock could not be reached, owing to the difficulty of removing the drift timber. Mr. Bennett, the Commissioner and Engineer for Roads, then decided to give up the screw-piles and to use cylinders for all the piers.
Many freshes and several heavy floods retarded operations; and the sinking of all the piers could not be completed until December, 1873. Although a few feet only of the iron columns appear above water, the cylinders reach to an average depth of 40 feet below summer level. By the use of the sand-pump and air-lochs, boulders, drift-wood, and logs, several feet in thickness, were removed at considerable depths, and each pillar firmly bedded and lewised four feet into the solid rock.
The bracing beams were also fixed below water by divers, before the erection of the superstructure.
The extraordinary floods at Windsor which reach to a height of 51 foot above low water, or 36 feet above the decks of the bridge, made it necessary to have the superstructure unusually strong ; and much ingenuity is shown in the design for securely fastening it to the piers.
The deck is 21 feet 6 inches wide ; and is composed of planks five inches thick, securely fixed to five ironbark girders 17 and 18 inches by 16 inches and 44 feet long, strongly bolted to corbels and capsills firmly secured to-the iron piers. The whole of the timber is ironbark, which has little buoyancy under water, and the girders are fine specimens of our colonial wood.
All the joints are covered with iron fish-plates, bolted with inch bolts, and it is evident from the massive fastenings throughout, and the great strength of the structure in every detail, that the engineer has taken every precaution to prevent the floods from making a breach in any part of the bridge.
The handrail is also ingeniously contrived to protect it from the large quantity of drift timber brought down by the floods. The foot of every rail post swings on a stout bolt secured to the girders, and the top is jointed to a two-inch wrought iron pipe, provided with sockets and collars at every 44 feet ; the total length being held in place by two iron couplings in such a manner that one man can lower the whole alongside the girders in ten minutes.
The amount of Messrs. Turnbull and Dixon's contract was £8287 ; but an additional expenditure of about £2000 was rendered necessary by the substitution of cylinders for screw piles in the piers, and by the addition of two spans to the bridge to prevent future encroachment on the approaches. It was observed that moderate floods bring large deposits of sand and drift; but that heavy floods scour the river bed to a considerable extent.
The total length of the bridge as completed is 480 feet. The abutment on the Windsor side is built of iron backed with masonry in cement ; and that on the opposite bank is protected by sheet piling reaching below summer level.
A new cutting has also been made on the Wilberforce side for the approach, which is covered with ironstone gravel.
The number of cast-iron cylinders used in the piers is 130. They are six feet long, and 3 feet 6 inches in diameter, and their weight exceeds 150 tons. They were cast at the Mort's Dock and Engineering Works at Balmain; and are another instance of the facility afforded for such works by colonial establishments.
The inhabitants of the district may well be pleased at the completion of this fine bridge ; and it will be satisfactory for them to know that it has been ascertained by the officers of the Department of Roads and Bridges, in reference to the traffic and the disastrous floods of the Hawkesbury River, that, while the deck of the Windsor bridge is free from flood, the Richmond bridge is covered with three feet eight inches of water, and that the Windsor bridge is crossable twenty-two hours after the stoppage of the traffic at the Richmond bridge.
Great credit is due to the contractors, Messrs, Turnbull and Dixon, for their energy and perseverance in carrying out, without any accident, such an important and difficult work, to the satisfaction of the Commissioner and Engineer for Roads.
An account of the official opening of the bridge, which took place on the 20th inst., will be found in another part of this issue. 
The New Bridge over the Hawkesbury at Windsor. (1874, August 22). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 20. Retrieved from 
The New Bridge over the Hawkesbury at Windsor. (1874, August 22). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 20. Retrieved from 

OPENING OF THE NEW BRIDGE OVER THE HAWKESBURY, AT WINDSOR. (1874, September 19). Illustrated Sydney News and New South Wales Agriculturalist and Grazier (NSW : 1872 - 1881), p. 13. Retrieved from OPENING OF THE NEW BRIDGE OVER THE HAWKESBURY, AT WINDSOR, N. S. W.  OPENING OF THE NEW BRIDGE OVER THE HAWKESBURY, AT WINDSOR, N. S. W. (1874, October 1). Illustrated Australian News for Home Readers (Melbourne, Vic. : 1867 - 1875), p. 172. Retrieved from 
Windsor Bridge - Windsor, NSW, circa 1888 - Image No.: bcp_04404h, courtesy State Library of NSW

Fears for Windsor Bridge
WINDSOR, Friday.

Extensive repairs, to last over a period of 12 months, were recently commenced to Windsor Bridge, and on account of the rise in the river the work of removing the plant, materials, &c., has been commenced. Portion of the bridge is in splints, and it is feared that should It be submerged the deck-ing may be washed away. Fears for Windsor Bridge (1920, December 10). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from 


WINDSOR, Tuesday.

The reconstructed Windsor bridge was officially opened by the Minister for Works (Mr. Estell) on Saturday afternoon. The old wooden bridge was built in 1873 and the timbers were in such a state of decay that it was decided in 1919 to build a new superstructure of reinforced concrete. The work, was entered upon in October, 1920, and completed at the end of December last year. 

The State Monier Pipe and Reinforced Concrete Works carried out the contract, at a cost of £12,925. The new bridge is a durable structure, and has an overall length of 468 feet, with a tarred metal deck 20 feet wide between kerbs, and the level of the deck is 22 feet from the river summer level. Mr. Estell was presented with a gold-mounted walking stick made from ironbark cut out of one of the wooden girders of the old bridge. 
WINDSOR BRIDGE (1922, January 17).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 6 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 
The New Bridge, Windsor, N.S.W, ca. 1900-1927, Sydney & Ashfield : Broadhurst Post Card Publishers. Image No.:  a106381h, courtesy  courtesy State Library of NSW

Reminiscences of a Visit to the Hawkesbury.

As the years roll on the venerable personages regarded as the "oldest inhabitants" are passing away, and the first race of "Hawkesbury natives" -a generation of giants-will soon exist only in their numerous descendants who are scattered throughout almost every part of Australia and New Zealand. These descendants of the " giants of those days," and the general public, will perhaps be interested in the following reminiscences of their old home or the homo of their fathers.

The most remarkable building in the Hawkesbury district is Windsor church, the oldest place of worship now existing in Australia. There were churches built at an earlier period. For instance, St. Philip's, Sydney, and St. John's, Parramatta, but these have been demolished and rebuilt long since, so that St. Matthew's, Windsor, can unquestionably lay claim to be the most venerable sacred edifice in the country.

" I stood on the bridge at mid-night, 
As the clock was striking the hour,
And the moon rose o'er the landscape, 
Behind the dark church tower."

I was favoured with an inspection of some old official Hawkesbury records, and find that in the year 1817 there was a Government House at Windsor, and that Governor Lachlan Macquarie sometimes lived there.

I find that on the 11th October of that year the corner stone of St. Matthew's, Windsor, was laid by Governor Macquarie, who, after depositing a "holey dollar"- that is, the rim of a Spanish dollar, with the circular bit cut out, which bit then passed current as a " dump"- said " God prosper St. Matthew's Church," gently striking the stone three times with the mallet. "And," continues the account from which I quote, " the same ceremony was severally performed by the whole of the gentlemen who accompanied his Excellency from the Government House to the spot." 

The paper then proceeds to state that through indisposition, the incumbent, the Rev. Robert Cartwright, was not present. The follows this paragraph :
13th October, 1817.

The corner stone having been removed, and the money stolen early on the evening on which it was deposited by the Governor, this evening, about the same time, the corner stone was re-laid, by his Excellency, and a dollar deposited underneath it, by the Rev. Robert Cartwright. This consecration was witnessed by his Honour lieutenant Governor Erskine, Major Antill, D. Allan. Esq., Commissary-General, Rev. Henry Fulton, William Cox, Esq., Chief Magistrate at Hawkesbury, Mr. Surgeon Mileham, J.P., several other gentlemen and the most respectable Inhabitants of Windsor. His Excellency addressed the spectators in a very pathetic manner, passing very high and deserved encomiums on the resident chaplain. He then returned to compliment the magistrates and officers with his presence at the Macquarie Arms inn, where the whole party (except Mr. Cartwright) supped together.
For the second time it -would seem that the dollar placed in the foundation stone -was stolen, for another entry, dated Nov. 18, 1817, runs as follows :
The dollar deposited underneath the corner stone of St. Matthew's Church, bj' the REv. Mr. Cartwright, was again stolen n few nights afterwards. This infamous species of theft could not have been practiced only through the neglect of the contracting builders in not having prepared materials to immediately work over the stone. It was supposed that the corner stone was thrown down each time and the money stolen by some of the men employed at the public works in the town of Windsor.

This and the previously quoted documents, and those I shall presently quote from, are all signed by " Joseph Harpur," who was clerk in the Church and Public School-master. This Mr. Harpur was father of Charles Harpur, the well-known Australian poet.
The next entry relating to the church, bears date June 4th, 1819. It is as follows :
The walls of the church to which the above memorandum refers have been taken down to the very foundation, through some defect in the building, and another structure is now being built on the site, by Government, of much larger dimensions, and of the very best material. It is, I believe, to retain the name of St. Matthew’s given to the first building.

A memorandum is then given of some damage done to the church, in 1821, from a violent gala of wind which blew the lead off the dome, &c., and then follows the account of the opening ceremony :
This day the new Church of St. Matthew's, Windsor, was consecrated and opened for divine worship by the Rev. Samuel Marsden, Principal Chaplain of the Territory, assisted by the Revs. Messrs. Cross, resident chaplain, Cartwright, and Hassall. After the ceremony the Holy Sacrament was administered to a goodly company from various parts of the colony. Scarcely an individual was observed but what appeared deeply attentive during the whole service, and the church was nearly filled before the Communion Service was commenced. (Signed) J, Harpur, Windsor, Wednesday 8th December, 1823.
In these entries we gather the history of the commencement of the fine old church which I shall presently describe. The incumbents, since the establishment, have been about eight in number. The first on record is the Rev. Robert Cartwright, whose ministry extended over ten years. Then followed the Revs., J. Cross, E. Smith, Docker, Meares, and Stiles. The latter gentleman was incumbent for thirty-four years, and died in 1867. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the present respected incumbent, who has had charge of St. Matthew’s since 1867.

The church, being built on the high ground over-looking the river, is a prominent object from all parts of the Hawkesbury district. The style of architecture is Italian in character, it is built of brick and is still one of the most substantial structures of the kind in the colony. The walls are between three and four feet thick; the dimensions of the building are 126 feet in length and 50 feet in width. The roof is slated ; and the flooring of the centre aisle is of stone ; there is ample accommodation within the building for between 700 and 600 persons. It has a bell and clock tower, porch, chancel, and organ gallery. The organ is a very good one, though one of the first built in the colony (Johnson, builder). It has lately been re-arranged and had two new stops put in.
Ascending the church tower with the Rev. Mr. Garnsey, I had a great treat in the view of the country below and around. The height is about 130 feet. We first reached the clock tower. The clock is a fine old time-piece made by Thwaites and Reed, of London, in 1821. The face of the clock is six foot in diameter. Still ascending and admiring the vast strength of the brick and woodwork of former days, we came to the belfry. The bell is a sister one to that in St. James' Church, Sydney. It was cast in the same foundry and came out in the same ship. The windows of the belfry opened to view panoramas of the finest scenery of the kind in Australia. Eastward of the town, below and in the distance, wore Windsor Road and Pitt Town ; north-east, over green fields waving with corn, were the district of Cornwallis, part of the Richmond Bottoms, Wilberforce, Freeman's Reach, and, South-west : the Blue Mountain Ranges, the Gap, in the first tier of hills being prominent, while immediately below were some old family estates of the Coxes and others, looking very pretty. The view from the church tower will well repay a visit to the town.

The porch at the south-west entrance was erected by the late Captain Roxburgh and the late Mr. Robert Fitzgerald in memory of their daughters. Captain Roxburgh's daughter died at the parsonage, Windsor; and Miss Fitzgerald was killed by a fall from her horse. The chancel is in the form of an apse, with semicircular window with yellow lights in the roof. This window was the gift of Michael Metcalfe, Esq. The communion walls, which were inscribed at the time the church was built, contain four tablets having the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer, with the words " Do this in Remembrance of me." The lectern was presented by Mrs. Rouse, and the Communion chairs by Mrs. Coley. On the right hand side of the chancel there are three tab-lets of the Fitzgerald family. On the left of the chancel there is a tablet to the memory of Mrs. Gordon ; and another on the south wall to the memory of Charles Hassall.


The windows of St. Matthew's church are large and Gothic in character. Of the thirteen in the building there are five splendid memorial windows. The subjects and donors are as follows:— (North side), No. 1. "The Call of St. Matthew from the receipt of Customs," in memory of the late Mr. John Terry, of Box Hill ; erected by Mrs. Wingate. 2. "The Raising of Lazarus," in memory of Mr. Edwin Rouse, of Rouse Hill ; erected by Mrs. Rouse. (South side)." 3. "Preaching of St. John in the Wilderness," in memory of the Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, incumbent of the parish for thirty-four years. 4. " The Agony of the Garden," in memory of Major Wingate, of Pott's Point ; erected by Mrs. Wingate 5. " Visit of the two Mary's and Salome to the tomb of our Lord," to the memory of Mrs. Anthony Hordern. This window —one of the finest in the colony—has just been erected by Messrs. Johnson and Sons, of Windsor, who also put in the other four. The window was manufactured by Wailes, Strong, and Co., of New-castle-on-Tyne, England. The subject is well brought out. The dawn of the morning is beautifully pourtrayed, and the two Mary's and Salome looking sadly at the tomb of our Lord, with the angel appearing to them to announce the resurrection of the Saviour, are very fine. The Hill of Calvary is well represented in the distance. In the upper circle, over the heads of the women, is shown an angel holding a scroll with the words " He is not here but is risen." In the lower circle, at the feet of the women, there is another angel bearing another scroll, " Why seek ye the living among the dead ?" The artists have been peculiarly happy in carrying out the design—the richness of the robes, the blending of colours, the dawn, and the numerous details. The whole is surrounded by a beautiful border, and at the foot there is a brass plate bearing the following inscription :—" To the Honor and Glory of God, and for the Adornment of His House, this window is erected by Anthony Hordern, of Sydney, in memory of his beloved wife Harriet Hordern, who died at Genoa, Italy, January 21st, 1872, aged 51, returning homeward to Australia from England."

The graveyard surrounding Windsor church is full of interest to the old inhabitants, their descendants, and the visitor. I copied a few of the epitaphs. One of the most noticable was as follows :—
Sacred to the memory of Andrew Thompson, Esq., Justice of the Peace and Chief Magistrate of the district of the Hawkesbury, a native of Scotland, who at the age of seventeen years was sent to this country, where from the time of his arrival he distinguished himself by the most persevering industry, and diligent attention to the commands of his superiors.
By these means he raised himself to a station of respectability and affluence, which enabled him to indulge in the generosity of his nature in assisting his fellow creatures in distress more particularly in the calamitous floods of the river Hawkesbury in the years 1806 and 1809. At the immediate risque of his life and permanent injury of his health, he exerted himself continually during three successive days and nights in saving the lives and properties of numbers, who, but for him must have perished. In consequence of Mr. Thomp-son's good conduct Governor Macquarie ap-pointed him Justice of the Peace. This act which had restored him to that rank in society which he had lost, made so deep an impression on his grateful heart as to induce him to bequeath to the Governor one-fourth of his fortune. This most useful and valuable man closed his earthly career on the 22nd day of October, 1810, at the House at Windsor of which he was the principal founder, in the 37th year of his age, with the hope of eternal life. From respect and esteem for the memory of the deceased this monument is erected by Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales.

The following lines are not inappropriate to the condition and appearance of the Windsor church and graveyard at the present time :—
See yonder hallow'd church ; the pious work 
Of names once famed, now dubious or forgot, 
And buried, midst the wreck of things which were ;
There be interred the more illustrious dead.
The wind is up ; hark ! how it howls ! Methinks
Till now I never heard a sound so dreary ;
Doors creak, and windows clap, and night's foul bird,
Rook'd in the tow'r, screams loud : thy gloomy aisles,
Thick plastered, and hung round with monuments.
Strange things, the neighbours say, have happen'd here ;
Wild shrieks have issued from the hollow tombs ;
Dead men have come again, and walk'd about ;
And the great bell has toll'd, unrung, un-touch'd
(Such tales their cheer at wake or gossiping

Hawkesbury. (1874, January 24).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 21. Retrieved from 

The Grave, by Robert Blair (in full):
St Matthews Windsor ca. 1900-1927, Sydney & Ashfield : Broadhurst Post Card Publishers.  Image No.: a106383h, courtesy State Library of NSW


At Windsor, on Thursday the 27th Instant and two following Days, on the Premises of the late ANDREW THOMPSON, Esq. (by Order of the Executors), at 10 in the Forenoon of each Day. A VALUABLE and ASSORTED STOCK of GOODS, consisting of Tanned Leather, Shoes, Harness and Sadlery, Shoemakers, Black-smiths, and Carpenters' Tools, Hemp and Flax, a general assortment of Manchester and India Goods, Medicines, Copperas, Brimstone, Rosin Tar, Salt, Tobacco, Hardware, Stationary, and numerous other Articles.
ALSO, the valuable and useful Houshold Furniture, comprising good feather beds, bedding, and bedsteads, sofas and sofa covers, window curtains, Pembroke and dining tables, chairs, chests of drawers, writing desks, pier and dressing room looking glasses, table and bed linen, earthenware, glass, kitchen utensils, steel mills, large beam, scales and weights.
ALSO, Eight capital Working Bullocks, six new Boats of different dimensions, one Punt, seven Saddle and Draught Horses, a number of fine Pigs, a single Horse Chaise and Harness, Waggons, Carts, and a variety of Implements of Husbandry, calculated for carrying on the most extensive Farms in this Colony.
For the Accommodation of Purchasers, Three Months Credit will he given on approved Security, on all Sums exceeding Ten Pounds.—A Deposit of 25 per cent. to be paid at the time of Sale, in Cash, Government, or other approved Sterling Money.
N. B.—The Goods are to be cleared away by Monday the 31st instant, if not they will be re-sold at the risque of the Purchaser.

AT the same Time will be LET by AUCTION, for a Term of Two Years, if not previously disposed of by Private Contract, the valuable House and Premises late the Residence of A. THOMPSON, Esq. deceased, situate at Windsor, comprising a good Dwelling House, Stores, Granaries, Cellars, Stabling, and other convenient and spacious Warehouses, adapted to the beneficial Trade of the extensive and populous Settlement at the Hawkesbury.
ALSO, a valuable Farm situate on the Banks of the South Creek, adjoining the Town of Windsor, known by the name of West-hill Farm, comprising good Dwellings, Granaries, Stores, Stabling, a large Tan-yard, Barn, Gardens, Yards, and every other convenience attached, suitable te the Farming Line.
ALSO, several fertile Farms in high cultivation, commonly called Agness and Wardle Banks, situate in the District of the Nepean, with fine Orchards of choice early bearing Fruit Trees.
ALSO, an extensive Grazing Farm, known by the name of Killarney, situate on the Banks of Bardo-narang, on which is a good Brick Dwelling House, with Cellars, Dairy, &c. good Stock-yards well adapted for Horned Cattle or Sheep.
ALSO, a large Brewery at Windsor, situate on the Banks of the South Creek, with Malt-kiln, Granary, Cooperage, and every useful Utensil for the Brewing Business on an extensive Plan.
ALSO, the Toll Bridge over the South Creek.
ALSO, about Two Acres of Land, situate at Windsor, opposite the Brick House, inclosed for a Garden; together with those valuable Salt-works at Scotland Island, Pittwater, with a Dwelling-house and other requisite Buildings attached.
Further Particulars may be known on application to Captain Antill or Thomas Moore, Esq. Executors; Mr. J. Howe at Windsor; or of the Auctioneer at Sydney. Classified Advertising (1810, December 22). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from