November 12 - 18, 2017: Issue 337

The Pittwater YHA: Some History

Espa Hall and 'Pony' 

This picture was made available from Espa herself as part of a collection of photos she had lent Sarah to assist in keeping the history of the place
alive. Espa lived out her married life as a farmer in Tamora and died in her 90s about 6 years ago. Sarah visited Espa a number of times over her latter
years. She called the horse her "pony".
On Sunday November 19 the Pittwater YHA is celebrating its 50th anniversary. This date marks the day, 50 years ago, when the first Pittwater YHA doors closed and the second one opened – yes, on the exact same day - and on the opposite side of the bay!

In 2016 Pittwater YHA was among the Most recommended: "Lancelin, Pittwater and Mt Lofty all had a 100% ‘recommended-to-friend’ rate – a huge achievement...".

Situated on Morning Bay (sometimes known as Towler’s Bay after Bill Toler) this stunning location epitomises the Youth Hostel ethos of 

"To help all, especially young people of limited means." said Mr. Stephens without hesitation, "to a greater knowledge, love and care of the countryside, particularly by providing hostels or other simple accommodation for them in their travels."
Planned Camping Is Aim Of Youth Hostel Groups (1953, March 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Visitors are welcome for the Celebrations, with a FREE ferry leaving Church Point at 1.30!

The first building that was closed reaches back to the time when soldiers were stationed at Pittwater to guard and oversee the Powder Hulk that had been moved there in 1886 and remaining in place until it was moved to Middle Harbour in 1900. The Prospector powder hulk, and those stationed to look after it, became part of the 'landscape' for locals, as did the men stationed there - no one seemed to be too in fear of the lot blowing up:

Proposed Racing around the Powder hulk (!):

Advertising (1887, December 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

This first ever Pittwater regatta actually took place on January 2nd, 1888, having been delayed due to bad weather. W T A Shorter was among those who worked to see Newport develop during this era and is mentioned among those who ensured a Telegraph Office opened at Newport in 1888, as well as a school for Newport, initially in a tent.

A handicap rowing race for local boats took place at Pittwater on Saturday last, the result being an easy win for the Magazine boys, with W. Dickenson's second. Six boats competed over a course of about one mile - from Mr Gedde's wharf to Church Point. Mr. Booth acted as starter, and Mr. Mulligan as judges. BAYVIEW, PITTWATER. (1896, March 9).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from 

This road ends at Church Point, a lovely spot commanding a view of Pittwater; the town and hotel of Newport at the head of Navigation, Broken Bay, and Barrenjoey directly in front ;Scotland Island and Towler's Bay right across the water, with the long and deep arm known as McGarr's Creek on the left. On the Towler's Bay side there are several residents who pull across the water to the wharf at Church Point and meet the steamer from Sydney or the coach from Manly, as the case may be. The dynamite powder hulk is moored in Towler's Bay, with residences on shore for the officers in charge. Mr. Robert Robinson has his residence of Raamah at the same place. Mr. Robinson informs me that he can grow to perfection such tropical fruits as bananas, guavas, ginger, mangoes, pineapples, Brazilian cherries, &c. This fact will demonstrate that there can be little or no frost in this locality. Other residents of this side of the bay are Mr. F. Chave, Woodlands, who has a very nice orchard, mostly summer fruit; Mr. E. C. Johnstone, who has a nice residence and orchard; Mr. A. Steffani is another prominent resident, while the residence of the firm of Flood and Oately occupies a lovely peninsula in the quiet waters of the bay. Mr. Geo. Brown has a residence and an orchard in the neighborhood, and there is also a small church and cemetery at Church Point. Manly to Broken Bay. (1893, November 11). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 19. Retrieved from

These facilities, including two cottages [2], a boatshed and workshop were inherited by the Trustees of the Kur-ring-gai Chase Trust. One was used by their onsite caretaker, the other rented out to holiday makers although Trustees themselves are reported to have been the visitors who used it most, not without murmurs this article would indicate: 

Kuring-Gai Chase Its History and Administration
In about the year 1900 the Government removed the powder hulks which held explosives from their position at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, back to Sydney Harbor and abandoned the establishment which had been provided at Pittwater. The then Government insisted upon the Trustees taking over the three houses concerned although the Trustees refused. Eventually they took over the houses on a promise of an extra grant of £250 being made for the cost of looking after the property, this to be added to the annual subsidy, which was then only £500. The Trustees employed a man to look after that part of the Chase and he lived in one of the houses, the principal house being retained fully furnished and made available for renting, to any respectable member of the public. The Trustees occupy this cottage if not otherwise in use, when they are down in that portion of the Chase making official inspections. If they should take it for their own private use they are not charged rent but have to pay all other expenses in connection with it. If the launches are used by any individual member of the Trust for his own pleasure they are required to pay for all fuel etc., used and for the man's time while in charge of the launch as well as while driving it. 
During the Holman Ministry Mr. Jackson's property known as "Beechwood" consisting of about 40 acres, was also purchased and included in the Chase areas. The same conditions apply to the cottage on that property as to the Towler’s Bay property taken over from the Explosives Department. 'These two cottages are rented at £3/10/- per week, excepting at Christmas and Easter weeks when the rate is £4. The Trustees and Ministers of the Crown however are allowed to use them free of rent charge when they are not otherwise occupied or required, and in such case they have to pay for lighting, washing, cleaning, provide their own food and pay for the use of the launches. The Trustees have the care and management of this large area together with the expenditure of the subsidy, which has only recently been raised to £2,500 per annum, and are paid nothing whatever for their services. The Managing Trustee gives practically the whole of his time to the management of the Chase and it would not appear unreasonable for sany f the Trustees to have the use of the cottages or the houseboat for a week or two on occasions when they are not otherwise occupied without being charged rent but having to pay, of course, other expenses. Kuring-Gai Chase (1929, March 14). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 17. Retrieved from 

The third cottage mentioned seems to have been installed the year before:

… and one just supplied to the KURING GAI TRUST for erection at Towler's Bay, Pittwater. We sell more ready-cut Cottages than any firm In this city,… WARREN BROS., LTD., CASH TIMBER MERCHANTS, 11 ALICE-ST, NEWTOWN. Tele., L2230.
Advertising. (1928, July 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

Kuring-gai Chase, the National Park along the Hawkesbury River [cartographic material] Issued by the Government Tourist Bureau, Challis House, [1910], Sydney. On verso: Information on Pittwater, route via Manly and Kuring-gai Chase.; sections from  - courtesy National Library of Australia, Image No.: - available online at:

Although the notification of the reservation and dedication of the National Park appeared in the Government Gazette of 14 December 1894, it took a fair amount of time after that for anything to really commence. 

Some little time ago Mr. Copeland (Minister for Lands) reserved a large area of land around Cowan Creek and the Hawkesbury River — about 58 square miles — for recreation purposes. The country is of a very rugged and picturesque character, and should form a favorite resort of the tourist and holiday-maker. It will be regulated by a board of trustees in the same manner as the National Park, and already several gentlemen have signified their willingness to accept seats on the hoard. The Minister had considerable difficulty in selecting a name for the new reserve, but eventually he chose the word Ku-Ring-Gai, which appears to have been the aboriginal name of the tribe settled in this locality. The word 'Chase ' he selected because he considered it more euphonious and appropriate than the word 'Park’. A New Park. (1894, May 31). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from

Ku-ring-gai Chase Trust was initially established as a temporary Trust by The Honorable Henry Copeland, Esq., Secretary for Lands. The temporary Trust comprised: The Honorable Sir Joseph Palmer Abbott; The Honorable William John Lyne, Esq.; The Honorable Robert Hoddle Driberg White, MLC; Francis Augustus Wright, Esq.; Thomas Allwright Dibbs, Esq.; Eccleston du Faur, Esq., FRGS; John De Villiers Lamb, Esq.; James Charles Cox, Esq, MD, FRCS; and The Honorable Henry Copeland, Esq. 

The land was finally granted to the Trustees by this Deed of Grant on 8 November 1900. The area of land dedicated for public recreation and known as "The Kuring-gai Chase" was about 35,300 acres to begin with. The focus was on the zig-zag path leading up to the Flagstaff Lookout atop Lovett's Bayinitially where works commenced, including the stone causeway, prior to then:


Sir,-The trustees have had the opportunity of paying an interesting official visit of inspection to the Chase. Accepting the well-known hospitality of the Hon R.H.D. White, they left Farm Cove in his steam yacht the White Star on Friday at 5pm. The trustees present were -The Hon H Copeland (president), Dr J C Cox, Messrs. E Du Faur, J. de V. Lamb, the Hon R. H. D White, M L C, the Hon F A Wright, M L A , and the hon secretary (Mr E J Siervern. The remaining trustees-the Hon Sir Joseph Abbott, Messrs T A Dibbs and W J Lyne-were unavoidably prevented from attending but Messrs Edmund Barton and Robert McMillan accompanied as guests.

After camping on Friday evening at the Basin, Pittwater, they proceeded to Lovett’s Bay (near Bay View), and inspected the works which have been carried out during the last year, under the Superintendence of Mr Du Faur. These consist of a substantial stone wharf, erected by consent of the owner of portion 17 and of the Lands Department, on the foreshore of portion 17, between high and low water marks, to deep waterand a stone causeway, 8ft wide and 200ft long, from the wharf to the entrance of the Chase, which, owing to the shallowness of the upper part of the bay, was inaccessible without this concession from the adjoining freeholder. From the entrance to the Chase a path about 8ft wide has been cleared and formed through what was previously an impenetrable scrub to the head of the bay, where there is an abundance of fresh water crossing this, a similar path has been formed along the southern side of Lovett’s Bay to a charming nook at the back of "The Peninsula," Mr Oatley’s property. Here the water falls, except during such a dry season as the present, over cliffs about 80ft to 100ft high into a rock dell, where cabbage-tree palms and other vegetation luxuriate. These paths are about a mile in length.

Returning to the northern side of the bay, at a point about 12 chains from the end of the causeway, the party then descended by a zigzag path, which has been laid out to the summit of a hill which towers over the bay at a height of nearly 500ft, to a flagstaff, which is less than 800ft, on a base-line from the starting-point. Notwithstanding the difficulty of overcoming such a grade, and an absolutely perpendicular escarpment of over 100ft near the summit, the pathway is of gradual and comparatively easy ascent: it has been visited by many ladies, and from its summit a splendid view is obtained over Pittwater, Newport, and the ocean on one side, and the rugged features of the Chase on the other, a description of which must be left for another occasion. From the Flagstaff another path has been scrubbed for rather over a mile, to the Flat Rock; a peculiar formation, of which a graphic description has already appeared in the press. The trustees returned to the yacht by noon highly gratified with what they had seen, and expressing their astonishment at the amount of work done, and the facility of access afforded over so large a tract of country, previously inaccessible, at an expenditure including wharf and causeway of less then £200KURING-GAI CHASE. (1896, February 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from


IN THE KURING GAI CHASE (1900, April 7). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 806. Retrieved from  Also visit:  Pittwater’s Parallel Estuary: The Cowan ‘Creek’ and it's record of SCENES AT COWAN (KURING-GAI CHASE) , BROKEN BAY. (Photos, by Kerry and Co.. George-street, Sydney.) (See illustrations on this and next page.) SCENES AT COWAN (KURING-GAI CHASE), BROKEN BAY. (1900, December 15). Australian Town and Country Journal(NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 40. Retrieved from

Lovett Bay, Pittwater. A charming inlet in the Ku-ring-gai Chase, which may, be reached by motor launches, to be hired at Newport, Bay View, or Church Point.  From: THE BEAUTIFUL SHIRE OF WARRINGAH. (1915, April 7).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 34. Retrieved from

The Ku-ring-gai Chase was established principally due to the efforts of Eccleston Du Faur, who had pressed for the establishment of "a National Park for North Sydney" for nearly forty years. Du Faur was appointed the first Managing Trustee. The Trust managed the Park without public subsidy until 24 November 1967, when control passed to the National Parks and Wildlife Service.  [1.]

One of the original cottages was leased to the Youth Hostels Association, by some accounts in 1943, - it appears among their lists for such early in 1944:

'THROUGHOUT Europe and America young people are enjoying the privileges of "Youth Hostels."
The idea is so good that. In my opinion, an effort should be made to start a similar movement in Australia. Here is the plan in brief:
For a nominal sum (2/6 or 5/-) anyone is eligible to join the Youth Hostel Association.
Primarily the association is to help those who wish to enjoy a "walking holiday." The hostels are arranged in such order that they are within easy one-day's walking distance of each other. A warden is chosen to supervise each hostel, and strict and sensible rules are enforced. For the sum of one shilling per night the use of bed, blankets, stove, kitchen utensils, fuel, and light is provided. How about it, Young Australia?
Mrs. I. M. Jackson, Middleton St., Highes S21, Vic. So they Say. (1936, May 2). The Australian Women's Weekly(1933 - 1982), p. 19. Retrieved from 

On March 20 last year, the National Fitness Council opened the first youth; hostel in NSW at 'Little Marley,' National Park.' Hostellers are celebrating this anniversary by a 'Back to Marley weekend; Accommodation at Little Marley has been booked out and several walking parties are being organised to visit the hostel that weekend. At the hostels at Towler's Bay, and Apple Tree Flat hostellers will also be celebrating this important occasion and there are very few vacancies still available. Hostellers, anxious to participate in these festivities will have to hurry with their applications if they do not want to be disappointed. The Youth Hostel Association also Completed its chain of hostels through the' Kangaroo Valley from Moss Vale to Berrynild Now the Distances between the hostels average about ten miles. The completing of this chain has been made possible through, the cooperation of residents in these districts who are willing to provide overnight accommodation for members of the Youth Hostel Association. These residents are whole heartedly behind the Youth Hostel scheme and are anxious to see the movement develop. … YOUTH HOSTELS (1944, March 18).National Advocate (Bathurst, NSW : 1889 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

National Fitness Bush Hikes For School Children
SYDNEY: A new feature of National Fitness work in schools this year will be the introduction of extensive bush walks and hikes for groups of school children under the guidance of specially trained teachers. These bush excursions will probably take up to three days at a time as it is planned to use youth hostels which are established in the better known sections of the coastal bushlands. Youth hostels, which provide sleeping accommodation, water and cooking facilities, are established at Cowan Creek, Hawkesburv River, Little Marley, Kangaroo Valley, Broken Bay, Pittwater, and other places. Hiking parties will be instructed in bush lore and elementary botany. The hikes, which will be held during school periods, are planned to broaden the general knowledge of children who normally do not have much time away from densely populated areas.The The change from school routine to the fresh air of the bush together with healthy exercise and new sites will help children concentrate more on their studies when they return to the schoolroom. National Fitness Bush Hikes For School Children (1947, January 16). The Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from

Charles Autry Hall, the gentleman who went from being an Artist to Farming to Dentistry, including being one of those who helped set up the original Sydney Dental Hospital, helping change the Law so quacks were out and Dentists were in, and had terms as the President of the NSW Dentists Association when that first began, is the gentleman who built the Pittwater YHA so many now visit as a family holiday home. This was on the opposite side of Morning (Towler's) Bay.

Towler's/Morning Bay - section from 1905 Land Records Map - courtesy State Records of NSW

Local knowledge states he used to camp here prior to acquiring 40 acres from Arthur Woods's wife Jane in 1913. Arthur Wood had the original portion. (Certificate of Title Volume 931 Folio 231, Parish of Broken Bay, County of Cumberland)

transfer of sale Notice - Lands Records NSW - [4.]

Towler's/Morning Bay - section from 1924 Land Records Map - courtesy Land Records of NSW [5.]

He was applying for an Oyster Lease in 1913, renewed by his family in 1941 after he passed away. Both these gentleman are celebrated in Pittwater still, Mr. Woods in Woods or Woody Point and Mr. Hall in Hall's Wharf.

Renewal of Leases.
APPROVAL has been given for the renewal of the Oyster Culture Leases specified hereunder, for a term of five years from the dates and at the rentals set out, but without right of further renewal.

No. 15,783, Ernestine Hermine Penty Hall, Espa Eunice Autrey Wilkes and Felix Autrev  Hall, trustees of the estate of the late Charles Autry Hall, 200 yards at Pitt Water (plan cat. No. P. 34-42) ; annual rental, 10s., from the 29th June, 1940. 
These leases are renewed subject to the special condition that the whole or any part of the land comprised therein may be resumed at any time without compensation for the granting thereover of a special lease under the Crown Lands Acts, and that the whole or any part of such land may be withdrawn from lease if required for any public purpose with compensation determined in accordance with the provisions of section 7G of the Fisheries and Oyster Farms Act, 1935-1938. FISHERIES AND OYSTER FARMS ACT, 1935-1938. (1941, June 20). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales(Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2256. Retrieved from 

The hostel was originally built as a family home by dentist Charles Hall in the 1920s. Charles Hall died in 1937 and the Towlers Bay property was transferred to his wife Ernestine, daughter Espa and son Felix in 1938.  They then sold the property residue on 26th August 1949 to Robert Vaughn Jones. 

The property was then purchased by Narrabeen Girls High Teacher Ebena Isles in 1959 – a lady who was friends with ‘Paddy’ Pallin and did some pretty amazing work prior to moving to Pittwater permanently. There's a little more on both these people below.

Department of Education
HIS Excellency the Governor and the Executive Council, have approved of Mrs. Doris Magee, Miss Ebena Isles, and Miss Joyce McMillan, being appointed as members of the National Fitness Council of New South Wales, vice Frank Austin Pallin, John Patrick Metcalf, and Miss Dorothy Llewellyn.

HIS Excellency the Governor and the Executive Council, have approved of Mr. Royston James Henderson, being appointed as a member of the National Fitness Council of New South Wales, in the absence of Mr. Colin Hugh John McKinnon, on long service leave.
Acting Premier
APPOINTMENTS (1958, June 27).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1919. Retrieved from 

The home purchased by Ebena  was then named 'Bensuta' after an Indonesian friend told her it meant ‘full of good things’. As an early YHA member Ebena had visited the original Pittwater Kur-Ring-Gai Chase cottages and Pittwater YHA hostel/Towlers Powder Magazine, on the opposite side of the bay, several times. 

The NPWS was established in October 1967 to manage our system of national parks, state parks and nature reserves. When the National Parks and Wildlife Service acquired and then demolished that original building, Ebena donated her home to the YHA and it has been a hostel since 1967.

It is due to Ebena's generosity in giving her home to Youth Hostels Australia that so many have access to this glorious place now. 

Trustees appointed &c…
Towler's Bay, Pittwater—For Land for Public Recreation 4777 
Index page (1920, September 30).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. xxx. Retrieved from 

Sydney, 13th July, 1928.
IT is hereby notified that, in accordance with the provisions of the 26th section of the Crown Lands Consolidation Act, 1913, the undermentioned gentleman is hereby appointed as a Trustee of Ku-ring-gai Chase, Hawkesbury River, area about 35,300 acres, dedicated 14th December, 1894, for Public Recreation, and the following additions thereto, namely: 3 acres 3 rood, 20 perches at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, dedicated 12th July, 1911; 7 acres 1 rood and 15 acres at Coaster's Retreat, Pittwater, dedicated 2nd August, 1911 and 42 acres 2 roods 7 perches at The Basin, Pittwater, dedicated 31st August, 1917, namely:—
Frank Chapman. Esquire (in the place of Mr. H. Brers, deceased).
[Misc. 1928-5,900]
R. T. BALL, Minister for Lands. 
Government Gazette Notices (1928, July 13). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3231. Retrieved from 

Sydney, 5th December, 1930.
IT is hereby notified that, in accordance with the provisions of section 26 of the Crown Lands Consolidation Act, 1913, George William Hitchcock, Esquire, is hereby appointed, in the place of the late Mr. Harry Wolstenholme, as a, Trustee of Ku-ring-gai Chase, Hawkesbury River, area about 35,300 acres, dedicated 14th December, 1894, for Public Recreation, and the following additions thereto, namely: 3 acres 1 rood 20 perches at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, dedicated 12th July, 1911; 15 acres and 7 acres 1 rood at Coaster's Retreat, Pittwater, dedicated 2nd August, 1911; and 42 acres 2 roods 7 perches at The Basin, Pittwater, dedicated 31st August, 1917. P. 30-11,500.
Minister for Lands. 
Government Gazette Appointments and Employment (1930, December 5).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4816. Retrieved from

WHEREAS the land at Towler Bay, Pittwater, New South Wales, described in the schedule hereunder, is no longer required by the Commonwealth for any public purpose, His Excellency the Governor-General in Council has approved that authority be granted for the disposal of such land by retransfer to the Government of the State of New South Wales.
Minister of State for the Interior. (L.1320.)
All that piece of land at Towler Bay, Pittwater, containing an area of 3 acres 1 rood 20 perches more or less, being a property entered on page 29 of the Schedule of Transferred Properties in the State of New South Wales and further inscribed as being Reserve No. 140, Parish of Broken Bay, County of Cumberland, State of New South Wales, as shown hachured on plan hereunder. 

RETRANSFER OF DEFENCE LAND AT TOWLER BAY, PITTWATER, NEW SOUTH WALES, TO THE GOVERNMENT OF THE STATE OF NEW SOUTH WALES. (1932, May 12). Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), p. 661. Retrieved, from 

Notification of Resumption
IT is hereby notified and declared by His Excellency the Governor, acting with the advice of the Executive Council, that in pursuance of the provisions of section 17 of the State Planning Authority Act, 1963, so much of the land described in the Schedule hereto as is Crown land is hereby appropriated, and so much of the said land as is private property is hereby resumed, under the Public Works Act, 1912, as amended, for the purposes of the State Planning Authority Act, 1963, and that the said land is vested in The State Planning Authority of New South Wales.
Dated at Sydney, this 14th day of October, 1970.
(l.s.) A. R, CUTLER, Governor. By His Excellency's Command,
P. H. MORTON, Minister for Local Government.
All that piece or parcel of land situate at Towler's Bay in Bona Crescent, Shire of Warringah, Parish of Broken Bay, and County of Cumberland, being part of portion 13, being also the whole of the land in Certificate of Title, volume 8350, folio 240, having a total area of 16 acres 3 roods 35 ½  perches or thereabouts, said to be in the possession of Isabel Mary Wilde and the estate of Benjamin Cecil Cannon. (File No. 7/45 IA 609/2) (1451) STATE PLANNING AUTHORITY ACT, 1963 (1970, October 23). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4220. Retrieved from 

About Youth Hostels Australia

A German schoolteacher named Richard Schirrmann came up with the idea of youth hostels in 1909 when he was leading his class on a hike through the countryside, taking shelter each night in barns and local schools. In 1912, Schirrmann opened the first Jugendherberge, or youth hostel, in the Altena Castle and in 1932, established the International Youth Hostel Federation – what’s now known as Hostelling International (HI).

Hostelling arrived in Australia in 1939 when the first youth hostel was established at Warrandyte in Victoria, and it wasn’t long before budget accommodation was being provided across the country to bring young people together in the great outdoors. Over the decades hostels began springing up in the city as well as the bush, but YHA never lost sight of Schirrmann’s philosophy of education and friendship. 

Youth Hostels In Mountains
Sydney.-The Youth Hostel Association of N.S.W. plans to establish a chain of hostels across the Blue Mountains, on the route taken by the explorers Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth.
The chairman of the Association (Mr. P. Pallin) said that the object was to assist hikers and travellers; especially young people to greater knowledge, care and love of the countryside.
The hostels would follow the British and European system and members who used them must either walk, cycle or ride horse-back during their tours.Youth Hostels In Mountains (1951, March 19).Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from 

Beds, 2/6 A Night By A Staff Correspondent 
IF YOU WANT to tour the country, and are not afraid of walking or cycling, all it need cost you to sleep in reasonable comfort is 2/6 a night.
A ND all you need do to enjoy the privilege of such cheap accommodation in these days of soaring prices is to join the Youth Hostel Association.
You don't even have to be particularly youthful to join, for membership is open to people of all ages and both sexes who are prepared to abide by the association's few and simple rules.
There are already 43 of these youth hostels in four Australian States. Eight of them are on the outskirts of Sydney.
A SPOKESMAN for the association said last week:
"A hostel is a place where shelter, bedding, washing accommodation and a fireplace are the minimum provisions.
"At most overseas hostels meals are provided very cheaply by the resident wardens.
"In Australia there are no hostel wardens yet, so it is the custom for members to bring their own food and cook it themselves."
Asked about membership, the spokesman said:
"When we say anyone may join, we mean, of course, anyone who wants to use the hostels for the purpose for which they have been established and according to the few rules we, have made.
"There is no smoking or, drinking allowed in hostels. Lights are put out at 10 p.m. No person may stay more than three consecutive nights at one place, with the exception of Kiandra."
Membership fees arc cheap: Only 15/ a year for adults and 10/ for juniors.
You join by filling in an application form and getting two reputable 'people' to nominate you. You then pay a test visit to a hostel and if you have no outstandingly unsuitable qualities, and you like it, you are accepted.
Then you receive a Hostel card which you can use at any of the 43 hostels in Australia or anywhere else in the world. Nine of the hostels in Tasmania take you in easy stages down the beautiful coast.'
The hostels in N.S.W. and round Sydney are at Pittwater, Broken Bay, Bobbin Head, the Blue Mountains, the South Coast, and at Kiandra.Beds, 2/6 A Night (IF YOU DON'T MIND WALKING). (1951, May 13). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 2. Retrieved from

Planned Camping Is Aim Of Youth Hostel Groups
NEXT Thursday evening, 133 members of the New South Wales Youth Hostels Association will leave Sydney to spend the Easter week-end in the country.
Of that number, 60 will hike by day and rest at night in hostels at Stanwell Tops, on the South Coast, Towler's Bay, on the western shore of Pittwater, and Apple Tree Flat, near Bobbin Head.
A party of 13 members will travel to Kiandra to put their hostel in order for the skiing season; 30 will go to Penrith for the Australian canoeing championships; and 30 will walk and camp in the bush near Narrabri, Canberra, the Blue Mountains and Barring-ton Tops,
This week I attended a Y.H.A. club night to find out more about the association and its plans for the Easter week-end.
The Basic Plank . . .
The chairman of the N.S.W. association, Mr. F. A. Pallin, said: "The basic plank of all Y.H.A. associations throughout the world has been expressed very well; but I'm afraid I can't remember the exact words. Ted will know them, though."
He beckoned to a young man whom he introduced as Mr. Ted Stephens, secretary of the N.S.W. association and chairman of the association's snow section.
"To help all, especially young people of limited means." said Mr. Stephens without hesitation, "to a greater knowledge, love and care of the countryside, particularly by providing hostels or other simple accommodation for them in their travels."
"That's right," said Mr. Pallin. The Y.H.A. began in Germany 44 years ago when a Westphalian schoolteacher, Herr Richard Schirrmann, suggested the building of Jugendherbergen (youth hostels), each at a day's walking distance from the next.
From Germany the youth hostel idea spread to Holland, Switzerland and, in 1930, to Great Britain.
To-day there are 2,559 hostels established in 27 countries, including India, Morocco, Algeria, Italy, France, Belgium, Iceland, Canada, the United States, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
Australia, with its great area and small population, is not so suitable for hostelling as are the more closely settled European countries; but the Australian association, first established in Victoria in 1939, was operating 46 hostels, with 703 beds, last year. There are now about 5,000 members in Australia, 1,250 of whom belong to the N.S.W. association.
The N.S.W. association controls 10 hostels: Apple Tree Flat, Towler's Bay, Stanwell Tops, Springwood, Hazelbrook, Kiandra, Woronora River, Little Marley (South Coast of the National Park), Juno Head (north side of Broken Bay), and West Head (south side of Broken Bay).
"We have no chains of hostels yet," said Mr. Pallin. "But we hope to expand and fill in some of the gaps. We have just received permission from the National Park trustees to build another hostel between Stanwell Tops and Little Marley."
Journeys Abroad
"One of the biggest things the association offers its members is the opportunity of using hostels in Britain and on the Continent," said Mr. Stephens. "Today, 500 of our members are over there."
"Tell him about the snow section, Ted." said Mr. Pallin, and Mr. Stephens continued: "We built the Kiandra hostel to pro-vide cheap accommodation and equipment for snow sports. For seven guineas a week we give shelter, skis and stocks, and ski-ing instruction. This Easter week-end we have a work-party going up to get in stores, and check and prepare skiing equipment."
Mr. Stephens, who is a field officer for a N.S.W. cannery, has passed his first ski-ing examination.
"I'm not a good skier, though," he said. " "You should be talking to Max Baldwin, our best skier. He skis and canoes despite the fact that he's been crippled by polio since childhood."
Mr. Baldwin, a dark-haired young man, walking on two metal crutches, is a bootmaker by trade. He is a member of the association's snow section and chairman of its canoe club. He will be competing in the canoeing championships at Penrith next week- end.
"In the wintertime, when I can't canoe, I've got skiing," he said. "And in the summertime, when I can't ski, I've got canoeing.
'There are 153 canoeable rivers in New South Wales. So far, we've been on the Fish, Kangaroo, Hunter, Manning, Wil-liams, Shoalhaven, and Wollondilly-Lower Warragamba rivers.
Canoeing Thrill
"There are some very good rapids on the Warragamba. The last time I went down, my mate and I had four spills on the one day. If you have a spill in rapids, you go through with the canoe and then drag it ashore, repack it, and get going again."
At a table nearby, Mr. Lyall Fleming, president of the association's campers' club, and Mr. David Henson, assistant information officer of the N.S.W. Federation of Bushwalking Clubs, were plotting a bushwalking trip on a map of the Narrabri district.
"There's Narrabri," said Mr. Fleming, who is an engineer during the week. "And here, about 30 miles east of Narrabri, is the Nandewar Range.
"Eight of us are going up to Narrabri by train next Thursday night. We'll travel from there by taxi-cab to the Kaputar Plateau, and walk 16 miles along the ,top of the ridge to Killarney Gap. It's only a day's walk if you're in good condition. We'll spend another two days exploring the range beyond Killarney Gap.
"The club organises walking and camping trips each week-end, and on annual holidays most of us take off for places like Tasmania."
Planned Camping Is Aim Of Youth Hostel Groups (1953, March 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Youth Hostels
Sir,--On behalf of the members of this association I wish to convey our sincere thanks for the article in the "Herald," March 31, giving details of the activities of the Youth Hostel Association in this State.
We feel, however, that we have mislead your correspondent on one point. It concerns the control of three of the hostels mentioned, namely, Little Marley, Juno Head, and West Head. Originally these buildings were designed for and placed in the charge of the Y.H.A. by the National Fitness Council. They have in the last three years reverted to the council for use primarily as school camps, with the association retaining the right of use after the needs of the school camping programme has been met.
E. STEPHENS, Hon. Secretary,
Youth Hostel Association of N.S.W. 
Youth Hostels (1953, April 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 
Kuring-Gai Chase Pittwater Lovett's Bay from Flagstaff Hill. (Mr Dyer in foreground) - courtesy Government Printing Office glass plate negatives, courtesy State Archives NSW. Digital ID: NRS4481 [7_16275] 1312. 

Setting out on the main inspection, the trustees left the houseboat by launch and visited the head of Smith's Crock, the head of Coal and Candle Creek, Jerusalem Bay, past Barrenjoey Lighthouse, Longnose Point, Pittwater, Lovett's Bay, and Towler's Bay. Here the climbing started. Almost overhead from the trustees' buildings, at Towler's Bay are to be seen great overhanging lodges of rock, called Perry's Lookout, after Mr. John Perry, a member of the trust. To reach this point, a very steep ascent had to be negotiated. Once at the top, the energy of the climbers was well rewarded. The view was simply magnificent. Far below, about ' 450ft., were the buildings, the wharves, the launches, and the sea. Intercepting the view downward, were further ledges of rock and a forest of apple-tree, ironbark, oak, peppermint, cabbage-tree, etc. The sight of a forest of trees from above was distinctly novel. Just out to sea, and in a line with the vegetation were to be seen countless myriads of jellyfish of enormous size. They dotted the water for a considerable distance. One could see Narrabeen and Big Reef in the distance, Pittwater, Scotland Island, M'Carr's Creek, Bay View, and Church Point in the south. The ocean was in easy reach to the eastward over a ridge forming the eastern boundary of Pittwater. 

A walk of nearly a mile on an excellent track brought the trustees to Bairne trig station, where the view, possibly a trifle less perfect, was much more comprehensive. South Head and the lighthouse, distant about 15 miles, 'and the towers of St. Patrick's College, Manly, could be clearly seen. Many successive ranges of hills and Cape Three Points met the eye looking northward, while westward houses at Hornsby, and sometimes a train wore visible. The expanse of ocean favored by the early afternoon sun heightened the attractions. With the aid of glasses the site of the wreck of the Maitland could be located to the northward. For the convenience of visitors, the trustees have erected fireplaces, and a tank of water at Bairne. Descending a zig-zag pathway, the travellers reached the Basin, where an informal discussion took place as to- the best place to construct a landing Jetty to afford protection for small craft from the north-easterlies. It is probable that this work and the erection of baths inside the Basin will be undertaken before very long. The Basin is very popular as an anchorage and yachting rendezvous. Launches and yachts can go round the bench— a spit — and sail in the stretch of water behind it. There is an area of about fifty acres adjacent to the beach, which, it Is understood, the Government intends to resume for camping purposes. The trustees and the public interested are very desirous that this convenience should be afforded. There can be no doubt that with the wider dissemination of information concerning the attractions of the Chase, the area will become much more popular, and it may, in time, draw similar thousands to those who go to National Park.
KURING-GAI CHASE. (1912, October 22).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 9. Retrieved from 

Charles Autry Hall

The son of an Englishman (Charles) and French lady (Brilliante D'Autry) Charles Hall tried his hand at being an Artist and farmer, something his son (who attended and graduated from Hawkesbury Agricultural College),would take up with huge success, prior to being among those who pushed for and oversaw the role of dentists change from being a free-for-all where some were quacks, to a recognised profession in New South Wales.

His first wife died soon after their marriage

HALL—GARD.—February 19, at Walker-street, North Sydney, by the Rev. James A. Nolan, Mary Elizabeth Gard, to Charles Autry Hall. Family Notices (1896, April 11). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 785. Retrieved from 

Emmaville is a village on the Northern Tablelands in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. It is in the Glen Innes Severn Council district.

Over a decade later he married again and was father to Felix Autry Hall and Espa Eunice Autry Hall.

2nd marriage
8188/1910  HALL Charles Autry  ANDERSON Ernestine Hermine Penty Rylstone-Merriwaa Shire

A wedding took place at Cassilis on March 30th, when Mr. Charles Hall, of North Sydney, was married to Miss Ernestine Anderson, only daughter of Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Anderson, of Cassilis. The ceremony was performed by Rev. E. J. Wittycombe, B.A., rector of Merriwa. A CASSILIS MARRIAGE. (1910, May 5).Mudgee Guardian and North-Western Representative (NSW : 1890 - 1954), p. 23. Retrieved from 

Cassilis is a village in the central west of New South Wales, Australia. Its population in the 2006 census was 346. It was formerly known as Dalkeith.

The circumstances that led to his first wife's death are unknown, however, he took to Dentistry and never looked back, being among the first to be registered under the new Dentists Act of 1900:

Register of dentists in this State
A314, 25th March 1901 - Charles Hall, Blues Street, North Sydney.
REGISTER OF DENTISTS OF THE STATE OF NEW SOUTH WALES FOR 1914. (1915, February 3). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 623. Retrieved from 

Sir, —Although an enthusiastic admirer of your unflinching efforts in the cause of Justice, I feel compelled to take exception to your article in last Sunday's issue of ..irm on the Dental Board, because you have apparently been misinformed in Borne particulars, and also because the substance of it is against your own words on the subject when debating the passing of the Dentists Bill in Parliament on August 23, 1900, when you are reported ( Parliamentary Debates,' No. 20) as having said :— ' But if they wished to be registered as competent, what was more reasonable than to provide that they should satisfy the board, who would be called upon to register them if they had a knowledge of dentistry.' 
So far the board appear to have got through a deal of very onerous work in a very short time. All men who have been practising dentistry only, for the period named by the Act, and have applied, are, I believe, registered, and perhaps numbers of well-known chemist dentists too. But there are doubtless many who combine dentistry with other calling!, about whom it is difficult to obtain reliable data. So the board has apparently asked them to give the names and addresses of the people they have done dental work for in order to show their bona fides. This should not offend anyone that is genuinely practising, and would doubtless satisfy the board, who are to be applauded in their effort to discriminate between the man who has merely had his name up as a dentist and the man (however humble) who has really practised dentistry. As to the office hours at Richmond-terrace, 7 till 9, they are very convenient to practising men,' as not interfering' with the valuable daylight. But I may state that I  have done business there between 1 and 2 p.m. With record to the registrar being employed during the day as a dentist, you are misinformed. The registrar is a well known commercial man — not a dentist ; he is of deservedly high repute, and possesses exceptional qualifications for the office he bolus. I have no axe to grind in this matter, but simply a desire to advance the ' Truth '—yours and ours— and will conclude in your own words—' What the public has a right to expect from the board is that it shall differentiate between dentistic quacks and genuine dentists.' Apologising for trespassing at such length.
Yours, etc., 
THE DENTISTS' BOARD. (1901, May 5).Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from 

The Dental Hospital of Sydney.
INSPECTION of the premises of the Dental Hospital of Sydney, which are at 219 Elizabeth-street, shows that a most efficient and useful institution has been established by the dentists of Sydney and their friends. The institution has already done much and promises much more towards the relief of that unfortunately large class of our community who are not in a position to pay for professional attention.
Not only does physical suffering receive attention, but the more important, more subtle, hopeless, and health-destroying afflictions which result from such conditions and from the loss of the natural organs are also treated gratuitously. At present the hospital has no more than four rooms— a waiting-room, an office (used also for examination of applicants for relief), an extracting and anaesthetic room, and a room in which teeth are filled and the necessary processes for supplying artificial teeth take place. The rooms are suitably furnished with the usual dental chairs, anaesthetic tables, instruments, &c., but necessarily there are many things which the council hope to add as funds become avail-able. Altogether the institution presents a very bright, cleanly, and efficient appearance, and has, indeed, anything but the depressing effect that one would almost expect to find. Crowded with patients as it was on the day the "Mail's" photographers visited it, everything went forward without hitch, and in a well ordered manner, and although many of the operations— it was anaesthetic day — were quite of a serious character, it was surprising to see how cheerful everyone was, including the patients, and what good recoveries were made and how quickly it was possible for patients to be discharged. The idea of establishing the hospital originated with the dentists, who felt that something should be done to prevent Sydney becoming a reproach, as it is not possible to go to any large city, and very few small ones, without finding a dental hospital, a dental infirmary, or some institution where dental charity is dispensed. After many more or less informal gatherings, on Tuesday, September 24, 1901, a meeting of the dental profession was held under the presidency of the Hon. W. J. Trickett, M.L.C., a member of the Dental Board. Resolutions were adopted affirming the desirability of establishing a dental hospital and arranging the necessary means to bring such an institution into existence.


At a subsequent meeting, presided over by Mr. G. Norton Russell, also a member of the Dental Board, a constitution was agreed to, and a provisional board of management appointed.. The beginning of 1902 found the hospital as yet only on paper, and its founders seeking the necessary funds and a suit-able location. Suitable premises were at length secured, and thanks largely to the generosity of the members of the dental profession, who, in addition to volunteering their services for the actual work, contributed most literally to the initial expenses, and to the Lady Mayoress (Mrs. T. Hughes), who assisted to form a ladies furnishing committee, Friday, October 17, 1902, became a red letter day in the history of the institution, as on that date arrangements had so far progressed as to permit of the official opening. This ceremony was performed by his Excellency the Governor (Vice-Admiral Sir Harry Holdsworth Raw-son, K.C.B.), who also consented to become patron of the hospital, and further showed his interest by a most generous subscription donated by Lady Raw-son and himself. Since then the hospital has been open to the public each day, with the exception of Saturdays, Sunday, and public holidays. The record of work done from October 20 to December 31—50 working days — is as follows :— Total cases treated : New patients, 468 ; patients treated more than once, 467 — total, 935. Urgent


Back Row— Reading from Left to Right: Dr. H. Peach, Dr. W. T. Beckett, S. Chaim, G. Louis Gillam (Secretary), Dr. O. Davis, E. Reading, C. Hall. 
Middle Row: Dr. F. D. Magnus, H. Paterson, E. K. Satchell, Photo. by Talma, 374 George-street, Sydney. Dr. E. Randolph Magnus, C. C. Marshall, E. Blackwell. Sitting down in front : P. C. Charlton, Donald Smith. 

cases : Persons in pain treated without recommendation, 285. Extractions : Ordinary,. 665 ; anaesthetic, 377-total, 1042. Fillings (amalgam and cement), 186 ; dressings, treatments, and other operations, 259 ; dentures supplied, 11 : number of anaesthetic cases, 35. Average daily attendance, 25 ; average patients daily treated, 19. 

In many respects the government of this institution is unlike any other of which we have knowledge. In the first place, all the operators are "registered dental surgeons," and most of them gentlemen in the foremost rank of their profession. These give their services gratuitously. Neither medical nor dental officers receive any remuneration whatever. Then it is provided that no charge of any kind is made to the patient, even though artificial teeth are provided. The council explain that as their only desire is to work for the truly necessitous, the payment of any fee would prove that they were not of the class that could properly be treated at the hospital. By adhering to this rule they think that no injury can possibly be done to the practice of other members of the profession. It is necessary, of course, that care should be exercised to prevent imposition, and many are the funny tales which are told of attempts made to obtain cheap dentistry. As a preliminary to investigation, a form has to be filled up by any practising dentist, medical practitioner, governor of the hospital, superintendent, or other officer in charge of a Government or Public institution, and this alone or supported by other testimony is seldom declined. In cases of pain, however, the officer of the day uses his discretion, generally in the direction of immediate relief regardless of any recommendation. In some cases something more than dental treatment is necessary, and the applicants are then sent on to the medical officers of the institution, whose prescriptions are dispensed at the expense of the hospital. The institution has a large field for its operations. There are few charitable institutions which are more practical or more needed, not only as regards the relief it affords to individuals, but the relief it will in time afford to general hospitals, whose officers have continually been heard to regret the absence of a dental hospital. Now that there is one let us hope it will not suffer in efficiency through lack of financial support, and that it may be enabled to keep on in the philanthropic course along which it is at present travelling.


To those charitably disposed there is given the hint that visitors are welcomed and that inspection is invited. The following information should influence public support : — EXCERPTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION. The council shall consist of the president, vice-president, trustees, and hon. treasurer of the institution, together with eight elective members and four Government nominees. The government of the institution shall be vested in the life governors and governors thereof. Every subscriber of £10 or upwards in one sum, or within 12 months more than one sum, becomes a life governor. Any society or public company, or firm, subscribing £10 or upwards, in one sum, or within 12 months, in more than one sum, may nominate a life governor. Every annual subscriber of £1 or more becomes a governor. The powers of life governors and governors shall be exercised through a council to be elected by them as hereinafter provided. 
Providing that the persons and cases are considered suitable for treatment in the institution :— (a) Any governor donating £1 annually shall have the privilege of recommending five patients to the institution each year. (b) Any governor donating £3 annually shall have the privilege of recommending 20 patients. (c) Any life governor may recommend five patients each year. (d) Any life governor contributing £50 shall have the privilege of recommending 20 patients each year. (e) Any governor or other person who shall con-tribute £50 and upwards in one sum to the institution shall be considered a "benefactor," and his name shall be displayed on a board in a conspicuous part of the institution.

Patron, his Excellency the Governor, Sir Harry Holdsworth Rawsan, K.C.B. Executive : President, Dr. E. Randolph Magnus ; vice-president, Mr. E. K. Satchell ; trustees, Dr. W. T. Beckett, Mr. E. Reading, Mr. H. Paterson ; treasurer, Mr. C. C. Marshall ; council, Mr. P. C. Charlton, Mr. S. Chaim, Mr. E. Blackwell, Mr. Donald Smith, Mr. C. Hall, Dr. O. Davis, Dr. F. D. Magnus, Dr. Henry Peach ; hon. solicitor, Mr. A W. Reynolds ; auditor, Mr. David Fell ; secretary, Mr. G. Louis Gillam. HONORARY MEDICAL STAFF. Hon. con. surgeon, Dr. C. B. Clubbe ; hon. con. oral. surgeon, Dr. A. J. Brady ; hon. surgeons, Dr. J. B. Nash, M.L.C., Dr. H. L. Maitland ; hon. oral. surgeon, Dr. R. Arthur ; hon. radiographer, Dr. Shand ; hon. physicians, Dr. A. Murray Will, Dr. Gregory O'Neill ; hon. anaesthetists, Dr. H. J. Marks, Dr. Stacy, Dr. M. O'G. Hughes, Dr. J. MacDonald Gill, Dr. Caleb Terry, Dr. Arthur A. Palmer ; pharmacists, Messrs. Marshall Brothers. 
Hon. con. dental surgeons, Dr. E. R. Magnus, Mr. E. K. Satchell, Mr. Edward Reading, Dr. A. J. Syme, Dr. L. Carter, Mr. S. Chaim, Mr. E. C. Brydan. Hon. dental surgeons, Dr. Cliff, Dr. J. Feild Deck, Dr. J. E. Forsyth, Mr. W. R. Fitzsimons, Dr. W. T. Beckett, Mr. H. Paterson, Mr. E. T. Pinhey, Mr. W. R. Grant, Dr. Henry Peach, Mr T. W. Liddell, Mr. A. E. Ramsay, Mr. C. C. Marshall, Mr. E. Blackwell, Mr. P. Charlton, Mr. C. Hall, Dr. F. D. Magnus, Mr. A. E. Reading, Dr. J. S. Tayler, Dr. O. Davis, Mr. Donald Smith, Mr. Herbert M. Younger, Mr. F. L. Davis, Mr. S. A. Nash. Hon. assistant dental surgeons, Mr. H. G. Hardie, Mr. W. Holme Nolan, Mr. H. H. Wells, Mr. Edward A. Fisher, Mr. R. M. Hassall, Mr. W. S. Peisley, Mr. Reginald Green, Mr. Cecil Y. Norton, Mr. M. A. Noble, Mr. W. Medd, Mr. A. J. Caro, Mr. G. T. Chauval, Mr. Arthur Jones, Mr. W. O. Hughes, Mr. W. M. Amphlett, Mr. C. Horwitz, Mr. H. L. Chambers, Mr. W. G. Robinson, Mr. H. G. Vaug-han, Mr. A. G. Knight. Mr. L. P. Solomons.
The Dental Hospital of Sydney. (1903, February 4). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 286. Retrieved from 

The annual meeting of the Dental Association of New South Wales was held at the rooms, 118 Pitt-street, on Thursday. The election of office-bearers for the ensuing year resulted as follows:-President, Mr. Charles Hall; vice-president, Mr. E. Gilman Moon, hon, secretary, Dr. D. P. Folby; hon. recording secretary, Dr. Sims Trevor; hon. treasurer, Mr. W. R. Fitzsimons; executive committee, Drs. Weston and E. Vickers and Messrs. S. P. Head, A. W. Cleary, C. G. Hodgson, H. H, Wells, and W. Medd; credential committee, Dr. Bench and Messrs, A. C, Vickers, W. Gabriel, E. A. Fisher, W. Holm Nolan, and P. L. Pawley. DENTAL ASSOCIATION. (1905, December 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from 


At a meeting, of the Dental Association of New South Wales last night, Mr. Charles Hall (president) in the chair, it was decided to forward a petition to the Senate of the University, to take into consideration the advisability of

(1) permitting any registered dentist who has been in practice for five years of who has served an apprenticeship and passed the Dental Board exam to proceed to a degree in dentistry after passing through a modified course without matriculation. 

(2) To permit, the attachment of the Dental Association class to the University School as extra-mural classes or to establish a class for dental board students on similar lines. 

(3) To confer the D.D.S. instead of B.D.S. degree. 

The new rules were discussed, passed, and confirmed, after which an Interesting series of short papers was given on various subjects. DENTAL ASSOCIATION. (1906, April 20).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 3. Retrieved from 

AMENDED REGULATION UNDER THE "DENTISTS ACT." (1907, December 11).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 6659. Retrieved from 

ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE DENTISTS ACT. (1908, January 8).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 42. Retrieved from 

This may have been where or when he met the mother of his children:

Wagga, Tuesday.-A large meeting of dentists was held in the Masonic Hall last night, .representing Sydney, Goulburn, Yass, Bega, Tumut, Albury, Cootamundra, Temora, Narrandera, Hay, Young, and Wagga, for the purpose of forming an association to be known as the Southern Dental Association of New South Wales. Mr. Hall, president of the Dental Association of New South Wales, presided and .. dentists were present. The association we successfully formed. One of the chief objects is to raise the standard of the dental profession. The visitors inspected the Wagga Experimental Farm yesterday afternoon, and had a social evening after the inaugural meeting.  SOUTHERN DENTAL ASSOCIATION. (1908, January 30). Goulburn Evening Penny Post (NSW : 1881 - 1940), p. 3. Retrieved from 

The conference of the Dental Association of New South Wales was continued yesterday at the rooms of the Royal Society, Elizabeth-street. Mr. W- R. Fitzsimons, president of the association, occupied the chair, and amongst those present were representatives from the Victorian Odontological Society, Queensland Odonotological Society, the Southern and North Coast Dental Associations, the Dental Board Graduates' Association, the Melbourne Dental Students' Society, and the Second Australian Dental Congress
Mr. Charles Hall urged the establishment of fully, equipped dental wards in the hospitals. Any town of importance should possess a hospital, where the poor could have their teeth properly attended to. The value of good, healthy teeth did not seem to be recognised by the generality of people, as it should, but their possession was of fundamental importance to bodily health. There should be more dental hospitals in Sydney. Mr. A. W. Cleary dealt with the subject of dental degeneracy. In the course of his remarks he said ...
DENTAL INSPECTION. (1908, October 9).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Fears of nervous patients.
The conference of the Dental Association of New South Wales was continued yesterday at the rooms of the Royal Society, Elizabeth-street. Representatives attended from the Queensland and Victorian Odontologies Societies, the Southern and North Coast Dental Associations, the Dental Board Graduates' Association, the Melbourne Dental Students' Society, and the Second Australian Dental Congress. Mr. W. R. Fitzsimons, president of the association occupied the chair. 

Mr. Charles Hall dealt with the subject of post operative obligations of the dentist. The speaker alluded to the fatigue and strain many patients suffer as the result of minor operations. Serious systemic disturbances often follow- the most trivial surgical work, and grave results sometimes ensue. Apart from the ordinarily humane treatment, the individual temperament had to be considered. In this feverish age, when the quest of the "new" was absorbing the life-energy of the most fertile brains, it would occur to man that a wise policy was to guard against the attacks of the guerilla forces of ill-doflaod disease. Many of the unpleasant sequels of dental operations we're tacitly left to take care of themselves, and might give rise to complications of a more or less grave, character, and so imperil the success of the highest operative skill. The case of a man who had had a root tilling of a lower molar was alluded to. The patient, after leaving the chair, fainted. Upon recovering consciousness he explained that he had heard horrifying accounts of the operation, and came braced up to go through a trying ordeal. He admitted there was nothing to fear about the operation. The operator, closely engaged with his work, had been silent during the filling process, but bad a little conversation been Indulged in by the dentist the unpleasant aftereffects would have been avoided. After a minor surgical operation it was often "advisable to make a subsequent- examination. 

The lecturer recommended a thorough syringing of the cavity with Lysol 1.1000, or, if of a particularly aggravated character, a strength of 1.500 might be used. It was best applied hot. Personal experience went to prove that persistent irrigation with a weak solution achieved the best result. On mucous surfaces lysol gave the best result. In cases of a distinctly septic character, sometimes present when prolonged suppuration has broken down a considerable amount of tissue, a more drastic line of procedure became necessary. Peroxide of hydrogen was a valuable mouth wash, diluted with water, for patients with bridge-work. The lecturer went on to deal with the technical part of the work, relating his experience of various cases, where trouble had ensued after operation, through the carelessness of the patient. In regard to attention to cleanliness. It was advisable to Impress on the patients the great importance of absolute cleanliness of the mouth. 

Dr. Peach said that success of bridge-work was not always as pronounced as the dentist could wish, owing to the fact that the patient did not exercise sufficient care, in respect to carefully washing the mouth with an antiseptic solution. Where dissatisfaction existed It would be frequently found that the patient was to blame In not exercising a requisite amount of care. It wan always advisable for the dentist to see the patient some time after the work had been completed, and he would then satisfy himself that the necessary cleanliness was being exorcised. The necessity of the patient carrying out strictly any instructions given should be emphasised. The doctor related a case where a patient had come to him for advice. An examination of the mouth showed a very unsatisfactory state of affairs This was not to be wondered at when the patient admitted never having taken the plate out of her mouth for three years. It was advisable for the dentist to always lay particular stress on the attention required by the mouth and teeth after his work had been completed. Dr. P. Flasch gave a demonstration on dental prolliosis, as applied In the after-treatment of surgical operations. WORK OF THE DENTIST. (1908, October 8). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 4. Retrieved from 

The trips to Pittwater continued - local records stating Mr. Hall had a 'chair' at the Hall home here where he would attend to residents on weekends - and possibly eat a few oysters. Apparently he was a good rower but not too adept with motors when they came along for little boats:

Hall (Charles Autry and Ernestine Hermine Penty), Towler Bay, Newport.
REGISTRATION OF STOCK BRANDS ACT, 1921. (1925, June 19). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2658. Retrieved from 

Sydney, 25th June, 1935.
APPROVAL has been given for the renewal of Charles Autry Hall's Oyster Culture Lease No. 16,783, of 200 yards at Pittwater, as shown on plan catalogued No. P. 14-42, for a term of five years from 29th June, 1935, at a rental at the rate of 10s. "per 100 yards per annum, being equivalent to a total annual rental of £1, subject to the right of the holder of the lease to a further renewal, after due application, for an additional period of five years, at a rental to be determined in conformity with section 12 (33b) of the Fisheries (Amendment) Act, 1910, and to the special condition that under Fisheries Regulation No. 66, the whole or any part of the land comprised in the lease may be resumed at any time without compensation for any public purpose, or for the granting thereover of a Special Lease under the Crown
Lands Acts.
FRANK A. CHAFFEY. Government Gazette Notices (1935, July 12). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2802. Retrieved from 

Charles passed away on the 29th of September, 1937. NSW State Archives & Records states Duty was paid for his properties, inherited by his wife and children, on the 3rd of April 1939.

HALL.-The remains of the late CHARLES AUTRY HALL, of Myrtle Court, Myrtle Street, Crows Nest, were privately Interred at Gore Hill Cemetery, September 30, 1937. Family Notices (1937, October 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from 

Valuation and description of property after Charles passed away

Estate of the late C A Hall
A MAGNIFICENT WATER FRONTAGE PROPERTY IN AREA ABOUT 40 ACRES - offering with its extensive frontage along the water ample opportunities to the Speculator for Subdivision or by reason of its unique position specially adapted for Aquatic Clubs or Residence for a Retired Gentleman
On the land is erected a Fibro Bungalow Iron roof containing Verandahs large Living-room Dining-room 3 Bedrooms Kitchen and Offices Boatshed Stone Pier and Wood Wharf
Solicitor T J Purcell Esq 66 King Street
HARDIE  GORMAN PROPRIETARY LIMITED in conjunction with T HOLLINGSWORTH 62 Walker Street North Sydney will offer the above by Public Auction In the Salerooms Ocean House
Martin Place at 11 am on WEDNESDAY 15th JUNE 1938. Advertising. (1938, June 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 30. Retrieved from

NSW State Library: Boxes 10-12: Sydney Levine further papers relating to dentists and dental history
CALL NUMBER: MLMSS 8003/Boxes 10-12 BOX 12 
63. ‘Menus [and invitations to] Dental Dinners 1904-1928. Charles D’autry Hall’, with many autographed 
64. ‘Aust. Dent. Hist. Charles Hall & others’ contains printing block of Hall; photograph of NSW dentists, 1905; photograph of 3rd Australian Dental Congress, 1912; postcard from 1912 Congress in Brisbane; visiting cards belonging to Mrs. Charles Hall; Henry Peach letterhead; Charles Hall letterhead, appointment card and accounts; carbon typescript ‘Argument in favour of examinations being held by University authorities’ by Charles Hall, 1907; list of subscribers to Dental Review 

Espa Hall
The following is a list of the candidates who were successful in passing the examination held by the Nurses' Registration Board on May '12, 13, and 14 last. If they have received their hospital certificates of completion of training, they are eligible, upon application, for registration; if not, applications may be made for registration as soon as they are in possession of their hospital certificates.
Prince Henry - Espa Eunice Autry Hall NURSES.. LIST OF PASSES. (1936, June 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from 


Felix Autry-Hall

Youthful Farmer Started with Good Stock
IF a good start and youthful enthusiasm count for anything Mr, F. Autrey-Hall, of Wolumbin, Uki, will go a long way In the Guernsey world. After spending his early life in the west, Mr. Autrey-Hall went to Hawkesbury College as a student in 1927-1929, and after completion of the agricultural course decided to take up dairying. At first he was undecided whether to go In for Jerseys or Guernseys, but a term spent at Wollongbar experiment farm decided him In favor of Guernseys, Opportunity to got good cattle came his way In February, 1930, when he bought thirty females and a bull, costing close on £1000, from Mr. S, E, Bryant, of Spurffeld, Boat Harbor...

CHOSE GUERNSEYS (1934, January 4).The Farmer and Settler (Sydney, NSW : 1906 - 1955), p. 6. Retrieved from

I, Felix Autry-Hall, of Uki, near Murwillumbah, in the State of New South Wales, farmer, heretofore called or known by the name of Felix Autry Hall hereby give public notice that on the twenty-sixth day of February, one thousand nine hundred and thirty-two, I formally and absolutely renounced, relinquished and abandoned the use of my said Christian name of Autry and then assumed and adopted the said name co Autry as part of my surname in addition to the said surname of Hall, namely, as Autry-Hall, and determined thenceforth on all occasions whatsoever to use and subscribe the name of Felix Autry-Hall instead of the said name of Felix Autry Hall and I give further notice that by a deed poll dated the twenty-sixth day of February, one thousand nine hundred and thirty-two, duly executed and attested and filed in the. proper office of the Registrar-General at Sydney, I formally and absolutely renounced and abandoned the said Christian name of Autry and declared that I had assumed and adopted the said name of Autry as part of my surname in addition to the said surname of Hall, namely as Autry-Hall, and intended thenceforth upon all occasions whatsoever to use and subscribe the name of Felix Autry-Hall instead of Felix Autry Hall, and so as to be at all times thereafter called and known and described by the name of Felix Autry-Hall only.
Dated the eighth day of April, 1932.
Witness,—F. W. Elliott, Solicitor, Murwillumbah. 
NOTICE OF CHANGE OF NAME. (1932, April 22). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1377. Retrieved from 

On view in the windows of Mr. F. W. Stratford, mercer, Main Street, is the Autrey-Hall Cup, presented by Mr. F. Autrey-Hall for a Guernsey bull's progeny, four females or three females and one male, any age. This is a very fine cup and must be won twice in succession or three times in all before becoming the property of the exhibitor. MAJOR TROPHIES DISPLAYED (1936, October 31). Tweed Daily (Murwillumbah, NSW : 1914 - 1949), p. 7. Retrieved from 

Well Stage a Highly - Amusing Comedy
'AREN'T We All?' the three-act comedy by Fredrick Lonsdale, was most successfully staged by members of the Leeton Dramatic Society in the Masonic Hall on Tuesday on Wednesday nights.
The attendance was not as large as the well-produced play deserved, nevertheless the actors portrayed their characters admirably. Miss Eileen Miller, as the Hon. Mrs. Tatham, was bright and vivacious, and. was very popular with her audience. The part of the jealous Hon. Willie Tatham was excellently taken by Mr. Felix Autry-Hall. Mr. John Flynn was perfect as Lord Grenham. Two amusing characters, who kept the audiences in fits of laughter, were Rev. Ernest Lynton (taken by Mr. Leslie Willott) and his sister, Angela Lynton - (Mrs. Dorothy Cole). Others in the cast were Mr. Jack Tweddle (John Willocks), Mrs. Dart (lady Frinton), Miss Mildred Gibson (Molly Steele), Miss Roma Cousins (Kitty Lake), Mr. Tom Young (Morton) and Mr. Archie Crabb (Mr. Wells). The play was produced by Mrs. S. P. Dart in aid of the Far West Health Scheme, and during the interval, the president of the Leeton branch (Mr. F. Cowburn) expressed the thanks of his committee to Mrs. Dart and all those connected with the production. He also complimented the artists on the excellence of their stage performance. Prior to the play Mrs. M. H. B. King was heard in two vocal solos, which the audience greatly appreciated. Mrs. Dorothy Cole raised roars of laughter with the humorous sketch 'An Hour on the Beach. LEETON DRAMATIC SOCIETY (1938, April 8). The Murrumbidgee Irrigator (Leeton, NSW : 1915 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Mr. F. Autry Hall, agricultural instructor, of Griffith, and Mr. Felix Filan, from the Experiment Station at Yanco, officers of the Department of Agriculture!, will arrive at Hay next Saturday, 28th September, and will spend about a week in the district making a survey of the various species of salt bushes which grow here. They hope to meet many district landholders and visit various properties, and will also be glad to meet any of the older residents who can give them an idea of the changes which have taken place in the local flora over a period of years. They expect to bring with them seeds of American species of salt bushes, to be tested in the district, and hope to be able to arrange a series of observations and experiments with our own species extending over a period of years. They have also in view the testing of elephant grass in this district as a green summer fodder for milking cows on properties remote from irrigation. This perennial rooted grass grows over 10 feet high and may be a very useful addition to local homestead gardens. It is asked that any district resident who can help the visitors with their investigations will communicate with Mr. J. Alan Gibson, who will meet them on their arrival here. SALT BUSH SURVEY (1940, September 24). The Riverine Grazier (Hay, NSW : 1873 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from 


War Service - WWII
AUTRY-HALL FELIX : Service Number - NX170425 : Date of birth - 07 Jan 1911 : Place of birth - SYDNEY NSW : Place of enlistment - Unknown : Next of Kin - AUTRY-HALL ROSELIND 1939 – 1948

Junior Farmers Club
Advisory Committee Meeting
The June meeting was held at the Hay Public School. Those present: Messrs. J. Houston (in the chair), J. L. Campbell, L. Parr, K Bray, J. W. Gibbs, J. A. Gibson, Sgt. Fisher, Capt. F. Autrey-Hall, and Mesdames Spence and Hilton. Apologies for absence from. Messrs. Mackie, Walker and Keys, were accepted. The resignation of Mr. Keys, due to lack of time, to attend meetings, was accepted with regret, and* a letter
of thanks for his invaluable services written.. On the matter of field days, it was moved by Mr. Houston that a vote of thanks be accorded to Mr. J. A. Gibson and Capt. Hall for their efforts in the conducting of the recent field ... at the property of Mr. Gibson. This was seconded by Mr. Seaton and carried. At. this juncture Mr. Houston farewelled Mr. Seaton, who is leaving the district. He spoke highly of Mr. Seaton as a good townsman and his fine services to the Hay Junior Farmers' Club. This was carried by acclamation. Mr. Seaton, in replying, said that anything concerning the soil and its culture was near and dear to him. He was pleased to help the children in this way and stated that he was pleased to see the representatives of the Primary School Junior Farmers' Club, Mollie Hunt and Don Adams, and of High School, Valma Fayle and Peter Gibbs, attending the meetings. He thanked those 'present for the kind words and their display of appreciation. It was decided to discuss matters pertaining to the Junior Farmers' Club, show at the July meeting. There was a discussion on flax and linseed growing, during which Capt. Hall told the meeting of the poor quality of flax grown at Leeton, due to climatic factors. Linseed, however, showed good results, but 1939 caused the variety Punjab to be wiped out. There is a variety, Abyssinia (rust resistant) which however, yields poor quality oil. A cross has been made between these two types to breed a variety to suit our conditions and yield good oil. The treasurer's statement showing . a credit balance of £8/1/6, was accepted. Matters concerning the judging of projects, the procuring of the Junior Farmers' stand from storage at -the - erection of . show, were dealt with and finalised. Capt. Hall spoke of the possibilities of a field day at the western area of the camp (the old aerodrome), which was to be developed for cultivation. The development would be worth following — that of a development of irrigation with preparation and the results of the work. The original laying out of typical irrigation country would be able to be viewed on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons. The speaker mentioned the possibilities of growing pyrethrum — an insect intoxicant base. This was previously grown in Yugo-Slavia — a perennial with best yields of flowers which are hand picked in the -second, third and fourth years. The flowers are picked when approaching maturity, dried and bagged. He advised procuring seed from the Department of Agriculture* - Junior Farmers' Club (1941, June 20). The Riverine Grazier (Hay, NSW : 1873 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from 

Agronomist Praises Soldier Settlers
SYDNEY. Mon. (AUP) — Soldier settlers had performed prodigious feats of land development in the last five years, particularly in. the Murrumburrah-Harden district, according to the Government Agronomist (Mr. F. Autrey-Hall) Mr. Hall judged large areas of country in the Royal Agricultural Society's farm production competition. He said that soldiers only five years ago were allotted land which was undeveloped and devoid of improvements and contained no subdivisions. "They have brought the properties to such an advanced stage of development they are able to hold their own with the best of the old established properties in the district,'' Mr. Hall said. "It is easy to forsee the tremendous increase in primary production which will occur when the average property in N.S.W. is developed to the extent of any one of these big farms," he added. Agronomist Praises Soldier Settlers (1952, August 4). Singleton Argus (NSW : 1880 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Mr Felix Autry-Hall, Regional Supervisor, Lismore, Department of Agriculture [section 66 (1)—12th August, 1971]. RETIREMENTS (1971, September 10).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3596. Retrieved from 
The Dental Board of New South Wales was constituted by the Dentists Act (No.45, 1900) which was assented to on 5 November 1900.Originally the Board consisted of two duly qualified medical practitioners and four dentists qualified for registration under the provisions of the principal Act, and two persons not being either medical practitioners or dentists, appointed by the Governor-in-Council for a period of three years.

(1) The Dentists Act, 1900 also provided for the appointment, by the board, of a registrar whose duty it was to maintain the register of dentists. (2) The Act laid down the qualifications necessary for registration as a dentist (3) and defined the circumstances under which the Board could refuse registration or remove persons from the register. (4) The Dental Board was dissolved, all regulations repealed and all money in its possession was passed into consolidated revenue by the Dentists Act, 1909. (5)
(1) Dentists' Act, 1900 s. 3 
(2) Ibid. s. 6 -7 
(3) Ibid. s. 11
(4) Ibid. s. 9 
(5) An Act to amend the Dentists' Act, 1909 s. 6

(1) "Concise Guide", 2nd Edition. "D - G", "Dental Board" p.14.

An Act to Amend the Dentists Act, 1909 (Act No.27, 1909) dissolved the Dental Board of NSW, repealed all regulations and all money in the possession of the previous Board was passed into consolidated revenue.
(1) The new Dental Board established by the Act consisted of two qualified medical practitioners, four dentists qualified under the Dentists Act, 1900, and two ex-officio members, viz - the head of the faculty of dentistry at the University of Sydney and the President (Chairman of the Board of Directors after 1978) of the United Dental Hospital of Sydney. The nominated members were appointed for a term of three years. (2) The names of those appointed to the Board were advised in the NSW Government Gazette of 12 January 1910, (3) the name of the first President was made known on 19 January 1910 (4) and the first regulations were published on 8 March 1910. (5) The staff (a Registrar and typist) were appointed on 23 March 1910. (6)
The Dentists Act, 1912 (Act No.26, 1912) consolidated the existing legislation relating to Dental registration and the role of the Board.

A Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Administration of the Dental Board and the Conduct of its Registrar was conducted in July-September 1915. The Commission related to conflicts of interest of the registrar who was also manager of a dental supply company, acceptance of bribes to achieve registration as a dentist, discriminatory examination practices of the Board and endorsement of unqualified dental assistants. Evidence before the Royal Commissioner failed to substantiate the allegations although errors of judgement were identified. (7)

The Commission may have precipitated the two amendments to the Dentists Act the following year - the Dentists (Amendment) Act, 1916 (Act No.15, 1916), the Dentists (Further Amendment) Act, 1916 (Act No.54, 1916). These Acts and the Dentists (Amendment Act), 1927 (Act No.8, 1927) broadened the definition of 'dentist' and altered the examination methods and the qualifications and experience of those eligible to seek registration.

All existing legislation was consolidated into a new Act in 1934. The Dentists Act, 1934 (Act No.10, 1934) consolidated all existing legislation pertaining to dentistry and provided for the appointment of inspectors to investigate contraventions of the Act or its regulations, and allegations of professional misconduct. (8)

The Dentists (Amendment) Act, 1964 (Act No.21, 1964) increased the membership of the Board from eight to nine including 'the Under Secretary, Department of Public Health, or a person from time to time nominated by him'. (9) Changes relating to the maintenance of the register and qualifications required for registration as a dentist were made by the Act. In addition a Dentists' Charges Committee with five members was established. (10)

The Act was further amended in 1972 to define the role of Inspectors (11) and authorised the issue of provisional certificates in certain cases. (12) In 1975 a separate Dental Technicians Registration Board was established. (13)

The Dentists Act 1989 (Act No.139, 1989) repealed the 1934 Act and constituted the Dental Board of nine members. The Board was to include five dentists registered under the Act and four persons appointed by the Governor to include (i) a nominee of the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Sydney; (ii) a barrister or solicitor nominated by the Minister; (iii) an officer of the Department of Health; and (iv) a person nominated by the Minister to represent consumers. (14) The new Board was entitled to establish committees to assist with carrying out its responsibilities, the membership of which was not restricted to Board members. (15) Committees included the Complaints Committee, Finance Committee and the Education and Qualification Committee. (16) The Act also established a Dental Care Assessment Committee consisting of four members. These were to include (i) a dentist appointed with the concurrence of the Dental Board and the Australian Dental Association, NSW Branch, (ii) two dentists selected from a list of names provided to the Minister by the Australian Dental Association, NSW Branch, and (iii) a consumers' representative. (17). The new act clearly enunciated procedures for discipline of members including the appeal process. (18)

The Dental Charges Committee ceased to have specific legislative authority under the new Act and subsequently lapsed. (19)

The Dental Practice Act 2001 (Act No.64, 2001) came to effect in 2004 was enacted to replace the existing Dentists Act 1989. (20) The Board was to include twelve members appointed by the Governor to include five registered dentists and another seven to include (i) person nominated by the Minister, being an officer of the Department of Health or an employee of a public health organisation, (ii) registered dentist nominated by the Minister, being a registered dentist involved in the tertiary education of persons for qualification in New South Wales as dentists, (iii) registered dentist nominated by the Minister of the Minister’s own choosing, (iv) registered dental auxiliary nominated by the Minister of the Minister’s own choosing, (v) two persons (not being registered dental care providers) nominated by the Minister to represent the community, (vi) Australian lawyer nominated by the Minister. (21) The Board was entitled to establish committees to assist with carrying out its responsibilities, the membership of which was not restricted to Board members. (22) The Act also established a Dental Care Assessment Committee consisting of five members appointed by the Minister. The members included (i) two registered dentists nominated by the Board (ii) two registered dentists appointed from a panel of names furnished to the Minister by the Board, and (iii) one person appointed by the Minister to be a representative of consumers. A person could not be a member of the Committee while the person was a member of the Board. (23)
The Dental Practice Act 2001 (Act No.64, 2001) was repealed by Health Practitioner Regulation Amendment Act 2010 (Act No.34, 2010) with effect from 1 July 2010. (24)
The Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency (AHPRA) became the organisation responsible for the registration and accreditation of ten health professions across Australia. (25)
(1) An Act to amend the Dentists' Act, 1909, s.6.
(2) An Act to amend the Dentists' Act, 1909, s.3.
(3) NSW Government Gazette, 12 January 1910, p.139.
(4) NSW Government Gazette, 19 January 1910 p.245.
(5) NSW Government Gazette, 8 March 1910, p.1371.
(6) NSW Public Service Lists, 1910, p.20. 
(7) State Records Agency No.2564.
(8) Dentists Act, 1934, s.5. 
(9) Dentists (Amendment) Act, 1964, s.(2) (a) (ii). 
(10) Ibid., s.12A. 
(11) Dentists (Amendment) Act, 1972, s.2(c). 
(12) Ibid., s.2 (j). 
(13) Dental Technicians Registration Act, 1975 (Act No.40, 1975) s.6.
(14) Dentists Act, 1989 s.8. 
(15) Ibid., s.9. 
(16) Minutes of the NSW Dental Board 1988-2003, State Records NSW Reference NRS3713
(17) Dentists Act, 1989  Part 5. 
(18) Ibid. Parts 6, 7.

(19) Dentists Act, 1989 s.31.
(20) Dentists Act, 1989, Status Information.
(21) Dental Practice Act 2001, s.108 (2).
(22) Dental Practice Act 2001, s.101.
(23) Dental Practice Act 2001 Part 9.
(24) Health Practitioner Regulation Amendment Act, 2010 s.3.
(25) Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency Website (cited 22 July 2010). [4.]

Ebena Isles

Ebena Isles
Born 1906 
Died 2001
Profession Teacher, Social Worker
Terms served on Council - Alderman Redfern 1945 to 1948
Ebena Isles was born in 1906 on March 16 in Scotland, and migrated to Australia with her mother Margaret (nee Whitton) and two siblings on board the Irishman, arriving in Sydney on November 14, 1912. Her father Ebenezer arrived earlier that year in April.
Ebena Isles died in 2001, after a long life of active community and local government service.

Ebena attended Fort Street High School, where she completed the Leaving Certificate in 1923. From 1924 to 1934, Isles combined full and part-time study at Sydney University to complete a Bachelor of Arts in French, Philosophy and Latin. In 1927, she was appointed as a teacher with the NSW Department of Education and was first posted to Hurstville, going on to work in a number of urban and rural high schools until 1941.

Another Pittwater lady and fellow graduate of Sydney University at the same time, Marie Byles,  is worth glancing at as one who had a similar passion for the bush and bushwalking - one at one end of Pittwater, the other towards the north end of our estuary.

Tenable at High Schools METROPOLITAN WINNERS
The Bursary Endowment Board has awarded the following bursaries, ten able at Public High Schools and registered Secondary Schools, as the result of the qualifying certificate examination of November last. These bursaries carry an allowance of £10 for each of the first and second year courses, £15 for the third year course, and £20 for the fourth, in the ease of bursary holders residing at home. For bursars who are obliged to board away from homo the allowance is £30 for each of the first and second year courses and £40 for the two succeeding. In each case the award is subject to the fulfilment of regulation conditions regarding ago., income of parents, and nationality. The school at which the pupil was taught is shown in parentheses: — 
TENABLE AT FORT-STREET GIRLS' HIGH SCHOOL.— Edith Ann Akhurst (Fort-street Girls' High School), Elsie Maude Brown (Newtown): Amy Catherine M. Chicken (Fort-street Girls' High School), Ebena Isles (Tempe), Florence Edith Maleey (Smith-street, Rozelle), Violet Hazel Mar tin (Fort-street Girls' High School), Lillian O'Keefe (Marrickville), Doreen Dalgleish Parry (Ashfield), May Smith (Fort-street Girls' High School), Mollie G. Thornhill (Tempe). BURSARY AWARDS (1919, February 20).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from 

THE University colors were flaunted gaily in the Union Refectory last night, when the women undergraduates and members of the sports associations, held their annual dance. Blue and gold streamers and flowers made a bright setting for the dancers, and the supper tables were, decorated with flowers of similar hues. - On the committee were the Misses Mollie Thornhill, Amy Chicken, Ebena Isles, M. Peden, Wilga Moore, Lane, and Weil. 
Among the guests of honor were Professor and Mrs. Peden, Professor and Mrs. Fawsitt, Professor and Mrs. Sutherland, the president of the Undergraduates' Association (Mr. Howard Saxby), the president of the Women Evening Students Association (Miss Phyllis Ryan), the vice-president of the Evening Students' Association (Mr. Moneypenny), and the president of the Sports Union (Mr. G. P. Stuckey). They were received by the president of the Women's Union (Miss Fidler), the president of the Women's Sports Association (Mrs. K. Street), and the president of the Women Undergraduates' Association (Miss Molly Thornhill). Beads of the more scintillating variety made their appearance on many frocks, and diamante strappings were noticeable. Miss Margaret Peden, who wore chocolate georgette and lace, entertained a large party. Her guests were Miss Gwen Slade, in green georgette and silver lame; Miss Barbara Peden, in green velvet; Miss Mollie Hassall, Miss Una Emanuel, Miss Rachaol Rupp, and Messrs. Mackay, Emanuel, , Kirkpatrick, Sheperdsort, Treatt, and D. Kirkpatrick. Miss Durrell wore pink chenille embossed georgette, Miss Booth was in blue and gold brocade; Miss Bessie Cole wore cyclamen georgette. Miss Mollie Thornhill was in jade georgette trimmed with diamante; Miss Elena Isles wore ciel blue romaine, beaded in crystal; Miss Hazel Brewster wore rose taffeta; Miss Williams was in white chenille, embossed georgette; Miss Dorothy Thornhill was 'In green and gold shot taffeta; Miss Marjorle Doherty was In peach georgette; Miss Belle Pontoy wore apricot morocain, beaded in silver; Miss Florence Kirk was wearing cyclamen georgette. Miss Muriel Nicholls was in blue georgette beaded n silver, and Miss Delia Pratt was in black chiffon velvet; Miss Wilga Moore, who wore gold georgette, trimmed with lace, entertained Miss Gwen Parker, In salmon georgette and velvet; Miss Myee Moore, in grey and flame chenille, embossed georgette; .Miss Alma Davis, Miss Dickenson, Miss Dorothy Brown, and Messrs. Ford, Reid, and Ilagley. Miss Ida Birchali wore flame chiffon velvet; Miss Isabel Gulson was in rose crepe de chine; Miss T. Gibson wore mauve taffeta; Miss Boazman chose cream georgette, trimmed with lace. Miss Joan Mackaness wore pervencho blue georgette'; Miss Maureen O'Halon was in ciel blue crepe de. chine, trimmed with diamante; Miss R. Green wore blue romaine and silver lace. TOPICS for WOMEN (1926, August 5). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 15 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 

There was a splendid attendance of Fort-street High School old girls at the ninth annual reunion dinner, which took place at the Cocoa Tree Cafe last night. Everyone participated with great enthusiasm in the programme of community singing, which included the school song "Come Fortians, Fortians All." Garlands of red and white crepe paper, the school colours, toned with the floral decorations, and the place cards, which were carried out in the same colour scheme, were surmounted with the school crest. Past pupils of the school who gave an enjoyable programme of vocal items, were the Misses Eirene Lang, Elva Merriman, and Joyce Kolts. Dancing was indulged in later in the, evening.
At the official table were Miss Partridge (patroness), Miss Maisie Golding (president, Old Girls' Union), Dr. Marie Bentivoglio, Misses Teare, Bourke, Eirene Lang, and Mollie Thornhill. 
Members of the committee included Misses Glynn Stayte, Jessie Anderson, Marjorie Doherty, Vera Waterstone, Kathleen McEIroy, and Doris Lippett. Also present were the Misses Doris Paterson, Ailsa Tulloch, Wilga Moore, Veronica Pike, Annie McCandless, Essie Cohen, Bessie Bannan, Noreen and Minnie Garden, Agnes Brewster, Jean Turnor, Mary Gallagher, Elsie Langton, Mary Cathels, D. Helmrlch, E. Chaplin, D'Arcy, Crawford, P. Wordsworth, J. Harvey, Nell Jacobs, Myra Flay, Annie Voss, Ebena Isles, Lulu Richards, Isabel Roberts, Hilda Bourne, Lexie Ingram, Lily Brand, Jean Jacobs, Connie Farrand, Dorothy Judd, Doris Pepper, Heather Stark, Nancy Kerr, and Belle Pontey. REUNION DINNER. (1928, May 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from 

At this time, Ebena was approached to take on the position of Warden of the Sydney University Settlement, following two unsuccessful advertising campaigns for a successor when previous Warden Thora Hawkes unexpectedly resigned. Ebena was considered an ideal candidate because of her experience with Girl Guides, Physical Education and Drama as well as having a connection to Sydney University and its ethos. 

On of the official guests at the University Settlement Ball on Friday night will be the newly-appointed warden, Miss Ebena Isles, who will come from Lithgow. Miss Isles, who is a high school teacher, will finish the school term before taking up her new appointment in Sydney on May 19. The former warden, Miss Thora Hatches, is now in the A.I-F camp at Bathurst. SUE SEES SYDNEY (1941, April 30). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9 (LAST RACE ALL DETAILS). Retrieved from 

MISS EBEN A ISLES, newly-appointed warden of the University Settlement, who will commence her duties at the settlement on May 19. Miss Isles succeeds Miss Thora Hawkes, who has joined the Australian Army Nursing Service and is in camp at Bathurst. NEW WARDEN. (1941, May 5). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from 

MISS EBENA ISLES, with some of her small charges, at the Sydney University Settlement, where she started her duties as warden yesterday. SETTLEMENT WARDEN. (1941, May 20).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from (photo too dark to add in)

For Settlement Ball.
THE newly-appointed warden of the University Settlement, Miss Ebena Isles, who is a graduate of Sydney University, will be a member of the official party at the Settlement Ball at tile University on May 2. The presentation of the 28 debutantes to the Chancellor, Sir Percival Halse Rogers, and Lady Halse Rogers will take place in the Great Hall, and the dance will tie held in the refectory. From Day to Day in Sydney. (1941, April 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from 

THE newly-appointed warden of the University Settlement, MISS EBENA ISLES, commenced duties at the Settlement House, Edward-street, Chippendale, this week. She is an old Fort-street High School girl and a graduate of Arts of Sydney University, and is taking the place of Miss Thora Hawkes, now in camp as a nurse with the A.I.F. In her University days, Miss Isles became a keen guider and received her training as a member of a Girl Guide officers' class, known as the University Cadets. She was at one time in charge of the Leichhardt Girl Guides. Under her care in her new post will be two Guide companies and a Brownie pack. She also will supervise the work and recreation of the Settlement's 19 different clubs and is busy this week becoming acquainted with club members. Several clubs are run for children of all ages whose homes are in the crowded industrial area, which forms the Settlement, and who use the Settlement house as a recreation hall. There also are a number of mothers' clubs which meet for numerous interests, among them being handicraft. Settlement clubs' sewing and handicrafts always makes an impressive feature at the annual display held at the University. The new warden is an expert hockey player and played for the University and was also secretary of the Women's Sports Association.
Miss Isles. NEW WARDEN FOR SETTLEMENT (1941, May 22). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 24 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 

As Case Worker at the Settlement, Isles worked in the local community with those experiencing difficulties with housing, children’s behaviours and issues relating to cases of material need. She was instrumental in a number of initiatives to improve conditions for children and families of the Redfern municipality, and oversaw a steadily increasing range of leisure groups for children that included knitting, painting and pottery, along with Brownies, Girl Guides, Scouts and Cubs. Isles believed strongly that supervised activities were important to counter delinquency and foster community spirit.
In 1943, Isles worked with other members of the Settlement to establish a canteen at Darlington Primary School, first arranging for Sydney University Undergraduate students to conduct research to gauge if children’s school lunches were nutritionally adequate. The canteen provided some 250-270 lunches per day for many years. Ebena arranged for the Board of Education to supply milk, and also worked with Darlington Council for funds and facilities.

During the 1930s and 1940s, Isles volunteered at the Family Welfare Bureau in Sydney’s Town Hall, providing support to needy families. She completed a Diploma of Social Studies over a number of years, graduating in 1947, and it is likely that her work with the Family Welfare Bureau was carried out in the context of a work placement for this course.

In World War II, Ebena Isles served as Deputy Civilian Aid Officer for the Red Cross, providing relief for civilians in the event of air raids.

In 1944, Ebena Isles was one of ten women elected to local government in NSW, standing as an Independent candidate for the Golden Grove Ward. 

Local Councils
A notable success in the local government elections held at the week-end was that of Miss Ebena Isles, who is in charge of the University Settlement at Chippendale, and who has been elected an alderman for the Golden Grove ward of the Redfern Council.
Miss Isles, who stood as an independent, said last night that she was looking forward to her service on the council. She has been working in close contact with community services in Redfern for a number of years, and her work with the University Settlement is widely known.
Mrs. M. E. Laver, one of the official Labour candidates in Balmain was returned, and Mrs. Lilian Fowler, of Newtown, retained her seat, Mrs. Fowler served a term as mayor of Newtown.
Three who retained their seats were Mrs. G. Melville, of Cabramatta-Canley Vale Council, Mrs. May Pitt, of Glebe, and Mrs. E. M. K. Wilson, who has served three terms with Armidale. She is a medical practitioner.
Newcomers to country municipal and shire councils include Mrs. K. O'connell, who is the first woman to serve with the Kiama Council.
Mrs. Maud Chambers, a prominent Labour supporter, of Wagga, becomes its first woman representative on the municipal council, an honour shared for the Blue Mountains Shire Council by Mrs. Edith Jones, and by Mrs. I Minnie Ingham, for Nyngan. TEN WOMEN ELECTED (1944, December 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from 

Ebena was active several committees including Cleansing Park and Playgrounds, Works, Kindergarten and Baby Health Centre. Her achievements as Settlement Warden and as an alderman on Redfern Council frequently overlapped, for example when Isles moved in Council meetings that a cricket kit be stored at the Redfern Oval for children to play after hours.

In 1946, Isles was one of several aldermen who ‘engineered’ a failed mayor election by not attending Council meetings at which election of a new mayor was scheduled. A deadlock had occurred through the lack of a quorum for each meeting, reportedly caused by ‘political decisions’. The Labor Minister for Local Government, Joseph Cahill, was forced to appoint the Redfern Mayor for 1946.

The Sydney University Settlement hoped eventually to acquire adjacent properties on which to .open two new settlement clubs, a children's outdoor playground, and to increase residential accommodation for students, said the president. Professor F. A. Bland, at the annual meeting held at the settlement house, Chippendale, yesterday.
The report of the executive committee, presented by the warden of the settlement and acting honorary secretary. Miss E. Isles, stated that undergraduate help during 1946 was not always adequate, but those students who did help came regularly and had a valuable contribution to make.
The playgrounds committee re-ported a successful year with attendance figures increasing on all play-grounds. The Municipal Council of Sydney had again expressed its confidence in the settlement's management of Camperdown, King George, and Coronation playgrounds by renewing the agreement for a further period of two years. The settlement had received £1,000, representing two annual grants of £500, from the N.S.W. Government. EXPANSION PLANNED FOR UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT WORK (1947, May 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from 

In 1948, Ebena requested a six-month leave of absence, in order to tour the United Kingdom and visit Settlement Houses there. On her return, she served briefly as Deputy Mayor, before resigning from office. 

LADY GOWRIE, centre, cutting the birthday cake at the Sydney University Settlements Jubilee party, held yesterday at the Union Refectory. With her are the president, MISS ISABEL FIDLER, left, and the secretary, MRS. H. F. BENNING.

Party for University Settlement
The Jubilee of the Sydney University Settlement, which, was founded in 1891 by Lady Jersey, wife of the then Governor of New South Wales, was celebrated yesterday by a late afternoon reception held at the Union Refectory.
Lady Gowrie, wife of the Governor-General. Lord Gowrie, cut the two tiered birthday cake, which was adorned with miniature replicas of the University crest.
The new Chancellor of the University, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Charles Blackburn, came to the party, following a meeting of the Senate at which he was elected. The majority of the members of the Senate accompanied him.
Lady Gowrie, who was attended by Miss Ivie Price, was received by the president, Miss Isabel Fidler, the vice-president, Mrs. Harold Dew, the secretary, Mrs. H. P. Benning, the treasurer, Miss M. O. Davis, and the settlement warden, Miss Ebena Isles.
Miss Fidler was the vice-president of the settlement for 32 years, and has been president for the past nine years.
Among the original members of the settlement committee who attended the party were Lady Maccallum, Dr. Mary Booth, Miss E. M. Sutherland, and Miss M. Elliott.
An interesting guest was Mrs. Norman Bowden, who before her recent marriage was Miss Aleatha Hood, the American historian. Mrs. Bowden came to Australia some months ago to collect material for the Australian supplement in the World History book taught in American schools. She finished her research about six weeks ago, and has sent the material to America. Mrs. Bowden is a graduate in history of the University of Michigan.
Also present was Mrs. Gregory McGirr, who recently returned from a. visit to Adelaide. She was one of the early members of the settlement, and is now one of the councillors.
More than 300 guests, including the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress, Alderman and Mrs. Stanley S. Crick, attended the party, and proceeds will go to the settlement funds. Women's News.—CUTTING BIRTHDAY CAKE TO CELEBRATE JUBILEE (1941, December 2). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from 

University Settlement Aid Centre
ONE of the 10 Civilian Aid Centres organised for the Redfern District in the event of an emergency will be the University Settlement at Edward-st., Chippendale. The settlement's warden, Miss Ebena Isles, who is a deputy Civilian Aid Officer for Redfern. is co-operating with the local council to house and feed possible bomb victims should there be an air attack. Accommodation for 100 will be arranged. An Information bureau will also be established as part of the CAS work. Plans .for the equipment of the settlement building, which is in an extremely crowded area, will be discussed at the annual meeting which will take place at 2.43 pm tomorrow, with Miss Isabel Fidler in the chair. Work commenced on this war service in March. A camouflage netting centre is run by the mother's club and has shown a large output in the past few months. Older girls and boys also work at net-making. At tomorrow's meeting a display of handicrafts will be included with the camouflage netting and war knitting which will be shown. University Settlement Aid Centre (1942, May 5). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 

Women's News
Experiment at Darlington
The Minister for Education, Mr. Evatt, will open the Darlington School canteen next Tuesday at 12.15 p.m.
The canteen, which is sponsored by a special committee of the Sydney University Settlement, has been in operation for three weeks, during which an Oslo-type meal has been served daily to between 200 and 300 children.
The warden of the Settlement, Miss Ebena Isles, said yesterday that for 6d children received four slices of whole-meal bread and butter: the filling for one sandwich each day is cheese, and variety for the others includes egg. banana, peanut butter, apple and celery, grated carrot, and so forth. Each child also receives 1 pint of milk, in addition to the 1 pint served at recess time, and one piece of fruit. Women's NewsOSLO-TYPE MEAL AT SCHOOL CANTEEN (1943, July 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from 

Miss Ebena Isles, BA, of Bexley, who is a warden at the University settlement at Chippendale, Sydney, is holidaying in Narandera as the guest of her brother in-law and sister, Flight-Sgt. And Mrs. J. Metcalfe. F/S Metcalfe is one of the pioneers of No. 8 EFTS. DISTRICT NEWS (1943, September 11).Daily Advertiser (Wagga Wagga, NSW : 1911 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Mothers of Chippendale reveal community spirit
AN example in community spirit has been given by the mothers of Chippendale in contributing to the equipment of the new holiday home at Thirroul.
Living in an area where an ice-chest is a luxury they have raised enough money to instal a refrigerator in the home. Their present objective is an electric range. Although they live in the metropolitan area, a day at the seaside for Chippendale children is a red letter event and holidays are things to be dreamed about. It is for these children and their mothers that the University Settlement is establishing the Isabel Fidler Holiday Home at Thirroul. The home will accommodate 20 children and plans are being made to move the first group in at Christmas time. 
The home and grounds were donated by the late Mr. S. John Fell. Its name is a tribute to Miss Fidler's years of work for the settlement. After school hours, the rubbish-littered streets of Chippendale become playgrounds for children whose homes have inadequate living space and unsuitable backyards. But, more and more, ,the children are learning to look upon Settlement House, in Edward-street, as their after-school club. Here, under the leadership of the supervisor, Miss Ebena Isles, many Sydney University students give up precious hours away from study to entertain and instruct the children. There is keen competition for attendance records and, accusing fingers are pointed at the boys and girls who play in the streets, instead of going to the settlement. They are taught handicrafts, encouraged to read, sing and dance. A ballet school has been established for the girls and they are receiving professional instruction. 
Activities are carried on in a large airy hall, which from the outside, is similar in appearance to the hundreds of terraced houses in the district. Miss Isles, who is resident at the Settlement, is one of the best loved people in the district.
The mothers bring their problems (and they have plenty) to her, because they know they will never be turned away. There is a large club for mothers, the activities of which include educational talks, play-reading, needlework and social gatherings. . One of the outstanding features of the settlement is felt, not seen. A feeling of unselfishness and the will to work for better conditions is ever present. Children do not fight amongst themselves at the settlement.
They share the toys and books. 

Instead of playing in the streets, these boys settle down to reading in the University Settlements comfortable library. From left to right they are: Jimmy Davis, Brian Quinn, Ray Cleary, Bobby Quong.

These small girls take a serious, artistic pride in their weaving of mats and bags, at the University Settlement.
Mothers of Chippendale reveal community spirit (1946, August 18). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from 

Records state Ebena also brought children to Pittwater - this was part of an overall movement to get the next generation back in touch with Nature and the good things that come from a lungful of fresh air and exercise - something studies released in recent weeks have echoed - that just one hour of exercise a week will ward off Depression in those susceptible to or suffering from this disease. [6.]

Hikes for Children from the City

""IN HERE are many children in Sydney's industrial areas who are growing up with no knowledge and therefore with no appreciation of the bush. The bush is a mystery to them. They see nothing of it from one year's end to the other- and yet, to those to whom it has been introduced by the Bunyips, it is a source of unlimited pleasure.
The Bunyips was founded about l8 months ago by Miss Nora Ankerson with the assistance of members of the Bush Walkers' Club. With the exception of herself (she acts still as a supervisor) and Miss Marie Byles, who is the patron, the office-bearers of the Bunyips are all fourteen year-old girls. The president is B. McKinnon, the secretary Winifred Newling, and the treasurer D. Blackmore.
Miss Ankerson, who is a schoolteacher, realised how starved city children are for the bush when she took her own form girls to the bush for lessons or for picnics. She realised then that there is any amount of enthusiasm for the bush lying dormant in city children, who only need someone to take them.
Young Children Good "Hikers"
SO she organised the Bunyips, whose ages range from eleven to sixteen. Smaller children can belong if they are accompanied by an adult, though very often the small ones walk as well, if not better, than their elders. On one of the bush walks of the Bunyips a small girl of six led all the way-and the way was something like 14 miles.
To spread the enjoyment of bush-walking to children from industrial areas, six children are invited to each walk of the Bunyips. At one of the most recent walks the visitors were three boys from the Free Library in Surry Hills. They were so enchanted with their day's outing ' that they are now saving up the necessary shilling to become members in their own right.
Visitors are asked to contribute threepence each and their own lunch to their day's outing, as the members of the Bush Walkers, who cast a friendly eye over the Bunyips' activities, consider that they appreciate their day more if they con-tribute something themselves towards its success. The average cost of taking a party of six out for the day is 7/6.
Great "Mixers"
THE Bunyip walks are great "mixers." At the beginning the boys and girls each keep to their own groups, but by the end of the day they are perfectly happy "pairing" off.
The half-yearly meeting of the Bunyips will be held in a camp In February at Cheltenham, and there will also be six lucky visitors for this week-end.
Three of the recent visitors were eight-year old boys, and they were simply delighted with their new experience. As one mother said: "David was so excited and talked so fast I couldn't make head or tail of what he was talking about." 

A rest by a stream during a Bunyip bush walk.

City children enchanted with bush beauties.
"BUNYIPS" IN THE BUSH (1939, December 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4 (Women's Supplement). Retrieved from 

National Fitness Bush Hikes For School Children
SYDNEY: A new feature of National Fitness work in schools this year will be the introduction of extensive bush walks and hikes for groups of school children under the guidance of specially trained teachers. These bush excursions will probably take up to three days at a time as it is planned to use youth hostels which are established in the better known sections of the coastal bushlands. Youth hostels, which provide sleeping accommodation, water and cooking facilities, are established at Cowan Creek, Hawkesbury River, Little Marley, Kangaroo Valley, Broken Bay, Pittwater, and other places. 

Hiking parties will be instructed in bush lore and elementary botany. The hikes, which will be held during school periods, are planned to broaden the general knowledge of children who normally do not have much time away from densely populated areas. The change from school routine to the fresh air of the bush together with healthy exercise and new sites will help children concentrate more on their studies when they return to the schoolroom. National Fitness Bush Hikes For School Children (1947, January 16). The Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from 

Settlement At The University
'THIS year, as well as being Australia's Jubilee year, is also a milestone in the history of the Sydney University Settlement.
It is sixty years since the settlement-now located in Edward Street, Chippendale-was founded, and began its activities at Miller's Point under the patronage of the then wife of the Governor of N.S.W., the Countess of Jersey.
Originally known as the Sydney University Women's Society, its first step was to establish a club for girls in the surrounding area, with the hope that this would form the nucleus of a future university settlement.
Activities now range from supervised play, instruction in carpentry and other hobbies for school-age children, to entertainment for the older social club and general recreation for . mothers of the district.
Under the supervision of the warden, Miss Ebena Isles, and three members of the staff, problems, most of them arising out of the environment, are dealt with, and referred to health authorities and clinics if necessary. Participation in the actual working of the settlement by students is restricted to a group of thirty students. .
The settlement is supported by members of the settlement committee within the university. Students are already busy making plans for two fund raising events-the Settlement Ball to be held in the Great Hall of the University on April 13, and the Settlement Fete, to be held at the University on May 5.
Settlement At The University (1951, March 18). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 13. Retrieved from 

Settlement's Section For Case Work
Speaking at the annual meeting of the Sydney University Settlement yesterday after-noon, the warden, Miss Ebena Isles, said that one of the most recent and important developments of its work was the establishment of a special section to deal with case work.
"The work, is at present being done by Mrs Barbara Parry in a part time capacity," she said, "but it will soon have to become a full time undertaking.”
In addition to the work being done by Mrs Parry, the section also afforded practical experience for students of the Department of Social Studies
The honorary treasurer, Miss M C Daus, reported that income for the year had been £1,674, excess expenditure amounted to £674. The University Settlement fete, held last month, raised £710 and the 1950 University Settlement Ball £391
The Director of Youth Welfare in the Department of Labour and Industry, Mr H L Harris, spoke on "Youth and Work In England and America," dealing with the establishment throughout these countries of vocational guidance centres and the value of the work they are doing. Settlement's Section For Case Work (1950, June 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Redfern Has Lively "Club"
A BROWN-PAINTED, square front building with an incongruous border of rococo Cupids, is "The Club" to thousands of people in congested Redfern.
ITS proper name is the Sydney University Settlement. And it is the only establishment of its kind in , the whole of Australia.
The older people know the building nostalgically as Seed's Dance Hall, a place in Edward Street where many of them courted during intermissions in the Charleston and the fox trot. The settlement took over the hall 27 years ago.
Outside the area which it serves, one of the densest packed in Sydney, the settlement is not widely known.
WHAT is a settlement, and what does it do? 
Miss E. Isles, who has been warden there for 13 years, said Sydney's settlement tries to show democracy at work to the people who belong to "The Club."
"We don't mean political democracy," Miss Isles said. "We mean the kind that makes people realise that everyone is important and that what they do and think, even in a small group, is useful."
Miss Isles, who lives in the Edward Street building, was formerly a schoolteacher.
Many of the voluntary workers who come to the settlement in their spare time are university students. This gives a reciprocal nature to its activities.
"The settlement bridges the gap between university students who think people who live in Redfern are some form of illiterate half-humans, and the Redfern people who imagine students are useless adolescents given to boisterous rags in which they make nuisances of themselves," Miss Isles said.

The two buildings in Edward Street, Redfern, which house the settlement.

"After they have been here a few times the students find out that many hard-working, intelligent people live in Redfern, and the club members find out that there are a lot of serious young people at the university."

THE settlement is not a charity centre, where genteel "dogooders" pour cups of tea for the poor.
First, Redfern people generally are not poor. There are, of course, victims of misfortune who are the exception. But Redfern families often have a larger total income than many who live at Turramurra, Pymble or Vaucluse.
What the settlement does is to provide some compensations to offset the overcrowding and unhappiness caused by living in a district which the town planners graciously call an "under-privileged area."
At about 3.30 p.m. any week-day the children start to drift in to the settlement after school.
The day we visited the settlement the library was doing capacity business. Four or five children were reading comics.

"Yes," said the Y.W.C.A. leadership course girl who was looking after the library, "we have comics. After all, we're sup-posed to give the children what they want. These are the more wholesome kind of comics-the sort that feature adventure. We usually 'vet.' the comics for sex and violent crime strips."
Children pay 2/6 a year subscription (which can be settled by instalments). They can join at five and are expected to move up to the next group at 15.
The library is in an upstairs room. A teenage girl was reading aloud to a quietly attentive semi-circle of youngsters. The story was one of the ageless fairy yarns about "Three Pigs."
The librarian said that science stories and "inter-planetary stuff" had no interest for the children.
From downstairs an insistent counting, "one-two-three-four-five," from a chorus of young voices accompanied a queue waiting their turn to duck under a skipping rope.

Two keen members of the settlement's badminton team.
Some children are learning handicrafts. Quick result tasks are more popular with them than long-range projects. A few of them were gleefully bearing off paper masks which bad been the day's assignment.

THERE is a continual flow of activity in the settlement. As the children straggle out at 5 o'clock teenagers are impatiently waiting for the floor to be cleared between the marked lines of a badminton court.

Settlement teams figure prominently in State badminton competitions. As with all settlement groups, the badminton club is run by its members.
The three full-time staff members and the Settlement Council always encourage all members to do this.

One of the settlement's most active groups is the mothers' club. Every Wednesday is mothers' night. Once a month the mothers have a party-an uninhibited affair at which they entertain each other with song or a story, or act charades.

The club also arranges talks. The most popular are travel evenings, at which a speaker gives first-hand impressions of far-off places.
Concerted fund-raising by the usual raffles and sales of work has produced £243 for a film projector for use at the lectures.
All the settlement's clubs are jointly responsible for providing amenities and improvements.

Currently all clubs are engaged in promoting a beauty contest. The money raised will be used to provide a new wooden floor for the stage in the building.
MUCH of the settlement's work goes on outside the Edward Street building. A fulltime case worker, Mrs. S. Walkerton, for instance, visits the homes of children who have been noticed in "The Club."

Mrs. Walkerton quoted the example of a child who tore up comics, or pinched other children malevolently while no one was looking.
"A problem child of this kind can cause bedlam within ten min-utes in a room where children were previously playing quietly," she said.
"The child's naughtiness may reflect an unsettled home atmosphere with quarrelling parents, perhaps a father who drinks or a mother who is trying to make do with insufficient money.
"We visit the home and do what we can," she added resignedly.

Where children's ailments appear to be the effect of physical or mental sub-normality, Mrs. Walkerton seeks the co-operation of the Child Welfare Department for medical or psychiatric treatment.
On race days children's attendance at the club falls off-noticeably. The settlement authorities ascribe this, with regret, to their employment as runners for S.P. establishments.

IN view of the amount of work it does, the settlement operates on very small funds. A settlement committee, composed mainly of university graduates and undergraduates and their friends, raise some money by subscription.
The university also collects funds by annual events, such as the recent settlement ball.
But it is the unselfish interest of voluntary workers which makes the organisation really "tick."
One man, for instance, visits the settlement once a week to tutor boys and girls who have "missed out" on education be-cause of the need to start earning as soon as they can, and who now need an intermediate or leaving certificate for further advancement at work.
There are many more voluntary workers who similarly give their time generously to the settlement. 

Redfern Has Lively "Club" (1954, July 2).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Tribune takes shot at other papers and pushes its own agenda as sign off during the 1950’s Red Days:

By a Tribune reporter
THE Sydney City Council should open its playgrounds to boys and girls up to the age of 17, according to Professor Harvey Sutton.
He defended the "teenagers of today" when speaking at the annual meeting of the Sydney University Settlement. At present children are supposed to leave the playground when they turn 14. The settlement, located in Edward Street, Chippendale, provides recreational and other amenities for young and old residents of the neighboring industrial area. The picture presented by speakers at the meeting wasn't the same as that presented by the daily papers. There was a complete absence of suggestions that young people are "pampered" and require to be deterred from delinquency by the lash and other forms of torture. Forgotten section 
Professor Harvey Sutton was principal Medical Officer to the NSW Education Department before he moved on to still higher positions. Speaking at the settlement, he attacked the "unfavorable publicity' given today's teenagers who, he said were physically and mentally superior to teenagers at the beginning of the century.
So far from them being pampered he demanded that "more should be done for these, the forgotten section of the community." He said that modern youth responded well to clubs. In the Settlement-supervised playgrounds a sports, team of young Aborigines was doing particularly well. The Settlement Warden, Miss Ebena Isles, said the boys and girls didn’t want to leave the playgrounds when they reached the prescribed age and actually weren't "frowned on" when they remained. But the City Council should not only allow this — it should provide indoor facilities for the older children and even for adults. The playgrounds should be developed into community centres. 
Crying need 
Dr. Morven Brown, University Director of Social Studies, submitted ; a paper dealing with the "crying need" for more playgrounds,, nursery schools arid, youth clubs. The Settlement is doing its best in a job which should be (arid in. Socialist countries is) done by the Government on a far wider scale. Its hall and 'library is used by schoolchildren's clubs from 3.30-5 in the afternoons and after that by older groups. Its roofs need serious repairs. It carries on without much encouragement from newspaper owners who didn’t bother to report its annual meeting and whose one remedy for youth delinquency is: reach for the whip. Sadist clamor The community at large needs to be more vigilant against these newspaper sadists who get some support from the Bench. It will get sounder advice from Professor Harvey Sutton, Miss Isles and their student helpers who know something of young people because they spend such a lot of time helping them.
FOOTNOTE: Tooth's brewery having been temporarily refused permission to build another hotel at Cremorne Junction, the Mosman Branch of the Communist Party has proposed that the site be used for youth clubrooms or other socially-beneficial purposes.
PROFESSOR DEFENDS TEENAGERS (1956, July 25). Tribune (Sydney, NSW : 1939 - 1976), p. 9. Retrieved from 

MISS EBENA ISLES is looking forward to "a change of scenery" after 17 years as warden of the Sydney University Settlement. She has not only been on the job for 17 years, but she has lived on the spot in the warden's cottage next door to the Settlement Hall in Chippendale. She has resigned with many regrets, too, she says and she plans to go to live in the Pittwater area. She said last night that when she became warden she had one part-time assistant. Now she has had two full-time social workers to help her. The Settlement provides club and recreation facilities for the children of the crowded Chippendale-Darlington districts, it runs a Senior Citizens' Club, provides a weekly meal service to pensioners and social welfare services in the immediate neighbourhood. Miss Isles, who leaves at the end of the year, will be the guest of honour at a buffet dinner arranged by the Settlement Committee and welfare workers at Manning House on December 3. 
The Sydney Morning Herald from Sydney, New South Wales . Page 28. November 20, 1958

Isles resigned from the Settlement in 1959 and moved to her weekend cottage at Towlers Bay, where she returned to teaching, and taught for ten years at Narrabeen Girls High School before retiring. 

Department of Education
HIS Excellency the Governor and the Executive Council have approved of the resignation of Miss Ebena Isles as a member of the National Fitness Council of New South Wales, being accepted.
RESIGNATION (1959, June 19).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1817. Retrieved from 

Department: of Education 
HIS Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council and upon the recommendation of the Public Service Board, has approved o£ the appointment of the undermentioned teachers on probation:— 
Isles, Ebena; 
SPECIAL GAZETTE UNDER THE "PUBLIC SERVICE ACT, 1902" (1959, September 11). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales(Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2823. Retrieved from 

In the 1960s she donated her Towlers Bay home to the Youth Hostels Association of NSW and moved permanently to Mount Victoria. There she became involved with the local historical society and as Research Officer at the Mount Victoria and District Historical Society produced a history of the local school along with a series of small pamphlets about the local area;

1. Title. One Tree Hill (Mount Victoria) / [Ebena Isles]. Author. Isles, Ebena. Published. [Mt. Victoria (N.S.W.)] : Mount Victoria and District Historical Society, 1985.
Mount Victoria / photography Val Phillipps ; words Ebena Isles ...
Mount Victoria / photography Val Phillipps ; words Ebena Isles. Author. Phillipps, Val. Other Authors. Isles, Ebna. Mount Victoria and District Historical Society.

Mount Victoria is located on an escarpment plateau extension of Mount York, the site of a camp on the original Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson crossing of the Blue Mountains in 1813. The area was originally marked as One Tree Hill on an early map dating from 1834 by the Surveyor General, Sir Thomas Mitchell. This is why when the township was established in 1866 it was known as One Tree Hill. Isles, Ebena (1988). Mount Victoria. Blue Mountains City Library: Mount Victoria & District Historical Society. pp. Preface, 1. 
Length 6 pages
Blue Mountains: Pictorial Memories - Google Books Result
John Low - 2005 - ‎Blue Mountains (N.S.W.)
To Gwen Silvey, Ebena Isles and Helen Halliwell for advice and assistance in finding information and photographs. To those people whose reminiscences,

ISLES, Margaret Whitton.-December 17, 1946, at her residence, 11 Preddys Road, Bexley, Margaret Whitton Isles, dearly loved wife of Ben anddear mother of James, Margaret (Mrs. Southern), Ebena, Sydney, and Jean (Mrs. Metcalf), aged 69 yearsFamily Notices (1946, December 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from 

Fathers name Ebenezer Isles

Father’s Death
Ebenezer Isles - Date of Death 08/06/1949, Granted on 25/10/1949.

ISLES Ebenezer -June 8 1949 (suddenly) at his residence 11 Preddys Road Bexley dearly loved husband of the late Margaret Whitton Isles dear father of James, Margaret (Mrs Southern) Ebena, Sydney, Jean (Mrs Metcalf) aged 70 years Family Notices (1949, June 10). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from 

Marriage of her sisters

Eldest brother
ISLES JAMES : Service Number - NX54082 : Date of birth - 25 Oct 1900 : Place of birth - GLASGOW SCOTLAND : Place of enlistment - PADDINGTON NSW : Next of Kin - ISLES GLADYS

1. NSW Archives and State Records of NSW
2. Sue Gould, Coasters Retreat, Pittwater: Recollections and historical notes, 1993.
The Trustees acquired an ordnance reserve of just over 3 acres (1.2 hectares) on the northern shore of Towlers Bay in 1900. Upon this land were two cottages, a boatshed, workshop and timber jetty. This area together with a Powder Hulk moored in the bay had been the depot of the Explosives Department. One cottage became the residence of the Pittwater staff employed by the Chase Trust and the other cottage became a holiday cottage available to the public but it was mainly used by the Trustees. Also in 1900 a launch was purchased by the Chase Trust for use in Pittwater. …The jetty at Towlers Bay was extended in 1905, a bathing pool was built in 1906 and a slipway for launches was erected in 1909. The timber jetty was replaced by a stone jetty in 1911. From:
3. Ebena Isles Biography researched and written by Marian Lorrison, November 2015.
4. Barbara Tink - resaerch into Charles Hall
5. NSW State Archives & Records and Land Office of NSW
6. One Hour Of Exercise A Week Can Prevent Depression
October 3rd, 2017: by Emily Cook - Black Dog Institute
A landmark study led by the Black Dog Institute has revealed that regular exercise of any intensity can prevent future depression – and just one hour can help.

Published today in the American Journal of Psychiatry, the results show even small amounts of exercise can protect against depression, with mental health benefits seen regardless of age or gender.

In the largest and most extensive study of its kind, the analysis involved 33,908 Norwegian adults who had their levels of exercise and symptoms of depression and anxiety monitored over 11 years.

The international research team found that 12% of cases of depression could have been prevented if participants undertook just one hour of physical activity each week.

“We’ve known for some time that exercise has a role to play in treating symptoms of depression, but this is the first time we have been able to quantify the preventative potential of physical activity in terms of reducing future levels of depression,” said lead author Associate Professor Samuel Harvey, from Black Dog Institute and UNSW.

“These findings are exciting because they show that even relatively small amounts of exercise – from one hour per week – can deliver significant protection against depression.

“We are still trying to determine exactly why exercise can have this protective effect, but we believe it is from the combined impact of the various physical and social benefits of physical activity.

“These results highlight the great potential to integrate exercise into individual mental health plans and broader public health campaigns. If we can find ways to increase the population’s level of physical activity even by a small amount, then this is likely to bring substantial physical and mental health benefits.”

The findings follow the Black Dog Institute’s recent Exercise Your Mood campaign, which ran throughout September and encouraged Australians to improve their physical and mental wellbeing through exercise.

Researchers used data from the Health Study of Nord-Trøndelag County (HUNT study) – one of the largest and most comprehensive population-based health surveys ever undertaken – which was conducted between January 1984 and June 1997.

A healthy cohort of participants was asked at baseline to report the frequency of exercise they participated in and at what intensity: without becoming breathless or sweating, becoming breathless and sweating, or exhausting themselves. At follow-up stage, they completed a self-report questionnaire (the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) to indicate any emerging anxiety or depression.

With sedentary lifestyles becoming the norm worldwide, and rates of depression growing, these results are particularly pertinent as they highlight that even small lifestyle changes can reap significant mental health benefits.

The research team also accounted for variables which might impact the association between exercise and common mental illness. These include socio-economic and demographic factors, substance use, body mass index, new onset physical illness and perceived social support.  Results showed that people who reported doing no exercise at all at baseline had a 44% increased chance of developing depression compared to those who were exercising one to two hours a week.

However, these benefits did not carry through to protecting against anxiety, with no association identified between level and intensity of exercise and the chances of developing the disorder.

According to the Australian Health Survey, 20% of Australian adults do not undertake any regular physical activity, and more than a third spend less than 1.5 hours per week being physically active. At the same time, around 1 million Australians have depression, with one in five Australians aged 16-85 experiencing a mental illness in any year.

“Most of the mental health benefits of exercise are realised within the first hour undertaken each week,” said Associate Professor Harvey.

“With sedentary lifestyles becoming the norm worldwide, and rates of depression growing, these results are particularly pertinent as they highlight that even small lifestyle changes can reap significant mental health benefits.”

The study involved researchers from Black Dog Institute, King’s College London, UNSW Sydney, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, University of Bergen (Norway), Nordland Hospital Trust (Norway) and the Arctic University of Norway.

The HUNT Study is a collaboration between the HUNT Research Centre, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Nord-Trøndelag County Council.

If you or someone you know is in crisis please call one of the following national helplines:
SUICIDE CALL BACK SERVICE: 1300 659 467 (cost of a local call)
Pittwater, N.S.W., ca. 1887-1890 / photographer unknown Photograph No.:  a4367001h of Towler's Wharf (Lovett's Bay) published in: Maybanke Anderson's story of Pittwater : 1770 to 1920 / Maybanke Anderson ; edited by Jan Roberts ; Avalon Beach, N.S.W. : Ruskin Rowe Press, 1996. 
The little oil launch here is was used by to ferry people to and from the entrance to the Ku-Ring-Gai Chase walk up to the lookout above Lovett's Bay. 


Arthur Branscombe Wood (three generations with same name): 
Marriage - 1861
467/1861 WOOD ARTHUR B  STEWART JANE  SYDNEY - NSW Births, Deaths, Marriages Records
WOOD  ARTHUR B 16550/1898 Parents: JAMES CATHERINE  - passed away at WICKHAM
On the 29th May, at her residence, National School, Clarence Town, Mrs. Arthur B. Wood, of a sonFamily Notices (1862, June 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from

Libretto by Arthur Wood, dated 1896.
Presumed to be Arthur Branscombe Wood (1837-1914), father of Amelia Branscombe Wood (1867-1940), who was a celebrated singer and pianist in Europe. Arthur was a teacher in Sydney, particularly Petersham.  
PETERSHAM PUBLIC SCHOOL-Mr Arthur Wood, teacher; Miss Isabella Collins, mistress of infants' depart
ment; Mrs Mary Rogers, sewing mistress. Pupil Teachers: Thomas Casserly, Jacinta Moniz, and Adelaide 
Heness. PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS. (1880, June 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from

Also See Arthur Stevens, owner of Wood's Point Estate (below). 

Arthur Wood as conductor and manager of concert for Petersham Prize Fund. -May, 1882. AMUSEMENTS. CONCERT AT PETERSHAM. (1882, May 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from

TWO SEMI-DETACHED RECENTLY ERECTED VILLAS, now occupied by the proprietor as one dwelling for boarding, And residence purposes in connection with the Petersham Public school.
on the WEST SIDE of the BAY, about 1 ½  miles from BOULTONS HOTEL, in the TOWNSHIP OF NEWPORT, and the STEAMERS' WHARF.
The Improvements comprise a Cottage of TWO ROOMS, about 7a. are cleared and partly cultivated, portion being an orchard of orange and other fruit trees, and the residue partly timbered land. The Farm is well watered by two creeks that run through it.
RICHARDSON and "WRENCH have received instructions to sell by public auction at the Rooms, Pitt-street, on FRIDAY, 10th MAY, at 11 o'clock,
The ABOVE-DESCRIBED 30-ACRE FARM at Pittwater, within easy distance- 1 ½ miles -of the Newport STEAMERS' WHARF. Terms at sale. 
TWO BLOCKS of LAND, in area 12 ACRES 1 ROOD 34 1/2 PERCHES, and 9 ACRES 38 PERCHES, on the southern shore, opposite NEWPORT, about 12 miles from MANLY BEACH.
RICHARDSON and WRENCH have received instructions to sell by public auction, at the Rooms, Pitt-street, on FRIDAY, 10th May, at 11 o'clock.
The above blocks of land at Pitt Water, fronting a Government road, and commanding views of the whole of Broken Bay.
The soil, being very rich, is admirably adapted for cultivation purposes.
TERMS OF SALE.-Quarter cash deposit, balance In equal amounts, at 4,8, and 12 months, at 6 per cent, per annum.
PLAN on view at the ROOMS.'
All three listings from: Advertising (1882, May 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from

Advertising (1887, July 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

Advertising (1887, April 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from

The Bulli Colliery Gas Explosion 1887  
At 2.30pm on Wednesday, March 23rd, 1887, an explosion in the mine blew out of the tunnel mouth carrying with it an unconscious boy, Herbert Cope.Eighty one bodies were recovered and subsequently buried at St. Augustines Church of England, with eight at Fairy Meadow Roman Catholic cemetery (Corrimal), some at Woonona churchyard and the unidentified at Bulli. The blast was so intense some bodies could not be identified.

Bulli Colliery was a "gassy" pit having high concentrations of "firedamp" (methane) within its coal. Bleeding off into the mine workings, this gas was diluted and removed to the surface by the circulating air of the ventilation system before it accumulated and formed an inflammable mix (methane is inflammable within the approximate range of 5 - 15% when mixed with air so the object is to maintain the gas concentration well below the 5% level).
The source of the explosion was in the "Hill End" headings, known to be gassy and subject to gas "blowers". Not helped by the fact that the men working these headings had become casual towards the presence of gas and compounded by a deputy who apparently tolerated the use of unlocked lamps in contravention of "The Coal Fields Regulation Act", regulations that required all gas to be reported immediately to management and that locked oil flame safety lamps be used in gassy mines.

Although oil flame safety lamps were in use at the time, it apparently was common practice to remove the safety gauze from around the flame to permit more light from the lamp as this was the miners' only light source. In addition shots were being initiated by lighting the fuse from the open flame of the lamp or by matches.

The scene at the Pit top after the 1887 Bulli mine disaster, 1887

The special commission and jury was scathing in its findings blaming both the miners and management for their attitude towards safety. Even the Government Inspector of Mines showed a lack of information as to what was happening at the mine.

The conclusion reached by the commission was "that the explosion was caused by marsh gas or carbonic hydrate that had accumulated at the face. That the immediate cause was probably the flame from an overcharged shot fired by a miner in the coal in No. 2 Heading." This gas explosion propagated a coal dust explosion and travelled towards the fresh air at the surface. The commission was also of the opinion that the Deputy, Overman and to a lesser extent the Manager, were all guilty of contributing negligence. The last surviving widow died in 1942 and the sole survivor, Herbert Cope, died in 1952, aged 84.  

In 1887 numerous benefits were held to aid the widows and children of the deceased, the above being one of them, as reading that page of listings will show.

THE BULLI COLLIERY DISASTER. (1887, April 15). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 12. Retrieved from

Son, also called Arthur Branscombe, was a surveyor. Also National Library of Australia files: [Biographical cuttings on Arthur Branscombe Wood, co-president of the Victorian Farmers' Union, containing one or more cuttings from newspapers or journals].

Jane passed away in 1920:

Advertising (1920, September 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from

This would be his son:
APPLICATIONS by the undermentioned have been made to bring the lands respectively described under the provisions of the Real Property Act. Caveats may be lodged on or before this 28th July, 1922:
No. 24,057. Arthur Branscombe Wood, 30 ac., at Ku-ring-gai Chase, Pittwater, being por. 12 (of ph.) ph. Broken Bay, co. Cumberland.. NOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT. (1922, June 23). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3420. Retrieved from

Gratuities and Pensions.
The following list of gratuities, refunds, and pensions to public servants who have recently been retired has been furnished by the Public Service Board. The list is complete up - to the present time. The gratuities and refunds to persons who have been retired from the Public Service by the Board are calculated in accordance with sec. 60 of the Public Service Act, which provides that a contributor to the Superannuation Fund, not entitled to retire under sees. 43 and 44 of the Civil Service Act of 1884, upon being^retired by the Board is to receive a refund of the amount of his contributions to such account, calculated to the date on which his services shall have been dispensed with, together with a gratuity not exceeding one month's pay for each year of service from the date of his permanent appointment, and a fortnight's pay in respect of each year of temporary service; such gratuity to he calculated on the average of his salary during the whole term of his employment. A similiar provision in regerd to gratuities applies to officers retired who have not been contributors' to the Superannuation Fund ; hut in their case, of course, there . is no refund. Temporary officers retired get, under section 11 of the Act, a gratuity not exceeding a fortnight's pay for each year of service. Pensions are received under the Civil Service Act of 1884, by officers retiring when over 60 years of age, and after 15 years' servioe. None of the Civil servants have *oeen retired hy the Board without receiving some consideration. 
The following pensions over £100 have been recommended : —
Arthur Branscombe Wood, £176 15s 9d ; 
Gratuities and Pensions. (1896, August 15). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 359. Retrieved from

Future life : oratorio / libretto by Arthur Branscombe Wood ; music by Henri Kowalski. Published by Sydney : W.A. Pepperday &​ Co., [1896?]

Passed away in 1914:
WOOD.-April 29, at the residence of his daughter, Emilia Branscombe Wood40 Linden Gardens, Hyde Park, London, Arthur Branscombe Wood, father of A. B. Wood, Tooranie, Moulamein, N.S.W., aged 77. Family Notices (1914, June 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from

His mother and father (?):

WOOD—On the 18th May, at the residence of his son, Mr. J. Wood, Waverley, Mr. Arthur Branscombe Wood, of apoplexy, aged 62 years.Family Notices (1863, May 21). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from

WOOD—April 4th, at the residence of her son William, Duke-street, Woolloomooloo, N.S.W., Mrs. Loveday Wood, relict of the late Arthur Branscombe Wood, late of Oakford, Devon, England, aged 63 years. Family Notices (1865, April 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from

Miss Emilia Branscombe Wood.
This young lady, whose portrait appears in the present issue, is a native of New South Wales, Born in Sydney, and is the daughter of Mr. Branscombe Wood, headmaster of the Normal School, Petersham, under whose care his daughter was chiefly educated. Her musical ability showed itself when she was very young, and when only seven years old she played in public at Bathurst. 

Early in her teens Miss Wood aimed at gaining a University degree in music. No chair of music having yet been founded, the plan of entering the Sydney University was set aside, and the aspirant became a pupil of M. Henri Kowalski, who about that time — six or seven years ago — com-menced a school of music. From time to time the young pupil gave evidence of sterling progress at the annual audits, amateur concerts, charity concerts, &c., still continuing her studies under the accomplished Polish pianist and composer until May, 1891, when she accepted her first profess-sional engagement, and accompanied Madame Patey on a concert tour through New Zealand, lasting until the end of July. 

The young pianist received much encouragement and many flattering notices during the tour. Her repertoire included Bach's Fantasie Chromatique, ' La Campanella,' Paganini-Liszt ; Concerto E minor, Chopin ; Walzer, Brahms ; and many of Chopin's and Kowalski's smaller pieces, all of which were brilliantly given. Study was again resumed, and Miss Wood steadily increased her repertoire, and gained experience and confidence by occasional performances at amateur concerts with fellow students or with M. Kowalski until, on 23rd March, 1892, she made her first professional appearance in her native city, under the auspices of the Sydney Liedertafel, the senior musical society of Sydney, at the Centennial Hall, when Signor and Signora Cuttica and Signor Melossi were the vocalists. The pianoforte solo was Liszt's Hungarian Fantasia in C minor, with the Liedertafel orchestra. The performance of the soloist confirmed all that had been anticipated. The touch is clear and bright ; her technique easy, brilliant, and very skilful, combined with accurate reading and evident artistic and sympathetic judgment. Unfortunately the orchestra lacked familiarity with the work, and thereby de-tracted from the complete effect and eclat which otherwise would have been secured by the clever interpretation of the debutante. The merits of the young pianist were, however, promptly recognised, and very soon afterwards an engagement was concluded with the Foli concert company, which lasted from May until October, and included 80 concerts in Australia and New Zealand. In Melbourne the press was highly eulogistic of Miss Wood's performances in the Town Hall and in the Princess's Theatre. In Sydney the lady's selections included three of the Rhapsodies, Preludio, and Etude de Concert, 'Rigoletto:' Fantasie, Liszt; Fantasie sur 'Lucie,' Prudent; 'Home, Sweet Home,' Thalberg ; II Tremolo, Gottschalk ; Study, E. major, Schumann -Paganini ; Polonaise dc Concert, Kowalski ; Mazurka, Godard ; Valse de Concert, Wieniawski ; and much of Chopin's music, from which it will be gathered that a considerable field has been covered in her studies, and with success, as her engagement with Signor Foli attests. 

The progress so far, as is usual with true artists, has, however, convinced Miss Wood how very much she has yet to acquire ; and the student who seven years ago was anxious to enter the University, of which the professors are an examining rather than a teaching body, now sees the necessity for a wider sphere of culture, and has determined to proceed to Europe to under-take a two years' course in one of the great musical schools. When this resolve became known, the members of the musical profession in Sydney tendered to the young lady a complimentary bene-fit, which was arranged for Saturday, 5th November. 

His Excellency the Governor and the Countess of Jersey gave their patronage ; the Chief Justice, the Mayor of Sydney, the members of the Ministry, and a large number of influential gentlemen of the city and suburbs, with the lady members of their families, took up the matter so warmly that the Centennial Hall was thronged in every part on the night of the concert. Signor Foli specially deferred his departure until the last moment that he might take part in the performance, and M. Henri Kowalski, Miss Perie Doyle, M. Claudius D eslouis. Miss Josephine Deakin, Miss Colley, the Misses Llewellyn, Miss Cicily Staunton, Mr. W. Walshe, and a double quartet of gentlemen amateurs, with Miss Naylor and Mr. J. E. Sykes as accompanists, gave their valuable services, and arranged a pro-gramme which kept the audience throughout the evening at the point of enthusiasm. Miss Emilia Wood played the E minor Concerto of Liszt, and the G minor of Mendelssohn, M. Kowalski in both instances supplying the condensed orchestral parts on a second pianoforte. The playing of the lady was marked by her old merits of brilliancy and accuracy, with the addition of physical strength, vigour, and confidence gained during the long tour. The kind feeling of the audience was shown by warm and demonstrative approval, and by many beautiful floral gifts, to which must be added the substantial sum of £200 as the result of the benefit ; to which Signor Foli, by his generous help and liberal share in the programme, contributed much. Miss Emilia Wood, accompanied by her mother, sails for Europe in a few weeks, and will visit the great musical centres before deciding at which school she will enter for her studies. The public will watch with interest the career of this gifted young Australian.

(From photo, by Kerry and Co., George-street.) 
Miss Emilia Branscombe Wood. (1892, December 3). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1263. Retrieved from

Mr. A. Branscombe Wood, of Sydney, left London last week to join his wife and daughter Emilia in Paris. After a brief stay with them he starts for New South Wales. Mrs. and Miss Wood, it is understood, will remain on in Paris, where Miss Wood has again been going in for a hard term of vocal study. AUSTRALIANS ABROAD. (1901, January 19). The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), p. 45. Retrieved from

Miss Emilie Branscombe Wood, of Sydney, who once seemed destined to make a career as a a pianist, and later turned her attention to singing, is now reported in a London exchange to be teaching in Paris. She lately spent a holiday in Ireland with the Duke and Duchess of Manchester. Musical Notes. (1903, January 28). Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), p. 10. Retrieved from

From Paris comes news of several Australian singers who are now studying in the French capital. Miss Margaret Clarke and Miss Doyle, Sydney , are working hard; both are sopranos-Miss Mabelle Corey, who is also a soprano, is taking up the study of grand opera. Miss Livingstone, of Christchurch, New Zealand, who resided some time in Sydney, and is a promising contralto, is studying with Madame Dewyn, an Australian, who is married to a Frenchman-Miss Branscombe Wood, who has an atelier at 4 Rue Benjamin Godard, gave a lecture last Monday on "Scientific Voice Production," Several of her pupils sang at the conclusion of her lecturePERSONAL NOTES FROM LONDON. (1909, April 1). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Miss Emilia Branscombe Wood, a Sydney soprano and pianist, for some years past highly placed as a teacher of singing in Paris, writes from that city in regard to Mme. Calve, whose success in Australia she predicts as certain to arise, from the unique combination of fascinating personality and a beautiful voice. Mme. Calvo had given a matinee operatic entertalnmout on February 17 in aid of the sufferers by the Paris floods, at which the house was packed. On the Morea with Mme. Calvo, adds Miss Wood, is a young New Zealand contralto named May Pudney, the possessor of a splendid voice, who Is coining from Paris back for a few months' holiday, and to see her friends, Miss Wood states that, although "Chantecler" is a line work of art, and has brought a tremendous sum of , money to Edmond Rostand, it does not rank with "Cyrano de Bergerac" as an acting play. "The piece is beautiful In parts, but, on the other hand, there are passages in it that are shockingly vulgar."
MUSIC AND DRAMA. (1910, April 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from

PARIS, July 12.
Miss E. Branscombe Wood, of Sydney, has been created an officer of the French Academy, in recognition of her researches in regard to voice production.
Miss Emilia Branscombe Wood is the daughter of a gentleman who was at one time head-master of the Petersham Superior Public School, at which time she was one of the most brilliant pupils of Henri Kowalski, the eminent French pianist. When the late Signor Foli visited Sydney nearly 20 years, ago he pronounced the girl-player the possessor of a promising soprano voice, and this resulted in her visiting Paris with her mother to have it trained under Mme. Marchesi. In later years Miss Wood studied Jean de Reszke's vocal system, and resided first in London as a teacher, and then in Paris. For several years past the Australian has had a great following at her vocal studio in Rue Ben-jamin Godard, and several of her pupils have done well on the lyric stage.
AN AUSTRALIAN'S SUCCESS. (1911, July 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from

News reaches Sydney of Miss Emilia Branscombe Wood, through a letter to Mrs. Constance Roberts (herself now a teacher of singing) at one time a student with the elder lady in Paris. Miss Wood was one of Sydney's most brilliant pianists in her youthful days, when she was trained by Henri Kowalski, but while touring as pianist with Signor Foli, then starring in Australia, she developed a soprano voice. In Paris she acquired Jean de Reszke's vocal system, and settled in the French capital as a teacher, and lived there for many years. The Sydney woman published a book on "How to Sing," which was accepted by the French Académie des Sciences, and in 1911 she was created an Officier d'Academie. Miss Wood writes from the Lyceum Club, Piccadilly, with affectionate remembrances to Madame De Beau-puis, and other musical friends, and relates that she so wearied of the London winter, and found Paris so cold, that she went on to Nice and Rome with one or two of her pupils, and revisited Florence, Venice, and Lucerne. Miss Wood was back in London when writing in June, and had been to a matinee at Dame Nellie Melba's new house in Mansfield-street, arranged to introduce Prince Obolensky (the spelling is indistinct), a new Russian bass. 

She also marvelled at Signora Duse at the Oxford Theatre in Ibsen's "La Donna del Mare," still wonderful at 70 years of age. "Paderewski also continues unrivalled,"' adds the writer, "and played Liszt's Rhapsodie No. 2, one of my old battle horses, and gave me so many new ideas about it that I went home to fix the new stunt in my memory. He also played the "Appassionata," which made me think of Dora Ohlfsen before she gave up the piano to live so long in Rome as a sculptress. We were both pupils of Henri Kowalski in the old days, after his retirement from the Sydney Philharmonic Society. I found Melba in 'Faust' at Covent Garden, "quite a surprise, having recovered much brilliance and charm of tone. 'There is to be a British opera dinner at the Lyceum shortly," adds the writer, "and we expect Dame Ethel Smyth, who composed 'The Bo'sun's Mate,' and much else; Gustave Holst, all the rage for his opera. MUSIC AND DRAMA. (1923, September 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from

AFTER the expiration of 14 days application will be made to the Supreme Court of Victoria in its Probate Jurisdiction that LETTFRS of ADMINISTRATION of the estate of AMELIA BRANSCOMBE WOOD late of Riverbend House, Sevenoaks, England, spinster deceased intestate, may be granted to Arthur Branscombe Wood of Edge Barton Willaura In the State of Victoria, grazier brother and one of the next of kin of the said deceased.
Dated this 15th day of May 1940. 
Advertising (1940, May 16). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Henry Geddes

GEDDES -In loving memory of my husband, Henry Geddes who departed this life July 4, 1919 father of Raymond, Leila, Henry Goodwin, and Edwin, and grandfather of Thelma, Phyllis, Raphael, and Joy also of William Goodwin Geddes, who passed away at Pittwater Manly, July 4, 1904 Family Notices. (1929, July 4). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Department of Public Works,
North Sydney, 29th Feby., 1896.
TENDERS, addressed to the C.P.S.. North Sydney, are Invited up to Noon of TUESDAY, tho 10th of March, for tho following
WORKS:— The SUPPLY of 400 cub. yards of IRONSTONE GRAVEL, at GEDDES'S CK., PITTWATER; SUPPLY of 440 cub. Yards IRONSTONE GRAVEL at MONA VALE, PITTWATER; the FORMATION of 232 lln. yards of ROAD at NEWPORT; the SUPPLY of 400 cub yards of MAINTENANCE GRAVEL between MANLY and DEE WHY;  Plans and Specifications can be seen at the Courthouse, North Sydney,. ...WALTER A- SMITH, District Engineer. Advertising (1896, March 4). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 2. Retrieved from 

GEDDES—BEARD.—May 10, at the Centenary Hall, York-street, by the Rev. W. G. Taylor, Freda Miriam, only daughter of Mr. D. Beard, Rockwall-crescent, Potts Point, to  Henry Geddes, of Bay View, Pittwater. Family Notices (1905, June 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from 

A quiet wedding took place at the Centenary Hall, York-street on May 10, when Miss Freda Beard only daughter of Mr. D. Beard, Rockwall Crescent, Potts Point, was married to Mr. Henry Geddes, Bay View, Pittwater. The bride wore cream voile, trimmed with lace and ribbon, and a wreath and veil. She carried a shower bouquet, and wore a gold watch and muff chain, and bangle set with amethyst and pearls, the gifts of the bride-groom. The bridesmalds were Miss Ruby Newton, in white book muslin and a red hat. Her bouquet of red carnations and a cable bangle set with pearls and turquoise were gifts of the bridegroom. Little Miss Hazel Newton, in white silk, with a poke bonnet, was also in attendance, and carried a basket of red carnations. Mr. C. Beard acted as best man. After the ceremony a reception was held at 14 Rockwall Crescent, about 40 guests being present.SOCIAL. (1905, June 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from 

Mrs. Geddes, of Cherry Linton, on the Pittwater, and her cousin, Miss Peterson, are staying at Palm Beach, and riding two fine horses "straight from the country." Riding is very popular in those parts, and no wonder, for there is beautiful scenery around Whale Bay and Clareville. Miss Elaine de-Chair and her brother spent much- of their time on horseback. Residents are clamouring for a marine drive from Salt Pan round Careel Bay to Clareville, which would mean another route to Palm Beach - along the shores of the Pittwater. THE HOME CIRCLE (1930, April 17).Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

Department of Lands,
Sydney, February 26, 1890.
ATTENTION is directed to the notification in the Government Gazette of this date in reference to the proposal to grant Special Leases as hereunder mentioned. Any objections lodged on or before March 26 will be duly considered.
T. A. Shorter, for Jetty at Pittwater, Broken Bay. Advertising (1890, March 1). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 8. Retrieved from 

I will write and tell you about a delightful holiday Flo and I had a few weeks ago. We had grown rather tired of the Mountains, and thought a seaside place would be a change, so at last we decided on Pitt-water. We started one Friday afternoon, and, catching the 3 o'clock boat to Manly, reached it in plenty of time for the Pittwater coach, which left Manly shortly after 4 o'clock, and arrived at Pittwater in time for dinner. Although we had a 12 miles' drive by coach, still we did not find it a tiresome one, for the road was good all the way ; besides, the scenery was so beautiful. All along the route there was something interesting to look at. Now we were passing through a forest of tall trees and beautiful cabbage-tree palms, and wild flowers growing in great profusion ; and then suddenly we were confronted in all its grandeur by the ocean itself. And so on we drove, until Church Point, which is as far as the coach goes, was reached, and we found ourselves on the shores of Pitt-water. 

'We had made arrangements beforehand as to what coach we would come down by, so we weren't surprised on leaving the coach to find a small motor launch waiting to convey us to our destination. After about 10 minutes in the launch we entered a pretty little bay surrounded almost by mountains, and picturesquely situated on the side of one of these was the cottage which was to be our abode for the next ten days. Next morning we awoke early and made a tour of inspection, and were delighted with the place, for, besides having a nice orchards, cows, poultry, plenty of milk, eggs, cream, and oysters, we discovered a bathing-place securely fenced off and boats if we cared to fish or row. 

After break-fast the little launch in which we had come across in the previous evening, and which belonged to the house, was waiting at the pier to take us to see some of the beauty spots round about. That morning we went up as far as the Barrenjoey Heads, which are the entrance to it from the ocean side. On the South Head is the famous Barrenjoey lighthouse. Then we went round Lion Island into Brisbane Water, on to the mouth of the Hawkesbury River, and on our way back landed at Barrenjoey to inspect the light-house, and thence homewards, after having spent a most enjoyable day. 

Next day we went in quite an opposite direction, and soon found ourselves in the Kuring-gai Chase. Leaving the launch, we followed the path up the mountain. At first we anticipated rather a dreadful climb, but soon the beauty of the flowers and ferns attracted our attention, and so onward we pressed until the summit was reached. Sitting down, we gazed on the surrounding scene — one of the most glorious I had ever looked upon. Down beneath us was the water sparkling like diamonds in the Summer sunshine, and jutting out into it a large isthmus richly clothed in all its beautiful verdure and foliage ; whilst studded here and there among the trees were tiny cottages. Then further on Church Point, and Scotland Island appear-ed ; and still further on Bayview and New-port. 

And so our days were spent exploring new places, picnicking, and fishing, until at last the morning came for our de-parture homewards. And it was rather unwillingly that we bade farewell to beautiful Pittwater. Our board, which was very good, indeed, cost us 30s a week ; and as there were two of us, and we stayed ten days, it came to £4 6s, a slight reduction being made for staying over the week. The coach journey cost 6s return for the two or us, and out fares by tram and ferry Is each, making in all £4 14s. This covered everything excepting tips, but as everyone has his or her idea on that subject I thought it best to leave that item out.— CONSTANCE (Enmore).
PITTWATER. (1906, December 23). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 4 (The Sunday Times Magazine Section). Retrieved from

Good work has been carried on during the past year by the Dental Hospital of Sydney. A report submitted at the annual meeting of that Institution held last evening at the Australia Hotel, Mr. E. K. Satchell presiding, showed that the work had. been on sound lines. The question of co-operating with the University of Sydney Dental Hospital had been discussed, and a conference appointed to meet representatives of the Senate, with a view to the matter being further considered. The treasurer's financial statement disclosed a credit balance of £97 7s 9d. Upon the motion -of Mr Butler Wood, the provisional committee was. accorded a vote of thanks for Its efforts In the successful formation of the hospital. The officers for the ensuing year were appointed as follow: — President, Dr. E. R. Magnus; vice- president, Mr. E.-K. Satchell; trustees, Messrs. Edward Reading, Hugh Paterson and Dr. W. J. Beckett;, hon, treasurer, Mr. E. C. Marshall; auditor, Mr. David Fell; council, Messrs. Ernest: Blaekwell, S; Chalm, Percy C. Charlton, Charles Hall,Donald Smith, Dr. Davis, Dr. Henry, Peach, and Dr. F. Magnus. DENTAL HOSPITAL OF SYDNEY (1902, January 30). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 3. Retrieved from

The new Dental Board, to be appointed in pursuance of the Dental Act passed during last session of Parliament, will be appointed to-morrow. It is to consist of eight members, of whom two must be dentists, two duly qualified medical practitioners, and two belonging to neither of those professions. It Is understood that Dr. Graham will be appointed the first president of the Board. THE DENTAL BOARD. (1900, December 9). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from

The Government has appointed the following gentlemen under the new Dentists Act to form a -Dental Board: James Graham, M.B., M.S., M.L.A. (president); Edward Johnston Jenkins, M.B., M.R.C.P., M.R.C.S.E.; Alfred Burns, D.D.S.; E. Reading, George Vern Barnett, Henry Peach; D.D.S., Win. Joseph Trickett, M.L.C., George Norton Russell. THE DENTAL BOARD. (1900, December 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from

Under the Dentists Act passed by Parlia-ment last session, it will be remembered dentists will be required by law in future, and after January 1, to register their names and qualifications with a professional board to be appointed for that purpose. The members of that board have now been nominated. The names were published yesterday, and it will be seen that they include those of professional men who have won the confidence of 
the public. The author of the Act, Dr. Graham, has been appointed president, so that the public will have some guarantee that the measure will be administered in accordance with the intentions of those who introduced and voted for the bill in Parliament. One of the main provisions of the enactment, it will be remembered, is to the effect that some assurance should be secured to the public that persons practising as dentists are really qualified to perform the duties committed to them. That these are important duties no one will hesitate to admit, and unfortunately it is within common knowledge that people have had certain ground for complaint in the past as to the manner in which those duties, sometimes highly paid, were discharged. Without qualification or supervision of some kind, such as this board can guarantee and provide, the public is left without protection against incompetent practitioners. That reproach should now be done away with by this Dental Board, acting under the authority of the Colonial Secretary. THE DENTISTRY BOARD. (1900, December 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from

A striking instance of Governmental methods is forthcoming in connection with the Dental Board just appointed. The board is appointed under the Dentists Act, passed during the past session,. for the purpose of regulating the practice of dentistry and dental surgery. The act received the Vice- regal assent on November , 5. but until Tuesday last (December 18), the board was not appointed. The board, which consists of Dr. Graham, M.L.A., Mr. W. J. Trickett, M.L.C., Dr. E. J. Jenkins, Mr. Alfred Burne, Mr. Edward Reading, Mr. G. V. Barnett, Mr. H. Peach, and Mr. G. Norton Russell, held its first meeting on 'Wednesday afternoon, and it was at once confronted by a situation of much difficulty. The act provides that on and after January 1 any person practising as a dentist must be registered by the Dental Board, and, failing registration, anyone so practising is liable to a penalty of £20. The duty of the board of to examine the qualifications and character of all applicants for registration. The applicants have to be examined as to their credentials and capabilities, and the grounds upon which their claims are made. The board has to frame regulations, and any applicant who is refused registration may claim to be heard before the board either personally or by counsel. There will certainly be between 300 and 400 applicants; for registration. It is obviously impossible, unless the .board performs its duties in an utterly perfunctory fashion, to pass even a large proportion of the applicants or to properly deal with the applications. It would be physically impossible in the. time to go Into the histories and qualifications 'of the various claimants for registration. The Board has only about eight clear days to perform its preliminary duties. The anomalous character of the situation, is further indicated by the fact that the schedule of the act provides that Applicants for registration before January 1 are to pay a fee of £2 2s, while subsequent applicants are to pay £5 5s. It is almost inevitable that an act to validate : the proceedings of the board Will have to be passed next session. THE DENTAL BOARD. (1900, December 20). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from

Our Offshore Idylls
As can be read, The Basin, Lovett Bay, Morning Bay, Elvina Bay, in fact every little nook and cranny of our offshore areas has been etched, sketched, made into a woodcut and when photography came along, recorded in all its pristine beauty - the early work of Mr. Kerry capturing the newly sprung Ku Ring Gai Chase - visit Pittwater’s Parallel Estuary: The Cowan ‘Creek’ and Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years Of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase And The Men Of Flowers Inspired By Eccleston Du Faur for a few examples.

Embarking on an oil launch, which forms part of the limited property of the trust, the party proceeded down Cowan Creek for about a mile and a  half to a point on the western shore, where Mr.  Thomas and his officers inspected a landing site. After returning to lunch on the trustees' houseboat, Kuring-gai, in Kuriug-gai Bay, the party again took to the launch, and ran down for several miles, when there was excellent opportunity of viewing the beauties of the Chase. IN KURING-GAI CHASE. (1902, September 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from

Trustees oil launch, Kuring-gai Bay, 1899. Image No.: d1_08775 and d1_08776, courtesy State Library of NSW

...with a subsidy of only £1000 and a small income from a few cottages on the Chase at Pittwater the trustees have to do all maintenance work on the roads and paths, run and  keep in order an oil launch at Cowan and another at  Pittwater, the houseboat, and a few pulling boats.  Out of that, too, come the wages for a launch engineer at Cowan and at Pittwater, with a substitute man at each place who fills in time on the roads and paths, and a man engaged in similar work at Colah. It is urged that such an allowance is already insufficient, and that if the Government carries out a proposal to reduce it nothing will re-main but the closing up of at least one of the central establishments. With a grant of £1000 for Cowan and £500 for Pittwater each place could be well maintained, and with careful management there might be a slight balance with which to keep moving the system of facilitating approach. Various little schemes, such as the construction of dams and the conservation of fresh water, which it carried in pipes to Bobbin Head and other points, have been effected without the aid of skilled labour, and there are many indications that economy is closely observed.

Another work which is being pushed forward is that of forming walking paths which skirt the edge of the different watercourses. Their cost of making is comparatively slight, and they enable the excursionist to wander over miles of otherwise inaccessible virgin tracts, and to enjoy delightful gems of scenery. Already several of these paths have been completed, but many more are needed. It is pointed out that a small expenditure in this direction would connect Coal and Candle Creek on the Cowan side with McCarr's Creek at Pittwater, or Refuge Bay with the Basin, and thus make these points within easy walking distance.

The work of protecting the flora is one of difficulty, and could be much assisted by the judicious construction of a little fencing so as to mark the points of egress from the Chase. In their endeavours to establish a native animal reserve the trustees meet with equal trouble, and point out that by the  erection of a line of fencing from Duffy's wharf to the head of Smith's Creek some five or six thousand acres could be made absolutely secure for that purpose. Generally speaking it appears that a small expenditure would place Kuring-gai Chase in a fairway to accomplish all the aims for which it was intended.  IN KURING-GAI CHASE. (1902, September 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from


Dr. Richard Arthur, M.L.A., writes to "The Daily Telegraph" (Sydney).—"When visiting Pittwater the other day with the Premier and some other gentlemen, we had the opportunity of seeing a swallow's nest placed in an almost Incredible position. "The trustees of the Kurin-gai Chase have a launch driven by an oil engine, which is enclosed In a small glassed-in cabin. On the top of the lamp in this cabin two swallows have built their nest, which now contains two swallowettes, three days old. 

"Mr. Willmott, who is in charge of the launch, informed us that he destroyed the nest twice. The launch was then laid up for a week, but a small port-hole was left open. When he again entered the cabin he found a fully-formed nest, which contained three eggs. The female bird stuck to the nest, and either ignored his presence, though his head, while he was cleaning the engine was within a few inches of her, or would make a pretence of flying at him.

"Now, when the launch goes on a trip, the parent birds perch themselves on the bow. If they leave the boat they will turn up some hours later, even though it has travelled five or six miles in the meantime, and fly straight into the cabin. Mr. Willmott believes that the swallows have chosen this extraordinary position for their nest to escape the iguanas. He is speculating how the parents will teach the young ones to fly." THE AUDACITY OF THE SWALLOW. (1906, December 15).The World's News (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 1955), p. 4. Retrieved from

Arturo Steffani / Arthur Steven: The Red House

Born Arthur Stevens c1852 in the UK (Hinckley) – “an aristocratic Englishman” – Italinised his name for professional reasons (see article in Freeman’s Journal 3 September 1898). He changed his name for the purpose of tutoring, his professional name became Signor Steffani. He studied art as a student in South Kensington but also took up singing. Studied in Milan and sang in London – “Mr Gye Covent Garden Opera Company” (Illustrated Sydney News 14 November 1889).

He arrived in Victoria (likely) March 1877 aboard the vessel “Assam”. Listed as an “adult” but does not appear to have been accompanied. He was an opera singer with the Sam Lazar Italian Opera Company. He became a singing teacher in Sydney – continued to paint and exhibit with Art Society of NSW and was on Committee for several years. During this period, he lived on Hunter Street Sydney and was affiliated with the Italian Impressionists, Rubbo, Nerli etc. (Sydney Morning Herald 26th December 1909- Memoirs of Phil May).

He also had a place at Rocky Point, Pittwater, where apparently many Artist and Literary friends were entertained, forming a very early 'Artists Community' or Colony, in our offshore areas. It may be many of those who formed an Art Society by Artists were visitors and this could also account for the many 'views' of Pittwater that became part of these very early exhibitions. The home was and remains on the point of Elvina and Lovett bays; and was built in 1891 by the Stefani family. As one member was a pianist it came with elevated music room. It was bought by members of the Mark Foy family in 1926, (J.J. Smith) who changed its name from the Red House to Trincomalee – meaning 'a view from three points' – after they holidayed in Ceylon. It was sold when the Macorisons paid $135,000 in 1978 to the executors of the estate of the late Neil Smith, the father of Juanita Nielsen. 

Delightful House Party. Mrs. J. J. Smith and Mr. Neil Smith are entertaining a large party of friends at 'Trincomalee' Pittwater, these latter weeks. Mrs. Smith will not return to her flat at 'The Wellington,' Woollahra, for another month or so. She is a charming hostess, and is particularly good to the younger set. SOCIAL NEWS AND GOSSIP. (1925, December 31). The Catholic Press (NSW : 1895 - 1942), p. 22. Retrieved from

The home was then placed on the market again in 2011 and listed as having a self-contained cottage, studio, boatshed, jetty, sandy beach and rock pool, all in a pristine bushland setting and as an 1890s stone and timber house on 4,300 square metres at Lovett Bay, Pittwater.

Trincomalee, 2015

A description of the Pittwater home from an advertisement of 1901:

(1901, February 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from

Several text books documenting this period of Australian impressionism, have indicated that Steffani was Italian. In August 1898 Steffani and his wife left for Europe with the young Queensland singer, Florence Mary Schmidt (later married to the sculptor Derwent Wood) who Steffani had tutored. They spent time and Florence studied in Italy, Paris and London. 

Steffani and his wife returned to Australia then returned to London several years later. An Illustration of Steffani is in article he wrote about Australian singers in London – 3 August 1902.

One was found, a photo, in this extensive interview conducted after his return - an extract:
The Dangers They Encounter and the Triumphs They Achieve
'How the prima donna is made' was the i title of an article which appeared in the last issue of the 'Sunday Times.' In the course of an exceptionally interesting interview which I had with Signor Steffani, who has just returned after a lengthened stay abroad, and who has undoubtedly given more Australian singers to the world than any other teacher, reference was made to the terrible price to their womanhood which many song birds have to pay, even after the trials of the student days, if they wish to attain the highest pinnacle of fame. Signor Steffani also tendered some valuable advice to those who seek a musical career, and talked entertainingly of the doings and achievements of Australians abroad.
TO THOSE GOING ABROAD. 'To anyone going Home,' commenced Signor Steffani, 'a certain amount of money is absolutely necessary, as much as will cover three years comfortable living and sufficient to go to the theatres, etc. The first thing for her to do would be to listen to everything, see everything, listen to all that is said amongst students and artists about the art and the profession generally, and not adopt any course of study until she has thoroughly sifted all she has listened to. For the first year there should be nothing in the way of study. In most cases, however, I consider that those who have been well taught here — well enough to please an Australian 'audience — need no tinkering with the voice when they reach Home. 

AUSTRALIAN SINGERS. (1906, June 3).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 3 (The Sunday Times Magazine Section). Retrieved from 

An earlier sketch:

Signor Steffani is one of our public men who worship at the shrine of two sister arts. A student at South Kensington, and devoted to the brush, he simultaneously developed a gift of song, and a tempting offer led him to Italy and to stage life. After some experience as an opera singer he came out to Australia, ten years ago, in Lazar's Italian Opera Troupe, but left the stage some three years later and devoted himself permanently to his favourite art. Signor Steffani still trains singing pupils, but his chief time and energy are spent with the brush. He is keenly alive to the pecu-liarities a.nd atmospheric attractions of Australian scenery, and for the last four years he has been an energetic exhibitor on the Art Society's walls. 

OUR SYDNEY ARTISTS. (1889, November 14). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 23. Retrieved from

Steffani died in London in March 1931 at the age of 79 (born circa 1852). Arthur Stevens was born 4th Quarter of 1852 at Hinckley and an Arthur Stevens died 1st Quarter 1931 (Age 78) at Hinckley. This is likely Arturo Steffani (1852 – 1931)

Second Performance of Sir Michael Costa's
to initiate a Fund for Building a Music Hall.
Principal Singers :
(the Tasmanian Prima Donna)
who have offered their gratuitous services in view of the object ;
Chorus and Orchestra, 120 performers,
under the conductorship of
Tickets : Front seats, 5s ; balcony, Ss ; back seats, 2s ; to be
bad at the principal music warehouses, and at the doors. -
Tickets for the 5th will admit on the 11th. 
Advertising (1878, September 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

An Artist's Reminiscences.
The home of Mr. and Mrs. Donald Commons at Narelle-avenue, Pymble, with its courtyard partly covered with trellised wistaria, its white roses, and its noble trees, where magpies still find a sanctuary, was built years ago, when there was nothing but bush all round. The house as well as the street is called Narelle, the aboriginal for "song bird," which was also the name of the last queen of the Wallaga Lake tribe. I found the artist sitting beside an open fireside, smoking an old briar pipe and dreaming perhaps of the days long past, when he and other congenial souls foregathered in a Bohemia of their own. His old friend B. E. Minns is the last of the group to make an occasional call.

It is nearly eighty years since Mr. Commons was born at Auckland, New Zealand. Engaged as a cadet in a large construction work for a few years, he came over here as a young man to join the Board of Works. That was in 1878, so his memories of art In Sydney go back farther than most of our painters. At that time, the Royal Art Society and the National Gallery had not yet been founded, and Julian Ashton had not settled in Sydney. The one institution was the Academy of Art, which had lived up to its name by establish-ing classes for painting and sculpture and by holding exhibitions at which it bestowed medals for meritorious works.

"The International Exhibition at the Garden Palace in 1880," said Mr. Commons, "was a far-seeing conception of Sir Henry Parkes. It gave a small band of artists a rare opportunity of studying the works of various European schools. A number of these were retained for Sydney, "The Sons of Clovls" being acquired for the Gallery. As the years followed, we had the benefit of seeing exhibitions of contemporary works from London; among the many excellent examples being the seascapes by Henry Moore, R.A., and W. L. Wyllie, R.A., and the water colours by John Bromley and many others. Then the idea arose, that protection would prevent the flooding of cheap and inferior stuff, and it certainly saved the local artists from almost extinction. Of course, since then artists have been well supported by the public."

The eighties and the nineties marked a progressive period In Sydney; It saw the rise of the Australian school started by Roberts and Streeton, and Mr. Commons knew all the leading artists of that time. "Julian Ashton, who had studied at Julien's in Paris," he continued, "brought a fresh, uplifting and sturdy vigour upon the scene, inspiring the struggling painters with confidence in them-selves. There were men of decided ability and their work was not fully appreciated; but Ashton, in upholding their alms, did away with a lot of humbug as far as the public was concerned. The relations between fellow painters were very friendly, and other artists like Frank Mahony, A. J. Fisher, Charles Conder, Henry Fullwood, B. E. Minns were fine comrades. At the Sketch Club, connected with the Royal Art Society, we usually exchanged sketches, and if you look round you will see some souvenirs of these pleasant meetings."

The advent of Tom Roberts and Streeton who came over from Melbourne and settled at Curlew Camp Little Sirius Cove he resumed had a marked influence on the Sydney group. The fact that Roberts was elected the first president of the Society of Artists showed that he was recognised as a leader while Streeton influenced his brother artists in looking for sunlight and painting with a freer brush. It may not be generally known that these two painters started a school in an upper floor of the Commercial Union Assurance Company’s building at the corner of Hunter and Pitt streets. Mr. G V F Mann afterwards Director of the Sydney Gallery being one of the students. Streeton used to stay with us from time to time, he was a rapid painter and wasted no time in selecting a subject.

“I had lunch with Archibald and Phil May the day the latter arrived in Sydney he continued, “There was not much talk as May seemed anxious to get away and start on his new job He was very unassuming and quite modest about his work Yes I knew Conder well he was a wonderful colourist but no one at that time regarded him as a good draughtsman. 

Another old friend was Signoi Arturo Steffani the operatic bass and teacher of singing he was an aristocratic English man named Arthur Steven, who Italianised his name I fancy because plain misters in music were not thought of so highly as signors. He had a charming home at Pittwater where he royally entertained his literary and artistic friends.

The reason why the work of Mr Commons is not so widely known as it deserves to be is that he has not exhibited for years His predilection for seascapes may be traced to the fact that his father owned a number of vessels and as a youth he had the opportunity of cruising about aboard them While he cannot be grouped among the moderns there is nothing old fashioned about his work and at nearly 80 he appears to have kept abreast of the times.

Some reference may be made to family connections Mr. Commons is a descendant of the Grants and the Gordons. The father of Mrs. Commons Mr. J T Hobbes who was a food linguist was a devoted friend of John Ruskin with whom he travelled on the Continent and corresponded with him till his death He kept a diary during his association with Ruskin one of the three manuscript volumes being in the possession of Mrs. Commons. While abroad with Ruskin Turner was with them and the diarist used to carry water to the artist as he drew his famous studies depicting the mighty grandeur of the Alpine scenery Eventually Mr. Hobbes came out to Australia and for some years he was police magistrate at Port Macquarie. BACK TO THE 70's. (1935, November 2).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from 

Arturo Steffani, Coast of New South Wales 1888
44 cm x 79 cm, Oil on canvas
Signed A Steffani lower left corner
Exhibited at the Royal Art Society Exhibition September 1888 Catalogue number 135.
Extracts below from the Evening News and Sydney Morning Herald September 1888: 

No. 135, by Arturo Steffani— ' Coast of New South Wales.' One of the most naturally colored exhibits in the gallery. The Art Society of N.S.W. (1888, September 21). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Signor Arturo Steffani has seven pictures bearing his name in the Exhibition this year, and amongst the number are some showing remarkably good work. Most of Signor Steffani's marine studies contain clever touches and the results of close observation, and among the best on the walls this year may be named his " Coast of New South Wales " (No. 135). This rather comprehensive title probably refers to a view near Coogee or Bondi. It is a most careful study from nature, we should say, and is remarkable for the excellent effect of that peculiar emerald-green tint in the curling roller of which the end breaks against a rock in the left foreground, and the pearly tint of the wave after it has crested and broken into foam. The manipulation of the effect of distance is excellent; perhaps the colour in the rooks is a little low intone, and their effect lacking in variety.
In "Milson's Point at Evening" (No. 126) the same artist shows good grasp and composition, and in his " Ben Buckler" (No. 150), "Head of Careening Cove" (No. 145), "Neutral Bay" (No. 87), " Careening Cove " (No. 102), and "Head of Mosman's Bay " (No. 122), there is shown a good deal of the same artist's careful and characteristic work. One of those harbour sketches, showing a hulk lying up on the shore, and the pools of water among the rooks reflecting the blue sky, is remarkable for its very pretty harbour distance showing the ships riding at anchor, and the hazy outline of the distant shore.
Mr. Fullwood contributes some good studies besides his more ambitious picture. "Prince Rupert's Glen" (No. 96), is a pleasing view taken on the mountains at Wentworth Falls in this conscientious artist's characteristic style, and his "Sketch near Newport" (No. 30), is a charming bit of watercolour painting. Both Mr. Fullwood and Mr. Frank Mahoney have worked together to produce the picture catalogued as No. 107, called "A Drink by tho Wayside." We recognise Mr. Mahoney's touch in the cattle that stand in natural attitudes drinking at a stream. The fresh tones of colour in the water and in the foliage here are cool and natural, and the picture is one that takes a very prominent place among tho canvases on the walls. It is novel in conception, and vigorous and original in its, manner, and though striking the eye with a certain sense of incompleteness and haste, has all the elements of a very fine picture in its treatment and composition. 
ART SOCIETY'S EXHIBITION. (1888, September 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from

ATTENTION is directed to the notification in the Government Gazette of this date of applications made for Special Leases as hereunder mentioned.
 ARTURO Steffani, for Wharf and Boat Sheds, Rock Point. Pittwater. Advertising (1892, September 13). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 1 (SPECIAL EDITION). Retrieved from 

Manly to Broken Bay.
(See illustrations on this page, and pages 22 and 31.)
Sydney and neighborhood abound in lovely scenery, a harmonious blending of land and water, embellished by art, a mingling of many colors and tints that is always pleasing to the eye and charming to. the senses. So numerous indeed are the beauty spots of the metropolitan districts, and so various in their scenic beauty, that one is sometimes at a loss from, which to choose as the most agreeable to spend a holiday. To the lovers of nature, and to those who love to gaze on everchanging scenes, perhaps Manly, and the road along the beach past the Narrabeen Lakes and on to Newport, Bay View, and Broken Bay affords as agreeable and instructive, an outing as any. At all events the route has the charm of comparative newness, because for some unexplained reason it has only been of recent years that the magnificent harbors of Pittwater and Broken Bay, with their lovely scenery and fertile lands have received even passing attention from the great body of tourists, holiday-makers, and settlers, who are ever on the outlook for something new. The district may be easily reached by land via Manly, or by water via Broken Bay. From Manly two lines of coaches are in active running, and make several trips per day to suit the running of the Manly ferry boats and the Post Office schedule time. The distance from Manly to Bay View Post Office is only about 11 miles, and to Newport Post Office the distance is not much longer. The road is a most picturesque one throughout.
For a great part of the distance the road follows the beach, and although at present the whole face of the country is mostly in a state of nature, yet it is easy to see how vastly it could be improved by planting rows of Norfolk Island pines (Araucaria excelsa) and sand-binding grasses as at Manly. Occasionally a lot of green pasture land is passed, and one of the sights of the road is the Salvation Army Home, as it stands on a bold, rocky hill, commanding a fine view of the cultivation patches and a wealth of gay colors. At length the Rock Lily Hotel is reached, and here is refreshment for man and beast. A few yards beyond here the road branches, one to the town of Newport and Barrenjoey Lighthouse, and the other to Bay View Post Office arid Telephone Office and Church Point. At Bay View the expansive waters of Pittwater and Broken Bay in all their glory lie disclosed to view. Our illustration gives a very good idea of the scene. In the foreground is Bay View House, vine-yard, orchard, Post and Telegraph Office, the property of Mr. J. J. Roche. In the near view is Pittwater, extending its broad and deep arms to the right and to the left, and in the distance is Broken Bay, with Lion Island barring the passage way, so named because of its resemblance to a lion couchant. Only half the scene described is represented in the picture, but the varied panorama of headland jutting out beyond headland, with the intervening bays and arms as they sweep inward between the wooded head-lands, gives a good idea of what the other side is like. Broken Bay is, as is well known, one of the most magnificent harbors in Australia, with plenty of deep water and ample scope for the largest ships that sail the ocean. Its vicinity to Port Jackson has, up to the present, destroyed its chances of becoming a commercial centre, but no one can doubt that the day will come when it will be the seat bf a prosperous population with cities and towns within its borders, and railroads and ships bringing goods to its marts. At present it is merely used as a haven of shelter by storm-tossed ships, yachting parties, and an occasional excursion steamer from Sydney. At present its population is mostly com-posed of private gentlemen, who have residences among its beauty spots, the summer residences of business men from the metropolis, a few professional fruitgrowers, with a scattering of business men and fishermen.

From Bayview the road, a very good one, winds around the beach, disclosing as every vantage point is gained new beauties of land and water. Around here are some very good orchards, with trees laden with fruit, and the homesteads peeping out from masses of evergreen foliage, with an extensive vista of land and water. In a charming spot on a sloping hillside, with such a fore-ground and a craggy background Professor Anderson Stuart has a summer residence and orchard. Mr. W. G. Geddis has a neat residence on a pleasant point. Mr. W. Baker has an orchard with some magnificent trees, while on a commanding bluff is Mr. John Poster's residence and orchard. Mr. A. McIntosh's residence is also hard by.

This road ends at Church Point, a lovely spot commanding a view of Pittwater; the town and hotel of Newport at the head of Navigation, Broken Bay, and Barrenjoey directly in front; Scotland Island and Towler's Bay right across the water, with the long and deep arm known as McGarr's Creek on the left. On the Towler's Bay side there are several residents who pull across the water to the wharf at Church Point and meet the steamer from Sydney or the coach from Manly, as the case may be. The dynamite powder hulk is moored in Towler's Bay, with residences on shore for the officers in charge. Mr. Robert Robinson has his residence of Raamah at the same place. Mr. Robinson informs me that he can grow to perfection such tropical fruits as bananas, guavas, ginger, mangoes, pineapples, Brazilian cherries, &c. This fact will demonstrate that there can be little or no frost in this locality. 

'RAAMAH, ' TOWLER BAY, PITTWATER, VIA BAYVIEW.'. It has a message on the front and the address on the undivided back, which is postmarked 21 Feb 1908. Courtesy National Museum of Australia. 

Other residents of this side of the bay are Mr. F. Chave, Woodlands, who has a very nice orchard, mostly summer fruit; Mr. E. C. Johnstone, who has a nice residence and orchard; Mr. A. Steffani is another prominent resident, while the residence of the firm of Flood and Oately occupies a lovely peninsula in the quiet waters of the bay. Mr. Geo. Brown has a residence and an orchard in the neighborhood, and there is also a small church and cemetery at Church Point. THE NARRABEEN LAKES-A PICTURESQUE HEALTH RESORT NEAR MANLY. (See letterpress on page 19.) Manly to Broken Bay. (1893, November 11). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 19. Retrieved from 

A. Steffani, Palm Beach North & Kilcare
Oil on canvas, 60 x 100 cm, courtesy Australian & International Art, Davidson Auctions, Sydney.

A. Steffani, The Hawkesbury River
Watercolour on card, 33 x 50 cm
Estate of Lewis Morley, Davidson Auctions, Sydney.

A choice collection of tho oil and water-colour paintings of Signor Steffani will be sold by auction at 61 Elizabeth-street, near King-street, this morning. Some of this artist's moat admired works are to be disposed of, notably, amongst the oils, the fine view of "Barrenjoey," with its green headland and wind-swept bay. IN PARLIAMENT. (1893, May 12). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from

Mr. Steffani, a gentleman well-known in musical' circles as a voice expert, purposes giving at the Town Hull next Thursday evening, a farewell concert. The shortness of the notice is to be accounted for by his not wishing to interfere with his pupil Miss Florence Schmidt's concert' last Saturday. On this occasion Miss Schmidt will appear positively for the last time before an Australian public, as, together with Mr. and Mrs. Steffani, she sails for Europe next Monday. Miss Hetty Holroyd, another of Mr. Steffani's accomplished pupils, will .also appear, and the names of other artists will shortly be announced;' Al. though the gentleman in question has now been twenty-two years in Sydney, during which time he has rendered very great service to' .the vocal' art, this' is. the first occasion on which he has given' a concert on his own' account; Prior to coming to the colonies he occupied a prominent position in the late Mr. Gye's Covent Garden Italian Opera Company. Full particulars will appear in a day or so. MR. STEFFANI'S CONCERT (1898, August 29). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from 

Maritana, another 1920s Pittwater retreat at Elvina Bay, was built using jarrah, kauri and spotted gum by the Gibsons of retailers Foy & Gibson. Set on about a 240-square-metre holding with 52-metre waterfront, boatshed, jetty and beach, the Vogue Living-featured residence traded in 1992 and again in 1983.

Pittwater.—Erection of a large stone cottage at Lovett Bay, Pittwater. (Quantities) Messrs. Wilson, Neave, and Berry, Union House, George-street. TENDERS. (1925, September 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Bungalow of stone with deep water frontage with Caretakers Cottage, Boathouse Swimming Baths etc. RICHARDSON and WRENCH LTD AUCTIONEERS_
Mortgagee Sale Advertising (1940, April 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Freshwater head of Lovetts (sic.) Bay, Kuring Gai Chase ca. 1900-1910 by Star Photo Co. (possibly by William Livermore)- Unmounted views of New South Wales, [chiefly 1900-1910] Image No.: a116505, courtesy State Library of NSW
Pittwater YHA: Some History and Early Towler's/Morning Bay - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2017

Previous History Pages:  

Marie Byles Lucy Gullett Kookoomgiligai Frank Hurley Archpriest JJ Therry Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor Bowen Bungaree W. Bradley 1788 Journal Midholme Loggan Rock Cabin La Corniche La Corniche II Lion Island Bungan Beach Botham Beach Scarred Trees  Castles in the Sand Dame Nellie Melba lunches at Bilgola Spring, 1914  First to Fly in Australia at North Narrabeen  Mona Vale Golf Club's Annual Balls  Governor Phillip camps on Resolute Beach  Ruth Bedford  Jean Curlewis  Mollie Horseman  Charlotte Boutin  May Moore  Neville W Cayley Leon Houreux  Frederick Wymark  Sir Adrian Curlewis  Bilgola Heron Cove  Mullet Creek  Shark Point  Woodley's Cottage  A Tent at The Basin  Collin's Retreat-Bay View House-Scott's Hotel  Bilgola Cottage and House  The First Pittwater Regatta  Women Cricketers Picnic Filmed In Pittwater  Governor Phillip's Barrenjoey Cairn Waradiel Season The Church at Church Point  Gov.  Phillip'€™s  Exploration of Broken Bay, 2 €- 9 March 1788   Petroglyths: Aboriginal Rock Art on the Northern Beaches  Avalon Headland Landmarks  Steamers Part I Pittwater Aquatic Club Part I  Woody Point Yacht Club  Royal Motor Yacht Club Part I  Dorothea Mackellar Elaine Haxton  Neva Carr Glynn Margaret Mulvey Jean Mary Daly  Walter Oswald Watt Wilfrid Kingsford Smith John William Cherry  George Scotty Allan  McCarrs Creek Narrabeen Creek  Careel Creek  Currawong Beach Creek  Bushrangers at Pittwater  Smuggling at Broken Bay  An Illicit Still at McCarr's Creek  The Murder of David Foley  Mona Vale Outrages  Avalon Camping Ground  Bayview Koala Sanctuary Ingleside Powder Works Palm Beach Golf Course  Avalon Sailing Club  Mona Vale Surf Life Saving Club  Palm Beach SLSC Part I - The Sheds Warriewood SLSC Whale Beach SLSC Flagstaff Hill Mount Loftus Pill Hill Sheep Station Hill  S.S. Florrie  S.S. Phoenix and General Gordon Paddlewheeler  MV Reliance The Elvina  Florida House  Careel House   Ocean House and Billabong  Melrose-The Green Frog The Small Yacht Cruising Club of Pittwater  Canoe and I Go With The Mosquito Fleet - 1896  Pittwater Regattas Part I - Dates and Flagships to 1950 Shark Incidents In Pittwater  The Kalori  Church Point Wharf  Bayview Wharf  Newport Wharf Palm Beach Jetty - Gow's Wharf  Max Watt  Sir Francis Anderson Mark Foy  John Roche  Albert Verrills  Broken Bay Customs Station At Barrenjoey  Broken Bay Water Police  Broken Bay Marine Rescue - Volunteer Coastal Patrol  Pittwater Fire-Boats  Prospector Powder Hulk at Towler's Bay  Naval Visits to Pittwater 1788-1952  Pittwater's Torpedo Wharf and Range Naval Sea Cadets in Pittwater S.S. Charlotte Fenwick S.S. Erringhi  P.S. Namoi  S.Y. Ena I, II and III  Barrenjoey Headland - The Lessees  Barrenjoey Lighthouse - The Construction  Barrenjoey Broken Bay Shipwrecks Up To 1900  Barrenjoey Light Keepers  Douglas  Adrian Ross Newport SLSC 1909 - 1938 Part I Overview  North Narrabeen SLSC - The Formative Years  Bilgola SLSC - the First 10 years   North Palm Beach SLSC    A History of Pittwater Parts 1 and 4 Pittwater Regattas - 1907 and 1908  Pittwater Regattas - 1921 - The Year that Opened and Closed with a Regatta on Pittwater Pittwater Regatta Banishes Depression - 1933 The 1937 Pittwater Regatta - A Fashionable Affair  Careel Bay Jetty-Wharf-Boatshed  Gow-Gonsalves Boatshed -Snapperman Beach  Camping at Narrabeen - A Trickle then a Flood Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek'  RMYC Broken Bay Boathouse and Boatshed Barrenjoey Boat House The Bona - Classic Wooden Racing Yacht Mona Vale Hospital Golden Jubilee - A Few Insights on 50 Years as a Community Hospital Far West Children's Health Scheme - the Formation Years  The First Scotland Island Cup, Trophy and Race and the Gentleman who loved Elvina Bay Royal Motor Yacht Club Broken Bay NSW - Cruiser Division History - A History of the oldest division in the Royal Motor Yacht Club   Royal Motor Yacht Club€“ Broken Bay€“ Early Motor Boats and Yachts, their Builders and Ocean Races to Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury and Pittwater  The Royal Easter Show Began As the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales   The Mail Route to Pittwater and Beyond  The Wild Coachmen of Pittwater - A Long and Sometimes Bumpy Ride on Tracks Instead of Roads  The Fearless Men of Palm Beach SLSC's Surf Boats First Crews - A Tale of Viking Ships, Butcher Boats and Robert Gow'€™s Tom Thumb 'Canoe'  Furlough House Narrabeen - Restful Sea Breezes For Children and Their Mothers  From Telegraphs to Telephones - For All Ships at Sea and Those On Land Mona Vale Training Grounds - From Lancers on Horses to Lasses on Transport Courses  Fred Verrills; Builder of Bridges and Roads within Australia during WWII, Builder of Palm Beach Afterwards  Communications with Pittwater  Ferries To Pittwater A History of Pittwater - Part 4: West Head Fortress  Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur  Early Pittwater Launches and Ferries Runs Avalon Beach SLSC - The First Clubhouse  Avalon Beach SLSC The Second and Third Clubhouses From Beneath the Floorboards at Hyde Park Barracks  Bungaree Was Flamboyant   Andrew Thompson - 'Long Harry'  Albert Thomas Black John Collins of Avalon Narrabeen Prawning Times - A Seasonal Tide of Returnings   Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings and Pearl Kings and When Not to Harvest Oysters Yabbying In Warriewood Creeks  Eeling in Warriewood's Creeks (Includes A Short History of community involvement in environmental issues/campaigns in and around Narrabeen Lagoon - 1974 to present by David James OAM) Eunice Minnie Stelzer - Pittwater Matriarchs  Maria Louisa Therry - Pittwater Matriarch  Katherine Mary Roche - Pittwater Matriarchs Sarah A. Biddy Lewis and Martha Catherine Bens Pittwater Matriarchs  Pittwater's New Cycle Track of 1901 Manly to Newport  The Rock Lily Hotel  Barrenjoey House The Pasadena Jonah's St Michael's Arch  The First Royal Visitor to Australia: the Incident at Clontarf March 12th, 1868  Pittwater: Lovely Arm of the Hawkesbury By NOEL GRIFFITHS - includes RMYC Wharf and Clareville Wharf of 1938 + An Insight into Public Relations in Australia George Mulhall First Champion of Australia in Rowing - First Light-Keeper  at Barranjuey Headland  Captain Francis Hixson - Superintendent of Pilots, Lights, and Harbours and Father of the Naval Brigade  The Marquise of Scotland Island   The First Boat Builders of Pittwater: the Short Life and Long Voyages of Scotland Island Schooner the Geordy  Boat Builders of Pittwater II: from cargo schooners and coasters to sailing skiffs and motorised launches  The Currawong: Classic Yacht  The Riddles of The Spit and Bayview/ Church Point: sailors, boat makers, road pavers winning rowers   VP Day Commemorative Service 2015 –  at Avalon Beach RSL Cenotaph: 70th Anniversary  Captain T. Watson and his Captain Cook Statues: A Tribute to Kindness   Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern or Wiltshire Parks to McKay Reserve – From Beach to Estuary Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer  Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves:  A Headland Garden  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Green Family  Elanora - Some Early Notes and Pictures  The Stewart Towers On Barrenjoey Headland  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Williams Family  Early Cricket in Pittwater: A small Insight Into the Noble Game from 1880's On  The Pacific Club's 2016 Carnival in Rio Fundraiser for Palm Beach SLSC Marks the 79th Year of Support  Bert Payne Park, Newport: Named for A Man with Community Spirit   Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Fox Family  Surf Carnivals in February 1909, 1919, 1925, a Fancy Dress Rise of Venus and Saving Lives with Surfboards  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Paddon Family of Clareville  Mermaid Basin, Mona Vale Beach: Inspired 1906 Poem by Viva Brock  Early Pittwater Schools: The Barrenjoey School 1872 to 1894  The Royal Easter Show and 125th Celebration of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College: Farmers Feed Us!  The Newport School 1888 to 2016 Pittwater's Ocean Beach Rock Pools: Southern Corners of Bliss - A History The Royal Botanical Garden Sydney Celebrate 200 Years in 2016  The Porter Family of Newport: Five Brother Soldiers Serve in WWI Church Point and Bayview: A Pittwater Public School Set on the Estuary  The Basin, Pittwater: A Reprise: Historical Records and Pictures  Lighthouse Keepers Cottages You Can Rent in NSW - Designed or Inspired by Colonial Architect James Barnet: Includes Historic 'Lit' Days records   Bayview Days Ships Biscuits - the At Sea Necessity that Floated William Arnott’s Success  Mona Vale Public School 1906 to 2012   St Johns Camden: 176th And 167th Anniversaries In June 2016 - Places To Visit  Narrabeen Lagoon And Collaroy Beachfront: Storms And Flood Tides Of The Past  Avalon Beach Public School - A History   Muriel Knox Doherty Sir Herbert Henry Schlink  Shopping And Shops In Manly: Sales Times From 1856 To 1950 For A Fishing Village   Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club's 150th Sailing Season Opening: A Few Notes Of Old  A Few Glimpses Into Narrabeen's Past Beauties  Dr. Isobel Ida Bennett AO   Taronga Zoo 100th Birthday Parade: 1000 Reasons To Celebrate  War Memorials: Manly, October 14, 1916  Avalon Beach Golf Links: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  War Memorials - Mona Vale, November 14, 1926  Annie Wyatt Reserve Palm Beach: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Tumbledown Dick Hill  Waratah Farm and Narrabeen Plums: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Mark Twain, J.F. Archibald And Henry Lawson - Did They Go Fishing At Narrabeen In The Spring Of 1895?: Probably!  Bayview Baths Centenary Celebration in November 2016 hosted by Bayview-Church Point Residents Association  Dr. Jenny Rosen's Historical Timeline  Palm Beach RSL - Club Palm Beach Celebrating 60 Years  Early Years At Narrabeen: The Plane Sailing Day Of 1944 The  Five Ways- Six ways Junction; Kamikaze Corner - Avalon Bilgola  RPAYC Season on Pittwater and coming of Jubilees in Summer of 1938 Local Explorers’ Modern Day Discovery - Governor Phillip’s First Landing site, Campsite and contact with Local Aborigines in Pittwater: The Case for West Head Beach    Rendezvous Tea Rooms Palm Beach: links with 1817 and 1917: Palm Beach Stores  and Fishermen  St Cloud's Jersey Stud: Elanora Heights: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Roderic Quinn's Poems And Prose For Manly, Beacon Hill, Dee Why And Narrabeen  A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists: The Estuary  Celebrating World Radio Day: The Bilgola Connection With The Beginnings Of Radio In Australia  Emile Theodore Argles - champion of all Australians without a Voice - a very funny Satirist, Manly Poet and Pittwater Prose Writer and Litterateur  Sydney Harbour Bridge Celebrates 85th Birthday: A Few Pittwater Connections  Victor James Daley: A Manly Bard And Poet who also came to Pittwater and the Hawkesbury  Let's Go Fly A Kite !: Palm Beach Whistling Kites Inspire sharing How to Make Standard, Box and Whistling Boy Kites - school holidays fun with a bit of Australian and Narrabeen history  Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space, and Of Many Captains   Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I: Coastal Landscapes and Seascapes  The Bayview Tea Gardens 1920 to 1923 When Run By Thomas Edward And Annie Newey (Nee Costello) An Australian and RPAYC Commodore Aboard an America's Cup Challenger of 1908 and 1914   Henry Lawson - A Manly Bard and Poet: on his 150th Birthday  Historic Catalogue and Record of Pittwater Art I: Artists and Artists Colonies  Opportunity To Visit Submarine War Grave Renews Memories Of 75 Years Ago  Early Bayview - insights courtesy Don Taylor and Margaret Tink   Retracing Governor Phillip's Footsteps Around Pittwater: The Mystery Of The Cove On The East Side   Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: John (Jack) Ralston and Nora McAuliffe  Patrick Edward Quinn: A Manly Prose writer who gave us A Run To Pittwater (1889) and Songs for the Federation of Australia  Avalon Beach North Headland Indian Face 'Falls': An Everchanging Coastline  Nautical Treasure In Suburbia    Narani, Captain Cook Celebrations At MVPS And Elvina Bay Memories - 1970s  Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: Alrema Becke Queen of Palm Beach  The Beachcombers Surfboard Riding Club: Palm Beach, NSW - 1959 to 1961 Year Dated Beer Bottles Found at Taylors Point  Early Pittwater Surfers: Avalon Beach I  - 1956: The Carnival That Introduced The Malibu Surfboard and Being Able To Surf Across A Wave Face - Reg Wood Anecdotes   Mona Vale SLSC To Be Completely Renewed + A Few Insights from the Pages of the Past  The Firecracker That Closed Narrabeen Hotel By Ken Lloyd (Savalloyd) + Narrabeen Hotel Licence Transfer Trail  Traces Of WWII Coast Watchers Found On Bangalley Headland - 1942   Early Warriewood SLSC insights per Norman Godden + Extras    The Macphersons of Wharriewood and Narrabeen: the photo albums of William Joseph Macpherson