March 25 - 31, 2018: Issue 353

Pittwater Fishermen: Great Mackerel, Little Mackerel (Wilson's Beach - Currawong) and The Basin

WESTMINSTER ABBEY. (1906, December 15). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 46. Retrieved from 

At the Hawkesbury black bream are now in fine condition, and several good catches have recently been made near Patonga and Mackerel Beaches. Large quantities of a fine run of sea sarfish are in Broken Bay and at the entrance to Brisbane Water, Pittwater, and Hawkesbury River. Blackfish are numerous, in splendid condition and size, at most all parts of the river and creeks. Good flathead have been taken this week at Mooney Mooney, Mangrove, and Berowra Creeks, also in the lower portions of the river. Prawns are becoming very scarce, and what are caught, principally in the main river, between Sentry Box Head Reach and Mangrove Creek entrance, are a poor quality. At Port Hacking tailer, salmon, and kingfish are plentiful in all the channels, and good sport should now be had spinning. Black bream are in most of the channels. Great quantities of blackfish are in all the channels, also on the flats. A run of fine sand whiting are about Cabbage Tree Beach. Small shoals of trevally, 1lb to 41b fish, may be seen entering and leaving the port daily. They should be caught in most of the channels. At Brisbane Water, black bream, flathead, and sand whiting appear to be taking off, small catches being very noticeable, but several good lots of trumpeter whiting were taken from the Broadwater and different channels. Some nice redfish, up to 41b in weight, have been taken at the' Rip this week. Sand mullet are biting freely on the different flats. There are plenty of small river garfish on the different weedy parts of the water. Jewfish (about 151b) appear to be fairly numerous. Several have been taken recently at the Rip. FISHING NOTES. (1910, May 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from 
f.108 Barrenjoey & Mount Elliott mouth of Hawkesbury. Image No.: a5894116h 
f.109 Mona Vale road to Broken Bay. Image No.: a5894117h 
f.110 Mount Saint Patrick road to Broken Bay.: Image No.: a5894118h all three from album: Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales
What's interesting about delving into the western shores of Pittwater is it brings in days when these areas were Netted, had Oyster Leases and massive Fish Runs; particularly those that were under Barrenjoey, out of and into the mouth of the Hawkesbury and into the tidal bays and creeks in and with these tidal flows and seasons, and includes a little about the men who would Climb and fall from Trees To Watch these Fish Runs!

Geo. Hibbs, fisherman, of Hawkesbury River (N.S.W.), who was on a fishing expedition at Pittwater, climbed a tree overlooking the river to watch a shoal of fish, when the bough of the tree on which he was standing broke, and he fell to the ground. His comrades found him in an unconscious state. He died the following day.  FISHERMAN'S MISFORTUNE. (1911, May 3).Globe (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1914), p. 3. Retrieved from 

When an apparently sturdy tree collapsed and fell on him at the Basin, Pittwater, yesterday, Nelson James Woodbury, fisherman had his left thigh fractured, his right knee Injured, a severe cut inflicted, on his left leg, and abrasions to the left foot. Woodbury climbed about 20ft. up the tree, as is the habit with Broken Bay fishermen, to watch for the shoals of travelling fish, which pass through the waters. When the tree gave way he fell 20ft. to the ground, and was pinned down by the leg until his cries, attracted his mate, who liberated him: Suffering intense agony, Woodbury had to be rowed a mile and a half to Palm Beach, from where the Manly Ambulance was called. He was taken to Manly Hospital. PINNED DOWN BY LEG (1935, January 16).The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 1. Retrieved from 

Why climb a tree at the Basin to watch the fish runs come in? - this may be why:

... At the seaward end of the outer beach, where parties find safe swimming water, the trustees are proposing to place another wharf of stone, and to run from it a netting to prevent sharks entering a bathing enclosure. Opinions amongst yachters and motor-boaters vary respecting this. Some condemn the proposals entirely; preferring the natural surroundings. Others say the idea is good, as they have always felt they would like to swim in a bit deeper water, but they feared the huge sea-sharks that swim around Barranjoey and West Head and chase whiting and red-bream up into the Basin. The trustees are not obstinately wedded to any proposal. Inquiry shows that they welcome ideas, especially artistic ones allied with practicability, but they do not have them given to them often. They find critics wait till something is done, and then fall upon it with scorn. Any yachtsman, therefore, who has a thorough appreciation of the necessities of the Basin and puts his ideas into writing, will receive attention. For instance, another improvement meditated is the planting of trees about tho 20 acres surrounding Peggy's house. The trees on the camping area are not as beautiful as they might be. One proposal before the trustees was to plant an avenue of pines along tho outer edge of the camping ground — the straight line business again— and another to plant here and there a few silverbark tea trees, Port Jackson fig trees, and flame trees. The latter proposal seems to find the greater favor amongst those who visit the Basin oftenest. ...THE BASIN (1915, May 30). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 23. Retrieved from 

Anywhere on the bar near Barrenjoey flathead may be caught, and whiting are about the beaches on the Pittwater side of West Head. Near the Basin red bream are plentifulUp the Pittwater arm the best place to fish is near the beacon, and on the edge of the shoals on the Bayview side if they have not been netted. All the bays to the west of Scotland Island are meshed almost nightly, and the mouth of Mc Garr's Creek, near Church Paint, is almost spoiled by netting. Barrenjoey rocks are good, and the outside beach in first-class trim. FISHING NOTES (1916, January 8).Saturday Referee and the Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1912 - 1916), p. 5. Retrieved from 

History of a Beautiful and Romantic Spot
(Written for 'The Sunday Times' by J. P. N. WHEELER.)
Where the lone creek, chafing nightly in the cold and sad moonshine, 
Beats beneath the twisted fern-roots and the drenched and dripping vine. -KENDALL

A TRIP to Church Point, Pittwater, in the old days, prior to the advent of tram and motor car, was made by means of the coach running from Manly. 
Many a traveller by that old -fashioned means of progression was able to study and enjoy the trip of 13 miles perhaps far more than one who makes the journey now by more modern and speedier methods. While the coach bowled merrily along to the clink of the horses' hoofs on a hard road, every ferny dell and bramble, every green-clad hillside, cliff and expanse of ocean could be viewed at leisure until the quiet retreat of Church Point was readied after a journey of two hours. The big Royal Mail coach, which commenced its journey from livery stables next door to the old Pier Hotel, was put into service when a crowd was travelling on holidays. With its two box seats and five horses, it was a 'thing of beauty,' and there were usually among the occupants one or two bright spirits who enlivened the journey with their joviality. On the way down there was usually a break of a few minutes for refreshments at the Narrabeen and the Rock Lily Inns. 


McCarr's Creek is an affluent of Pittwater, flowing into the south-west corner of this arm of Broken Bay. Church Point, ideally situated at the southern- entrance of the creek, is the terminus of the old road from Manly, and an old milepost bears the figure 13. At this spot still stand the store and boat-shed once kept by Mr. James Booth, an old identity of the district. Mr. Booth was well known to sportsmen and he kept two yachts, the Claribel and the Menina, in which he used to take parties down the bay on fishing and pleasure excursions. The quaint little wharf where small cargo steamers from Sydney land their goods for local residents is just at hand. A few years ago, so sequestered was this spot, the arrival of the cargo boat from Sydney every Friday night about 9 p.m. created quite a flutter of interest among visitors and residents. 

Church Point derives its name from the little wooden house of worship erected about the year 1872 on the hill slope just above the wharf. In the cemetery lie two of the Oliver family, who passed away over 40 years ago. They were among the earliest inhabitants of Pittwater, when the blacks still lived in the fastnesses of Kuring-gai Chase. Such places enkindle in one's memory the lines of Gray's Elegy: — 
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

The well-wooded and precipitous slopes of Scotland Island face the point. 
McCarr's Creek was first surveyed by Captain Hunter in the year 1789, when Governor Phillip made one of his several excursions to Broken Bay, and it may be mentioned in passing that Phillip named the southern arm Pittwater in honour of William Pitt, then Prime Minister of England. In the year 1792 William Dawes and an exploring party visited the spot now known as Church Point. Later on, in 1830, William Romaine Govett surveyed Pittwater, and mentions in his manuscript, 'Notes,' which are in the Mitchell Library, that 'Pittwater receives a romantic creek.' Later on, the same stretch of water wassurveyed by Captain F. W. Sydney, R.N., in the year 1868, and the creek was marked on the chart as Pitt InletThe earliest plan on which the name 'Mc-Carr' appears is that of a survey by J. Larmer, dated June 24, 1832*. On the plan of a survey of January 13, 1830, by W. R. Govett, the creek in question is unnamed, so it is probable the name was given to it about this time. 

For some distance from the entrance soundings reveal a depth of six fathoms, and this is a good spot for anglers of red bream and whiting. But in the upper reach among the hills there is only sufficient water for rowing boats at high tide. It is to be regretted that the Government cannot see its way clear to dredge these pleasant waterways, as in course of time the silt from the mountains must choke them altogether. The upper portion of the creek is covered to some extent by a forest of mangroves, and is enclosed by hills rising to a height of 500ft. Exposed points of rocks here and there on the summits resemble, as Surveyor Govett observed in his 'Notes,' 'the castellated ruins of a fortress with its dilapidated battlements.' From these heights on a bright day the creek winds ' its' way like a silver ribbon midst its verdant setting of bush flora. 

There are several fern-clad gorges which pour their tributary streamlets of fresh water into McCarr's Creek. Two of these mountain rivulets have their source near Tumbledown Dick Hill, and met at some distance from the navigable portion of the creek. At this junction is a pool known as the 'Duckhole,' truly a sequestered pool in woodland valley' if ever there was one worthy of Longfellow's verse. The single streamlet forms a cascade over the rocks in the glen, flowing under ferny undergrowth and past mossy boulders. It pursues its tortuous course into a little rockbound basin of sparkling lucidity, finally entering the brackish waters at the limit of tidal action in the creek. This spot is the entrance to the beautiful gorge and forms part of the boundary of Kuring-gai Chase. 

There is here a pool described as the Silent Pool, where many a sojourner at Pittwater has enjoyed a 'dip' after a pleasant row up stream, and a tiny beach of white sand serves as a mooring place for one's boat. With the blue canopy of heaven above, this is a retreat to dream in, but the ebbing-tide will leave your craft stranded on the shallows for a few hours. 

Although a clearing here and there along the banks and the remnants of a few old fruit trees indicate that there was some kind of settlement a few decades ago, the shores for the most part until of quite recent years retained their pristine virginity. Two old jetties composed of loose blocks of sandstone probably served as mooring places for sailing vessels and dinghies when the earliest settlers made their home at McCarr's Creek. 
The wanderer who cares to explore may find the relics of aboriginal feasts or middens in the rock shelters here and there in the bush, while mid-way between McCarr's and Coal and Candle Creeks are some good examples of blackfellows' carvings on the wide, flat surface of a bed of sandstone. Not far away is a trigonometrical station. It is marked 'McCarr' on the map compiled by the Lands Department, and the altitude is 620 feet, and from this lonely bushland vantage point a glimpse of Coal and Candle Creek, amid the green environing hills, may be obtained.

 Just above one of the sandstone jetties previously mentioned on a grassy eminence are the remains of a wood hut, once the residence of Davy Walker in the 'nineties. Buffalo lawns, terraces and fruit trees testify to the amount of labour that was put into his 'selection.' On the opposite shore, up to the year 1913, stood the cosy weatherboard residence of the late Mr. George Brown, the owner of Waterside Estate, consisting of 41 acres.
McCARR'S CREEK, PITTWATER (1925, August 30). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from 


Head of McCarrs Creek, Pittwater, 1879-1892 Image Number; a106169, Courtesy of State Library of NSW.

Following is the classification and proposed distribution for 1887 of votes upon the Estimates for subordinate roads, under officers of the Department :
St. Leonards, via Balgowlah, to Manly, 3 miles, £150 ; Military-road, St. Leonards, 7, £350; Manly Cove to Pittwater, 15, £750; Manly and Pittwater road to McGarr's Creek, 3, £75; Pittwater to Barrenjoey, 4, £200; Balgowlah to Pittwater road, 3, £75; Lane Cove, via Stony Creek, to Pittwater, 14, £350; Lane Cove to Cowan Creek, at Bobbin Head, 2, £50 : ... SUBORDINATE ROADS. (1887, May 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from

Although purported to be vastly uninhabited, apart from a few who 'squatted' here and there, apparently fishing or drying fish to export elsewhere, the amount of boats and ships of all sizes who would resort to Broken Bay, and Pittwater, as a refuge during storms which they could get into, must have made the estuary a fairly crowded place for all those aboard ships, and needing fresh water at the least, which they could collect from then pristine and numerous streams and creeks, from within years of people escaping crowded Europe for greener shores. Several mentions of convicts making their way to Pittwater to try and board a ship appear for the first half decade of the 1800's and among these some fishing references. More of these are listed under extras - a few examples;

Westall, William. (July 22nd, 1802). Views on the east coast of Australia - Entrance to Broken Bay Retrieved from

An open boat was on Friday se'nnight lost in a heavy squall off Barenjoy, and two men that were on board her, out of four, unfortunately perished. They went out of the Cove that morning for Broken Bay, the weather at the time of their departure very boisterous. In clearing the South Head she was repeatedly in danger of filling by the heavy surfs that beat in upon the rocks ; the violence of the weather increasing, the people now too late repented their rashness and imprudence in attempting the passage under such forbidding circumstances. When off Barenjoy, at nearly a mile and a half from the shore, their danger soon visibly increased, the surfs succeeded with such rapidity and force as to render every skill and exertion necessary to their immediate safety ; but alas ! their adverse destiny was unavoidable -- three heavy waves at once curling on the little wretched bark, filled her in an instant ; the next succeeding wave washed off three of the people, two of whom viz. James Partridge and J. Sampson, never reached the shore ; the third by swimming happily saved his life; & the other, who clung to the boat, which tho' full had not gone down, but had drifted towards the beach, when within 40 yards of which, was miraculously thrown up by a surf, which upon its reflux left him in safety on the shore. SYDNEY. (1803, December 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

On Thursday sailed the Marcia and Surprise for Bas's Straits; but the latter returned the day following into Broken Bay, having met with a very heavy gale shortly after she went out, in which her sails were sent to pieces. She is intended to sail again this day.
Came in on Friday the Bee Colonial vessel with lime from Broken Bay, to sail again this morning. PORT NEWS. (1803, December 18). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from 

BOATS - On Monday sailed the James, Raby, for Broken Bay, and came in again on Friday with a freight of lime. And on Thursday arrived the Nancy, A Thompson owner, and the William from Hawkesbury, with wheat. The Nancy sailed from hence for Hunter's River on the 21st of October; took on board 40 logs of very fine Cedar, mostly measuring 20 feet and upwards, and squaring more than 3 feet; and arrived at Hawkesbury with the freight the 1st of the present month. SHIP NEWS. (1803, December 25). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from 

Another handsome Sloop built by Mr. A. Thompson, was on Thursday launched from the Green Hills; her keel was laid by Mr. Kelly, now master of the Nancy, her bur-then is computed at 30 tons, and in compliment to the spot of her nativity, she has received the name of the Hawkesbury.
Highly to the credit of Captain Balch, Commander of the American ship Mary, and no doubt in consideration of the polite attention he experienced during his stay here, upon discovery of a woman that had been secreted, when at a considerable distance at sea, put his vessel back into Broken Bay, and there landed not only the woman, but two of his ship's Company also, who had been accessory to her concealment. By such a conduct has Capt. Balch shown himself worthy the liberal reception he met with, and has given a wholesome lesson to those, who losing sight of the fair prospect which a reformed conduct invariably presents, are induced to have recourse to stratagem however impracticable, and to sacrifice their immediate comfort to an illusive shadow, which only realizes accumulated hardships, the certain and necessary consequences of disappointment. Bench of Magistrates. (1804, February 19). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from 

The people belonging to the 'Improvement', late from Hunter's River, report their having been surprised with the appearance of a white man upon Ash Island, which lies in that River, and who, when first discerned, was in the act of charging a musquet. They repeatedly called to him, but received no answer, and appeared to be wholly disregarded, as he walked gently into the brush and was no more seen. Any attempt to pursue him must have proved abortive, owing to the surrounding flat being at that time impassable, as it was low water. - Three men some weeks since took away a boat belonging to Serjeant Day, which one of them, viz. William Johnson, had previously hired for a whole week, on pretence of emergent business at Parramatta, which required that he should take a boat up, but has been missing ever since. The day after they left Sydney an account was brought in by several of the Broken-Bay Natives that three men in a boat, answering the description, had been seen by them making after one of the late American Ships, but having no prospect that could encourage the continuance of their course, they had at length put back, and took shelter that night among them; and the next morning taking again to their boat, shaped their course for the Northward. Other Natives have since described the boat, but added that there were then only two men with her, the loss of the third is therefore the only inference, and that they were in extreme dis-tress.— The appearance of a man upon Ash Island may be hence accounted for; and, if the reports of the Natives, which tallied with tolerable exactness, can be considered as credible information, he may possibly be the only survivor, unless a second were concealed in the brush. As men thus reduced to the most deplorable but desperate circumstances imaginable by their own folly and impetuosity may be capable of attempting the execution of the wildest projects, it is the duty and interest of those who traverse the Coast to be perpetually watchful against surprise, or any wicked effort of people thus unhappily situated, and to provide for their own future safety by endeavouring to secure such offenders. SYDNEY. (1804, March 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from 

The Keel of a new Vessel was last week laid by Messrs Kable and Underwood, opposite to the yard of the latter, all the planks of which are to be cedar, and her dimensions not under those of the Governor King.
Two handsome Sloops both built at Hawkesbury, lately came into the cove for the first time, one of which we before mentioned to be built by Mr. A. Thompson, named the Hawkesbury, conveniently carries from 7 to 800 bushels ; and the other called the Speedy about 500 bushels. Both these little performances, and that of the Nancy, will doubtless operate as a spur to emulation and industry, which are the founders of opulence, and the certain tread to happiness and social independence.
Seven insurgent fugitives lately apprehended by the Settlers and other loyal inhabitants of Hawkesbury, were part of a body fifteen in number, who, mostly armed, had taken refuge at the foot of the Mountains, but were then on the maraud about the exterior limits of the Settlement. Of the seven made prisoners one was induced by remorse and dread of impending punishment, to inform the captors where they had deposited their arms in concealment ; but whether this confession was sincere or not could not be ascertained, as none were found, and must consequently have been removed if ever lodged there. Hughes, who has in so many instances shown himself an abandoned and profligate offender, and against whom a writ of Out-lawry was some time since issued, is we understand, among the above number not yet apprehended, whose intent it was to cross the foot of the mountains for Broken Bay, there to seize upon the first boat that presented itself ; and without loss of time commit themselves to the perils of the sea. Several Natives have since confirmed the account given by these people, by declaring that they were actually on their travel towards Broken Bay, where it may be anxiously hoped their infamous and desperate design will be disappointed by the caution and vigilance of the Boatmen, whose safety is thus daringly menaced. SYDNEY. (1804, April 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

We are at the same time extremely concerned to state the Loss of the James, belonging to Mr. Thomas Raby, on Wednesday evening last near Broken Bay, the crew, five in  number, all saved. She sailed from Newcastle on Monday morning very leaky, and  shortly after her departure encountered a gale of wind, during which the water gained fast upon her; and the contrary wind continuing, baffled every exertion, and kept the pumps constantly at work. On Wednesday morning both pumps were choaked, the sea running very high, and the people were obliged to bale with buckets ; but at length, losing all hopes of bringing the vessel in, stood on to a sand-beach, nearly full, where she was soon after dashed to pieces by a tremendous surf. The people were picked up on Thursday by the Resource, at the North Head, and brought in. The James was also freighted in coals and cedar, the latter of which may possibly be recovered, with her anchor and part of her rigging.SHIP NEWS. (1804, April 29). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from 

On Tuesday appeared in sight the ship Alexander, Captain RHODES; but unable to make the Port owing to contrary windbrought up in Broken Bay, from whence she may be expected round as soon as the wind permits. Ship News. (1804, May 20). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Thos. Desmond, a prisoner who has a third time effected a temporary escape from the settlement at King's Town, was last week apprehended at Broken Bay by the people belonging to the Hawkesbury, and sent in initially to Parramatta ; and from thence committed to the county gaol, to be returned to Newcastle by the Resource.  SYDNEY. (1805, February 10). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

A report was yesterday current that a passenger had been murdered by the natives in the road between Sydney and Parramatta; but this appears to be unfounded; as the party made choice of as the subject of the rumour we know to be at the present moment in the land of the living.
The natives seem inclined to try their dexterity in piratical achievements, now that they are assured we are tolerably upon the guard against their atrocities by land, which we hope a strict adherence to HIS EXCELLENCY's Order of the present date will bring to a speedy crisis. The exploit we now have to allude to was audacious and outré, and might possibly have been fatally successful had not vigilant resolution been opposed to it. While the William & Mary, Miller, lay at Pittwater, about 8 days since, the small boat was dispatched for a supply of water and fuel; and although the natives were numerous, yet they did not appear to have any evil design in contemplation until the boat was about to put off again; when several rushing towards her, one of them made good his grappling, in order to board on the bow, but receiving a smart earnest crack across the knuckles from one of the boatmen, was induced to relinquish his claim. Irritated at the disappointment, and considering resistance a sufficient provocation for all that was to follow, in a few moments a squadron of five vessels was equipped and sent out, under command of the commodore whose knuckles had already tingled; but sheering alongside, he, in plain English commanded the William 'to strike', though he had reason to be satisfied that he had already had striking enough in conscience. Miller replied to the summons of this sooty son of Erebus & Nox, by pointing his musket constantly at him only, and declaring his determination to kill the first that should dare to venture nearer: and none choosing to put his veracity to the test, they all turned tail; contenting them-selves with threats and imprecations. SHIP NEWS. (1805, April 28). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from 

BOATS.---Came in from Hawkesbury on Saturday last, the 19th inst. the William and Mary, W. Miller owner, laden with wheat. On Tuesday came in from Hawkesbury the Raven, Thomas Raby owner, also laden with wheat ; and same day the Hope of Hawkesbury, A. Thompson owner, with wheat, barley, and oats. And on Thursday came in the Argument, Ward and Eaton owners, with wheat.---On Thursday the Hope sailed again for Hawkesbury. SHIP NEWS. (1803, March 26). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from

A month ago two labouring men who were employed in procuring and salting fish in Broken bay, went out of Pittwater in on open boat, and have not since been seen. SYDNEY. (1807, July 26). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from

On Thursday evening two fishmen came in from Broken Bay, with the doleful tidings of the death of William Parkhurst, who had accompanied their excursion for the purpose of procuring and salting fish. Their accounts states that at the entrance of an inlet in which they had before proved successful, a ???? gang appeared, which had not before been noticed, then opposed their progress ; and a ??? boat setting upon the bank. ??? examined the boat, from which the deceased could not ???? exertion extricate himself as far as the ???? ???? the survivors found the body, which they interred on shore, and afterwards made the best of their way to shore.  SYDNEY. (1807, August 9). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

William Parkhurst was one of 301 convicts transported on the Royal Admiral, March 1800, to New South Wales.

On Thursday a boat came in from Broken Bay, with the melancholy information of the total loss of the Argument, Pate, loaded in wheat from Hawkesbury, and the death of all the persons on board, comprising Pate himself, a woman of the name of Mary Kirk, and James Dicey, Pate's boat assistant. Their bodies were found about the short reef, nearly four miles from the Heads of Broken Bay, and interred on the morning of Thursday last. We last week mentioned her sailing out of Pittwater in company with the Hazard and Experiment, the latter of which got safe in the 17th ultimo, without being able to give any further account of the above vessel than that they lost sight of her in a heavy squall on the Sunday previous. The conjecture therefore is that Pate, although well experienced in this navigation, had in the dark, mistaken the short reef for the entrance of Broken Bay, whither he thought it prudent to return; but unfortunately this mistake proved fatal.—The vessel was dashed to pieces Another small colonial vessel, the property of Daniel McLeese, laden with lime, has since also been lost near the same place, but no lives lost.
SHIP NEWS. (1809, April 2). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

On Tuesday last, at an early hour, His Excellency the GOVERNOR and Mrs. MACQUARIE, accompanied by a large party of Ladies and Gentlemen, proceeded in boats down the Harbour to George's Head. The object of this excursion, we understand, was to form an establishment for a certain number of Natives who had shewn a desire to settle on some favourable spot of land, with a view to proceed to the cultivation of it. - The ground as 
signed them for this purpose (the peninusla of George's Head) appears to have been judiciously chosen, as well from the fertility of the soil as from its requiring little exertions of labour to clear and cultivate; added to which, it possesses a peculiar advantage of situation; from being nearly surrounded on all sides by the sea; thereby affording its new possessors the constant opportunity of pursuing their favorite occupation of fishing, which has always furnished the principal source of their subsistence.

On this occasion, sixteen of the Natives, with their wives and families were assembled, and His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, in consideration of the general wish previously expressed by them, appointed Boongaree (who has been long known as one of the most friendly of this race, and well acquainted with our language), to be their Chief, at the same time presenting him with a badge distinguishing his quality as "Chief of the Broken Bay Tribe," and the more effectually to promote the objects of this establishment, each of them was furnished with a full suit of slop cloathing, together with a variety of useful articles and implements of husbandry, by which they would be enabled to proceed in the necessary pursuits of agriculture : - A boat (called the Boongaree), was likewise presented them for the purpose of fishing.
About noon, after the foregoing ceremony had been concluded, HIS EXCELLENCY and party returned to Sydney, having left the Natives with their Chief in possession of their newly assigned settlement, evidently much pleased with it, and the kindness they experienced on the occasion.
Sydney, SITTING MAGISTRATE—W. BROUGHTON, Esq. (1815, February 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

On Monday evening His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR arrived in the Cove on board His Majesty's brig Lady Nelson, having explored the whole of the Hawkesbury River and Broken Bay, including Pitt Water, Marra Mahar Creek, and the upper and lower branches of the river.
The Nelson anchored in the Cove between six and seven o'clock, and His EXCELLENCE on quitting the vessel was saluted with 17 guns from His Majesty's armed brig Emu. Sydney. (1816, March 2 - Saturday). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Close, E. C. (1818). Inside of the heads of Broken Bay taken from the entrance of Pittwater, New South Wales, 20 September 1818 Retrieved from

On Saturday last five bush-rangers were sent from the Court-house at Parramatta in the custody of a peace officer, apparently well and sufficiently secured in Parks's passage-boat, with the intention of their being safely lodged in the county gaol, in order to their being tried at the ensuing Criminal Court for various  offences with which they were charged. On their way down, however, they managed to become disentangled from their irons, and freed of their manacles to disarm the constable ; and to take possession of the boat. One of them, whose name is Geary, and a dreadfully determined desperado, insisted upon Parks landing them at Bradley's Wharf at Lane Cove, which was necessarily complied with ; as the least shew to resistance would have been useless, and might, in all probability, have been attended with serious consequences. 

Geary, the ringleader, who has been guilty of many crimes, and who has endeavoured frequently to make his escape from the Colony, declared it was their united intention to use any and every effort to escape this time; they gave Parks a dollar; and then decamped, informing the constable he had only performed his duty, which of course, they intimated, had shielded him from their malevolent fury. Upon the arrival of the passage-boat in-Sydney, immediate information was given to the Marine Police Authority of the circumstance ; & it was in consequence deemed  expedient, with as little delay as possible, to dispatch the government row-guard boat, under the command of the Messrs. Cubitts, round to Broken Bay, at which  place the Elizabeth Henrietta (government brig) with prisoners on board for Newcastle, and the Prince Regent (government schooner) was also lying, at a considerable distance from the brig, in Pitt-water. The latter was but thinly manned, part of the crew being unavoidably absent ; and it was supposed, had such determined gang, well armed as they are known to be, made an attack upon her in so defenceless a condition as she then was, a capture must have been the co-sequence; but the customary activity being resorted to, in a prompt obedience to the instructions given, the guard-boat succeeded in getting round to Broken Bay in time to prevent any unpleasant disaster. Every alarm was made throughout the various farms in the district of Broken Bay, so that it should speedily run along the Hawkesbury Banks; and the Prince Regent remained under the protection of the guard-boat .

Tuesday morning, when she took her departure from Broken Bay ; and on Wednesday the guard-boat returned to port, wholly unsuccessful, however, in having gained the least tidings of the absentees ; who by this time, it is to be feared, have increased in strength. It is ardently to be hoped, that every friend to honesty and humanity will not spare any exertion or pains to prevent such a gang of villains prowling at large to the destruction of the lonely settler's peace, and to the encouragement of every species of depravity. We cannot avoid remarking, that it is much to be dreaded as a truth beyond the possibility of contra-diction, that such pests to the general weal are harboured by the settler and others at the out-stations ;and while encouragement and protection are held out to the determined villain by those who ought to sup-press robbery, sometimes followed by murder, who can possibly guard against, or prevent the atrocities that are occasionally perpetrated ? It would be well if the owners of boats would attend, for a time at least, to the beneficial Regulation that affects their interests, bearing date the 15th of May, 1813, and which expressly requires " All shore-boats to be moored and  chained at night, and their oars safely lodged, on penalty of 10s. the first, and 20s. each succeeding offence. " Sydney. (1821, March 10). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

RETURN of Male Prisoners assigned during the month of July, 1836.
Foley David, Pittwater, 1 sweep and seaman Government Gazette. (1836, August 23).The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from 

The easier way to town for many was to travel aboard one of the numerous vessels, 'coasters', travelling to and from Sydney Town via the Hawkesbury - passage back up the river, along with coaches when they became available, provided a smoother passage, if not altogether free from problems;

On Wednesday last, a free woman, named Catherine Sullivan, coming into Sydney from Pittwater, was stopped on the Parramatta Road by two men, named Boghurst and Witherington, who knocked her down and stole from her person a two and a one pound note, and ten shillings in silver, which they took from her bosom. They were both shortly afterwards apprehended, and have been committed to take their trial. A BRIEF VIEW OF THE TOWNSHIP OF PARRAMATTA. (1837, March 30). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

John Doyle, the tenant on what is now called Avalon Beach lands, preceding the Collins family, drowned in Pittwater on January 20th, 1841:

INQUEST.-An inquest was held on Tuesday morning at the house of Mr. Murphy, the sign of the Bard's Legacy, Queen's Wharf on the body of John Doyle, who was accidentally drowned by the upsetting of a boat at Pitt Water, on Wednesday, the 20th instant. The body was found at Broken Bay on Monday last by some fishermen,who brought it to Sydney. It appeared from the evidence that the persons who were in the boat along with deceased at the time the accident occurred, as well as deceased himself, were perfectly sober, and the jury returned a verdict of accidental death. THE REGATTA. (1841, January 28). Australasian Chronicle(Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 3. Retrieved from

Records indicate that Mr. Doyle was not the only man to lose his life in small boats on Broken Bay that year:

James M'Quillan. Pilot, Brisbane Water, was unfortunately drowned while crossing from Pitt Water to Brisbane Town, by his boat being caught in a squall and capsizing. Mr. M'Quillan is much regretted  Summary of Public Intelligence. (1841, July 31). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from

A few days ago, as Mr. James M'Quillen, the pilot at Brisbane Water, was crossing in his own boat from Pitt Water to Brisbane a squall upset the boat, and Mr. M’Quillen and a man named George Ford,who was with him at the time, were both unfortunately drowned. The body of Mr. M’Quillen was found lying upon the beach, but the body of Ford has not since been heard of. Insolvent Debtors' Court. (1841, July 31). Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 2. Retrieved from

Mary Ann, 9 (tons), Farrell, from Pittwater, with 250 bushels lime, 8000 shingles, and 1 ton potatoes Harriett, 15, Crause, from Brisbane Water, with 50,000 shingles, and 1000 feet timber, Trial, 14, Robinson, from Brisbane Water, with shells ; Mary, 15, Turner, from Brisbane Water, with lime ; Twible, from the Hawkesbury, with 4 hogsheads brandy, and 700 bushels maize ;  COASTERS INWARDS. (1842, August 17).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Brown, from Brisbane Water, with 9,000 feet cedar ; Mary Ann, 9, Farrell, from Pittwater, with furniture and shells COASTERS INWARDS. (1842, November 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Mary Ann, 9, Wilson, for Pittwater and Port Aiken, In ballast; COASTERS OUTWARDS. (1842, December 22). Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Swan, 9, Wilson, from Pittwater, with shells  COASTERS INWARDS. (1843, January 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Mary Ann, Noon, from Broken Bay, with shells; Alexander, 10, M'Guigan, from Pittwater, with shells; COASTERS INWARDS. (1843, March 28).Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 3. Retrieved from 

In 1843 the Broken Bay Customs station was opened at Barrenjoey under John B Howard to stop the estuary and its adjacent waterways being utilised by Smugglers. Visit Smuggling at Broken Bay by Shelagh Champion OAM. This was not without a false start:


On Wednesday last, a boat was picked in the vicinity of Bird Island by the steamer Thistle, on her passage from Morpeth. She had made signals to the steamer, which was instantly stopped for the purpose of affording succour. The boat was found to belong to the Customs, having on board Mr. Howard and a party of three men from the Custom's department, who had left Sydney in company with another boat, for the purpose of forming the new custom-house station at Broken Bay. After getting outside the heads, they had parted company, and a gale of wind coming on from the south-west, Mr. Howard's boat was driven off the shore, when, notwithstanding their most strenuous efforts, they could not make head-way towards the land. Captain Mullhall took them on board the Thistle, and also had the boat hoisted in, and brought them back to Sydney. Had the Thistle not passed about that time, there is every probability that the boat would have been 1 driven to sea and all hands been lost, having been already twenty-four hours short of provisions. The other boat, which had also three men on board, has not since been heard of, and fears are entertained for her safety. PROVIDENTIAL DELIVERANCE. (1843, April 29). The Colonial Observer (Sydney, NSW : 1841 - 1844), p. 989. Retrieved from 

A description from 1850 also tells us the shells (formerly middens) brought in by the tons through coasters is exhausted; 


These places, although near Sydney, are but little frequented by Sydney people, except by such of the coasting traders as go there for grain, timber, and shells. No part of the country, however, affords a better field for the home tourist  toil-worn citizen who is able to spare a days from his ordinary avocations will find it much cheaper, as well as more healthful to take a voyage in this direction with his family than to visit the interior towns. During, the summer season, there are many small coasters lying idle at their moorings in consequence of their having little or nothing to do, and these, with a couple of seamen to work them, may be hired for a mere trifle for the task. Several days will be occupied in the journey upwards, but on arriving at Windsor the tourist may return to Sydney in a few hours, leaving the men to bring back their vessel. The voyage from Sydney to Broken Bay, does not occupy more than four hours, if the wind be fair, and the rest of the trip is in smooth water, so that even those persons who are apt to suffer much from sickness, have very little to dread in such a journey as the one we have alluded to.

The coast between the north head of Port Jackson, and the south head of Broken Bay presents little or nothing worthy of notice except a large natural archway in the rocks a few miles from the latter place, which is generally known among the coasting traders, as "hole in the wall." 

W.H. Raworth (Brit./Aust./NZ, c1821-1904). St Michael’s Arch, NSW [Avalon] c1860s. Watercolour, signed lower left, obscured title in colour pencil verso, 34.2 x 56.5cm. Tear to left portion of image, slight scuffs and foxing to upper portion.  Price (AUD): $2,900.00  at: 

Baranjuee, the south head at Broken Bay, is also the eastern head of Pittwater. It is a small peninsula of tall cliffs connected by an isthmus of low and tolerably fertile land with the hilly county which separates Pittwater from the sea. Pittwater is not unlike Port Jackson in its general features, and extends for about ten miles to the southward, branching off into a number of picturesque bays and coves. There are few habitations on the banks of this estuary, these few are situated near its head.  Several small houses may be seen, which have been inhabited by men employed in the production of Lime but which have been abandoned in consequence of the supply of shells having become exhausted. Near the head  there is s small island, which contains a number of fruit-bearing peach trees, the remains of former cultivation. 

Under the headland of Baranjueo on its landward side, just at the entrance of Pittwater, is the Custom-house station. The site has been admirably chosen for this purpose. The heads around protect the station from tempestuous weather and furnish look-out posts for the officer and his men, from whence a view is commanded of all the surrounding land and water, that no vessel can pass in that vicinity without their seeing it. The station has a picturesque appearance from the water, and a closer approach does not, as in many instances, diminish its attractions. 

Slade, George Penkivil. (January 16th, 1869). Barrenjuey [i.e. Barrenjoey], Broken Bay Retrieved from

A very good garden has been formed in the rear, but owing to the rocky nature of the soil, this must have been a work of great labour and perseverance. Fresh water however, is unfortunately rather scarce. It is obtained from the high rocky land above the station, and conveyed to the houses by meanz of troughs made of the cabbage-tree. At the present time, owing to the long continued drought, and to the great heat of the weather, there is no flow of water along the troughs during the day, but during the night sufficient water runs down to supply the station.Mr. Collyer, the gentleman who at present commands at this place, has acquired a well-merited popularity throughout the settlements around. In the performance of his duties he is indefatigable, and having succeeded in putting down the smuggling trade and other irregularities which went on formerly pursued to a great extent in this quarter, he has, of course, annoyed some of the inferior class of settlers, but his exertions are beneficial to the many, and to the coast traders he often renders most valuable assistance. A few weeks only have elapsed since a vessel was driven ashore near Mount Elliott, which would have become a total wreck but for the prompt and able assistance of Mr. Collyer and his men, by whom she was got off before she sustained any material injury. There are five men attached to the station. The coxswain, well-known among the settlers and the coasting traders by the familiar name of Larry, is a fine smart seaman, well acquainted with the surrounding waters. On the occasion just referred to he was particularly active. 

At present there is but one regular trader to Pittwater, which is run by a Mr. Anderson, who lives two or three miles above the custom house station, on the western shore of the estuary. The only traffic, we believe, is in shells, the produce of the Pittwater settlers being conveyed overland to North Harbour, and from thence in boat to Sydney. To Brisbane Water and the Hawkesbury, however, there is an extensive bade is agricultural produce and timber.. The their trade has fallen off a good deal, in consequence of the very low price at present given for the shells by the Sydney lime-burners, but many of the smaller coasters are still engaged in it. About Pittwater there is no great deal to be done in the way of shooting or fishing, but Brisbane Water and the Hawkesbury present great attractions in this way. there is a singular blunder in this respect in Wells' Gazetteer. He speaks of Baranjuee as the residence of one or two old fishermen, who supply the Hawkesbury as far as it is navigable. Now, there is no one living at Baranjuee but the Custom-house officer and his crew, and as for marketable fish, they are in that vicinity rather scarce, owing to the shallowness of the water, and perhaps also to the immense number of sharks which traverse it. The number and voracity of these monsters is almost incredible. They will run into the shallowest water in search of prey, and to bathe even in water knee deep is therefore dangerous in the extreme. The Hawkesbury, on the contrary, abounds with fish of every description. It is here and on the north side of Broken Bay that the lobsters which are sent to Sydney are for the most part procured. They are taken generally during the night, and are kept in a sort of pen erected in shallow water, until an opportunity occurs of sending them to market. The most remarkable object in Broken Bay is a small .rocky island called Mount Elliott. The cliffs are a great height, and are the residence of an extensive colony of goats, the progeny of a few individuals which were placed there to feed in times gone by. There is no water here beyond what lodges in the hollows after rain, but the hairy settlers on the island find sufficient aqueous nourishment in the moistened herbage. The scenery both of Brisbane Water and of the Hawkesbury is beautifully picturesque. The latter is pre-eminently so. In the course of the hundred and twenty miles of navigable river between Broken Bay and the town of Windsor, there is every -variety of scenery. The overhanging rock, the man-grove swamp, the bank clothed with willow and casuarina, the grassy slope, the field of waving corn, and the cheerful orchard. Sometimes the river winds amidst groups of cottages and mansions; at others, its banks exhibit the most wild and romantic features. The Hawkesbury and its tributaries water an immense tract of country  some of these tributaries are navigable to a considerable distance. The map of Cumberland attached to Wells' Gazetteer makes up, in its minute correctness as to the course of the Hawkesbury for the trifling blunder committed in the text as to the settlement and trade of Baranjuee, and may be depended upon as a guide by persons navigating these waters. Settlers at Brisbane Water occasionally walk to Sydney, but the journey is a toilsome one. By getting to the head of Pittwater, the distance is diminished to about twenty-two miles ; but the route is an awkward one for a person unaccustomed to bush travelling, there being no other guide than cart tracks, which are very apt to mislead, as there are routes to be avoided, both to the right hand and the left. Old bushmen will tell you that it is impossible to miss the road; but you will find it exceedingly possible to do so when you come to a spot where three or four tracks diverge in various directions. It is better, if possible, to have a companion who has crossed the country before. The journey is an interesting one. On the road there is some pretty scenery; and in several places there are splendid views of the ocean. Two lakes (or lagoons, as they are here called) are passed on the road; the largest of which, Narrabeen, is several square miles in extent, and has many small islands on its surface. It is for the most part shallow, and abounds with fish, which might be taken with the greatest ease, as a net could be hauled through any part of it. at present it is separated from the ocean by a barren sandy neck; but after floods this is covered, and the traveller is obliged to wade through the water for a considerable distance.

Between Pittwater and Middle Harbour there are several settlers residing at intervals of a few miles, who are very hospitable to passing travellers and will readily put them on their way. At Middle Harbour there is a ferry, kept by a person named Hillary. The place to which passengers are ordinarily taken is a point immediately opposite Hillary's residence; but any person who has walked from Pittwater will find it decidedly to his advantage to land gat the Willoughby Falls. For this purpose he will, for a few pence extra, be conveyed some two or three miles up of the most picturesque arms of Middle Harbour, and will save three or four miles of very bad road, From the falls there is an undeviating path, by which either of the steam ferries on the North Shore can be reached in half an hour by a smart walker.METEOROLOGY. (1850, January 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 2. Retrieved from 

While at Careel Bay (from My Holiday by Charles de Boos);

the road now leading us across a long level piece of country that intervened between the sea and the waters of Creel Bay, until it brought us down to the margin of the latter. Arrived here, we had before us as pretty a marine picture as ever painter sketched, and as directly opposite to the one we had but so recently left as could be well conceived. The flat level land had here narrowed to some sixty rods in width, being backed by a heavily wooded range, the base of which was here and there encumbered by large masses of rock, from which the incumbent soil had been washed, and which now protruded in huge boulders, or lay out bare and detached from their native beds. On the margin of the bay were three little whitewashed slab huts with bark roofs, the passionate squalling of an infant that proceeded from one of them would have given evidence of their being inhabited, even if we had not seen two or three barelegged and barefooted children peering at us round the corner of the house. (To be continued.) MY HOLIDAY. (1861, September 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

Graham, H. J. (January 4th, 1885). Careening Creek, Broken Bay Retrieved from

This reports of people being on the water while living close to it as farmers, even when appearing solely due to losing their lives in the water, shows people were making a living out of fishing, to feed their families and to bring in income.

On the western shores, Mackeral, Little Mackeral, and into the Basin as well as Mc Carr's creek and along the shores of Lovett and Towlers, nets were placed for certain tides - the fishermen knew where the fish would run. There were also oyster leases adjacent to these shores from the turn of the 20th century and well into the first half of its decades. 

Muster Records, required by the Governor's from 1795, list who was where in Pittwater and even their occupation although 'seaman' didn't always mean a yearly toil in fields. The Wilson family, third in a line of people subjected to the machinations of the Farrells of Newport, and the subsequent trial that took place, also record one fisherman living at the Basin-Bason by around 1862 and that this occupation was one they also did in combination with running farms and livestock. From the trail where the Wilsons had to take the farrells to court, they being third in a line of people persecuted by the Newport clan for daring to occupy the Mona vale farm after the Foleys and Therrys when the Farrells had previoulsy made use of the land and its grasses:

By Mr. Driver : Had experience in cattle at Kent, England. Knew about cows before he went to "Wheeler's. From there he went to the bason. He was occupied there in fishing, for about six or seven years. He devoted his time there to breeding of cattle. He is rather hard of hearing. His sight is very good, considering his age. He is forty-six. Has not been mistaken on any occasion the last two or three months. Don't recollect the 2nd of April last. Don't remember reporting that he lost a black heifer on that day. His memory is pretty good. He told constable Carton then that young Farrell had been seen the previous day trespassing and dodging round his cows, but won't swear it. Might have told his father so, and if he did, he told the truth. He made a complaint to Cherry that ha lost a red bullock that he purchased at Lane Cove. He never told anybody that it was killed at Pitt Water. Cherry sent him word that it had strayed back. Farrell, senior, was the first man to inform him where the bullock was.
-The court adjourned for lunch, and on its resumption, Mr. Driver continued the cross-examination: He saw young Farrell on the Little Reef Hill. He saw Leek working on the road when he spoke to him. It might be 600 or 700 yards away. It was from there he saw young Farrell. Cannot recollect whether there was any rain on the Thursday. It is not generally a sandy country. Sometimes large mobs of cattle run on his farm. As near, as he could guess, there was about thirty head of his cattle there. Did not go on his land. The bridge that he tracked the cattle across is about twelve or fourteen feet wide. He tracked them on the soft country. Constable Carton culled at his house towards Sunday morning.' Witness put a bottle containing brandy on the table. Can't say if Carton drank any. He took about three nobblers in a Husk to Farrell's. Carton drank some of that. Prisoner denied having fresh meat when asked by Sergeant Bloomfield, but afterwards showed the police some meat in a cask. Saw steelyards there. Bloomfield asked if anybody could weigh with the steelyards. Did not hoar Farrell say that he could. Bloomfield asked witness if he could weigh with steelyards. They were got, but the pea was not an them ; it was produced after-wards ; young Farrell threw it, and said, " Here it is." On being questioned by the police, Farrell said he got it all from the butcher at Manly. He has no ill-feeling towards the Farrells. After they killed his dog with an axe he shook hands with them and made it up. 
To the Bench : The farms are not fenced in. Prisoner's house is about a mile and a half from witness's ; there is no boundary fence. ...
- Charles Leek, a roadmaker at Pitt Water, knows the prisoner; also knows Wilson. Recollects being with him on the 4th of this month. Saw prisoner on horseback driving cattle. He went out of witness's sight. Does not know what direction he was going. He was on the top of the hill, a good distance from where he was at work.
-By. Mr." Driver : It was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon. He was about a quarter of a mile away. Can't tell how ho was dressed. He was riding a bay horse Don't know how it was branded. Swear point blank it was him. If he saw Mr. Driver as many times at he has seen prisoner he could toll him. He may have been a mile away, from Wilson's house. He was more than three hundred yards away from Wilson's house. It might be three-quarters of a mile He was working alongside the telegraph line. Swears there was more than ten posts between where he was working and Wilson's house.
-To Mr Windeyer : He is positive it was prisoner. He is not mistaken about him at all. He was with him the night before. The court adjourned at four o'clock until Monday next, at eleven o'clock. Bail extended.
WATER POLICE COURT.—WEDNESDAY. (1870, August 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from 

With the rise and rise of the recreational fisher, those who came to camp and those who visited in their thousands as Excursionists aboard steamers (ferries) the local fisher families making a living had competition for available stocks in visitors. This example speaks of people landed at Archpriest Therry's jetty at Careel Bay:

One of the most attractive of the provisions made for the enjoyment of New Year's Day, was an excursion to Pittwater and the mouth of the Hawkesbury, in the Illawarra Steam Navigation Company's fast and commodious steamer Hunter. The genial fineness of the weather and the smoothness of the water, offered potent inducements to those who were familiar with all the holiday resorts in the vicinity of Sydney to pay a visit to Broken Bay. The Hunter was accordingly well filled for the trip— indeed, too well tilled, as the passengers were in excess of the sitting accommodation. As the excursion was determined on several days ago, the company's largest steamer should have been engaged. There were upwards of three hundred passengers on board, and that number would have been comfortably accommodated in the Kembla. The Hunter left the Phoenix Wharf, under the command of Captain Keft, shortly before eleven o'clock, and reached Broken Bay about one o'clock. On dropping anchor off the Customs Station, Mr. Ross, the coastwaiter came on board and offered his services to pilot the steamer to a part of the Bay where the passengers would, on landing, be able to visit the cave and the hole in the rock, objects of much interest to tourists. Some of the party who were acquainted with the locality, stated that that would be the best place to land the excursionists, on account of the vicinity of the cave, and also of the excellent sport obtainable in the way of shooting and angling, it was, however, decided to take the steamer to the small inlet at Pittwater. 
Here the boats were lowered, and about half the passengers landed and dispersed in small groups. Most of those who had provided themselves for the excursion soon found out the most cozy nooks under the shade of the rocks, and made hearty meals in the true picnic fashion. The remainder of the afternoon was spent by some of the party in clambering the abrupt embankments and gathering the splendid ferns and palms growing in wild luxuriance; by others in fishing and oystering, and by a few in collecting seaweeds; while the less curious preferred a siesta in the cool shade. In the meantime, the steamer left Pittwater and proceeded for a few miles up the Hawkesbury — not far enough, however, to give the expectant excursionists a very impressive idea of the much extolled scenery of that river. 
On returning to Pittwater many of the passengers went ashore and enjoyed a stroll along the beach,— the whole of the party re-embarking soon after five o'clock, A few minutes before six the Hunter steamed out of Broken Bay, and landed all her passengers in safety at eight o'clock. During the outward passage, the wind being light, the motion of the vessel was the occasion of discomfort to very few on board ; but, on returning, there was rather more motion, though the sea was by no means rough, and the distressing effects were widely experienced— the more so on account of the crowded ; decks. As the sea voyage was little above an hour in duration, the sea sickness was looked upon as a j comparatively trifling inconvenience, and, excepting that there was no band on board, it constituted the only drawback to an extremely pleasant and propitious excursion. The decided success that has attended the trips of the Kembla and the Hunter to Broken Bay will, probably, have the effect of rendering that spot a regular holiday resort in future. 
EXCURSION TO BROKEN BAY. (1862, January 4 - Saturday). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 3. Retrieved from 

Among the other amusements advertised for Easter Monday is an excursion to one of the most curious and interesting natural objects within reach of Sydney — the Cave at Pittwater. Independent of the beauty of the Cave, its height, and extent, which alone are sufficient to render it worthy of a visit, we are informed by the Rev. Father Powell that it contains springs of mineral waters of valuable medicinal qualities, which may, perhaps, at some future time, rival in celebrity those of Baden-Baden or Cheltenham; and beautiful minerals of different descriptions are found within it which would well repay the investigations of the mineralogist or geologist. We understand that the mineral springs of: Pittwater have a singularly restorative and invigorating effect upon those who have undergone the fatigues of a long and in order to bring this quality to a practical test, we recommend our readers to provide themselves with tickets for the 'Collaroy' on Easter Monday, in order that they may have an opportunity of feeling the beneficial effects of the exhilarating fluids, as well as being gratified with the sight of the many beauties of the place. No title (1862, April 9). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 4. Retrieved from 

TO BOAT-OWNERS.-Wanted, a 40 or 50-ton BOAT ON HIRE, for the carriage of billet wood from Pittwater to Sydney. Apply to Mr. JAMES THERRY, 66, William-street. Advertising. (1862, October 7). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from - Visit Maria Louisa Therry

WANTED, VESSELS~to convey billet-wood from Pitt Water to Sydney, JOHN DUGUID and CO., Pitt-street. Advertising (1863, June 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from

Page 27
Distance 27 miles North of Sydney
Mail closes at General Post Office Wednesday 9.30 a.m.
Mail arrives at Post Town Wednesday 4 p.m.
Mail leaves for Sydney Wednesday 7 a.m.
Mail arrives at Sydney Wednesday 1 p.m.
Route Steam to Manly, or punt to Middle Harbour, 20 miles to Barranjoey.

ANDERSON John                    farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
ANDREWS John ---                 Pitt Water Barranjoey
ARLUM John                     servant --- Barranjoey
BAKER J.                  labourer  Mona Vale, Pitt Water Barranjoey
BAKER Louisa                    servant ---         Barranjoey
BAKER William                     farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
BENO Joseph master mariner Scotland Island, Pitt Water Barranjoey
BLACK Albert                    C.H.O. --- Barranjoey
COLLINS Jeremiah farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
COLLINS John farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
COLLINS Thomas farmer Narrabene Lagoon, Pitt Water Barranjoey
CONNOLLY John boatman --- Barranjoey
COOPER Thomas woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
EATON James woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
FARRELL John farmer Pitt Water Road Barranjoey
HYNES Patrick teacher --- Barranjoey
JACKSON Andrew mariner Pitt Water Barranjoey
JENKINS Charles mariner Scotland Island, Pitt Water Barranjoey
JENKINS Elizabeth --- Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
JENKINS John --- Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
JENKINS Philip --- Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
JOHNSON Charles woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
JONES James farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
LANGLEY James farmer Dangars Island Barranjoey
MACAULEY William shipwright Pitt Water Barranjoey
MADDEN Michael boatman --- Barranjoey
MELVEY P. master mariner Hawkesbury River Barranjoey
MONAGHAN John fisherman --- Barranjoey
MULHALL George, jun. lightkeeper --- Barranjoey
MULHALL George lightkeeper --- Barranjoey
MULLIGAN Mary --- ---                 Barranjoey
MCINTOSH George farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
NOONAN John labourer Pitt Water  Barranjoey
NORRIS Frederick woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
OLIVER Thomas selector         Pitt Water Barranjoey
OLIVER Thomas farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
QUINN John boatman ---         Barranjoey
SHAW James mariner Pitt Water Barranjoey
SHAW Joseph, jun. mariner Pitt Water Barranjoey
SHAW Joseph farmer ---         Barranjoey
STAINES Joseph servant Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
STARR Joseph farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
STEIRE William J. boatman ---         Barranjoey
SWANSON Charles shipwright Pitt Water Barranjoey
TURNER Alfred --- Pitt Water         Barranjoey
WARREN James farmer Pitt Water         Barranjoey
WILSON David woodcutter Pitt Water         Barranjoey
WILSON Thomas, jun. labourer         Mona Vale          Barranjoey
WILSON Thomas farmer Mona Vale          Barranjoey

This list is from the Greville Postal Directory (NSW) from 1872 Arranged locally and alphabetically
Compiled by Authority 
Greville & Company, Publishers
Sydney, Melbourne, and Wellington, N.Z.
Compiled by F. Cunningham & Co., 186 Pitt Street, Sydney.
Dedicated by Permission to the Honorable Joseph Docker, Esq., M.L.C., Postmaster-General
To whose courtesy and aid the compilers of this work are indebted for much valuable information.

Glover, T. G. (October 6th, 1878). Elliott Island, Broken Bay, New South Wales Retrieved from

The completion of the Government wharf at Church Point, Pitt water, will prove a great benefit to the residents in that district. The wharf is a substantial wooden structure, and boats drawing 11 feet of water will be able to come alongside at high tide. The population in the neighbourhood of Pittwater is rapidly increasing, and it is understood that the Government intend building a Public school to accommodate 50 pupils. Fruit-growing promises to be the leading industry in that locality. A considerable area of land is being planted with fruit trees. NEWS OF THE DAY. (1885, July 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from 

Fish are biting freely just now at Towler Bay, adjoining Kurangai Chaise. Parties should bear this place in mind, as the terms are very reasonable. Boats, bait and pilot are included in the first cost. It is necessary, however, that intending parties write to Mr. Lloyd, Pittwater, the proprietor, so as to enable him to hare a boat in waiting at Church Point. FISH OH! (1900, December 19). Sydney Sportsman (Surry Hills, NSW : 1900 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from

Mr. Fred Lloyd, of Church Point, Pittwater tells Eastway's that he has been with some friends getting lately a wonderful lot of black bream at 'Old Man's Hat,' North Head. Their catches for the week were: Saturday 66- Monday', 57; Tuesday, 9; Wednesday, 18; and Thursday 30, all nice, sized fish.
Mr. P. Horn, of Paddington, fishing at Bay View, Pittwater, last Sunday, caught 4 dozen mixed fish, principally bream, whiting, and flathead, and also a 30 lb .fiddler FISHING NOTES. (1906, March 31).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from 

If Barranjoey were a little more accessible from Manly it would become a very popular fishing ground. Situated as it is at the southern entrance to Broken Bay it is passed by great shoals of fish with every tide. The water round the bold, high promontory is only deep close to the shore, and in these channels the fish travel. On the ocean side of the isthmus, which unites the outlier to the mainland, there is an ocean beach which at times is a most prolific fishing ground. The other side of the isthmus is lapped by the quiet waters of the Newport arm of the Hawkesbury, and is an ideal camping ground.
The best way of reaching the place is by special conveyance from Manly, the distance being about 14 miles. The rock-fishing resorts between Newport and Barranjoey are numerous and safe. Notes by "The Fisherman." (1901, September 21). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 761. Retrieved from 

Notes by the Fisherman.
Some day the stocking of coastal lagoons with fish will be carried out extensively by the Fisheries Department. The need for the re-stocking is undoubtedly urgent, and everyone connected with the catching of fish who thinks at all about the matter hopes that the business will be expedited. Perhaps the first place to be  experimented upon will be Narrabeen Lagoon, which has been so much overnetted. When the tramway is constructed from Manly to Narrabeen  fishing in the pretty little lake could be made a great source of revenue to the State, and would attract a settled population to the district. The upper part of the lake— if one can talk about the upper part of a level stretch of water — is very pretty. The only drawback to the enjoyment of visitors is the mosquitoes, and one can get inoculated soon by them. 
Boatsheds, accommodation houses, and other businesses would soon bring a steady supply of sport-seekers, the only danger being that the place would get over-run with people who want amusement cheap. As to how the stocking should be done — well, there is Maiubar Hatchery 'packed full of fish, and the departmental well-launches ready for the conveyance vi the fish at a day's notice. All that is wanted is a new Fisheries Bill giving the Commissioners power to close the lake to netting altogether. 
Notes by the Fisherman. (1901, November 30). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1401. Retrieved from

At the Hawkesbury River black bream are now in good condition. During the week about 28 baskets were caught by the net-men at Mackerel and Patonga Beaches. They are biting well off the rocks at Flint and Steel the lower portions of the main river, and Pittwater.

Blackfish are also in prime condition, and in quantities of good size. Many good catches have recently been made, with the rod. They are biting well off all the rocky shores, especially between Mud Island and the river entrance. FISHING NOTES. (1909, June 19).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from 

Early on May 12 Michael Murphy, a fisher-man, left Long Reef, Narrabeen, in his boat to go fishing at a spot about half a mile from the shore- He left the shore in company with another boat, in which were two men, Charles Hirsch and Henry Gonzales. The two boats were close together at first, but gradually drifted apart when the fishing-ground was reached. The men had not been fishing long, when a squall blow up. Murphy was seen by his companions making in the direction of the shore. They then lost sight of him, their full attention being required for the management of their own boat. Finally, they succeeded in landing on the Mona Vale Beach, and made the best of their way overland to Longreach. They thon discovered that Murphy had failed to put in an appearance. The local police, thinking that the missing man might have been blown down the coast, telephoned the lighthouse-keeper at Barranjoey, and instructed him to keep a look-out for the missing man, but so far no trace of him or the boat have been round, although the shore between Longreach and Broken Bay has been searched by a party in a motor boat. A MISSING FISHERMAN. (1911, May 16).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from 

George Edwin Goulder, Inspector of Police, on Friday  at the Central Summons Court, proceeded against Thomas Wilson and John Wilson for hauling with a net, having meshes smaller than prescribed. Each defendant pleaded guilty. It was stated that the defendants were licensed fishermen and were using an illegal net as regards depth and mesh, at Pittwater. The net was 50 meshes too deep, and would operate against ground fish and towards the destruction of small fish. The value of the net was £15. Each defendant was fined 40s. or one month, the net to be forfeited. POLICE COURTS. ILLEGAL FISHING. (1911, July 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from

A surprise catch off Stokes's Point (Careel Bay),. In the Pittwater arm of Broken Bay, one day last week was two schnapper weighing 22 ½  and 15 ½ lb. respectively. The larger fish was a female which contained 31b. of roe. Mr. Collins was the fortunate catcher. FISHING (1912, September 15). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from 

Broken Bay is fairly thick with sharks at present. One day last week Messrs. J. and W. Williams and W. Weston secured four off the Bayview Wharf, the largest a grey nurse, which was landed on a rope and shark hook baited with part of the liver of a blue pointer.' The monster gave its captors plenty of exciting sport for about half an hour, after which it was; landed, and killed with an axe. During its struggles an onlooker was knocked down by a blow from its tail. At Pittwater they have also been interfering with fishermen, and at Maroubra recently several red bream, groper, and squire were hooked, only to be grabbed by the. sharks.  FISHING NOTES (1917, December 5). Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), p. 10. Retrieved from

Messrs. Wall and Sandos, fishing near Scotland Island, Pittwater, last Sunday, caught two dozen black and red bream over legal size. They did not know that the best bait for the local fish consists of worms and nippers from the mangrove flats, and they ran out of prawns when young red bream came along to accept the food put out for them. ONE-ARMED FISHERMAN. (1923, December 2). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from

With the rise and rise of the recreational and professional fisherman or woman, making a living from seafood became an aim even when and on top fish seasonal runs. In Oystering In The Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings And Pearl Kings And When Not To Harvest Oysters some of those operating leases locally were listed - another, a quite famous for fishing family of Pittwater, the Arblasters of Barrenjoeywas not. This gives some idea of the extent of oyster runs needed:

IT is hereby notified that the undermentioned persons have applied to lease for Oyster Culture the portions of land described hereunder opposite their respective names.
Objections may be lodged at the Fisheries Branch, Chief Secretary's Department, within thirty days of the date of this notice against the leasing of any of the portions. If interference with a hauling ground is alleged, a statutory declaration by a licensed fisherman must be submitted to the effect that the area has been hauled during the preceding twelve months. 1
Under Secretary.
No. 13,883, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, offshore, about 75 yards north of the north-east corner of Oyster Lease No. 8,136, section No. 3, parish of Broken Bay, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre.
No. 13,884, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Lovett's Bay, Pittwater, offshore, lying about 200 yards south' of the south-west corner of portion No. 17, parish of Broken Bay, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre:
No. 13,885, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at McCarr's Creek, Pittwater, offshore, lying about 200 yards west of the north-west corner of portion No. 1 of 40 acres, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre. '
No. 13,886, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, offshore, lying about 150 yards south-westerly from the north-west corner of portion No. 149, parish of Broken Bay, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre.
No. 13,887, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Pittwater, offshore, lying about 150 yards northerly from the north-east corner of Oyster Lease No. 7,302, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre. APPLICATIONS FOR LEASES FOR OYSTER CULTURE. (1926, June 18).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2608. Retrieved from 

Others, who also did other work:

IT is hereby notified, for general information, that the undermentioned persons have applied to LEASE for OYSTER CULTURE the portions of land set opposite their respective, names. Tracings, showing the positions of the several portions enumerated, may be inspected at this Department dally (excepting Saturdays), between' 11 and 3 o'clock, and on Saturdays between 11 and 12 o'clock. Any person may, by memorial to the Board of Fisheries, within thirty days from the date of tills Notice, and on grounds to be stated in such memorial, pray that leases of the portions may not be granted, J.-A. BRODIE, Secretary, 

PITTWATER. ALBERT EDWARD HEATON.-100 yards, Parish Narrabeen, on the southern side of Pittwater, about 100 yards easterly from the Government Wharf, fronting Ben Crew's portion No. 20 of 80 acres. Advertising. (1904, May 4). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from

GOVERNMENT NOTICES. Department of Fisheries, Sydney, 7th June, 1905. IT is hereby notified, for general information, that the undermentioned persons have applied to LEASE for OVSTEH CULTURE the portions of Undset opposite their respective names Tracings showing the positions of the several portions enumerated, may be inspected at this Department daily (excepting Saturdays), between 11 and 3 o'clock, and on Saturdays between 11 and 12 o'clock Any person may, by memorial to the Board of Fisheries, within thirty days from the date of this Notice, and on grounds to be stated In such memorial, pray that leases of the portions may not be granted, J. A. MOODIE, Secretary.

WILLIAM SYKES 300 yards Parish Narrabeen, on an eastern shore of Pittwater, near the northern entrance to Crystal Bay, and fronting R Melville's portion No 10 of 60 acres

WILLIAM SYKES 200 yards Parish Narrabeen on an eastern shore of Pittwater, near the southern entrance to Crystal Bay at Haystack Point.  Advertising. (1905, July 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from

Pittwater - erection of a weatherboard cottage at Mona Vale Pittwater Plans at the office of Messrs. W P Martin and Company, 53 Young street, city, or Mr William Sykes, Newport. ADDITIONAL CONTRACTS. (1906, May 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from

Schnapperman's Flat was on the Pittwater side, where a large colony of Chinese carried on a fish-curing business, now given up. Whilst the waters are not guarded by a licence to fish, the oyster-beds are. These are let out on lease, and the pleasure-seeker may not knockoff an 'ostrea edulis,' as the learned call the simple little bivalve about which the old boatmen seem to know so much. 'When an oyster has a family,' says a caster of nets, 'she does not have one at a time, like the elephant, nor half-a-dozen, like a cat, but she sends forth hundreds of thousands of spawn, who swim off to find a place on which to squat, and put up their own humpy. For choice, it is just at sea level, so if one gathers the oysters near the high-water mark, more will at once take up the vacant allotment, and evolve a home out of lime for themselves. In summer, the oysters are no good, being watery, and full of spawn; but Mrs. Oyster, having opened her shell, and 'shoved' out a shoal of youngsters, who have, to mind themselves from the start, soon gets back into condition.' Winter, spring, and autumn are the oysterman's harvest times, when farm profits are not coming in, so the river cocky who takes on a 'lease' has a side industry to help him along. THE HAWKESBURY SETTLER. (1905, March 4). Evening News(Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 9. Retrieved from

Until there were so many that:

Objections to Extensive Oyster Leases.-Recently the Fisheries Board decided to lease 10,000 yards of foreshore In Pittwater to an enterprising man for oyster-fattening beds. The area was not continuous, but scattered round Pittwater, Bayview, Newport, Careel Bay, The Basin, and Saltpan Point. Several objections were, however, resolved to the leasing, residents having water frontages urging that there would be depreciation of their property, interference with their water approach, and deprivation of net-fishermen by taking away their hauling grounds. They also pointed out that unsightly stakes and stones would be laid on the leases in connection with oyster culture, and that the sewage from houses round this arm of Broken Bay would make the oysters dangerous food. Mr. F. Farnell (chairman of the board) and Mr. J. A. Brodie (chief inspector) paid a visit to the place a few days ago to Investigate the validity of the objections, and reported that none of the objections was tenable. Provision had been made for boat access to properties abutting on the lease, the hauling grounds were not to be leased, the Navigation Department had no objection to the erection of ballast walls to protect the oyster banks at Careel Bay and Saltpan Point so long as they did not extend further out than low water mark, and there was no danger of the oysters becoming affected by sewage. With this report before It the board decided to grant the majority of the leases, but set apart Towler's and Lovett's Bays and other parts used by the public for public oyster reserves.FRANCE REFUSES SOCIALISM. (1906, August 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from

Dr. R. Arthur, M.L.A.., introduced a deputation to the Chief Secretary yesterday respecting the alienation of foreshores for oyster leases at Pittwater. The case was succinctly put by the introducer, and Messrs. T. A. Dibbs, J. T. Swanson, F. Jack- son, Trevor Jones, and J. B. Nicoll. They, explained that Pittwater »as one of the beauty spots near Sydney, and one of its chief attractions was the ease of access to the water's edge, its yachting area, and camping spot. The local people were disturbed at finding that application had been made for oyster leases all round Pittwater near population centres and recognised holiday re-sorts, to which the public had had access ever since settlement had taken place in the State. To take away theso for oyster leases was, it was urged, an unnecessary and uncalled-for proceeding. The small amount of revenue derivable from the leases would not be worth considering. Oyster lessees had been given the right to erect poles and retaining walls, which would restrict navigation, and they had already ordered the public off their leases. The deputation asked that five or the leases, at least, should be refused, notably, McCarr's Creek entrance, Kuring-gai Chase, and the Basin or Coaster's Retreat. Altogether 16,500 yards of lease were to be granted, and the public would have 16,500 yards less of foreshores to land on, while those who had purchased properties at Newport lately would not have water access to their land.
Mr. Hogue: No one had any right to order the public off the proposed leases.
Mr. T. A. Dibbs pointed out that the Ku- ring-gai Chase trustees and the Fisheries Board had overlapping control of the foreshores of the park. At Coal and Candle) Creek a few years ago all the oyster Beds were cleaned out by someone's authority.
Mr. Trevor Jones said that section 4S of the Fisheries Act, relating to leases, left it open for existing lessees to give the public much trouble if they accidentally trespassed on the leases or disturbed tho oysters.
Dr. Arthur: Can the people who ordered the public off the foreshores be punished for doing so?
Mr. J. T. Swanson said that the Fisheries Board had an inspection of the leases recently, but did not let the objectors know they were coming.
Mr. Hogue, In reply, said he would not express any opinion as to whether those who ordered people off the leases could be punished, but they had no legal right to do so. The Fisheries Board was charged with the administration of the Act, and he had been prepared to grant tho leases on its re- commendation, but when Mr. James Clarke's applications for leases came before him, and were followed by the objections, he suspended their issue till he heard more from tho people most concerned. He had to encourage the oyster industry on the one hand and see that settlement of the people was not retarded on the other. People could not be given a right to wander all over the leases when they were granted. If they were, the oysters would soon disappear. Mr. Clarke was an enterprising man, who had made a. life-long study of oyster culture, and it was his duty to give him encouragement. At the same time the granting of the leases did not give the lessee the right to warn people off. He would meet the objectors by not granting the leases at the Basin and on Ku- ring-gai Chase, and would consider others, but the majority of the leases did not interfere with the public enjoyment, and would be granted. OYSTER LEASES AND PUBLIC RIGHTS. (1906, August 23).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

How many families were netting and oystering in Pittwater by the mid 1920's? Around 30:

The Chief Secretary(Mr. Lazzarini)  informed a deputation from the Licensed Fishermen's Association that Pittwater would not be closed this year for net fishing but that any subsequent action would receive careful attention
The deputation claimed that at least 30 families relied upon net fishing at Pittwater for their living and that if it were closed they would be seriously embarrassed. It was stated that the fish came In shoals, and that if they were not caught within a short period they escaped. The suggestion that net fishing interfered with the fishing of amateur anglers was ridiculed by the various speakers. The rough character of the foreshore, it was considered, sufficiently enclosed the waters. Closed waters at places such as Woy Woy, it was stated, were responsible for the catching of thousands of undersized fish which would result In the prosecution of the professional fisherman if they were found in his possession. NET FISHING. (1926, December 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from 

Fishing families in Pittwater remains to this day. Some of these still going may be seen in Careel Bay Jetty and Boatshed, but there are others, based in our western shores and worked in and from there and Careel Bay from earliest times for settlers until now although the over-fishing of the estuary and consequent decline of shoals of fish sweeping in and along the beaches and into the creeks and the Basin, along with bigger and better fishing boats meant they could find harvests further afield:


A fisherman with a recent early morning catch on the ocean front at Palm Beach.
HAUL OF SALMON AT PALM BEACH. (1932, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

£300 HAUL OF FISH IN AFTERNOON SYDNE Y, Sat.: Fisherman F. J. Wilson of Careel Bay, netted one-third of a huge shoal of salmon off Dee Why Beach. Between noon and 5 p.m. on one day, Wilson and two companions netted 200 boxes of salmon. The smallest fish weighed about 6 Ib. The catch was worth about £300. The fishermen gave away hundreds of fish to sightseers. When Wilson and his men pulled their net on to Dee Why beach they found they had also netted a 7-ft. shark. £300 HAUL OF FISH IN AFTERNOON (1952, May 24). News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from 

ALLEN—WILSON - The Engagement Is announced of Betty, third daughter of Mr and Mrs. F. J Wilson of Careel Bay, Newport and Raymond Joseph youngest son of the late Mr and Mrs Harry Allen, late 18 Farnham Street Leicester England. Family Notices (1946, February 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 30. Retrieved from 

Charlie Hastie, a well-known fisherman of Pittwater, says that black bream, flathead, and flounder are now fairly plentiful about Careel Bay and the mouth of Pittwater, and advises anglers to give the place a trial. FISHING NOTES. (1906, February 3).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from 

HASTIE.—September 13th 1940, at his residence Careel Bay, Newport, Charles John Lawson Hastie, dearly beloved husband of Isabella Jane Hastie and loving father of Jessie (Mrs. Wilson) Isobel (Mrs. Colwell) and Bessie (Mrs. Baker) aged 75 years. Family Notices (1940, September 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from 

MONCKTON. - March 7, 1924, at Manly, Walter Hillary Monckton, late of Careel Bay, Pittwater, aged 62 years. Family Notices (1924, March 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from 

Fisherman Drowned.
James Wise, an unemployed carrier, was swept from the rocks at Avalon on Saturday and, despite the attempts of a friend to save him, was drowned.
Wise, with his wife and three children, was camping at Pittwater, and was earning his living by fishing. With another man, James Williams, he was fishing on Saturday off the rocks at Avalon at a spot called "The Hole in the Wall." The sea was rising, and waves were breaking over the men, and Williams suggested that they should move to a higher place. Before Wise could move, a wave swept him away. Williams swam out, and struggled to bring Wise ashore for almost 20 minutes. A wave separated them, and Williams was too exhausted to succeed in another attempt at rescue.
Narrabeen police were informed of the tragedy, but the body had not been recovered up to last night. SWEPT OFF ROCKS. (1932, November 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from 

Speedboat Strikes Dinghy.
Flying timber injured a fisherman and knocked him overboard, when a speedboat collided with a dinghy at Pittwater yesterday. Ronald Ambrose McCarthy, 45, of Victoria-street, Potts Point, was taken to Manly Hospital by the Manly Ambulance, suffering from a fractured rib injuries to the left shoulder, internal injuries, and the effects of immersion.
McCarthy was fishing near Goddard's wharf with Percy Stoyles of Iluka-road, Palm Beach. The speedboat was driven by Miss Dalma Arnott of the yacht, Oomoobah
According to reports to the Mona Vale and Narrabeen police the speedboat was travelling at about 15 knots when it struck the dinghy aft. McCarthy was struck by timber that was torn from the dinghy. He sank, but Stoyles supported him until Miss Arnott brought the speedboat alongside. McCarthy was dragged aboard the boat and taken to the shore. FISHERMAN INJURED. (1933, December 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from 

Bernie's moan
Mr. Bernie Moane, manager of Palm Beach Fishermen's Co-op. Society, has had an unfortunate experience. He was given two bottles of beer, left them on top of a box of fish being packed. Someone filled the box, nailed it down and off it went to market-
beer included. Mr. Moane asked at the markets today if anyone had seen the beer, was told "Foo got it." Who's Foo?.
SPOTLIGHT on the NEWS (1949, December 8). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 4 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 

Fisherman Burned Shielding Child From Flames
SYDNEY, Monday.—A fisherman was severely burned on the back and hands at Palm Beach today when he shielded a two year old girl from flames with his body.
The fisherman, Harry Morris, 42, with Dennis Lacey, 32, were using a kerosene furnace when it exploded. A huge sheet of flame shot out towards Jeanette Humphrey, 2, only a few feet away.
Morris quickly threw the girl to safety. She escaped with shock and slight burns to one hand.
Jeanette's mother, Mrs. Gordon Humphrey, of Barrenjoey Road, Palm Beach, said Morris did "a wonderful thing".  An eye witness said the other man, Lacey, had his clothes charred off him and was terribly burned. Fisherman Burned Shielding Child From Flames (1950, August 15). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from 

This history is threaded through with the lives of the people who occupied these bays and beaches and through them we sight how we are all interconnected, no matter the historical woven paths wandered, through marriages, in what interests us or the options available to people in any time that helped them choose a place to live and be. through these threads the names and expereinces of other local fishermen emerge:

Wilson's Beach - Little Mackeral The Families

The western foreshores of Pittwater are synonymous with early fishing days on the estuary with one beach named, alike Mullet island on the Hawkesbury for the abundance of fish that once ran in season here. Great Mackeral Beach and Little Mackeral Beach, called 'Wilson's Beach' during that family's decades long ownership of the place we now call Currawong, was a place where fishermen resided and early European residents made small farms.
As so many were farmers first, fish were sought to feed their families and for extra income among some changing times.

Little Mackaral Beach, was settled by John Clarke in 1823, a NSW Military Veteran of the 102nd regiment whom Martin Burke had met aboard the ship Tellicherry in 1806. The land was purchased by Martin Burke in 1824. John Clarke moved to Launceston, Tasmania, on retirement. Governor Thomas Brisbane formally granted the land to Burke on 16 January 1835.

Martin Burke was one of the five 'Wicklow Martyrs'. This description of Burke is one of a list of about 45 men who the government had published in Irish newspapers on 26th & 31st July 1799 and on 13th & 16th December 1799. Number 1 on the list was Michael Dwyer:

The following ROBBERS, MURDERERS and DESERTERS are now wandering about, and are occasionally concealed by disaffected persons in the Counties of Wicklow, Wexford, Carlow, Kildare, Dublin &tc and Rewards will be paid for securing such of them as are first mentioned agreeably to a Proclamation dated the 8th day of June last:
“MARTIN BURKE, five feet eleven inches high, dark hair, rather fair complexion, long nose bending downwards at the point, uneven teeth, long face, straight in the back, xat? Stoops in the shoulders down from his neck, strong legs and thighs, a little bowed at the knees, walks very upright, [blank] years old, born at or near Imale.

The July notices did not list a reward, however the December notices included a reward of “Two Hundred Guineas for taking him.”
Freemans Journal Tuesday 30 July 1805 page 2:

Thursday evening, Michael Dwyer, Martin Burke, Arthur Develin, Hugh Byrne and John Mernagh [sic], were conveyed from Kilmainham prison, by the Circular-road in carriages, and put on board an armed cutter in the river, which is to carry them to Cove, where a transport destined for Botany Bay, is ready to receive them.”

He was transported on the Tellicherry, arriving here on the 15th of February, 1806. By the end of 1806 Burke had formed a liaison with Phoebe Tunstall, a thirty nine year old convict who had arrived on the Nile from England in 1801 to serve a seven year sentence. Phoebe had been assigned to a small holder, Thomas Andrews, and she had a child by him in 1803. Her husband had operated a shop in Pitt Street in leased premises and, following his death in 1806, Phoebe and her young daughter Sarah, moved to Cabramatta to live with Martin Burke where he had a land grant. 

In late 1806 Martin Burke was arrested and charged with, “an attempt to disturb the good order and discipline of the colony”. It is not known who had brought the charges but in any event they were disproved and Burke was later released. 

Michael O'Dwyre, Hugh Byrne, Martin Burke, John Morner, Thomas McCann, William Morris, Arthur Develyn and Walter Clare, were put to the bar and indicted for conniving and intending to disturb the peace of this colony, by undergoing many persons to revolt from their allegiance, and to rise in open rebellion, which meant to overthrow His Majesty's Government therein, as well upon the 27th day of August last as at other subsequent periods, prior to the prisoners being taken into custody.

The evidence on the part of the Crown was clear and connected. It appeared upon the most respectable testimony, that the conduct of many of that defendants or prisoners who had been exiled for treasonable and seditious practices, had been untoward and highly disrepectful to their masters, at and about the above stated period; and that from this sudden change of conduct, in addition to the various informations that were communicated by persons whose veracity was to be depended on, no other inference was deducible than that the projected insurrection was upon the very point of bursting forth, and that the devoted victims to delusion and artifice were confident of a successful issue.

The prisoners were allowed every assistance requisite to their defence; which after some exculpatory argument, concluded generally with a point blank 
denial of the charge.

The Court was then cleared; and after a minute revision of the evidence, re-opened; when Thomas McCann and William Morris were found guilty, and the others acquitted.—The prisoners were taken from the bar, and ordered to be brought up to receive their sentences the following day; when 
Mr. James Ceroni, chief officer, and Mr. James Jeffries, purser of the General Wellesley, were then put to the bar and indicted on a charge of having seduced from their duty two seamen belonging to His Majesty's ship Porpoise, and encouraged them to desertion by permitting and contriving their secretion on board the ship General Wellesley and elswhere. After a clear and minute investigation, Mr. Jeffries was acquitted, and Mr. Ceroni being found guilty, was fined 20£ and sentenced to be imprisoned six months in His Majesty's gaol at Sydney.

Thomas McCann and William Morris were again brought forward, and ad-dressed by the Judge Advocate; who remarked to them, that notwithstanding the malignity of the crime they were convicted of upon, testimony clear and incontrovertible, yet the penalty incurred thereby did not extend to the lives of the. delinquents ; but the security of society from such foul, sanguinary, and abominable devices, rendered necessary the most exemplary punishment : " The Court did therefore adjudge and sentence them to receive one thousand lashes each; the Court recommending further, that as delinquents of the most dangerous principles and character, be removed by the most speedy conveyance to some remote place, where the baneful influence of their detestible principles might not be disseminated among other ignorant & credulous persons."

In pursuance of their sentence, the prisoners having received a part of their corporal punishment, have been sent away to different settlements, where the remainder will be inflicted.

May this example have a due impression upon the unwary mind, and guard it against the evil counsel of the villain, whose schemes are impotent, & whose presumption can alone be equalled by the rain which must inevitably fall upon himself and his coadjutors.

The odious project which has thus happily been laid open, had been in agi-tation for upwards of a twelvemonth; the secret informations received by Go-vernment rendered vigilance necessary, and every precaution that had been adopted was immediately succeeded by a change of measures among the principal agents in the work of intended massacre —and had their plots succeeded to their wish, dreadful indeed had been the fate of all, whom reason, loyalty, and humanity must inspire with sentiments of abhorrence and disgust at their intended plan of operations. COURT OF CRIMINAL JURISDICTION. (1807, June 7). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from

William Bligh directed that Martin Burke, should go to Port Dalrymple (Launceston) in Van Diemen’s Land.  While awaiting transportation on board the vessel Porpoise in Sydney Harbour Burke arranged for Father James Harold to conduct a secret marriage service on the ship so that he was legally united with Phoebe Tunstall. While he was away Phoebe bigamously married a soldier, John Butler, at St Phillips Church in Sydney, ignoring the fact that her legal spouse was in exile in Tasmania. When Burke returned to Sydney early in 1809 Phoebe left her new soldier husband and returned with her young daughter, Sarah, to resume her life with Martin Burke. 

The reunion of the couple was marked by ill fortune since the house in which the pair were living caught fire and they were lucky to escape with their lives. Phoebe, Martin and young Sarah were left without any possessions or clothing and were reduced to a state of “extreme distress”. It appears that the other Irish families in the area came to the assistance of Burke and his small family and their house was rebuilt within a short period. 

Late on Tuesday night or early on Wednesday morning, a fire broke out in the farm house of Martin Burke, at George's River; which owing to the roof being thatched, scarce gave the persons, consisting of Burke, his wife, and child, time to escape ; but not a single article of wearing apparel or other property could be saved, by which the sufferers are reduced to extreme distress. SYDNEY. (1809, January 15)The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

In 1809 Burke, along with those he had been transported with, was given a 100 acre land grant at Cabramatta. By 1810 Governor Lachlan Macquarie had arrived in the colony and the State Prisoners presented a joint petition to have their pardons and land grants reconfirmed by the new governor. The five Wicklow men received their pardons in July 1811 and at the same time their finances were given a boost since they received stock from the government herd. In 1812 Martin Burke, at the prompting of Phoebe Tunstall, took the decision to give up farming and leased a tavern in Pitt Street. In that year he sold his Cabramatta farm to an Irishman, Bernard Burn, for the sum of 190 pounds. Burke appears to have succeeded in his new career and in 1813 he took over the lease of another Pitt Street hotel, The Hope and Anchor, paying seventy pounds per annum for the property. 

By 1816 Burke had decided to return to farming and he leased 500 acres at Bringelly from the surveyor, John Oxley, at a fee of thirty pounds per annum. Phoebe Tunstall remained the licensee at the Hope and Anchor but it seems that the hotel was by that time less profitable than it had been, mainly because of the fierce competition in the Pitt Street quarter of Sydney. It was at this time that Martin Burke agreed to become a police constable in the Bringelly area which at that time had a reputation for lawlessness and bushranging. It is evident that Burke needed the pay and provisions which came with the job since by 1820 he was unable to pay the arrears in his lease and John Oxley took him to court for the sum of ninety pounds. 

In July of that year he resigned from his post as Constable at Bringelly but not long after he commenced a similar position at Pittwater. To settle his affairs Burke admitted his debt but as a consequence was forced to default on repayment of the debt and as a result thirty acres of land which he had purchased at Pittwater in 1813 were forfeited. That thirty acres of land was on the west side of the McMahon's creek (Bilgola Plateau and Newport - now in the Crown of Newport series of reserves). John Farrell ended up purchasing it for five pounds.


HIS EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, on the Recommendation of WILLIAM MINCHIN, Esquire, Superin-tendent of Police, has been pleased to appoint Martin Burke to be a Constable at Pittwater, Broken Bay.

By His Excellency's Command,
J. T. CAMPBELL, Secretary.
GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS. (1820, September 30). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

Oxley v. Burke.
By Virtue of a Writ of Fieri Facias to me directed, in the above-named Cause, I will Put up and Sell by Public Auction, at my Office, Hunter-street, Sydney, at the Hour 11 o' Clock in the Forenoon, of  Friday the 12th of July, a FARM, containing about 30 Acres of Land, situate at Pitt-water, part cleared; together with a HOUSE, and Growing Crops on the same ; the Property of the Defendant, unless the Execution thereon be previously discharged or superseded.
J. T. CAMPBELL, Provost Marshal Oxley v. Burke. (1822, July 5). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Case No,1064,—John Farrell,of Macquarie-street, Sydney
Thirty acres, county of Cumberland, parish of Narrabeen, near Little Reef; commencing at the entrance of a salt water creek, and bounded on the west by Martin Burke's 50 acres, being a line north 44 degrees, west 29 chains ; on the north  by a line east 26 chains to the sea ; and on the east by the sea to the entrance of the salt water creek aforesaid. 
This land was located on an order of Governor Macquarie, in favour of James McNally, who, it is alleged, sold to Martin Burke, against whom the Sheriff sold to claimant. 
COURT OF CLAIMS. (1841, October 8). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1380. Retrieved from

In 1821 Martin Burke, Phoebe Tunstall and her two daughters (the second girl probably being the child of the soldier, John Butler) moved to Pittwater. 

After losing the thirty acres he then leased 700 acres from d’Arcy Wentworth and once again began farming. It was presumably to provide himself with an additional income that Burke had accepted an appointment as a police constable in the Pittwater region. Like his fellow Irish police officers Burke must have been aware of the irony of the situation which saw a one time bandit chief appointed as an officer of the law but, unlike Dwyer, Burke appears to have been a conscientious, if not very effective, policeman. However there were other colonial citizens who were less assured about the suitability of such an appointment and in 1823 Martin Burke’s private affairs came under scrutiny when his marital status was questioned after an allegation had been made that an officer of the law was openly. “living in sin”. Martin Burke replied to this questioning with a letter to d’Arcy Wentworth in which he explained  that he had been,“ Married in Sydney in 1807 by the Reverent W. (J.) Harold, Catholic clergyman. By this marriage I have no children - but my wife’s two. I have always supported and was allowed their rations at Government store......”

Having at last admitted his secret marriage, he felt more secure in his official position and he proceeded to build a farmhouse near Mona Vale where he established a large garden and soon after he set about purchasing additional cattle. 

In 1818 his step daughter, Sarah, had married an Irish wheelwright, David Foley per Guilford in 1818 and the couple now moved to Pittwater to help Martin and Phoebe run the property. This is the David Foley who was later murdered near his home in 1839.

In 1819 Martin Burke leased an additional 200 acres at Bayview and by 1822 he had 34 head of cattle on the farm. The property had thirty four cleared acres of which three acres were under maize, one acre was producing potatoes and another acre was devoted to a fruit orchard. 

In 1822 Martin Burke was accused of dealing in the “slop” clothing which was issued to prisoners. It appears that he was buying the official clothing which was issued free to convicts, probably in return for liquor, and then selling the garments for profit. It was a cheap and miserable trade since the garments were issued on a yearly basis and, once a convict had parted with his clothing, the winter months would see him ragged and shivering with insufficient protection from the chilly winter days. 

In 1823 John Clark, a Veteran soldier of the 102 Regiment who had come free to the colony per Tellicherry, was granted land about Great and Little Mackerel Beaches (so named for the abundant supplies of this fish caught off the beaches in the early days of settlement). Together with Martin Burke the two men began farming and grazing cattle in the area in a partnership which lasted for a number of years. 

In 1825 Martin Burke subleased his 700 acres to David Foley but he retained the right to graze his cattle on the land as well as to retain one room in the dwelling house and half an acre for a garden. By this time Martin Burke was again the subject of a complaint, the basis of which was that he grazed cattle in the area but had no stockyards or stockmen so that his animals frequently were grazing on the properties of others. 

As Martin Burke was the district pound-keeper the local residents had no means of seeking to have the Burke cattle impounded since Burke would immediately release his own animals while keeping other “stays” firmly under lock and key until hefty pound fees were paid. In 1826 the Superintendent of Police, Captain Rossi, reported on the situation when he wrote, “ the man’s interest is certainly at variance with his public duty”. Rossi recommended that the next constable and pound keeper should be someone who held no land in the area and he went so far to say that, given that Burke had made very few arrests in his six years as a police officer, he did not appear to be very diligent in the execution of his duties. Martin Burke was now in his mid fifties and, as his suitability for the role of officer of the law had been called into question, he may have been ready to give up the role of policeman. By 1828 Martin Burke had moved once more, to McIntosh’s 200 acre grant at present Bayview. Of the 200 acres, 12 had been cleared and cultivated, and he had 34 head of cattle. Living with Burke, then aged 57, were a 69 year old invalid named John Clarke, and two labourers. A map in surveyor Larmer’s field book showed Burke still living on McIntosh’s 200 acres in 1832.

Robert McIntosh Junior sold the 200 acres to William Timothy Cape on 6 June 1834, and this may well have been the time that Burke moved to Mackerel Beach.He continued to work on the property which he had leased until the acreage was sold in 1829. [1.]

Burke had remained friends with a soldier on the Tellicherry, John Clarke, who was entitled to select a grant of 100 acres when the Royal Veterans Company was disbanded on 24 September 1823. Clarke selected 100 acres of land, consisting of 60 acres at Great Mackerel Beach and 40 acres at Little Mackerel Beach. Martin Burke purchased the land from him in February 1824. 

By 1824 Burke was the sole owner of the land at Little Mackeral and Great Mackeral. 

9. Cumberland, fifty acres, parish of Broken Bay, situated at the basin at Pitt-water, commencing at a marked tree in a small bay, and bounded on the west by a line north 22 chains ; on the north by a line east 25 chains to Pitt-water; and on the south east and all other sides by that water to the marked tree. Applied for by Martin Burke. Price five shillings per acre. Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 5th Nov. 1833. SALE OF LAND. (1833, November 11). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from

CUMBERLAND-50 Acres Parish of Broken Bay, and at the Basin at Pittwater; applied for by Martin Burke ; price 5s. per Acre No Title. (1834, January 14). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 Edition: MORNING. Retrieved from

No. 188. By Martin Burke, of Pitt Water, to 100 acres of land, promised by Sir Thomas Brisbane to John Clarke, now of Launceston, a pensioner of the 102 ½ regiment, described as follows: situate in the county of Cumberland, parish of Broken Bay, 60 acres at Great Mackerel Beach, (in the western shore of Pitt Water, and 40 acres adjoining and extending towards an inlet called the Basin, bounded on the north by James Retbey's 40 acres, on the west by a line south 46 chains, in the south by a line east 18 chains, and on the east by the Little Mackerel Beach, Pitt Water, and The Great Mackerel Beach. CLAIMS TO LAND. (1834, April 28). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from

John Clarke passed away in 1939, at Launceston:
DIED.—On the 29th Dec., at the Springs, Mr. John Clarke, aged 80. Family Notices (1840, January 7). Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), p. 7. Retrieved from

By this time Phoebe Tunstall had died and Martin Burke began to prepare for retirement, gradually disposing of his holdings but he retained the house, outhouses and enough land to support himself with hens and vegetables. 

In 1832 William Booth also claimed he had been promised the land, which he was farming, but possibly because Booth had made no improvements the first Crown grant was given to Martin Burke in 1835. 

Burke’s final years were spent in a wooden cottage near Mackerel Beach where he was close to old friends, the Sheehan and Flynn families. Martin was still living at Mackerel Beach at the time of the 1841 census but he became ill in 1842 and then moved to the Benevolent Asylum, a home for old men, where he died peacefully at the age of 72 and was buried on July 30th 1842. 

109. Robert Mackintosh, senior, 200, Two hundred Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North-east corner of Robert Mackintosh, junior, forty acres, and bounded on the west by that farm by a line South thirty-fit e degrees West thirty-two chains; on the South by a line South fifty-five degrees East fifty-two chains fifty links to Jeremiah Bryant's eighty acres ; on the East by Bryant's eighty acres and Peter Patillo's eighty acres by a line North thirty-five degrees East thirty-nine chains toPitt Water; and on the North by the waters of Pitt Water to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 1stOctobevr, 1017.' Quit-rent 4s. sterling perannum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
110. Peter Patillo, 80, Eighty Acres,Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North-east corner of Robert Mackintosh's two hundred acres, and bounded on the West by that farm by a line South thirty-five degrees West twenty sixchains fifty links to the North corner of Jeremiah Bryant's eighty acres ; on the South by Bryant by a line South seventy-four and a-half degrees East thirty-eight chains fifty links to a swamp called " Winne Jeramy ;" and on the East and North by that Swamp and Pitt Water to the commencing corner,
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 10th January, 1810. Quit-rent 1s. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
111. Jeremiah Bryant, 80, Eighty Acres,Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the South-east corner of Peter Patillo's eighty acres, and bounded on the North by that farm by a line. North seventy-four and "a-half degrees West thirty-eight chains fifty links to Robert Mackintosh's two hundred acres'; on the West by that farm by a line South thirty-five degrees West twenty-three chains; on the West by a line South thirty-five degrees East twenty-five chains to a swamp ; and on the East by the swamp to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 12th March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum,commencing 1st January, 1827.
112. John Taylor, 30, Thirty Acres, Parishof Narrabeen, commencing at the South-westcorner of John Williams' sixty acres, and bounded on the East by J. J. Therry's twelvehundred acres by a lire South twenty-threechains to a small Bay ; and on the South-west and North by the waters of Pitt Water to the
commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 16th January, 1316. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum,commencing 1st January, 1827.
113. Thomas Warner, 50, Fifty Acres,Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the Northcast corner, and bounded on the East by a sideHue of twenty-five chains; on the South by aWest line of twenty-five chains to Pitt Water;and on the West and North by the waters ofPitt Water to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31stMarch, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum,commencing 1st January, 1827.
114. Henry Gaskin, 50, Fifty Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North-east corner of Warner's fifty acres, and bounded on the West by a South line of twenty-nine chains; on the South by an East line of twenty chains ; on the East by a North line of twenty four chains to Pitt Water ; and on the North by the waters of Pitt Water to the commencing corner. Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31st March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per tan-num, commencing 1st January, 1827.
115. John Joseph Therry, 1200, One thousand two hundred Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the South-east comer of the Government Reserve of two hundred and eighty acres, and bounded on the North by that Reserve by a line West twenty-five chains to a Stream ; on the North by that Stream and Ca-reel Bay to the North-east corner of Henry Gaskin's fifty acres; on the West by Gaskin's by a line South twenty-four chains ; on the South by a line West twenty chains, and again by a line North four chains to the South-east corner of. Warner's fifty acres; on the North by Warner by a line West twenty-five chains to Pitt Water; on the West by the waters of Pitt Water to the North-west coiner of John William's sixty acres ; on the South by that farm by a line South fifty degrees East 38 chains ; on the West by a line South forty decrees West sixteen chains ; on the North by a line North fifty degrees West thirty-nine chains to the North corner of John Taylor's thirty acres ; on the West by Taylor by a line South twenty three chains to Pitt Water ; on the West by the waters of Pitt Water to the North-west corner of James M'Donald's thirty acres ; on the South by that farm by a line East eleven chains ; on the West by a line South twenty-three chains to Robert Melvyn's sixty acres; on the South by part of Melvyn's farm, and by Porter's and Anderson's farms by a line East fifty chains to Martin Burke's fifty acres; on the East by that farm by a line North six chains to a Stream ; on the East by that Stream, which is the Western boundary of John Farrell's sixty acres; on the South by that farm by a line East twenty-eight chains to the Village Reserve of one hundred acres ; on the East by part of the Village Reserve by a line North seven chains to a Stream ; on the South by that Stream, which is the North boundary of the Village Reserve to the Sea; and on the East by the Sea to the commencing comer.
Promised by Sir Thomas Brisbane, 200 acres, on 23d July, 1824 ; 500 acres on 1st September,1824; and 500 acres on the 19th December,1825. Quit-rent £9 8s. 4d. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1829.
116. John Farrell, 60, Sixty Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North corner of Martin Burke's fifty acres and James M'Nally's thirty acres, and bounded on the South by M'Nally by a line East ten chains; on the East by the Village Reserve by a line North twenty-eight chains ; on the North by aline West twenty-eight chains to a Stream; on the West by that Stream to Martin Burke's fifty acres ; and on the East by that farm by a line North three chains to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31st March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
117. Martin Burke, 50, Fifty Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the South-east corner of Robert Anderson's sixty acres, and bounded on the West by that farm, by a line North thirty-six chains; on the East by James M'Nally's thirty acres, by a line South forty four degrees East twenty-nine chains, to the entrance of a salt water creek; and on the South by that creek to the commencing corner. Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31st March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
Classified Advertising. (1832, November 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from

Burke leased the 40 acres (16 hectares) that included Little Mackerel Beach to Patrick Flynn or Flinn. According to Honorah Collins, a long-term resident of the area in the 1880s, Patrick Flynn lived at Little Mackerel Beach between 1850 and 1854. Flynn/Flinn also leased Nappers Grant (Barrenjoey) from 1844 until 1850/51 and was known for his excellent vegetables and beautiful garden.

Patrick Flinn was listed in Low’s 1847 directory as landholder, Pitt Water. Patrick Flinn or Flynn arrived in Sydney by the Southworth on 9 March 1822. A ploughman and soldier, he had been convicted and sentenced to life transportation at Wexford County in March 1821, at the age of 30. His birth place was Limerick, and his native place Cork.  Patrick was already living at Pittwater in September 1830, when the Sydney Bench recommended he be given his Ticket of Leave. He was allowed to remain in the District of Pittwater. 

Government Notice.
Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 29th November, 1830.
HIS Excellency the Governor will hold His ANNUAL CONFERENCE with the CHIEFS and TRIBES of the NATIVES on Wednesday, the 5th of January next, at the Hour of Eleven in the Forenoon, at the Market-place, Parramatta.
By His Excellency's Command,
Public Notice.
Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 22d Dec. 1830.
THE following Prisoners of the Crown have obtained Tickets of Leave since the last day of Publication; viz:—
County of Cumberland.
Flynn Patrick, Southworth
Classified Advertising (1830, December 25). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from 

Just prior to his wife's passing another man's name appears, indicating the Flinns may have left their Barrenjoey farm prior to this:

NOTICE.-All Cattle and Horse's found trespassing on the lands of Barranjoey, Broken Bay, will be either impounded or the owners thereof sued for such trespasses.
May 4. 
Advertising (1851, May 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from

At her residence, Parramatta-street, on Thursday, the 11th instant, after a protracted illness, Honora, the wife of Mr. Patrick Flinn, late of Pittwater, aged 60. Family Notices (1852, June 19). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Patrick passed away a decade later:
FLINN—At the residence of Mr. James Powell, Datchett-street, Balmain, Mr. Patrick Flinn,  late of Pitt Water, aged 84 years. Family Notices (1862, May 22). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from 

On 6 November 1834 Martin Burke sold the Great Mackeral 60 acres to James Marks for £50, provided that Burke should occupy the house and outhouses and three acres of the land during the term of his natural life.

The Little Mackeral section then passed to Cornelius Sheehan who leased it to various people. Cornelius Sheehan was tried at Cork City Court in 1823 and sentenced to 7 years. He sailed from Cork Ireland on 28 September 1823 on the transport ship Castle Forbes and arrived in Port Jackson on 15 January 1824. He was 44 years old, 5ft 7¼, brown eyes, bald-headed, brown complexion.

He was assigned at first to the Minto Road Party. By 1828 he was an assigned servant to Mr. James Jenkins at Long Reef when the following event was reported in the Monitor 19 March 1828:-
SUPREME CRIMINAL COURT, SATURDAY 8th. – John Naturau and William Rose, were indicted for stealing twelve bags, containing twelve bushels of maize, value £6 from the store of Mr. Jenkins, at Long-reef on the eleventh day of February last. Cornelius Sheehan, an assigned servant to Mr. Jenkins, deposed, that on the day in question, he left his master’s house to get some bullocks. On his approaching the creek, he saw a boat lying in the basin. There was no person in the boat. Three or four minutes after, he saw two men come out of his master’s paddock, and upon asking them who or what they wanted? was answered, they came on shore to look for fresh water. They enquired if his master wanted to purchase any oil, as they had some in the boat? Witness replied no; his master bought his oil in Sydney. They then went to their boat, and put away from the shore. Witness observed then put in again about 20 or 30 rods further up the creek, and having left their boat some time, he further saw them return with four bags, containing something, and put them into the boat. Witness then ran to the store, and missing four bags of maize, proceeded on to his master’s residence, which was about a mile distant, keeping the men in sight the whole of the time. Witness, by his master’s desire, procured a boat and a man named Hill, also in Mr. Jenkins’s service, and pursued the prisoners, who were making off. 
He captured them. Witness remained on shore, and on searching more closely, discovered there were six bags gone from the store, when the boat was brought back. He saw six bags in the boat, which he swears were his master’s property. Mr. Justice Dowling – Was the store always kept locked? Witness – It was; ....

Cornelius married Isabella Hindson on 22 October 1832. Their abode was Pittwater. They were living at Mackerel Bay in a wooden house at the time of the 1841 census, with Martin Burke and Patrick Flinn living in houses nearby.

On 19 December 1854 Patrick Flinn, his daughter Ellen and her husband Henry Merritt assigned their lease of Little Mackerel Beach to Cornelius Sheehan for £45. [LTO Book 40 No.52]

Cornelius is described in records as being a farmer at Pittwater, but whether he lived at Little Mackerel Beach or elsewhere is difficult to ascertain. The Sheehans appear to have been very quiet people. Isabella died in 1859, aged 84, and Cornelius died at Pittwater in September 1864. Jane Boxwell, known also as Jane Sheehan (Cornelius’ de facto wife?), married Thomas Cooper in 1865. 

On the 14th of January 1871 Thomas and Jane Cooper conveyed the land at Little Mackerel Beach to Joseph Starr, who was already living there, for £45. [LTO Book 128 No.186]  On 4 June 1872 Joseph Starr of Sydney, mariner, conveyed to Thomas and Sarah Wilson of Pittwater the 40 acre land grant at Little Mackerel Beach, for £60. The property was in Sarah’s name, with her son-in-law, James Tobin of Manly Beach as trustee. 

STARR-April 21,1887, accidentally drowned, off ketch Agnes Rose, whilst on her voyage to Port Stephens, Captain Joseph Starr, an old resident of Pyrmont. R. I. P. Family Notices (1887, May 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from

STARR.— April 21, 1887, accidentally drowned, off ketch Agnes Rose, Captain Joseph Starr. Family Notices (1887, May 21). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1088. Retrieved from

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
In the estate, goods, chattels, credits, and effects of Joseph Starr, late of Pyrmont, in the Colony of New South Wales, master mariner, deceased, intestate.
NOTICE is hereby given that after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication hereof, application will be made to the Supreme Court of New South Wales, in its Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, that letters of administration of all and singular the ate, good*, chattels, credits, and effects of Joseph Starr, late of Pyrmont, in the Colony of New South Wales, master mariner, deceased, who departed this life on the 21st day of April last, intestate, may be granted to Mary Ann Starr, of Pyrmont, in the Colony aforesaid, the widow of the said deceased.—Dated at Sydney, this 7th day of May, a.d. 1887.

Proctor for Administratrix,
165, York-street, Sydney.
3361 6s. 6d.
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1887, May 10). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 3146. Retrieved from

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
In the goods, chattels, credits, and effects of Joseph Starr, late of Pyrmont, in the City of Sidney, master mariner, deceased, intestate.
NOTICE is hereby given, that the accounts of Mary Am Starr, the administratrix in the above estate, have this day been filed in the proper office of this Honorable Court; and all persons having claims on the slid estate, or being otherwise interested therein, may come in before me, at my office, at the Supreme Court-house, King-street, in Sydney, on or before Friday, the 22nd day of March instant, at 11 o'clock in (he forenoon, and inspect the said accounts, and if they shall think fit object thereto.—Dated at Sydney, this 7th day of March, a.d. 1889.

Registrar of Probates of the Supreme Court. William Roberts,
Proctor for the said Administratrix,
165, York-street, Sydney.
2171 6s. 6d. ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1889, March 8). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1862. Retrieved from

The Wilson family owned Little Mackarel until 1908, when the property was known as "Wilsons Beach". They, too, had previously been on the acreage named 'Mona Vale' by David Foley and they too were subjected to the Farrells tendency to try and rule other neighbours or drive them out.

Thomas Wilson arrived in Sydney on the Lady Nugent from England, on 6 April 1835. He was aged 21, single, a Protestant who could read and write. He came from Kent, and was a skinner and poulterer. With no former conviction, he was found guilty of assault and robbery at Montgomery quarter sessions on October 17th 1833, and sentenced to seven years. 

He was 5 feet 4¾ inches tall, with a ruddy and freckled complexion, brown hair and grey eyes, his eyebrows partially meeting. Among various marks and scars, he had (presumably tattooed) a sun, half moon, seven stars and a crucifix inside his lower left arm. In 1837 he was assigned to William George at Long Reef Farm, and was still there in January 1839. 

He received his Ticket of Leave on 29 May 1839, “allowed to remain in the District of Pitt Water”. He was living at Pittwater in a wooden house with another single male at the time of the 1841 census. With his wife, sometimes known as Priscilla and sometimes as Sarah, he had many children: 

1. WILSON Mary Jane,   b. 1843,   d. 12 Jul 1924, Manly Cottage Hospital, North Head, Sydney, NSW, Australia  
2. WILSON Emily L,   b. 25 Jan 1845, Lane Cove, NSW. Australia  ,   d. 31 Aug 1927, Mount Morgan, Qld.Australia  
3. WILSON Thomas,   b. 1847,   d. Yes, date unknown
4. WILSON Alfred,   b. 1849,   d. 6 Jul 1910, 15 Wilson Lane, Redfern, NSW.Australia  
5. WILSON Nancy Nelson,   b. 8 May 1852, Pittwater, New South Wales , Australia  ,   d. 7 Mar 1934, Gladesville, New South Wales, Australia  
6. WILSON Pauline,   b. 1854, Broken Bay, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1941, Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia  
7. WILSON Edward,   b. 1857,   d. 1935
8. WILSON Priscilla,   b. 1859, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1944, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
9. WILSON Clara Matilda,   b. 1862,   d. 1901, Vaucluse, NSW.Australia  
10. WILSON Richard William Henry,   b. 1864,   d. 1945, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
11. WILSON Bertha Rowena,   b. 1866, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 24 May 1944, Woy Woy, New South Wales, Australia  
12. WILSON Blanche A,   b. 1868, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1870, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
13. WILSON Edgar Rock,   b. 1873,   d. 1944, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia  

Mary Jane married James Tobin in 1861, Emily married James Warren in 1870, Thomas married Frances Oliver in 1870, Nancy married Albert H. Turner in 1872. A marriage between Thomas Wilson I and [Sarah] Priscilla Cundah in 1870 is recorded in the N.S.W. Births, Deaths and Marriages, suggesting that until this date it was a de facto marriage.

At a sale of land held at Sydney on 15 December 1853, Thomas Wilson and William Mildwater as tenants in common purchased Lot 33 at Curl Curl Creek (now Manly Creek), to the east of John Wheeler’s 100 acres. They paid £80 for 80 acres, and the deed of grant was issued on 13 February 1855. [LTO SN99/243] Wilson may have lived on this land for some years, as he had a house and land, freehold, in 1859, and Sand’s Directory listed him as gardener, Lagoon, in 1863, and farmer, Pittwater-road from 1865 to 1869, while William Mildwater was a grocer in Whistler Street, Manly.

The Wilsons were tenants of “Mona Vale” during the years 1866 to 1872. Alike the Foley family and Therry family before them they experienced the machinations of the Farrell family living at Newport who, it would seem, wanted no competition in the dairying occupation locally and would kill innocent animals and at least one person to serve their ends:

Mona Vale, Pitt Water District.— It seems that the spirit of animosity towards the tenants of this homestead has only been slumbering, and has now broken out afresh. The snake was only scotched, not killed. It will be in the recollection of many of our readers that we have had to report cattle stealing, cattle shooting, and even murder as having occurred in this district. Now again, the destruction of cattle has commenced, without the authors of such atrocities at present having been discovered. No later than last Wednesday, a valuable bull was missed from the paddocks at Mona Vale, at present occupied by Mr. Thomas Wilson, long well known as a resident of the Manly Beach and Pitt Water districts. Due search, as a matter of course, was made for the animal, which was subsequently found dead, having evidently been destroyed by a gunshot wound. This loss to Mr. Wilson is serious, as the bull was of a superior breed, and the only one on his run. A bullock belonging to a Mr. McMahon, residing on the North Shore, was also found dead from a similar cause, and the carcass was about a quarter of a mile from that of the bull, and on the same property. How far the authorities have been correct or justified in tho removal of the mounted troopers from the immediate vicinity of these occurrences it is not for us to say, but it is impossible for one sergeant or one policemen, resident at Manly, although mounted, to attend to the whole of the district and the requirements nearer at home. Sydney Empire 13 instant. GOONDIWINDI. (1867, March 20). The Toowoomba Chronicle and Queensland Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from 

f.109 Mona Vale road to Broken Bay. Image No.: a5894117h from album: Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales

On 4 August 1870 Wilson saw John Farrell III driving some of his (Wilson’s) cattle on the side of a hill (Bushranger’s Hill) towards Farrell’s farm. A three-year-old heifer who was within six weeks of calving was missed, and after investigating, the police arrested Farrell and charged him with having portion of a stolen carcase in his possession. The legal proceedings were protracted, and while at the Central Criminal Court, Thomas Wilson received the shocking news that his daughter Blanche, aged 2 years and 2 months, had drowned at Mona Vale in a shallow pond about eighteen inches deep, on 11 November 1870. 

During the months this trial went on one report refers to where the family must have wanted to move, after the loss of their little daughter, soon after its conclusion, and tells of one who was based nearby, fishing, in the years prior to moving closer to what is now called Newport. The little girl was buried at st. John's anglican Church, then on the headland of Mona Vale-Bungan and part of the farm.

The testimomny of one Mr. Driver also seems to point to a community fear of the Farrells - no one gets over someone killing their dog with an axe - it also marks the third successive farmers on the premises who had had animals brutally killed by the Farrells:

(Before the "Water Police Magistrate and Mr. Kettle.)
John Farrell, junior, on remand, was charged with having a portion of a carcase of a stolen beast in his possession, the property of Thomas Wilson. Senior-constable Carton, stationed at Manly Beach, gave evidence corroborative of sergeant Bloomfield :

By Mr. Driver: Wilson complained of losing cattle. He also complained of losing a horse by shooting through the head. The horse reported to witness as being shot, he saw dead. Has had many conversations with prisoner's father. The beef was taken out of the cask and put in again. Witness wished to have it weighed. The steelyards wore there, but prisoner said the pea was lost. Defendant did not get the pea and give it to him. Bloomfield did not say ho could not weigh with steelyards. Witness would swear he did not see the pen. Could not say that prisoner appeared reluctant in answering questions. He did not say that he was going to wash him-self. He was shaking very much. He said it was from the cold. He did not hesitate to answer any questions. Did not say anything to him about answering questions. Witness did not say, "If you don't answer my questions and mind what you are about, in half-on-hour I'll have you by the wool." He was on the road all that night. He left Manly after twelve o'olock at night. He had a glass of grog before he left home, another at Wilson's, and some from a Husk that Wilson had with him. He was perfectly sober when he went to ' Farrell's. He may have smelt of liquor. He took sundry glasses before he commenced to search. He may have staggered when walking through Farrell’s house. He saw Farréll's brothers and sisters, and they had a good opportunity of seeing him. Witness does not drink much, he can't afford it. He does not take drink for nothing, although he took it from Wilson. Swears he did not take the branding-iron in his hand and place it on the safe, and ask, "If that is the way it is you put oaf" The steelyards were hanging; in the skillion. The pig that he saw was divided into two parts. He saw it in the barn on the Monday night. He has been engaged in garden work for a couple of years, but not in farming pursuits. He could not swear that the calf he saw had not been slipped. Could not swear that the paunch he saw was not that of a pig. He only judges from the masticated food in it. He has talked about the case very often. Knows another Farrell, a farmer. There is an old man in charge of the farm. He went there to search for prisoner. He also went to Mr. Hellery's, at Middle Harbour, to execute a search warrant, but did not execute it. The only search they made there was to look into the beef cask. The search warrant was obtained on his (witness's) information.
He has the warrant in court. It is granted the 9th of August, 1870. Mr. Smithers granted it. Does not know where the information is. On leaving the house, he did not hear Bloomfield call out to prisoner don't shoot any more cattle. Heard Bloomfield ask Farrell when ho killed the last beast, He replied. "Three or four weeks." Can't say that Bloomfield asked him if he could not say exactly. Bloomfield did not ask him if he killed a cow at Narrabeen.
Thomas Wilson, a farmer, residing at Monavale, Pitt Water, deposed that he saw prisoner on the fourth of this month, on horseback. Witness was in the road walking homo. He saw prisoner riding round some cattle of his and heading them up. Prisoner was on his (witness’s) farm then. Witness was talking to a man named Leek, and observed prisoner driving the cattle over the hill towards his" (prisoner's) place. Witness just came from the herd, and noticed the cattle. He did not notice' any particular one more than another. He noticed them all. The heifer in question was about four years old, and was red and white. He missed her the next day. She was heavy in calf, and was "ear marked," and no other brand. She was amongst the mob prisoner was driving. Have not seen her since, but looked for her the next day (Friday) in the same place that he saw her the previous day, but did not find her. He saw all the others there, and on Saturday morning he went out with his son and searched from nine o'clock until dark. He saw where the cattle had been driven over the bridge that separates the two farms. It rained on the Wednesday and he tracked where they were driven buck. Followed the tracks to within three or four hundred yards of prisoner's house. He also saw a horse track going and returning, following the cattle tracks. After making these searches he applied for a search warrant, and obtained one on his sworn information. The following Sunday he accompanied sergeant Bloomfield and constable Carton to prisoner's house. He heard the constable caution him, and asked him if he had any fresh moat about the house. After-wards found some meat in a cask. Prisoner said he got it from Wilson, the butcher, at Manly. Whilst the constables were searching, witness saw prisoner shake his head at a little boy, and he went out to the stock-yard as hard as he could go. Witness ran after him and saw him covering over something with cornstalks. Witness pulled the cornstalks from off the things, and found a young calf, and portions of the inside, under them. They seemed to be quite fresh. The calf was within six weeks of maturity. He has had thirty-five yours' experience amongst cattle. The appearance of the calf showed that it had been taken from the cow.
Had cautioned prisoner scores of times not to go on his run shooting and hunting, and went to his father’s house five or six week ago to complain of him. Never saw him on the run without a waddy, toma-hawk, or gun. He went to prisoner about cattle that he had lost before. Prisoner was never employed by witness. They did not visit each others places. 

By Mr. Driver : Had experience in cattle at Kent, England. Knew about cows before he went to "Wheeler's. From there he went to the bason. He was occupied there in fishing, for about six or seven years. He devoted his time there to breeding of cattle. He is rather hard of hearing. His sight is very good, considering his age. He is forty-six. Has not been mistaken on any occasion the last two or three months. Don't recollect the 2nd of April last. Don't remember reporting that he lost a black heifer on that day. His memory is pretty good. He told constable Carton then that young Farrell had been seen the previous day trespassing and dodging round his cows, but won't swear it. Might have told his father so, and if he did, he told the truth. He made a complaint to Cherry that had lost a red bullock that he purchased at Lane Cove. He never told anybody that it was killed at Pitt Water. Cherry sent him word that it had strayed back. Farrell, senior, was the first man to inform him where the bullock was.

-The court adjourned for lunch, and on its resumption, Mr. Driver continued the cross-examination : He saw young Farrell on the Little Reef Hill. He saw Leek working on the road when he spoke to him. It might be 600 or 700 yards away. It was from there he saw young Farrell. Cannot recollect whether there was any rain on the Thursday. It is not generally a sandy country. Sometimes large mobs of cattle run on his farm. As near, as he could guess, there was about thirty head of his cattle there. Did not go on his land. The bridge that he tracked the cattle across is about twelve or fourteen feet wide. He tracked them on the soft country. Constable Carton culled at his house towards Sunday morning.' Witness put a bottle containing brandy on the table. Can't say if Carton drank any. He took about three nobblers in a Husk to Farrell's. Carton drank some of that. Prisoner denied having fresh meat when asked by Sergeant Bloomfield, but afterwards showed the police some meat in a cask. Saw steelyards there. Bloomfield asked if anybody could weigh with the steelyards. Did not hear Farrell say that he could. Bloomfield asked witness if he could weigh with steelyards. They were got, but the pea was not an them ; it was produced after-wards ; young Farrell threw it, and said, " Here it is." On being questioned by the police, Farrell said he got it all from the butcher at Manly. He has no ill-feeling towards the Farrells. After they killed his dog with an axe he shook hands with them and made it up. 
To the Bench : The farms are not fenced in. Prisoner's house is about a mile and a half from witness's ; there is no boundary fence.

-James Wilson, butcher at Manly Beach, stated : Remembers sergeant Bloomfield going to him und inquiring about some meat; it was on a Sunday early in this month. He never sold prisoner any meat ; his shopman sold fifty pounds of salt meat to prisoner's father and mother. Can't say if it was sent to Pitt Water. The sale was effected on the 29th of July. Bloomfield showed him some meat at the watch-house ; they were rounds, and briskets It was neither fresh nor salt ; it appeared to him to have been put in pickle. One piece looked like his beef. It was not cut up as butchers usually cut up meat. It did not appear to have been put in good pickle. It would have kept as well without the pickle as with it in the same state as he saw it. Prisoner sent him a hide on the 15th of July. He sent up some before, but none since. Witness got the last hide from his (prisoner's) mother.
-By Mr. Driver : Has had experience in the butchering.' Farrell's family occasionally dealt with him. They have bought both fresh and salt meat in largo quantities. Beef would keep a long time in this weather. Persons unacquainted with the process of curing meat, and taking up a piece of it, would say it was corn beef. Beef taken out of pickle and placed in bags, and conveyed some distance,' would, by knocking about, probably look fresher than it was. He saw some pork amongst it. 
-By the Bench : The meat that Bloomfield showed him was leaner than what the fifty pounds was that he sold to Farrell's mother. It takes three or four days to properly corn and press beef. 
By Mr. Driver : He did not see the beef weighed and sent away.
-George Marshall: Sold fifty pounds of salt beef on the 29th July to prisoner's father. Has seen the meat that was seized at prisoner's place (at Manly Beach police-station). He could pick out a piece or two that he sold ; it did not all look alike. He saw about 1001b of meat. Does not believe that the rest of the beef, with the exception of one or two pieces, was that sold by him. The mass of beef that he saw differed very much ; it was-not so salt; it was differently cut up, that is another reason why he thinks it is not the same, The meat he saw was the meat of a small beast. He never bought beef from prisoner.' At the time he saw the meat he believed it had been in pickle for twenty four hours.
-By Mr. Driver : He could not tell how long it had been killed. Very likely it might keep a month this weather. Would sworn that he has not been speaking to Mr. Bloomfield outside the court. Has been butchering about thirteen years. Some of the meat he saw was sold to Farrell's people. Carrying meat out of pickle would alter its appearance materially.
-To the Bench : The meat he saw was lean, and did not correspond with the meat he sold. 
- Charles Leek, a roadmaker at Pitt Water, knows the prisoner; also knows Wilson. Recollects being with him on the 4th of this month. Saw prisoner on horseback driving cattle. He went out of witness's sight. Does not know what direction he was going. He was on the top of the hill, a good distance from where he was at work.
-By. Mr." Driver : It was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon. He was about a quarter of a mile away. Can't tell how ho was dressed. He was riding a bay horse Don't know how it was branded. Swear point blank it was him. If he saw Mr. Driver as many times at he has seen prisoner he could toll him. He may have been a mile away, from Wilson's house. He was more than three hundred yards away from Wilson's house. It might be three-quarters of a mile He was working alongside the telegraph line. Swears there was more than ten posts between where he was working and Wilson's house.
-To Mr Windeyer : He is positive it was prisoner. He is not mistaken about him at all. He was with him the night before. The court adjourned at four o'clock until Monday next, at eleven o'clock. Bail extended.
WATER POLICE COURT.—WEDNESDAY. (1870, August 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from 

In February 1871 John Farrell III was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment with hard labour in Parramatta gaol, but was transferred to Port Macquarie penal settlement.

While Thomas Wilson was at “Mona Vale”, his North Manly farm was let to Charles Brady, a silk grower, and his wife. In June 1870 there was a distress for rent, and Wilson sold Brady’s furniture, silkworms, etc. Wilson was present at the sale on 22 June, and purchased some goods himself. When he proceeded to take the goods away, Brady saw that the silkworms were being destroyed and remonstrated with Wilson, who agreed to leave them on payment of £1 to bind the bargain. Brady stated that he had agreed to make up the deficiency in rent, and Wilson had agreed to bring the furniture back for the price he had paid for it. About a month later Brady was ready to pay, but there was disagreement between the two, resulting in court cases in 1872. The court held that the goods belonged to Wilson. [SMH 12 June 1872] A perjury case brought by Brady against Wilson was dismissed. [SMH 17 June 1872]

Wilson and Mildwater offered the western half of their North Manly grant for sale in 1877. It was described thus:
“Manly Beach - Valuable block of land, in all about forty acres on the North Bank of Curl Curl Lagoon, about 1½ mile from the Pier at Manly, being the western half of Mildwater’s and Wilson’s grant, adjoining Wheeler’s 100 acre grant. It has been in cultivation, was formerly fenced, and otherwise improved. The greater portion of the land is rich alluvial soil, in every respect admirably adapted for Market Gardens, and the elevated parts are suitable as good Building Sites.

The attention of Capitalists, Speculators, Builders, and others is directed to the sale, as it is now but seldom that so large a block of land, within such easy distance of the steamers’ wharf at Manly is offered in one lot.” [SMH 10 Oct 1877; ML Subdivision map M5/205] -  [1.] 

In October 1880 Thomas nominated his youngest son, Edgar Rock, aged 7, as a pupil in the school which was being established at Church Point. He would be attending the school in company with his nieces and nephews, the children of his brother Thomas, who lived at Church Point, and the children of his sister Nancy, married to Albert Turner, who lived at Bayview, and later at Careel Bay. 

Prior to that (1865) four of the Wilson children had attended Manly Beach National School where Mr Thompson was the teacher. 

On the 6th of May 1892, at just 45 years of age, Mr. Turner drowned whilst returning home to Stokes Point from Bayview.

Fisherman Drowned.
The Manly police were informed on Sunday night that the body of a fisherman named Albert Turner, who lived at Stockpoint, Careel Bay, Fittwater, had been found that morning in Broken Bay, near Hazeldon. On Friday last Turner visited his brother in law Thomas Wilson at Bayview, and in the evening deceased left the house to return home in his sailing boat. Next day the boat was found on the rocks, with the sails set, by a man named Ball, and, believing that Turner had been drowned, a search was at once instituted, with the result that his body was found on Sunday morning. Deceased leaves a widow and seven children. Fisherman Drowned. (1892, May 9).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from 

Last night information was given to the Manly Police that the body of a man named Albert Turner, fisherman of Stokes Point, Careel Bay Pittwater, was found that morning in Broken Bay near …..? It seems that Turner on Friday afternoon had been on a visit to his brother-in-law, Thomas Wilson, who resides at Bay View Cottage, Bay View. He had been out fishing during the week in a sailing boat after having visited his brother-in-law was seen off in the boat on Friday night.
Nothing more was heard of him until his boat was found ashore on the rocks by a person named Henry Ball, with the sails set, but unoccupied. On this news reaching Turner’s friends they immediately went in search of him. His body was found by Thomas Oliver in the water, about a quarter of a mile from where the boat was discovered. It is surmised that deceased must have fallen out of the boat. Turner leaves a widow and seven children.”
(SMH Monday 9 May 1892 P.5)

A magisterial inquiry was held by the city Coroner at Pittwater, on Monday, on the body of the man Albert Turner, who was found drowned on the rocks at Broken Bay on Sunday morning. No fresh particulars were elicited, and a finding of accidentally drowned was recorded.” (SMH Wednesday 11 May 1892 P.7)

After Albert Henry Turner’s death, Nancy married John Shepherd Mulford of Careel Bay in 1895. John arrived in Sydney on 9th Apr 1886 aboard the Mariposa, from San Francisco.. Soon after her first husband's death they went and lived at Little Mackarel Beach, Pittwater and had two children, Castille and John Elmer, who were both born there.

Child 5 | Female
WILSON Nancy Nelson
Born  8 May 1852  Pittwater, New South Wales , Australia  
Died  7 Mar 1934  Gladesville, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried  9 Mar 1934  Waverley Cemetery, New South Wales, Australia  

Spouse  TURNER Albert Henry | F1556 
Married  16 Sep 1872  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Spouse  MULFORD John Shepherd, ,son of Castile and Subrino Mulford | F6307 
Married  3 Jul 1895  St David's, Surry Hills, , New South Wales, Australia  

Full Name Albert Henry Turner
Date of Birth c.1847
Place of Birth Unknown but arrived in Australia in 1865 as a cabin passenger on the ‘Norfolk’ with his brother, Philip.
Parents Frederick M. (Owned a Drapery business in London) Lucy
Religious Denomination Protestant Church of England
Marriage 1872 16 September marries Nancy Wilson District Registered: Sydney, Reg. No: 791/1872.
Nancy Wilson was born in 1852, the daughter of Thomas and Priscilla (Sarah) Wilson.

1. TURNER Amy Louisa,   b. 1873, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 17 Jun 1939, a private hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
2. TURNER Mary Blanche,   b. 1875, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 5 May 1965, St Peters, New South Wales, Australia  
3. TURNER Ella Clara,   b. 1877, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1969, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
4. TURNER Harry Martin,   b. 1879, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1953, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
5. TURNER Albert E.,   d. 1888, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
6. TURNER Stephen Hugh,   b. 1883, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1887, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
7. TURNER Emily Louise,   b. 1885, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 27 Dec 1959, Wentworth Falls, New South Wales, Australia  
8. TURNER Emma Annie,   b. 1887, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 18 Sep 1971, Waverley, New South Wales, Australia  
9. TURNER Pauline Cecilia,   b. 1889, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1947, Waverley, New South Wales, Australia  
10. TURNER Jessie Annie,   b. 1891, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 14 Jun 1926, Mater Misericordia Hospital , North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Amy and Mary were listed on the July 1880 Application for a Provisional School at Church Point
1. MULFORD Castile M.,   b. 2 Feb 1896, Mackeral Beach, Pittwater , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 16 Nov 1965, San Francisco, California.USA  
2. MULFORD John Elmer,   b. 1898, Mackeral Beach, Pittwater , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 9 Oct 1966, Haberfield, New South Wales, Australia  

Charles Henry Johnson (19) was committed for trial on a charge of breaking and entering the house of John E. Mulford, at Carell Bay, Pittwater, and stealing therefrom a riding saddle and a pencil. The accused was seen carrying a saddle in the vicinity of the premises on the 28th ult., the date on which the robbery took place, while all the family were away from home. When arrested the pencil was found in his possession, and footmarks on the clay floor of the house which was broken into were found to correspond with the prisoner's boots. THE POLICE COURTS. (1893, May 6). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved from 

Footprints in the Mud.
A young man named Charles Henry Johnson pleaded not guilty at the quarter sessions yesterday to a charge of having on April 28 last broken and entered the dwelling-house of John Shepherd Mulford at Pittwater, and stolen a saddle and a lead pencil, the property of Mulford. The case for the Crown was that accused was seen to leave the house (which had been left locked up) with the saddle on his arm. And further it was alleged that his boots corresponded with certain footprints in the mud leading up to the window where the entrance had been effected. Evidence was called for the defence to show that accused was not near the place, and that it was a case of mistaken identity. The jury found the accused not guilty and he was discharged. Footprints in the Mud. (1893, June 23).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from 

In 1908 a family problem erupted that lasted months for the by then aged Mrs. T Wilson Snr., (more below);

Wilson v Goulding and wife.
Mr. W. A. Walker, instructed by Mr, Ayrault Burns, appeared for the plaintiff. Defendants appeared In person. This was a suit brought by Sarah Priscilla Wilson against William James Goulding and Amy I. Goulding, his wife, for a decree to restrain dofendant8 by in-junction from In nny way dealing with B2 acres of land at Little Mackerel Beach, Pitt-water, and asking that two documents of November 20, 1894, and of January 5 respectively, should be declared void as against the plaintiff, and that they should be delivered up to be cancelled. The statement of claim also asked that male defendant might be ordered to pay the plaintiff the value of the property and the profits obtained from the annie, and that the Usual Inquiry should be made, and accounts taken before the Master In Equity. The case for the plaintiff, who is a widow, aged 84, and unable to read or write, was that male defendant was married to her great granddaughter and prior to 1894 she (plaintiff) held the residue of a 999 years' lease of a property situated at Little Mackerel Beach, consisting of about 52 acres, and valued at £10 per acre. She had become liable to John Charles M'Intosh for law costs, and it was arranged between her and the male defendant that he should sell the property for her, pay the costs referred to, and hand over the balance of the proceeds to her. For this purpose she on November 20, 1894, executed a document which the male defendant told her was an authority to tell the property as arranged, but the document was not read over or explained to her. The male defendant did not pay the law costs, nor did be hand plaintiff the balance of the money. Subsequently she naked him for the document, but ho informed her that it was lost, and that In any case It was not worth the paper It was written on. 
Recently the Plaintiff discovered that one John Mulford was in possession of the land. She issued a writ of ejectment against him, and Mrs. Goulding was, upon her own application, let In to defend the action, claiming to be the landlord of Mulford. Plaintiff had discovered that since the pendency of the action of ejectment two documents purporting to deal with the property had been registered, and in consequence of this she on March 10 last withdrew the record in the ejectment action. The document of November 20, 1894, purported to be a conveyance and assignment of the interest of the Plaintiff In the property to the male defendant in consideration of the payment of £5 and the costs already mentioned. The second document was dated January 5, 1900, and expressed to be a conveyance of the property from the male defendant to the female defendant In consideration of the sum of 5s and an ante-nuptial agreement to settle the property on the female defendant on the solemnisation of the marriage. Plaintiff further stated that she never intended that the document of November, 1891, should be a conveyance or assignment, that she had no knowledge of Its contents, and believed It to be an authority to sell as previously stated. She further said that she believed there was no ante-nuptial settlement in writing, nor was there any consideration for It.
The defendants in their statement of defence stated that the conveyance of November, 1894, … over and fully explained to the Plaintiff before she executed It, and she was paid £5, which was the sum agreed upon. Plaintiff never at any time applied to male defendant for a return of the document, nor did he make to her the statement alleged in … 
Before 1894 the plaintiff was … to a firm of solicitors for £400, and was also Indebted to male defendant for sums advanced by him towards paying the costs. The solicitors were pressing her, and In consideration of the defendant taking over her liability in respect of the bill of costs and advances made  by wm, plaintiff proposed that he should take conveyance or assignment of the property, and it was on that understanding that the deed of November 20, 1894, was executed. It was read over to her and fully explained by Mr. Barnett Smith, then council clerk of North Sydney, and plaintiff knew well what she was executing; and It was not until she brought the action of ejectment that she made any claim in connection with the property. On January 5, 1900, the male defendant executed an agreement to settle the property on the female defendant prior to the marriage, and of this plaintiff was aware. Defendant also denied that the property was worth £10 per acre, and he averred that the plaintiff was fully aware that Mulford was the tenant of Mrs. Goulding. 
The case stands part heard. IN EQUITY. (1908, August 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from 

AN OLD LADY'S CLAIM Won in the equity court
Mr. Justice .Street yesterday, decided the action in Equity between Sarah Priscilla Wilson, an old lady, aged 84 years, and her grandson-in-law, James Goulding and her grand-daughter, Amy L. Goulding, for on prior to set aside an alleged deed of conveyance from the plaintiff to the male defendant, find also a settlement by the male defendant, of the property known as Little Mackerel Beach, Pittwater, Manly, to his wife.Further particulars of the claim and defence have already been published. Mr. W. H. .Walker (instructed by Mr. Aynauit Burns) appeared for the plaintiff, and both defendants appeared in person. His Honor said that Mrs. Wilson and her son Edward appeared to give their evidence straightforwardly enough, and he had no reason to doubt that their story was true. Against that story the only evidence was that of the defendant Goulding, and so far as he was concerned he (his Honor) regretted to say the conclusion to which he had come was that he was a witness upon whom he could place no reliance whatever. 

Goulding was in conflict not only with Mrs. Wilson and her son, but with Mrs. Sanderson, Mrs. Pointing Goulding, his step-mother, and his own witness, Mr. Barnett Smith. He found that the indenture of conveyance was obtained from the plaintiff under circumstances which rendered It quite impossible that any validity could attach to It. The conclusion his Honor had come to was that both Mr. and Mrs. Goulding were not telling the truth as to any post-nuptial agreement having been entered into for the transfer of the property. That Doing so, and there having been no post-nuptial agreement, the post-nuptial settlement was nothing ..., the female defendant was in no better position than her husband. His Honor said that on the evidence the indenture was obtained by the male defendant under circumstances of fraud and misrepresentation, which rendered it void as against him, and also against his wife. Also the settlement of 1000 was void, as against the female defendant, and he ordered both documents to be delivered up to the plaintiff. Costs would be against the male defendant. LITTLE MACKEREL BEACH (1908, August 8). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 15 (EXTRA SPECIAL). Retrieved from 

Mrs. Sarah Priscilla Wilson sold the property to her son-in-law John Albert Sanderson, husband of her 8th child and the daughter named for herself, Priscilla, who then sold it to Pink Marie Stiles, the wife of Dr Bernard Stiles (Physician and Surgeon Sydney University 1906) of Newtown two years later. NSW Records show her owning the property from October 18th, 1912. 
By that time the property was known as 'Currawong'. 

Bernard Tarlton Stiles was the son of Rev. George Edward Carter Stiles, born at Windsor on October 23rd, 1835, a son of the Reverend Henry Tarleton Stiles. 

Henry Tarlton Stiles (1808-1867), was a Church of England clergyman, was born on 24 June 1808 at Bristol, England, a son of Carter and Sophia (neeTarlton) Stiles. According to family tradition he was intended for the Indian army. His strong Evangelical upbringing led him to the Church Missionary Society's college at Islington though 'his constitution [was] not considered calculated to withstand the effects of a Tropical Climate'. 

Rev. H T Stiles had scholarly interests—he hoped at one time that the Bristol Clerical Education Society might sponsor him at Oxford—and served as tutor in several important families, including that of (Sir) James Stephen of the Colonial Office. It may have been Stephen who prompted him to look to Australia, where the authorities had decided to recruit clergy and were having difficulty in securing an Englishman as master of the Female Orphan School. Stiles was appointed to this position in 1832 because of very high testimony to his peculiar fitness 'for the education and superintendance of Youth'. He was ordained deacon on 23 December 1832 and priest on 20 January 1833 by Bishop Blomfield of London. 

Henry Tarlton Stiles, Image No.: a2824355h, courtesy state Library of NSW, The Mitchell Library.

On 11 February he married Jane, the eldest daughter of Charles and Grace Hole, of Kingsbridge. The couple had six sons and two daughters, all born here, the son named for Samuel Marsden passing away May 13th 1841, Annie Jane passing away November 7th, 1849, William John Francis passing away December 8th 1842 - these children were interred at St. Matthews, Windsor, the rest of their children survived their childhood:

STILES ANNIE J 1846/1849 V18491846 34A HENRY T JANE
STILES CLEMENT J W 1202/1847 V18471202 32A HENRY T JANE
STILES SAMUEL M 1098/1840 V18401098 25A HENRY T JANE
STILES MARY E 793/1837 V1837793 21 HENRY T JANE
STILES GEORGE E C 919/1835 V1835919 19 HENRY T JANE
STILES HENRY B A 988/1834 V1834988 18 HENRY T JANE

Stiles sailed in the Warrior and reached Sydney in July. He had been promised the first vacant chaplaincy in addition to the Orphan School mastership; alternatively, he might receive the charge of a parish. Within a month he was sent temporarily to St Matthew's, Windsor, and the appointment was made permanent before the year ended.

As an Evangelical with missionary interests, Stiles became a close friend of Rev. Samuel Marsden, who sent him to Norfolk Island in August 1834 and December 1835 to minister to condemned felons. In November 1836 he sent evidence to the proposed committee on transportation stressing the need for drastic reform of the penal system at Norfolk Island. 

These were to be Stiles's only excursions outside Windsor. He settled down to the duties of his parish, which included Richmond until 1842, Kurrajong and Clydesdale, and where the Hawkesbury River, the mountains, bad roads and the scattered population made pastoral visitation 'a work of great fatigue'. However, the parish was well-equipped with churches, schools and a rectory, and had wealthy influential parishioners.
HIS Excellency the Governor has been pleased to nominate the Reverend Henry Tarleton Stiles, to be Assistant Chaplain in New South Wales, until the pleasure of His Majesty shall be known; and, upon the recommendation of the Venerable the Archdeacon, to appoint him to take charge of the Towns and Districts of Windsor and Richmond.
By His Excellency's Command,
Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 3d Sept. 1833. Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 2d Sept. 1833. TO MASONS AND OTHERS. (1833, September 9). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from 

The Reverend taught his own children and a few others in the district, among them John Tebbutt, known for his work in astronomy:

An Australian Astronomer.
John Tebbutt, of Windsor, F.R.A.S., the well-known Australian astronomer, is the grandson of a very old colonist. His grandfather, John Tebbutt, emigrated to this colony in the year 1801, bringing with him his wife, two sons (Thomas and John), and an only daughter. Soon after their arrival in the colony the family gave themselves up to farming pursuits in the Hawkesbury district, but this occupation proving rather unsuccessful they opened a general store in the town of Windsor, which rapidly became the most important in the district. 

John, the younger of the two brothers, married, and the fruit of this union was the birth, in Windsor, on the 25th May, 1834, of the subject of our sketch. The business referred to was closed about the year 1842, and the father then purchased the Peninsula estate at the eastern extremity of the town, built thereon a residence, and devoted himself to agricultural pursuits. The son was educated in private schools, his first tutor being the parish clerk, Mr. Edward Quaife, and in succession the Revs. M. Adam and H. T. Stiles, M.A., under the last of whom he received a sound, classical education. The attention of the youth, who was inclined to mechanical pursuits, was first directed to astronomy about the year 1853, and his love for the science was quickened in no small degree by his frequent intercourse with his first tutor, Mr. Quaife, who had a fair knowledge of its outlines, and some of whose early contributions may be found in the New South Wales Calendar and General Post Office Directory for 1835. It was not until 1864 that Mr. Tebbutt became possessed of instrumental means adapted for fairly good work, but in the meantime he had made great advances in the higher mathematics, and was thoroughly acquainted with the theory of astronomical instruments before he came to their actual employment. 

At the close of 1863 he erected a small observatory on the Peninsula estate, a property which he subsequently inherited from his father, the building being constructed of wood, and wholly the work of his own hands. In this building he installed a small trausit instrument and a 3¼ -inch refractor mounted by himself as an equatorial, His instrumental means gradually grew in importance, and for some, years past he has possessed two substantial observatories of brick, which accommodate an excellent 3-inch transit instrument by Cook and Sons, a 4½ -inch equatorial by the same makers, and lastly an 8-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb, acquired in 1886. A just idea may be found of the observatory buildings, old and new, from the views which accompany this sketch. Mr. Tebbutt was elected a member of the local Royal Society in 1862,and he is, therefore, one of the few members now