March 25 - 31, 2018: Issue 353

Pittwater Fishermen: Great Mackerel, Little Mackerel (Wilson's Beach - Currawong) and The Basin

Photo: A FISHERMAN'S CORNER ON PITTWATER. 
WESTMINSTER ABBEY. (1906, December 15). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 46. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108031091 

At the Hawkesbury black bream are now in fine condition, and several good catches have recently been made near Patonga and Mackerel Beaches. Large quantities of a fine run of sea sarfish are in Broken Bay and at the entrance to Brisbane Water, Pittwater, and Hawkesbury River. Blackfish are numerous, in splendid condition and size, at most all parts of the river and creeks. Good flathead have been taken this week at Mooney Mooney, Mangrove, and Berowra Creeks, also in the lower portions of the river. Prawns are becoming very scarce, and what are caught, principally in the main river, between Sentry Box Head Reach and Mangrove Creek entrance, are a poor quality. At Port Hacking tailer, salmon, and kingfish are plentiful in all the channels, and good sport should now be had spinning. Black bream are in most of the channels. Great quantities of blackfish are in all the channels, also on the flats. A run of fine sand whiting are about Cabbage Tree Beach. Small shoals of trevally, 1lb to 41b fish, may be seen entering and leaving the port daily. They should be caught in most of the channels. At Brisbane Water, black bream, flathead, and sand whiting appear to be taking off, small catches being very noticeable, but several good lots of trumpeter whiting were taken from the Broadwater and different channels. Some nice redfish, up to 41b in weight, have been taken at the' Rip this week. Sand mullet are biting freely on the different flats. There are plenty of small river garfish on the different weedy parts of the water. Jewfish (about 151b) appear to be fairly numerous. Several have been taken recently at the Rip. FISHING NOTES. (1910, May 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115237137 
f.108 Barrenjoey & Mount Elliott mouth of Hawkesbury. Image No.: a5894116h 
f.109 Mona Vale road to Broken Bay. Image No.: a5894117h 
f.110 Mount Saint Patrick road to Broken Bay.: Image No.: a5894118h all three from album: Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales
What's interesting about delving into the western shores of Pittwater is it brings in days when these areas were Netted, had Oyster Leases and massive Fish Runs; particularly those that were under Barrenjoey, out of and into the mouth of the Hawkesbury and into the tidal bays and creeks in and with these tidal flows and seasons, and includes a little about the men who would Climb and fall from Trees To Watch these Fish Runs!

FISHERMAN’S MISFORTUNE
Geo. Hibbs, fisherman, of Hawkesbury River (N.S.W.), who was on a fishing expedition at Pittwater, climbed a tree overlooking the river to watch a shoal of fish, when the bough of the tree on which he was standing broke, and he fell to the ground. His comrades found him in an unconscious state. He died the following day.  FISHERMAN'S MISFORTUNE. (1911, May 3).Globe (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1914), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98387907 

PINNED DOWN BY LEG
FISHERMAN FELL 20 FT. WITH TREE 
When an apparently sturdy tree collapsed and fell on him at the Basin, Pittwater, yesterday, Nelson James Woodbury, fisherman had his left thigh fractured, his right knee Injured, a severe cut inflicted, on his left leg, and abrasions to the left foot. Woodbury climbed about 20ft. up the tree, as is the habit with Broken Bay fishermen, to watch for the shoals of travelling fish, which pass through the waters. When the tree gave way he fell 20ft. to the ground, and was pinned down by the leg until his cries, attracted his mate, who liberated him: Suffering intense agony, Woodbury had to be rowed a mile and a half to Palm Beach, from where the Manly Ambulance was called. He was taken to Manly Hospital. PINNED DOWN BY LEG (1935, January 16).The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236463263 

Why climb a tree at the Basin to watch the fish runs come in? - this may be why:

... At the seaward end of the outer beach, where parties find safe swimming water, the trustees are proposing to place another wharf of stone, and to run from it a netting to prevent sharks entering a bathing enclosure. Opinions amongst yachters and motor-boaters vary respecting this. Some condemn the proposals entirely; preferring the natural surroundings. Others say the idea is good, as they have always felt they would like to swim in a bit deeper water, but they feared the huge sea-sharks that swim around Barranjoey and West Head and chase whiting and red-bream up into the Basin. The trustees are not obstinately wedded to any proposal. Inquiry shows that they welcome ideas, especially artistic ones allied with practicability, but they do not have them given to them often. They find critics wait till something is done, and then fall upon it with scorn. Any yachtsman, therefore, who has a thorough appreciation of the necessities of the Basin and puts his ideas into writing, will receive attention. For instance, another improvement meditated is the planting of trees about tho 20 acres surrounding Peggy's house. The trees on the camping area are not as beautiful as they might be. One proposal before the trustees was to plant an avenue of pines along tho outer edge of the camping ground — the straight line business again— and another to plant here and there a few silverbark tea trees, Port Jackson fig trees, and flame trees. The latter proposal seems to find the greater favor amongst those who visit the Basin oftenest. ...THE BASIN (1915, May 30). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229334724 

BARRENJOEY AND PITTWATER.—
Anywhere on the bar near Barrenjoey flathead may be caught, and whiting are about the beaches on the Pittwater side of West Head. Near the Basin red bream are plentifulUp the Pittwater arm the best place to fish is near the beacon, and on the edge of the shoals on the Bayview side if they have not been netted. All the bays to the west of Scotland Island are meshed almost nightly, and the mouth of Mc Garr's Creek, near Church Paint, is almost spoiled by netting. Barrenjoey rocks are good, and the outside beach in first-class trim. FISHING NOTES (1916, January 8).Saturday Referee and the Arrow (Sydney, NSW : 1912 - 1916), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117549205 

McCARR'S CREEK, PITTWATER
History of a Beautiful and Romantic Spot
(Written for 'The Sunday Times' by J. P. N. WHEELER.)
Where the lone creek, chafing nightly in the cold and sad moonshine, 
Beats beneath the twisted fern-roots and the drenched and dripping vine. -KENDALL

A TRIP to Church Point, Pittwater, in the old days, prior to the advent of tram and motor car, was made by means of the coach running from Manly. 
Many a traveller by that old -fashioned means of progression was able to study and enjoy the trip of 13 miles perhaps far more than one who makes the journey now by more modern and speedier methods. While the coach bowled merrily along to the clink of the horses' hoofs on a hard road, every ferny dell and bramble, every green-clad hillside, cliff and expanse of ocean could be viewed at leisure until the quiet retreat of Church Point was readied after a journey of two hours. The big Royal Mail coach, which commenced its journey from livery stables next door to the old Pier Hotel, was put into service when a crowd was travelling on holidays. With its two box seats and five horses, it was a 'thing of beauty,' and there were usually among the occupants one or two bright spirits who enlivened the journey with their joviality. On the way down there was usually a break of a few minutes for refreshments at the Narrabeen and the Rock Lily Inns. 

EVENTIDE RIPPLES ON McCARR'S CREEK.

McCarr's Creek is an affluent of Pittwater, flowing into the south-west corner of this arm of Broken Bay. Church Point, ideally situated at the southern- entrance of the creek, is the terminus of the old road from Manly, and an old milepost bears the figure 13. At this spot still stand the store and boat-shed once kept by Mr. James Booth, an old identity of the district. Mr. Booth was well known to sportsmen and he kept two yachts, the Claribel and the Menina, in which he used to take parties down the bay on fishing and pleasure excursions. The quaint little wharf where small cargo steamers from Sydney land their goods for local residents is just at hand. A few years ago, so sequestered was this spot, the arrival of the cargo boat from Sydney every Friday night about 9 p.m. created quite a flutter of interest among visitors and residents. 

Church Point derives its name from the little wooden house of worship erected about the year 1872 on the hill slope just above the wharf. In the cemetery lie two of the Oliver family, who passed away over 40 years ago. They were among the earliest inhabitants of Pittwater, when the blacks still lived in the fastnesses of Kuring-gai Chase. Such places enkindle in one's memory the lines of Gray's Elegy: — 
Each in his narrow cell for ever laid. 
The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep. 

The well-wooded and precipitous slopes of Scotland Island face the point. 
McCarr's Creek was first surveyed by Captain Hunter in the year 1789, when Governor Phillip made one of his several excursions to Broken Bay, and it may be mentioned in passing that Phillip named the southern arm Pittwater in honour of William Pitt, then Prime Minister of England. In the year 1792 William Dawes and an exploring party visited the spot now known as Church Point. Later on, in 1830, William Romaine Govett surveyed Pittwater, and mentions in his manuscript, 'Notes,' which are in the Mitchell Library, that 'Pittwater receives a romantic creek.' Later on, the same stretch of water wassurveyed by Captain F. W. Sydney, R.N., in the year 1868, and the creek was marked on the chart as Pitt InletThe earliest plan on which the name 'Mc-Carr' appears is that of a survey by J. Larmer, dated June 24, 1832*. On the plan of a survey of January 13, 1830, by W. R. Govett, the creek in question is unnamed, so it is probable the name was given to it about this time. 

For some distance from the entrance soundings reveal a depth of six fathoms, and this is a good spot for anglers of red bream and whiting. But in the upper reach among the hills there is only sufficient water for rowing boats at high tide. It is to be regretted that the Government cannot see its way clear to dredge these pleasant waterways, as in course of time the silt from the mountains must choke them altogether. The upper portion of the creek is covered to some extent by a forest of mangroves, and is enclosed by hills rising to a height of 500ft. Exposed points of rocks here and there on the summits resemble, as Surveyor Govett observed in his 'Notes,' 'the castellated ruins of a fortress with its dilapidated battlements.' From these heights on a bright day the creek winds ' its' way like a silver ribbon midst its verdant setting of bush flora. 

There are several fern-clad gorges which pour their tributary streamlets of fresh water into McCarr's Creek. Two of these mountain rivulets have their source near Tumbledown Dick Hill, and met at some distance from the navigable portion of the creek. At this junction is a pool known as the 'Duckhole,' truly a sequestered pool in woodland valley' if ever there was one worthy of Longfellow's verse. The single streamlet forms a cascade over the rocks in the glen, flowing under ferny undergrowth and past mossy boulders. It pursues its tortuous course into a little rockbound basin of sparkling lucidity, finally entering the brackish waters at the limit of tidal action in the creek. This spot is the entrance to the beautiful gorge and forms part of the boundary of Kuring-gai Chase. 

There is here a pool described as the Silent Pool, where many a sojourner at Pittwater has enjoyed a 'dip' after a pleasant row up stream, and a tiny beach of white sand serves as a mooring place for one's boat. With the blue canopy of heaven above, this is a retreat to dream in, but the ebbing-tide will leave your craft stranded on the shallows for a few hours. 

Although a clearing here and there along the banks and the remnants of a few old fruit trees indicate that there was some kind of settlement a few decades ago, the shores for the most part until of quite recent years retained their pristine virginity. Two old jetties composed of loose blocks of sandstone probably served as mooring places for sailing vessels and dinghies when the earliest settlers made their home at McCarr's Creek. 
The wanderer who cares to explore may find the relics of aboriginal feasts or middens in the rock shelters here and there in the bush, while mid-way between McCarr's and Coal and Candle Creeks are some good examples of blackfellows' carvings on the wide, flat surface of a bed of sandstone. Not far away is a trigonometrical station. It is marked 'McCarr' on the map compiled by the Lands Department, and the altitude is 620 feet, and from this lonely bushland vantage point a glimpse of Coal and Candle Creek, amid the green environing hills, may be obtained.

 Just above one of the sandstone jetties previously mentioned on a grassy eminence are the remains of a wood hut, once the residence of Davy Walker in the 'nineties. Buffalo lawns, terraces and fruit trees testify to the amount of labour that was put into his 'selection.' On the opposite shore, up to the year 1913, stood the cosy weatherboard residence of the late Mr. George Brown, the owner of Waterside Estate, consisting of 41 acres.
McCARR'S CREEK, PITTWATER END.
McCARR'S CREEK, PITTWATER (1925, August 30). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128167425 
             

 

Head of McCarrs Creek, Pittwater, 1879-1892 Image Number; a106169, Courtesy of State Library of NSW.

SUBORDINATE ROADS.
Following is the classification and proposed distribution for 1887 of votes upon the Estimates for subordinate roads, under officers of the Department :
NORTHERN ROADS.
St. Leonards, via Balgowlah, to Manly, 3 miles, £150 ; Military-road, St. Leonards, 7, £350; Manly Cove to Pittwater, 15, £750; Manly and Pittwater road to McGarr's Creek, 3, £75; Pittwater to Barrenjoey, 4, £200; Balgowlah to Pittwater road, 3, £75; Lane Cove, via Stony Creek, to Pittwater, 14, £350; Lane Cove to Cowan Creek, at Bobbin Head, 2, £50 : ... SUBORDINATE ROADS. (1887, May 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28349702

Although purported to be vastly uninhabited, apart from a few who 'squatted' here and there, apparently fishing or drying fish to export elsewhere, the amount of boats and ships of all sizes who would resort to Broken Bay, and Pittwater, as a refuge during storms which they could get into, must have made the estuary a fairly crowded place for all those aboard ships, and needing fresh water at the least, which they could collect from then pristine and numerous streams and creeks, from within years of people escaping crowded Europe for greener shores. Several mentions of convicts making their way to Pittwater to try and board a ship appear for the first half decade of the 1800's and among these some fishing references. More of these are listed under extras - a few examples;


Westall, William. (July 22nd, 1802). Views on the east coast of Australia - Entrance to Broken Bay Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-138893340

An open boat was on Friday se'nnight lost in a heavy squall off Barenjoy, and two men that were on board her, out of four, unfortunately perished. They went out of the Cove that morning for Broken Bay, the weather at the time of their departure very boisterous. In clearing the South Head she was repeatedly in danger of filling by the heavy surfs that beat in upon the rocks ; the violence of the weather increasing, the people now too late repented their rashness and imprudence in attempting the passage under such forbidding circumstances. When off Barenjoy, at nearly a mile and a half from the shore, their danger soon visibly increased, the surfs succeeded with such rapidity and force as to render every skill and exertion necessary to their immediate safety ; but alas ! their adverse destiny was unavoidable -- three heavy waves at once curling on the little wretched bark, filled her in an instant ; the next succeeding wave washed off three of the people, two of whom viz. James Partridge and J. Sampson, never reached the shore ; the third by swimming happily saved his life; & the other, who clung to the boat, which tho' full had not gone down, but had drifted towards the beach, when within 40 yards of which, was miraculously thrown up by a surf, which upon its reflux left him in safety on the shore. SYDNEY. (1803, December 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625905 

On Thursday sailed the Marcia and Surprise for Bas's Straits; but the latter returned the day following into Broken Bay, having met with a very heavy gale shortly after she went out, in which her sails were sent to pieces. She is intended to sail again this day.
Came in on Friday the Bee Colonial vessel with lime from Broken Bay, to sail again this morning. PORT NEWS. (1803, December 18). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625932 

BOATS - On Monday sailed the James, Raby, for Broken Bay, and came in again on Friday with a freight of lime. And on Thursday arrived the Nancy, A Thompson owner, and the William from Hawkesbury, with wheat. The Nancy sailed from hence for Hunter's River on the 21st of October; took on board 40 logs of very fine Cedar, mostly measuring 20 feet and upwards, and squaring more than 3 feet; and arrived at Hawkesbury with the freight the 1st of the present month. SHIP NEWS. (1803, December 25). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625948 

Another handsome Sloop built by Mr. A. Thompson, was on Thursday launched from the Green Hills; her keel was laid by Mr. Kelly, now master of the Nancy, her bur-then is computed at 30 tons, and in compliment to the spot of her nativity, she has received the name of the Hawkesbury.
Highly to the credit of Captain Balch, Commander of the American ship Mary, and no doubt in consideration of the polite attention he experienced during his stay here, upon discovery of a woman that had been secreted, when at a considerable distance at sea, put his vessel back into Broken Bay, and there landed not only the woman, but two of his ship's Company also, who had been accessory to her concealment. By such a conduct has Capt. Balch shown himself worthy the liberal reception he met with, and has given a wholesome lesson to those, who losing sight of the fair prospect which a reformed conduct invariably presents, are induced to have recourse to stratagem however impracticable, and to sacrifice their immediate comfort to an illusive shadow, which only realizes accumulated hardships, the certain and necessary consequences of disappointment. Bench of Magistrates. (1804, February 19). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626050 

The people belonging to the 'Improvement', late from Hunter's River, report their having been surprised with the appearance of a white man upon Ash Island, which lies in that River, and who, when first discerned, was in the act of charging a musquet. They repeatedly called to him, but received no answer, and appeared to be wholly disregarded, as he walked gently into the brush and was no more seen. Any attempt to pursue him must have proved abortive, owing to the surrounding flat being at that time impassable, as it was low water. - Three men some weeks since took away a boat belonging to Serjeant Day, which one of them, viz. William Johnson, had previously hired for a whole week, on pretence of emergent business at Parramatta, which required that he should take a boat up, but has been missing ever since. The day after they left Sydney an account was brought in by several of the Broken-Bay Natives that three men in a boat, answering the description, had been seen by them making after one of the late American Ships, but having no prospect that could encourage the continuance of their course, they had at length put back, and took shelter that night among them; and the next morning taking again to their boat, shaped their course for the Northward. Other Natives have since described the boat, but added that there were then only two men with her, the loss of the third is therefore the only inference, and that they were in extreme dis-tress.— The appearance of a man upon Ash Island may be hence accounted for; and, if the reports of the Natives, which tallied with tolerable exactness, can be considered as credible information, he may possibly be the only survivor, unless a second were concealed in the brush. As men thus reduced to the most deplorable but desperate circumstances imaginable by their own folly and impetuosity may be capable of attempting the execution of the wildest projects, it is the duty and interest of those who traverse the Coast to be perpetually watchful against surprise, or any wicked effort of people thus unhappily situated, and to provide for their own future safety by endeavouring to secure such offenders. SYDNEY. (1804, March 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626066 

The Keel of a new Vessel was last week laid by Messrs Kable and Underwood, opposite to the yard of the latter, all the planks of which are to be cedar, and her dimensions not under those of the Governor King.
Two handsome Sloops both built at Hawkesbury, lately came into the cove for the first time, one of which we before mentioned to be built by Mr. A. Thompson, named the Hawkesbury, conveniently carries from 7 to 800 bushels ; and the other called the Speedy about 500 bushels. Both these little performances, and that of the Nancy, will doubtless operate as a spur to emulation and industry, which are the founders of opulence, and the certain tread to happiness and social independence.
Seven insurgent fugitives lately apprehended by the Settlers and other loyal inhabitants of Hawkesbury, were part of a body fifteen in number, who, mostly armed, had taken refuge at the foot of the Mountains, but were then on the maraud about the exterior limits of the Settlement. Of the seven made prisoners one was induced by remorse and dread of impending punishment, to inform the captors where they had deposited their arms in concealment ; but whether this confession was sincere or not could not be ascertained, as none were found, and must consequently have been removed if ever lodged there. Hughes, who has in so many instances shown himself an abandoned and profligate offender, and against whom a writ of Out-lawry was some time since issued, is we understand, among the above number not yet apprehended, whose intent it was to cross the foot of the mountains for Broken Bay, there to seize upon the first boat that presented itself ; and without loss of time commit themselves to the perils of the sea. Several Natives have since confirmed the account given by these people, by declaring that they were actually on their travel towards Broken Bay, where it may be anxiously hoped their infamous and desperate design will be disappointed by the caution and vigilance of the Boatmen, whose safety is thus daringly menaced. SYDNEY. (1804, April 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626111 

We are at the same time extremely concerned to state the Loss of the James, belonging to Mr. Thomas Raby, on Wednesday evening last near Broken Bay, the crew, five in  number, all saved. She sailed from Newcastle on Monday morning very leaky, and  shortly after her departure encountered a gale of wind, during which the water gained fast upon her; and the contrary wind continuing, baffled every exertion, and kept the pumps constantly at work. On Wednesday morning both pumps were choaked, the sea running very high, and the people were obliged to bale with buckets ; but at length, losing all hopes of bringing the vessel in, stood on to a sand-beach, nearly full, where she was soon after dashed to pieces by a tremendous surf. The people were picked up on Thursday by the Resource, at the North Head, and brought in. The James was also freighted in coals and cedar, the latter of which may possibly be recovered, with her anchor and part of her rigging.SHIP NEWS. (1804, April 29). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626170 

On Tuesday appeared in sight the ship Alexander, Captain RHODES; but unable to make the Port owing to contrary windbrought up in Broken Bay, from whence she may be expected round as soon as the wind permits. Ship News. (1804, May 20). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626207 

Thos. Desmond, a prisoner who has a third time effected a temporary escape from the settlement at King's Town, was last week apprehended at Broken Bay by the people belonging to the Hawkesbury, and sent in initially to Parramatta ; and from thence committed to the county gaol, to be returned to Newcastle by the Resource.  SYDNEY. (1805, February 10). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626624 

A report was yesterday current that a passenger had been murdered by the natives in the road between Sydney and Parramatta; but this appears to be unfounded; as the party made choice of as the subject of the rumour we know to be at the present moment in the land of the living.
The natives seem inclined to try their dexterity in piratical achievements, now that they are assured we are tolerably upon the guard against their atrocities by land, which we hope a strict adherence to HIS EXCELLENCY's Order of the present date will bring to a speedy crisis. The exploit we now have to allude to was audacious and outré, and might possibly have been fatally successful had not vigilant resolution been opposed to it. While the William & Mary, Miller, lay at Pittwater, about 8 days since, the small boat was dispatched for a supply of water and fuel; and although the natives were numerous, yet they did not appear to have any evil design in contemplation until the boat was about to put off again; when several rushing towards her, one of them made good his grappling, in order to board on the bow, but receiving a smart earnest crack across the knuckles from one of the boatmen, was induced to relinquish his claim. Irritated at the disappointment, and considering resistance a sufficient provocation for all that was to follow, in a few moments a squadron of five vessels was equipped and sent out, under command of the commodore whose knuckles had already tingled; but sheering alongside, he, in plain English commanded the William 'to strike', though he had reason to be satisfied that he had already had striking enough in conscience. Miller replied to the summons of this sooty son of Erebus & Nox, by pointing his musket constantly at him only, and declaring his determination to kill the first that should dare to venture nearer: and none choosing to put his veracity to the test, they all turned tail; contenting them-selves with threats and imprecations. SHIP NEWS. (1805, April 28). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626744 

BOATS.---Came in from Hawkesbury on Saturday last, the 19th inst. the William and Mary, W. Miller owner, laden with wheat. On Tuesday came in from Hawkesbury the Raven, Thomas Raby owner, also laden with wheat ; and same day the Hope of Hawkesbury, A. Thompson owner, with wheat, barley, and oats. And on Thursday came in the Argument, Ward and Eaton owners, with wheat.---On Thursday the Hope sailed again for Hawkesbury. SHIP NEWS. (1803, March 26). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625468

A month ago two labouring men who were employed in procuring and salting fish in Broken bay, went out of Pittwater in on open boat, and have not since been seen. SYDNEY. (1807, July 26). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627479

On Thursday evening two fishmen came in from Broken Bay, with the doleful tidings of the death of William Parkhurst, who had accompanied their excursion for the purpose of procuring and salting fish. Their accounts states that at the entrance of an inlet in which they had before proved successful, a ???? gang appeared, which had not before been noticed, then opposed their progress ; and a ??? boat setting upon the bank. ??? examined the boat, from which the deceased could not ???? exertion extricate himself as far as the ???? ???? the survivors found the body, which they interred on shore, and afterwards made the best of their way to shore.  SYDNEY. (1807, August 9). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627485

William Parkhurst was one of 301 convicts transported on the Royal Admiral, March 1800, to New South Wales.

On Thursday a boat came in from Broken Bay, with the melancholy information of the total loss of the Argument, Pate, loaded in wheat from Hawkesbury, and the death of all the persons on board, comprising Pate himself, a woman of the name of Mary Kirk, and James Dicey, Pate's boat assistant. Their bodies were found about the short reef, nearly four miles from the Heads of Broken Bay, and interred on the morning of Thursday last. We last week mentioned her sailing out of Pittwater in company with the Hazard and Experiment, the latter of which got safe in the 17th ultimo, without being able to give any further account of the above vessel than that they lost sight of her in a heavy squall on the Sunday previous. The conjecture therefore is that Pate, although well experienced in this navigation, had in the dark, mistaken the short reef for the entrance of Broken Bay, whither he thought it prudent to return; but unfortunately this mistake proved fatal.—The vessel was dashed to pieces Another small colonial vessel, the property of Daniel McLeese, laden with lime, has since also been lost near the same place, but no lives lost.
SHIP NEWS. (1809, April 2). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627714

On Tuesday last, at an early hour, His Excellency the GOVERNOR and Mrs. MACQUARIE, accompanied by a large party of Ladies and Gentlemen, proceeded in boats down the Harbour to George's Head. The object of this excursion, we understand, was to form an establishment for a certain number of Natives who had shewn a desire to settle on some favourable spot of land, with a view to proceed to the cultivation of it. - The ground as 
signed them for this purpose (the peninusla of George's Head) appears to have been judiciously chosen, as well from the fertility of the soil as from its requiring little exertions of labour to clear and cultivate; added to which, it possesses a peculiar advantage of situation; from being nearly surrounded on all sides by the sea; thereby affording its new possessors the constant opportunity of pursuing their favorite occupation of fishing, which has always furnished the principal source of their subsistence.

On this occasion, sixteen of the Natives, with their wives and families were assembled, and His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, in consideration of the general wish previously expressed by them, appointed Boongaree (who has been long known as one of the most friendly of this race, and well acquainted with our language), to be their Chief, at the same time presenting him with a badge distinguishing his quality as "Chief of the Broken Bay Tribe," and the more effectually to promote the objects of this establishment, each of them was furnished with a full suit of slop cloathing, together with a variety of useful articles and implements of husbandry, by which they would be enabled to proceed in the necessary pursuits of agriculture : - A boat (called the Boongaree), was likewise presented them for the purpose of fishing.
About noon, after the foregoing ceremony had been concluded, HIS EXCELLENCY and party returned to Sydney, having left the Natives with their Chief in possession of their newly assigned settlement, evidently much pleased with it, and the kindness they experienced on the occasion.
Sydney, SITTING MAGISTRATE—W. BROUGHTON, Esq. (1815, February 4). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article629052

On Monday evening His EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR arrived in the Cove on board His Majesty's brig Lady Nelson, having explored the whole of the Hawkesbury River and Broken Bay, including Pitt Water, Marra Mahar Creek, and the upper and lower branches of the river.
The Nelson anchored in the Cove between six and seven o'clock, and His EXCELLENCE on quitting the vessel was saluted with 17 guns from His Majesty's armed brig Emu. Sydney. (1816, March 2 - Saturday). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2176569 


Close, E. C. (1818). Inside of the heads of Broken Bay taken from the entrance of Pittwater, New South Wales, 20 September 1818 Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-138902066

On Saturday last five bush-rangers were sent from the Court-house at Parramatta in the custody of a peace officer, apparently well and sufficiently secured in Parks's passage-boat, with the intention of their being safely lodged in the county gaol, in order to their being tried at the ensuing Criminal Court for various  offences with which they were charged. On their way down, however, they managed to become disentangled from their irons, and freed of their manacles to disarm the constable ; and to take possession of the boat. One of them, whose name is Geary, and a dreadfully determined desperado, insisted upon Parks landing them at Bradley's Wharf at Lane Cove, which was necessarily complied with ; as the least shew to resistance would have been useless, and might, in all probability, have been attended with serious consequences. 

Geary, the ringleader, who has been guilty of many crimes, and who has endeavoured frequently to make his escape from the Colony, declared it was their united intention to use any and every effort to escape this time; they gave Parks a dollar; and then decamped, informing the constable he had only performed his duty, which of course, they intimated, had shielded him from their malevolent fury. Upon the arrival of the passage-boat in-Sydney, immediate information was given to the Marine Police Authority of the circumstance ; & it was in consequence deemed  expedient, with as little delay as possible, to dispatch the government row-guard boat, under the command of the Messrs. Cubitts, round to Broken Bay, at which  place the Elizabeth Henrietta (government brig) with prisoners on board for Newcastle, and the Prince Regent (government schooner) was also lying, at a considerable distance from the brig, in Pitt-water. The latter was but thinly manned, part of the crew being unavoidably absent ; and it was supposed, had such determined gang, well armed as they are known to be, made an attack upon her in so defenceless a condition as she then was, a capture must have been the co-sequence; but the customary activity being resorted to, in a prompt obedience to the instructions given, the guard-boat succeeded in getting round to Broken Bay in time to prevent any unpleasant disaster. Every alarm was made throughout the various farms in the district of Broken Bay, so that it should speedily run along the Hawkesbury Banks; and the Prince Regent remained under the protection of the guard-boat .

Tuesday morning, when she took her departure from Broken Bay ; and on Wednesday the guard-boat returned to port, wholly unsuccessful, however, in having gained the least tidings of the absentees ; who by this time, it is to be feared, have increased in strength. It is ardently to be hoped, that every friend to honesty and humanity will not spare any exertion or pains to prevent such a gang of villains prowling at large to the destruction of the lonely settler's peace, and to the encouragement of every species of depravity. We cannot avoid remarking, that it is much to be dreaded as a truth beyond the possibility of contra-diction, that such pests to the general weal are harboured by the settler and others at the out-stations ;and while encouragement and protection are held out to the determined villain by those who ought to sup-press robbery, sometimes followed by murder, who can possibly guard against, or prevent the atrocities that are occasionally perpetrated ? It would be well if the owners of boats would attend, for a time at least, to the beneficial Regulation that affects their interests, bearing date the 15th of May, 1813, and which expressly requires " All shore-boats to be moored and  chained at night, and their oars safely lodged, on penalty of 10s. the first, and 20s. each succeeding offence. " Sydney. (1821, March 10). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2180137 

RETURN of Male Prisoners assigned during the month of July, 1836.
Foley David, Pittwater, 1 sweep and seaman Government Gazette. (1836, August 23).The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2206175 

The easier way to town for many was to travel aboard one of the numerous vessels, 'coasters', travelling to and from Sydney Town via the Hawkesbury - passage back up the river, along with coaches when they became available, provided a smoother passage, if not altogether free from problems;

On Wednesday last, a free woman, named Catherine Sullivan, coming into Sydney from Pittwater, was stopped on the Parramatta Road by two men, named Boghurst and Witherington, who knocked her down and stole from her person a two and a one pound note, and ten shillings in silver, which they took from her bosom. They were both shortly afterwards apprehended, and have been committed to take their trial. A BRIEF VIEW OF THE TOWNSHIP OF PARRAMATTA. (1837, March 30). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2210169 

John Doyle, the tenant on what is now called Avalon Beach lands, preceding the Collins family, drowned in Pittwater on January 20th, 1841:

INQUEST.-An inquest was held on Tuesday morning at the house of Mr. Murphy, the sign of the Bard's Legacy, Queen's Wharf on the body of John Doyle, who was accidentally drowned by the upsetting of a boat at Pitt Water, on Wednesday, the 20th instant. The body was found at Broken Bay on Monday last by some fishermen,who brought it to Sydney. It appeared from the evidence that the persons who were in the boat along with deceased at the time the accident occurred, as well as deceased himself, were perfectly sober, and the jury returned a verdict of accidental death. THE REGATTA. (1841, January 28). Australasian Chronicle(Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31730651

Records indicate that Mr. Doyle was not the only man to lose his life in small boats on Broken Bay that year:

James M'Quillan. Pilot, Brisbane Water, was unfortunately drowned while crossing from Pitt Water to Brisbane Town, by his boat being caught in a squall and capsizing. Mr. M'Quillan is much regretted  Summary of Public Intelligence. (1841, July 31). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2554037

A few days ago, as Mr. James M'Quillen, the pilot at Brisbane Water, was crossing in his own boat from Pitt Water to Brisbane a squall upset the boat, and Mr. M’Quillen and a man named George Ford,who was with him at the time, were both unfortunately drowned. The body of Mr. M’Quillen was found lying upon the beach, but the body of Ford has not since been heard of. Insolvent Debtors' Court. (1841, July 31). Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31732459

Mary Ann, 9 (tons), Farrell, from Pittwater, with 250 bushels lime, 8000 shingles, and 1 ton potatoes Harriett, 15, Crause, from Brisbane Water, with 50,000 shingles, and 1000 feet timber, Trial, 14, Robinson, from Brisbane Water, with shells ; Mary, 15, Turner, from Brisbane Water, with lime ; Twible, from the Hawkesbury, with 4 hogsheads brandy, and 700 bushels maize ;  COASTERS INWARDS. (1842, August 17).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12408120 

Brown, from Brisbane Water, with 9,000 feet cedar ; Mary Ann, 9, Farrell, from Pittwater, with furniture and shells COASTERS INWARDS. (1842, November 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12409729 

Mary Ann, 9, Wilson, for Pittwater and Port Aiken, In ballast; COASTERS OUTWARDS. (1842, December 22). Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31738315 

Swan, 9, Wilson, from Pittwater, with shells  COASTERS INWARDS. (1843, January 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12424818 

Mary Ann, Noon, from Broken Bay, with shells; Alexander, 10, M'Guigan, from Pittwater, with shells; COASTERS INWARDS. (1843, March 28).Australasian Chronicle (Sydney, NSW : 1839 - 1843), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31739290 

In 1843 the Broken Bay Customs station was opened at Barrenjoey under John B Howard to stop the estuary and its adjacent waterways being utilised by Smugglers. Visit Smuggling at Broken Bay by Shelagh Champion OAM. This was not without a false start:

PROVIDENTIAL DELIVERANCE.

On Wednesday last, a boat was picked in the vicinity of Bird Island by the steamer Thistle, on her passage from Morpeth. She had made signals to the steamer, which was instantly stopped for the purpose of affording succour. The boat was found to belong to the Customs, having on board Mr. Howard and a party of three men from the Custom's department, who had left Sydney in company with another boat, for the purpose of forming the new custom-house station at Broken Bay. After getting outside the heads, they had parted company, and a gale of wind coming on from the south-west, Mr. Howard's boat was driven off the shore, when, notwithstanding their most strenuous efforts, they could not make head-way towards the land. Captain Mullhall took them on board the Thistle, and also had the boat hoisted in, and brought them back to Sydney. Had the Thistle not passed about that time, there is every probability that the boat would have been 1 driven to sea and all hands been lost, having been already twenty-four hours short of provisions. The other boat, which had also three men on board, has not since been heard of, and fears are entertained for her safety. PROVIDENTIAL DELIVERANCE. (1843, April 29). The Colonial Observer (Sydney, NSW : 1841 - 1844), p. 989. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226361800 

A description from 1850 also tells us the shells (formerly middens) brought in by the tons through coasters is exhausted; 

PITTWATER, BRISBANE WATER, AND THE HAWKESBURY.

These places, although near Sydney, are but little frequented by Sydney people, except by such of the coasting traders as go there for grain, timber, and shells. No part of the country, however, affords a better field for the home tourist  toil-worn citizen who is able to spare a days from his ordinary avocations will find it much cheaper, as well as more healthful to take a voyage in this direction with his family than to visit the interior towns. During, the summer season, there are many small coasters lying idle at their moorings in consequence of their having little or nothing to do, and these, with a couple of seamen to work them, may be hired for a mere trifle for the task. Several days will be occupied in the journey upwards, but on arriving at Windsor the tourist may return to Sydney in a few hours, leaving the men to bring back their vessel. The voyage from Sydney to Broken Bay, does not occupy more than four hours, if the wind be fair, and the rest of the trip is in smooth water, so that even those persons who are apt to suffer much from sickness, have very little to dread in such a journey as the one we have alluded to.

The coast between the north head of Port Jackson, and the south head of Broken Bay presents little or nothing worthy of notice except a large natural archway in the rocks a few miles from the latter place, which is generally known among the coasting traders, as "hole in the wall." 


W.H. Raworth (Brit./Aust./NZ, c1821-1904). St Michael’s Arch, NSW [Avalon] c1860s. Watercolour, signed lower left, obscured title in colour pencil verso, 34.2 x 56.5cm. Tear to left portion of image, slight scuffs and foxing to upper portion.  Price (AUD): $2,900.00  at:https://www.joseflebovicgallery.com/pages/books/CL181-53/w-h-raworth-c-brit-aust-nz/st-michaels-arch-nsw-avalon 

Baranjuee, the south head at Broken Bay, is also the eastern head of Pittwater. It is a small peninsula of tall cliffs connected by an isthmus of low and tolerably fertile land with the hilly county which separates Pittwater from the sea. Pittwater is not unlike Port Jackson in its general features, and extends for about ten miles to the southward, branching off into a number of picturesque bays and coves. There are few habitations on the banks of this estuary, these few are situated near its head.  Several small houses may be seen, which have been inhabited by men employed in the production of Lime but which have been abandoned in consequence of the supply of shells having become exhausted. Near the head  there is s small island, which contains a number of fruit-bearing peach trees, the remains of former cultivation. 

Under the headland of Baranjueo on its landward side, just at the entrance of Pittwater, is the Custom-house station. The site has been admirably chosen for this purpose. The heads around protect the station from tempestuous weather and furnish look-out posts for the officer and his men, from whence a view is commanded of all the surrounding land and water, that no vessel can pass in that vicinity without their seeing it. The station has a picturesque appearance from the water, and a closer approach does not, as in many instances, diminish its attractions. 


Slade, George Penkivil. (January 16th, 1869). Barrenjuey [i.e. Barrenjoey], Broken Bay Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-139006957

A very good garden has been formed in the rear, but owing to the rocky nature of the soil, this must have been a work of great labour and perseverance. Fresh water however, is unfortunately rather scarce. It is obtained from the high rocky land above the station, and conveyed to the houses by meanz of troughs made of the cabbage-tree. At the present time, owing to the long continued drought, and to the great heat of the weather, there is no flow of water along the troughs during the day, but during the night sufficient water runs down to supply the station.Mr. Collyer, the gentleman who at present commands at this place, has acquired a well-merited popularity throughout the settlements around. In the performance of his duties he is indefatigable, and having succeeded in putting down the smuggling trade and other irregularities which went on formerly pursued to a great extent in this quarter, he has, of course, annoyed some of the inferior class of settlers, but his exertions are beneficial to the many, and to the coast traders he often renders most valuable assistance. A few weeks only have elapsed since a vessel was driven ashore near Mount Elliott, which would have become a total wreck but for the prompt and able assistance of Mr. Collyer and his men, by whom she was got off before she sustained any material injury. There are five men attached to the station. The coxswain, well-known among the settlers and the coasting traders by the familiar name of Larry, is a fine smart seaman, well acquainted with the surrounding waters. On the occasion just referred to he was particularly active. 

At present there is but one regular trader to Pittwater, which is run by a Mr. Anderson, who lives two or three miles above the custom house station, on the western shore of the estuary. The only traffic, we believe, is in shells, the produce of the Pittwater settlers being conveyed overland to North Harbour, and from thence in boat to Sydney. To Brisbane Water and the Hawkesbury, however, there is an extensive bade is agricultural produce and timber.. The their trade has fallen off a good deal, in consequence of the very low price at present given for the shells by the Sydney lime-burners, but many of the smaller coasters are still engaged in it. About Pittwater there is no great deal to be done in the way of shooting or fishing, but Brisbane Water and the Hawkesbury present great attractions in this way. there is a singular blunder in this respect in Wells' Gazetteer. He speaks of Baranjuee as the residence of one or two old fishermen, who supply the Hawkesbury as far as it is navigable. Now, there is no one living at Baranjuee but the Custom-house officer and his crew, and as for marketable fish, they are in that vicinity rather scarce, owing to the shallowness of the water, and perhaps also to the immense number of sharks which traverse it. The number and voracity of these monsters is almost incredible. They will run into the shallowest water in search of prey, and to bathe even in water knee deep is therefore dangerous in the extreme. The Hawkesbury, on the contrary, abounds with fish of every description. It is here and on the north side of Broken Bay that the lobsters which are sent to Sydney are for the most part procured. They are taken generally during the night, and are kept in a sort of pen erected in shallow water, until an opportunity occurs of sending them to market. The most remarkable object in Broken Bay is a small .rocky island called Mount Elliott. The cliffs are a great height, and are the residence of an extensive colony of goats, the progeny of a few individuals which were placed there to feed in times gone by. There is no water here beyond what lodges in the hollows after rain, but the hairy settlers on the island find sufficient aqueous nourishment in the moistened herbage. The scenery both of Brisbane Water and of the Hawkesbury is beautifully picturesque. The latter is pre-eminently so. In the course of the hundred and twenty miles of navigable river between Broken Bay and the town of Windsor, there is every -variety of scenery. The overhanging rock, the man-grove swamp, the bank clothed with willow and casuarina, the grassy slope, the field of waving corn, and the cheerful orchard. Sometimes the river winds amidst groups of cottages and mansions; at others, its banks exhibit the most wild and romantic features. The Hawkesbury and its tributaries water an immense tract of country  some of these tributaries are navigable to a considerable distance. The map of Cumberland attached to Wells' Gazetteer makes up, in its minute correctness as to the course of the Hawkesbury for the trifling blunder committed in the text as to the settlement and trade of Baranjuee, and may be depended upon as a guide by persons navigating these waters. Settlers at Brisbane Water occasionally walk to Sydney, but the journey is a toilsome one. By getting to the head of Pittwater, the distance is diminished to about twenty-two miles ; but the route is an awkward one for a person unaccustomed to bush travelling, there being no other guide than cart tracks, which are very apt to mislead, as there are routes to be avoided, both to the right hand and the left. Old bushmen will tell you that it is impossible to miss the road; but you will find it exceedingly possible to do so when you come to a spot where three or four tracks diverge in various directions. It is better, if possible, to have a companion who has crossed the country before. The journey is an interesting one. On the road there is some pretty scenery; and in several places there are splendid views of the ocean. Two lakes (or lagoons, as they are here called) are passed on the road; the largest of which, Narrabeen, is several square miles in extent, and has many small islands on its surface. It is for the most part shallow, and abounds with fish, which might be taken with the greatest ease, as a net could be hauled through any part of it. at present it is separated from the ocean by a barren sandy neck; but after floods this is covered, and the traveller is obliged to wade through the water for a considerable distance.

Between Pittwater and Middle Harbour there are several settlers residing at intervals of a few miles, who are very hospitable to passing travellers and will readily put them on their way. At Middle Harbour there is a ferry, kept by a person named Hillary. The place to which passengers are ordinarily taken is a point immediately opposite Hillary's residence; but any person who has walked from Pittwater will find it decidedly to his advantage to land gat the Willoughby Falls. For this purpose he will, for a few pence extra, be conveyed some two or three miles up of the most picturesque arms of Middle Harbour, and will save three or four miles of very bad road, From the falls there is an undeviating path, by which either of the steam ferries on the North Shore can be reached in half an hour by a smart walker.METEOROLOGY. (1850, January 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12915324 

While at Careel Bay (from My Holiday by Charles de Boos);

the road now leading us across a long level piece of country that intervened between the sea and the waters of Creel Bay, until it brought us down to the margin of the latter. Arrived here, we had before us as pretty a marine picture as ever painter sketched, and as directly opposite to the one we had but so recently left as could be well conceived. The flat level land had here narrowed to some sixty rods in width, being backed by a heavily wooded range, the base of which was here and there encumbered by large masses of rock, from which the incumbent soil had been washed, and which now protruded in huge boulders, or lay out bare and detached from their native beds. On the margin of the bay were three little whitewashed slab huts with bark roofs, the passionate squalling of an infant that proceeded from one of them would have given evidence of their being inhabited, even if we had not seen two or three barelegged and barefooted children peering at us round the corner of the house. (To be continued.) MY HOLIDAY. (1861, September 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13057913


Graham, H. J. (January 4th, 1885). Careening Creek, Broken Bay Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-135522526

This reports of people being on the water while living close to it as farmers, even when appearing solely due to losing their lives in the water, shows people were making a living out of fishing, to feed their families and to bring in income.

On the western shores, Mackeral, Little Mackeral, and into the Basin as well as Mc Carr's creek and along the shores of Lovett and Towlers, nets were placed for certain tides - the fishermen knew where the fish would run. There were also oyster leases adjacent to these shores from the turn of the 20th century and well into the first half of its decades. 

Muster Records, required by the Governor's from 1795, list who was where in Pittwater and even their occupation although 'seaman' didn't always mean a yearly toil in fields. The Wilson family, third in a line of people subjected to the machinations of the Farrells of Newport, and the subsequent trial that took place, also record one fisherman living at the Basin-Bason by around 1862 and that this occupation was one they also did in combination with running farms and livestock. From the trail where the Wilsons had to take the farrells to court, they being third in a line of people persecuted by the Newport clan for daring to occupy the Mona vale farm after the Foleys and Therrys when the Farrells had previoulsy made use of the land and its grasses:

By Mr. Driver : Had experience in cattle at Kent, England. Knew about cows before he went to "Wheeler's. From there he went to the bason. He was occupied there in fishing, for about six or seven years. He devoted his time there to breeding of cattle. He is rather hard of hearing. His sight is very good, considering his age. He is forty-six. Has not been mistaken on any occasion the last two or three months. Don't recollect the 2nd of April last. Don't remember reporting that he lost a black heifer on that day. His memory is pretty good. He told constable Carton then that young Farrell had been seen the previous day trespassing and dodging round his cows, but won't swear it. Might have told his father so, and if he did, he told the truth. He made a complaint to Cherry that ha lost a red bullock that he purchased at Lane Cove. He never told anybody that it was killed at Pitt Water. Cherry sent him word that it had strayed back. Farrell, senior, was the first man to inform him where the bullock was.
-The court adjourned for lunch, and on its resumption, Mr. Driver continued the cross-examination: He saw young Farrell on the Little Reef Hill. He saw Leek working on the road when he spoke to him. It might be 600 or 700 yards away. It was from there he saw young Farrell. Cannot recollect whether there was any rain on the Thursday. It is not generally a sandy country. Sometimes large mobs of cattle run on his farm. As near, as he could guess, there was about thirty head of his cattle there. Did not go on his land. The bridge that he tracked the cattle across is about twelve or fourteen feet wide. He tracked them on the soft country. Constable Carton culled at his house towards Sunday morning.' Witness put a bottle containing brandy on the table. Can't say if Carton drank any. He took about three nobblers in a Husk to Farrell's. Carton drank some of that. Prisoner denied having fresh meat when asked by Sergeant Bloomfield, but afterwards showed the police some meat in a cask. Saw steelyards there. Bloomfield asked if anybody could weigh with the steelyards. Did not hoar Farrell say that he could. Bloomfield asked witness if he could weigh with steelyards. They were got, but the pea was not an them ; it was produced after-wards ; young Farrell threw it, and said, " Here it is." On being questioned by the police, Farrell said he got it all from the butcher at Manly. He has no ill-feeling towards the Farrells. After they killed his dog with an axe he shook hands with them and made it up. 
To the Bench : The farms are not fenced in. Prisoner's house is about a mile and a half from witness's ; there is no boundary fence. ...
...
- Charles Leek, a roadmaker at Pitt Water, knows the prisoner; also knows Wilson. Recollects being with him on the 4th of this month. Saw prisoner on horseback driving cattle. He went out of witness's sight. Does not know what direction he was going. He was on the top of the hill, a good distance from where he was at work.
-By. Mr." Driver : It was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon. He was about a quarter of a mile away. Can't tell how ho was dressed. He was riding a bay horse Don't know how it was branded. Swear point blank it was him. If he saw Mr. Driver as many times at he has seen prisoner he could toll him. He may have been a mile away, from Wilson's house. He was more than three hundred yards away from Wilson's house. It might be three-quarters of a mile He was working alongside the telegraph line. Swears there was more than ten posts between where he was working and Wilson's house.
-To Mr Windeyer : He is positive it was prisoner. He is not mistaken about him at all. He was with him the night before. The court adjourned at four o'clock until Monday next, at eleven o'clock. Bail extended.
WATER POLICE COURT.—WEDNESDAY. (1870, August 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63110542 

With the rise and rise of the recreational fisher, those who came to camp and those who visited in their thousands as Excursionists aboard steamers (ferries) the local fisher families making a living had competition for available stocks in visitors. This example speaks of people landed at Archpriest Therry's jetty at Careel Bay:

EXCURSION TO BROKEN BAY.
One of the most attractive of the provisions made for the enjoyment of New Year's Day, was an excursion to Pittwater and the mouth of the Hawkesbury, in the Illawarra Steam Navigation Company's fast and commodious steamer Hunter. The genial fineness of the weather and the smoothness of the water, offered potent inducements to those who were familiar with all the holiday resorts in the vicinity of Sydney to pay a visit to Broken Bay. The Hunter was accordingly well filled for the trip— indeed, too well tilled, as the passengers were in excess of the sitting accommodation. As the excursion was determined on several days ago, the company's largest steamer should have been engaged. There were upwards of three hundred passengers on board, and that number would have been comfortably accommodated in the Kembla. The Hunter left the Phoenix Wharf, under the command of Captain Keft, shortly before eleven o'clock, and reached Broken Bay about one o'clock. On dropping anchor off the Customs Station, Mr. Ross, the coastwaiter came on board and offered his services to pilot the steamer to a part of the Bay where the passengers would, on landing, be able to visit the cave and the hole in the rock, objects of much interest to tourists. Some of the party who were acquainted with the locality, stated that that would be the best place to land the excursionists, on account of the vicinity of the cave, and also of the excellent sport obtainable in the way of shooting and angling, it was, however, decided to take the steamer to the small inlet at Pittwater. 
Here the boats were lowered, and about half the passengers landed and dispersed in small groups. Most of those who had provided themselves for the excursion soon found out the most cozy nooks under the shade of the rocks, and made hearty meals in the true picnic fashion. The remainder of the afternoon was spent by some of the party in clambering the abrupt embankments and gathering the splendid ferns and palms growing in wild luxuriance; by others in fishing and oystering, and by a few in collecting seaweeds; while the less curious preferred a siesta in the cool shade. In the meantime, the steamer left Pittwater and proceeded for a few miles up the Hawkesbury — not far enough, however, to give the expectant excursionists a very impressive idea of the much extolled scenery of that river. 
On returning to Pittwater many of the passengers went ashore and enjoyed a stroll along the beach,— the whole of the party re-embarking soon after five o'clock, A few minutes before six the Hunter steamed out of Broken Bay, and landed all her passengers in safety at eight o'clock. During the outward passage, the wind being light, the motion of the vessel was the occasion of discomfort to very few on board ; but, on returning, there was rather more motion, though the sea was by no means rough, and the distressing effects were widely experienced— the more so on account of the crowded ; decks. As the sea voyage was little above an hour in duration, the sea sickness was looked upon as a j comparatively trifling inconvenience, and, excepting that there was no band on board, it constituted the only drawback to an extremely pleasant and propitious excursion. The decided success that has attended the trips of the Kembla and the Hunter to Broken Bay will, probably, have the effect of rendering that spot a regular holiday resort in future. 
EXCURSION TO BROKEN BAY. (1862, January 4 - Saturday). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 3. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166693118 

Among the other amusements advertised for Easter Monday is an excursion to one of the most curious and interesting natural objects within reach of Sydney — the Cave at Pittwater. Independent of the beauty of the Cave, its height, and extent, which alone are sufficient to render it worthy of a visit, we are informed by the Rev. Father Powell that it contains springs of mineral waters of valuable medicinal qualities, which may, perhaps, at some future time, rival in celebrity those of Baden-Baden or Cheltenham; and beautiful minerals of different descriptions are found within it which would well repay the investigations of the mineralogist or geologist. We understand that the mineral springs of: Pittwater have a singularly restorative and invigorating effect upon those who have undergone the fatigues of a long sea-.voyage and in order to bring this quality to a practical test, we recommend our readers to provide themselves with tickets for the 'Collaroy' on Easter Monday, in order that they may have an opportunity of feeling the beneficial effects of the exhilarating fluids, as well as being gratified with the sight of the many beauties of the place. No title (1862, April 9). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115764053 

TO BOAT-OWNERS.-Wanted, a 40 or 50-ton BOAT ON HIRE, for the carriage of billet wood from Pittwater to Sydney. Apply to Mr. JAMES THERRY, 66, William-street. Advertising. (1862, October 7). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13235120 - Visit Maria Louisa Therry

WANTED, VESSELS~to convey billet-wood from Pitt Water to Sydney, JOHN DUGUID and CO., Pitt-street. Advertising (1863, June 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13080271

BARRANJOEY
Page 27
Distance 27 miles North of Sydney
Mail closes at General Post Office Wednesday 9.30 a.m.
Mail arrives at Post Town Wednesday 4 p.m.
Mail leaves for Sydney Wednesday 7 a.m.
Mail arrives at Sydney Wednesday 1 p.m.
Route Steam to Manly, or punt to Middle Harbour, 20 miles to Barranjoey.

SURNAME CHRISTIAN OCCUPATION ADDRESS POST TOWN
ANDERSON John                    farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
ANDREWS John ---                 Pitt Water Barranjoey
ARLUM John                     servant --- Barranjoey
BAKER J.                  labourer  Mona Vale, Pitt Water Barranjoey
BAKER Louisa                    servant ---         Barranjoey
BAKER William                     farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
BENO Joseph master mariner Scotland Island, Pitt Water Barranjoey
BLACK Albert                    C.H.O. --- Barranjoey
COLLINS Jeremiah farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
COLLINS John farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
COLLINS Thomas farmer Narrabene Lagoon, Pitt Water Barranjoey
CONNOLLY John boatman --- Barranjoey
COOPER Thomas woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
EATON James woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
FARRELL John farmer Pitt Water Road Barranjoey
HYNES Patrick teacher --- Barranjoey
JACKSON Andrew mariner Pitt Water Barranjoey
JENKINS Charles mariner Scotland Island, Pitt Water Barranjoey
JENKINS Elizabeth --- Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
JENKINS John --- Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
JENKINS Philip --- Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
JOHNSON Charles woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
JONES James farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
LANGLEY James farmer Dangars Island Barranjoey
MACAULEY William shipwright Pitt Water Barranjoey
MADDEN Michael boatman --- Barranjoey
MELVEY P. master mariner Hawkesbury River Barranjoey
MONAGHAN John fisherman --- Barranjoey
MULHALL George, jun. lightkeeper --- Barranjoey
MULHALL George lightkeeper --- Barranjoey
MULLIGAN Mary --- ---                 Barranjoey
MCINTOSH George farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
NOONAN John labourer Pitt Water  Barranjoey
NORRIS Frederick woodcutter Pitt Water Barranjoey
OLIVER Thomas selector         Pitt Water Barranjoey
OLIVER Thomas farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
QUINN John boatman ---         Barranjoey
SHAW James mariner Pitt Water Barranjoey
SHAW Joseph, jun. mariner Pitt Water Barranjoey
SHAW Joseph farmer ---         Barranjoey
STAINES Joseph servant Long Reef, Pitt Water Rd. Barranjoey
STARR Joseph farmer Pitt Water Barranjoey
STEIRE William J. boatman ---         Barranjoey
SWANSON Charles shipwright Pitt Water Barranjoey
TURNER Alfred --- Pitt Water         Barranjoey
WARREN James farmer Pitt Water         Barranjoey
WILSON David woodcutter Pitt Water         Barranjoey
WILSON Thomas, jun. labourer         Mona Vale          Barranjoey
WILSON Thomas farmer Mona Vale          Barranjoey

This list is from the Greville Postal Directory (NSW) from 1872 Arranged locally and alphabetically
Compiled by Authority 
Greville & Company, Publishers
Sydney, Melbourne, and Wellington, N.Z.
Compiled by F. Cunningham & Co., 186 Pitt Street, Sydney.
Dedicated by Permission to the Honorable Joseph Docker, Esq., M.L.C., Postmaster-General
To whose courtesy and aid the compilers of this work are indebted for much valuable information.


Glover, T. G. (October 6th, 1878). Elliott Island, Broken Bay, New South Wales Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-138860522

The completion of the Government wharf at Church Point, Pitt water, will prove a great benefit to the residents in that district. The wharf is a substantial wooden structure, and boats drawing 11 feet of water will be able to come alongside at high tide. The population in the neighbourhood of Pittwater is rapidly increasing, and it is understood that the Government intend building a Public school to accommodate 50 pupils. Fruit-growing promises to be the leading industry in that locality. A considerable area of land is being planted with fruit trees. NEWS OF THE DAY. (1885, July 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13592258 

Fish are biting freely just now at Towler Bay, adjoining Kurangai Chaise. Parties should bear this place in mind, as the terms are very reasonable. Boats, bait and pilot are included in the first cost. It is necessary, however, that intending parties write to Mr. Lloyd, Pittwater, the proprietor, so as to enable him to hare a boat in waiting at Church Point. FISH OH! (1900, December 19). Sydney Sportsman (Surry Hills, NSW : 1900 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167250793

Mr. Fred Lloyd, of Church Point, Pittwater tells Eastway's that he has been with some friends getting lately a wonderful lot of black bream at 'Old Man's Hat,' North Head. Their catches for the week were: Saturday 66- Monday', 57; Tuesday, 9; Wednesday, 18; and Thursday 30, all nice, sized fish.
Mr. P. Horn, of Paddington, fishing at Bay View, Pittwater, last Sunday, caught 4 dozen mixed fish, principally bream, whiting, and flathead, and also a 30 lb .fiddler FISHING NOTES. (1906, March 31).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114226163 

If Barranjoey were a little more accessible from Manly it would become a very popular fishing ground. Situated as it is at the southern entrance to Broken Bay it is passed by great shoals of fish with every tide. The water round the bold, high promontory is only deep close to the shore, and in these channels the fish travel. On the ocean side of the isthmus, which unites the outlier to the mainland, there is an ocean beach which at times is a most prolific fishing ground. The other side of the isthmus is lapped by the quiet waters of the Newport arm of the Hawkesbury, and is an ideal camping ground.
The best way of reaching the place is by special conveyance from Manly, the distance being about 14 miles. The rock-fishing resorts between Newport and Barranjoey are numerous and safe. Notes by "The Fisherman." (1901, September 21). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 761. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165236247 

Notes by the Fisherman.
Some day the stocking of coastal lagoons with fish will be carried out extensively by the Fisheries Department. The need for the re-stocking is undoubtedly urgent, and everyone connected with the catching of fish who thinks at all about the matter hopes that the business will be expedited. Perhaps the first place to be  experimented upon will be Narrabeen Lagoon, which has been so much overnetted. When the tramway is constructed from Manly to Narrabeen  fishing in the pretty little lake could be made a great source of revenue to the State, and would attract a settled population to the district. The upper part of the lake— if one can talk about the upper part of a level stretch of water — is very pretty. The only drawback to the enjoyment of visitors is the mosquitoes, and one can get inoculated soon by them. 
Boatsheds, accommodation houses, and other businesses would soon bring a steady supply of sport-seekers, the only danger being that the place would get over-run with people who want amusement cheap. As to how the stocking should be done — well, there is Maiubar Hatchery 'packed full of fish, and the departmental well-launches ready for the conveyance vi the fish at a day's notice. All that is wanted is a new Fisheries Bill giving the Commissioners power to close the lake to netting altogether. 
Notes by the Fisherman. (1901, November 30). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1401. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165237369

At the Hawkesbury River black bream are now in good condition. During the week about 28 baskets were caught by the net-men at Mackerel and Patonga Beaches. They are biting well off the rocks at Flint and Steel the lower portions of the main river, and Pittwater.

Blackfish are also in prime condition, and in quantities of good size. Many good catches have recently been made, with the rod. They are biting well off all the rocky shores, especially between Mud Island and the river entrance. FISHING NOTES. (1909, June 19).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115497876 

A MISSING FISHERMAN.
Early on May 12 Michael Murphy, a fisher-man, left Long Reef, Narrabeen, in his boat to go fishing at a spot about half a mile from the shore- He left the shore in company with another boat, in which were two men, Charles Hirsch and Henry Gonzales. The two boats were close together at first, but gradually drifted apart when the fishing-ground was reached. The men had not been fishing long, when a squall blow up. Murphy was seen by his companions making in the direction of the shore. They then lost sight of him, their full attention being required for the management of their own boat. Finally, they succeeded in landing on the Mona Vale Beach, and made the best of their way overland to Longreach. They thon discovered that Murphy had failed to put in an appearance. The local police, thinking that the missing man might have been blown down the coast, telephoned the lighthouse-keeper at Barranjoey, and instructed him to keep a look-out for the missing man, but so far no trace of him or the boat have been round, although the shore between Longreach and Broken Bay has been searched by a party in a motor boat. A MISSING FISHERMAN. (1911, May 16).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15230870 

POLICE COURTS ILLEGAL FISHING
George Edwin Goulder, Inspector of Police, on Friday  at the Central Summons Court, proceeded against Thomas Wilson and John Wilson for hauling with a net, having meshes smaller than prescribed. Each defendant pleaded guilty. It was stated that the defendants were licensed fishermen and were using an illegal net as regards depth and mesh, at Pittwater. The net was 50 meshes too deep, and would operate against ground fish and towards the destruction of small fish. The value of the net was £15. Each defendant was fined 40s. or one month, the net to be forfeited. POLICE COURTS. ILLEGAL FISHING. (1911, July 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15257893

A surprise catch off Stokes's Point (Careel Bay),. In the Pittwater arm of Broken Bay, one day last week was two schnapper weighing 22 ½  and 15 ½ lb. respectively. The larger fish was a female which contained 31b. of roe. Mr. Collins was the fortunate catcher. FISHING (1912, September 15). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228812224 

FISHING NOTES
SHARKS GIVING TROUBLE TO BROKEN BAY ANGLERS
By RAMBLER.
Broken Bay is fairly thick with sharks at present. One day last week Messrs. J. and W. Williams and W. Weston secured four off the Bayview Wharf, the largest a grey nurse, which was landed on a rope and shark hook baited with part of the liver of a blue pointer.' The monster gave its captors plenty of exciting sport for about half an hour, after which it was; landed, and killed with an axe. During its struggles an onlooker was knocked down by a blow from its tail. At Pittwater they have also been interfering with fishermen, and at Maroubra recently several red bream, groper, and squire were hooked, only to be grabbed by the. sharks.  FISHING NOTES (1917, December 5). Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120290837

PITTWATER SPORT.
Messrs. Wall and Sandos, fishing near Scotland Island, Pittwater, last Sunday, caught two dozen black and red bream over legal size. They did not know that the best bait for the local fish consists of worms and nippers from the mangrove flats, and they ran out of prawns when young red bream came along to accept the food put out for them. ONE-ARMED FISHERMAN. (1923, December 2). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120548590

With the rise and rise of the recreational and professional fisherman or woman, making a living from seafood became an aim even when and on top fish seasonal runs. In Oystering In The Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings And Pearl Kings And When Not To Harvest Oysters some of those operating leases locally were listed - another, a quite famous for fishing family of Pittwater, the Arblasters of Barrenjoeywas not. This gives some idea of the extent of oyster runs needed:

APPLICATIONS TOR LEASES FOR OYSTER CULTURE.
IT is hereby notified that the undermentioned persons have applied to lease for Oyster Culture the portions of land described hereunder opposite their respective names.
Objections may be lodged at the Fisheries Branch, Chief Secretary's Department, within thirty days of the date of this notice against the leasing of any of the portions. If interference with a hauling ground is alleged, a statutory declaration by a licensed fisherman must be submitted to the effect that the area has been hauled during the preceding twelve months. 1
E. B. HARKNESS,
Under Secretary.
No. 13,883, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, offshore, about 75 yards north of the north-east corner of Oyster Lease No. 8,136, section No. 3, parish of Broken Bay, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre.
No. 13,884, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Lovett's Bay, Pittwater, offshore, lying about 200 yards south' of the south-west corner of portion No. 17, parish of Broken Bay, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre:
No. 13,885, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at McCarr's Creek, Pittwater, offshore, lying about 200 yards west of the north-west corner of portion No. 1 of 40 acres, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre. '
No. 13,886, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Towler's Bay, Pittwater, offshore, lying about 150 yards south-westerly from the north-west corner of portion No. 149, parish of Broken Bay, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre.
No. 13,887, by Joseph Henry Arblaster, situated at Pittwater, offshore, lying about 150 yards northerly from the north-east corner of Oyster Lease No. 7,302, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, area about 1 acre. APPLICATIONS FOR LEASES FOR OYSTER CULTURE. (1926, June 18).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2608. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222996345 

Others, who also did other work:

IT is hereby notified, for general information, that the undermentioned persons have applied to LEASE for OYSTER CULTURE the portions of land set opposite their respective, names. Tracings, showing the positions of the several portions enumerated, may be inspected at this Department dally (excepting Saturdays), between' 11 and 3 o'clock, and on Saturdays between 11 and 12 o'clock. Any person may, by memorial to the Board of Fisheries, within thirty days from the date of tills Notice, and on grounds to be stated in such memorial, pray that leases of the portions may not be granted, J.-A. BRODIE, Secretary, 

PITTWATER. ALBERT EDWARD HEATON.-100 yards, Parish Narrabeen, on the southern side of Pittwater, about 100 yards easterly from the Government Wharf, fronting Ben Crew's portion No. 20 of 80 acres. Advertising. (1904, May 4). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14617398

GOVERNMENT NOTICES. Department of Fisheries, Sydney, 7th June, 1905. IT is hereby notified, for general information, that the undermentioned persons have applied to LEASE for OVSTEH CULTURE the portions of Undset opposite their respective names Tracings showing the positions of the several portions enumerated, may be inspected at this Department daily (excepting Saturdays), between 11 and 3 o'clock, and on Saturdays between 11 and 12 o'clock Any person may, by memorial to the Board of Fisheries, within thirty days from the date of this Notice, and on grounds to be stated In such memorial, pray that leases of the portions may not be granted, J. A. MOODIE, Secretary.

WILLIAM SYKES 300 yards Parish Narrabeen, on an eastern shore of Pittwater, near the northern entrance to Crystal Bay, and fronting R Melville's portion No 10 of 60 acres

WILLIAM SYKES 200 yards Parish Narrabeen on an eastern shore of Pittwater, near the southern entrance to Crystal Bay at Haystack Point.  Advertising. (1905, July 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14708916

Pittwater - erection of a weatherboard cottage at Mona Vale Pittwater Plans at the office of Messrs. W P Martin and Company, 53 Young street, city, or Mr William Sykes, Newport. ADDITIONAL CONTRACTS. (1906, May 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14770112

Schnapperman's Flat was on the Pittwater side, where a large colony of Chinese carried on a fish-curing business, now given up. Whilst the waters are not guarded by a licence to fish, the oyster-beds are. These are let out on lease, and the pleasure-seeker may not knockoff an 'ostrea edulis,' as the learned call the simple little bivalve about which the old boatmen seem to know so much. 'When an oyster has a family,' says a caster of nets, 'she does not have one at a time, like the elephant, nor half-a-dozen, like a cat, but she sends forth hundreds of thousands of spawn, who swim off to find a place on which to squat, and put up their own humpy. For choice, it is just at sea level, so if one gathers the oysters near the high-water mark, more will at once take up the vacant allotment, and evolve a home out of lime for themselves. In summer, the oysters are no good, being watery, and full of spawn; but Mrs. Oyster, having opened her shell, and 'shoved' out a shoal of youngsters, who have, to mind themselves from the start, soon gets back into condition.' Winter, spring, and autumn are the oysterman's harvest times, when farm profits are not coming in, so the river cocky who takes on a 'lease' has a side industry to help him along. THE HAWKESBURY SETTLER. (1905, March 4). Evening News(Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112745420

Until there were so many that:

Objections to Extensive Oyster Leases.-Recently the Fisheries Board decided to lease 10,000 yards of foreshore In Pittwater to an enterprising man for oyster-fattening beds. The area was not continuous, but scattered round Pittwater, Bayview, Newport, Careel Bay, The Basin, and Saltpan Point. Several objections were, however, resolved to the leasing, residents having water frontages urging that there would be depreciation of their property, interference with their water approach, and deprivation of net-fishermen by taking away their hauling grounds. They also pointed out that unsightly stakes and stones would be laid on the leases in connection with oyster culture, and that the sewage from houses round this arm of Broken Bay would make the oysters dangerous food. Mr. F. Farnell (chairman of the board) and Mr. J. A. Brodie (chief inspector) paid a visit to the place a few days ago to Investigate the validity of the objections, and reported that none of the objections was tenable. Provision had been made for boat access to properties abutting on the lease, the hauling grounds were not to be leased, the Navigation Department had no objection to the erection of ballast walls to protect the oyster banks at Careel Bay and Saltpan Point so long as they did not extend further out than low water mark, and there was no danger of the oysters becoming affected by sewage. With this report before It the board decided to grant the majority of the leases, but set apart Towler's and Lovett's Bays and other parts used by the public for public oyster reserves.FRANCE REFUSES SOCIALISM. (1906, August 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14791145

OYSTER LEASES AND PUBLIC SIGHTS. AN EMPHATIC PROTEST.
Dr. R. Arthur, M.L.A.., introduced a deputation to the Chief Secretary yesterday respecting the alienation of foreshores for oyster leases at Pittwater. The case was succinctly put by the introducer, and Messrs. T. A. Dibbs, J. T. Swanson, F. Jack- son, Trevor Jones, and J. B. Nicoll. They, explained that Pittwater »as one of the beauty spots near Sydney, and one of its chief attractions was the ease of access to the water's edge, its yachting area, and camping spot. The local people were disturbed at finding that application had been made for oyster leases all round Pittwater near population centres and recognised holiday re-sorts, to which the public had had access ever since settlement had taken place in the State. To take away theso for oyster leases was, it was urged, an unnecessary and uncalled-for proceeding. The small amount of revenue derivable from the leases would not be worth considering. Oyster lessees had been given the right to erect poles and retaining walls, which would restrict navigation, and they had already ordered the public off their leases. The deputation asked that five or the leases, at least, should be refused, notably, McCarr's Creek entrance, Kuring-gai Chase, and the Basin or Coaster's Retreat. Altogether 16,500 yards of lease were to be granted, and the public would have 16,500 yards less of foreshores to land on, while those who had purchased properties at Newport lately would not have water access to their land.
Mr. Hogue: No one had any right to order the public off the proposed leases.
Mr. T. A. Dibbs pointed out that the Ku- ring-gai Chase trustees and the Fisheries Board had overlapping control of the foreshores of the park. At Coal and Candle) Creek a few years ago all the oyster Beds were cleaned out by someone's authority.
Mr. Trevor Jones said that section 4S of the Fisheries Act, relating to leases, left it open for existing lessees to give the public much trouble if they accidentally trespassed on the leases or disturbed tho oysters.
Dr. Arthur: Can the people who ordered the public off the foreshores be punished for doing so?
Mr. J. T. Swanson said that the Fisheries Board had an inspection of the leases recently, but did not let the objectors know they were coming.
Mr. Hogue, In reply, said he would not express any opinion as to whether those who ordered people off the leases could be punished, but they had no legal right to do so. The Fisheries Board was charged with the administration of the Act, and he had been prepared to grant tho leases on its re- commendation, but when Mr. James Clarke's applications for leases came before him, and were followed by the objections, he suspended their issue till he heard more from tho people most concerned. He had to encourage the oyster industry on the one hand and see that settlement of the people was not retarded on the other. People could not be given a right to wander all over the leases when they were granted. If they were, the oysters would soon disappear. Mr. Clarke was an enterprising man, who had made a. life-long study of oyster culture, and it was his duty to give him encouragement. At the same time the granting of the leases did not give the lessee the right to warn people off. He would meet the objectors by not granting the leases at the Basin and on Ku- ring-gai Chase, and would consider others, but the majority of the leases did not interfere with the public enjoyment, and would be granted. OYSTER LEASES AND PUBLIC RIGHTS. (1906, August 23).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14797671

How many families were netting and oystering in Pittwater by the mid 1920's? Around 30:

NET FISHING.
PITTWATER TO REMAIN OPEN.
The Chief Secretary(Mr. Lazzarini)  informed a deputation from the Licensed Fishermen's Association that Pittwater would not be closed this year for net fishing but that any subsequent action would receive careful attention
The deputation claimed that at least 30 families relied upon net fishing at Pittwater for their living and that if it were closed they would be seriously embarrassed. It was stated that the fish came In shoals, and that if they were not caught within a short period they escaped. The suggestion that net fishing interfered with the fishing of amateur anglers was ridiculed by the various speakers. The rough character of the foreshore, it was considered, sufficiently enclosed the waters. Closed waters at places such as Woy Woy, it was stated, were responsible for the catching of thousands of undersized fish which would result In the prosecution of the professional fisherman if they were found in his possession. NET FISHING. (1926, December 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16338733 

Fishing families in Pittwater remains to this day. Some of these still going may be seen in Careel Bay Jetty and Boatshed, but there are others, based in our western shores and worked in and from there and Careel Bay from earliest times for settlers until now although the over-fishing of the estuary and consequent decline of shoals of fish sweeping in and along the beaches and into the creeks and the Basin, along with bigger and better fishing boats meant they could find harvests further afield:

HAUL OF SALMON AT PALM BEACH.


A fisherman with a recent early morning catch on the ocean front at Palm Beach.
HAUL OF SALMON AT PALM BEACH. (1932, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16909771 


£300 HAUL OF FISH IN AFTERNOON SYDNE Y, Sat.: Fisherman F. J. Wilson of Careel Bay, netted one-third of a huge shoal of salmon off Dee Why Beach. Between noon and 5 p.m. on one day, Wilson and two companions netted 200 boxes of salmon. The smallest fish weighed about 6 Ib. The catch was worth about £300. The fishermen gave away hundreds of fish to sightseers. When Wilson and his men pulled their net on to Dee Why beach they found they had also netted a 7-ft. shark. £300 HAUL OF FISH IN AFTERNOON (1952, May 24). News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article130273667 

ALLEN—WILSON - The Engagement Is announced of Betty, third daughter of Mr and Mrs. F. J Wilson of Careel Bay, Newport and Raymond Joseph youngest son of the late Mr and Mrs Harry Allen, late 18 Farnham Street Leicester England. Family Notices (1946, February 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 30. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17970685 

Charlie Hastie, a well-known fisherman of Pittwater, says that black bream, flathead, and flounder are now fairly plentiful about Careel Bay and the mouth of Pittwater, and advises anglers to give the place a trial. FISHING NOTES. (1906, February 3).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114224127 

HASTIE.—September 13th 1940, at his residence Careel Bay, Newport, Charles John Lawson Hastie, dearly beloved husband of Isabella Jane Hastie and loving father of Jessie (Mrs. Wilson) Isobel (Mrs. Colwell) and Bessie (Mrs. Baker) aged 75 years. Family Notices (1940, September 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27948065 

MONCKTON. - March 7, 1924, at Manly, Walter Hillary Monckton, late of Careel Bay, Pittwater, aged 62 years. Family Notices (1924, March 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16123405 

SWEPT OFF ROCKS.
Fisherman Drowned.
James Wise, an unemployed carrier, was swept from the rocks at Avalon on Saturday and, despite the attempts of a friend to save him, was drowned.
Wise, with his wife and three children, was camping at Pittwater, and was earning his living by fishing. With another man, James Williams, he was fishing on Saturday off the rocks at Avalon at a spot called "The Hole in the Wall." The sea was rising, and waves were breaking over the men, and Williams suggested that they should move to a higher place. Before Wise could move, a wave swept him away. Williams swam out, and struggled to bring Wise ashore for almost 20 minutes. A wave separated them, and Williams was too exhausted to succeed in another attempt at rescue.
Narrabeen police were informed of the tragedy, but the body had not been recovered up to last night. SWEPT OFF ROCKS. (1932, November 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16933805 

FISHERMAN INJURED.
Speedboat Strikes Dinghy.
Flying timber injured a fisherman and knocked him overboard, when a speedboat collided with a dinghy at Pittwater yesterday. Ronald Ambrose McCarthy, 45, of Victoria-street, Potts Point, was taken to Manly Hospital by the Manly Ambulance, suffering from a fractured rib injuries to the left shoulder, internal injuries, and the effects of immersion.
McCarthy was fishing near Goddard's wharf with Percy Stoyles of Iluka-road, Palm Beach. The speedboat was driven by Miss Dalma Arnott of the yacht, Oomoobah
According to reports to the Mona Vale and Narrabeen police the speedboat was travelling at about 15 knots when it struck the dinghy aft. McCarthy was struck by timber that was torn from the dinghy. He sank, but Stoyles supported him until Miss Arnott brought the speedboat alongside. McCarthy was dragged aboard the boat and taken to the shore. FISHERMAN INJURED. (1933, December 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17036523 

Bernie's moan
Mr. Bernie Moane, manager of Palm Beach Fishermen's Co-op. Society, has had an unfortunate experience. He was given two bottles of beer, left them on top of a box of fish being packed. Someone filled the box, nailed it down and off it went to market-
beer included. Mr. Moane asked at the markets today if anyone had seen the beer, was told "Foo got it." Who's Foo?.
SPOTLIGHT on the NEWS (1949, December 8). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 4 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230740384 

Fisherman Burned Shielding Child From Flames
SYDNEY, Monday.—A fisherman was severely burned on the back and hands at Palm Beach today when he shielded a two year old girl from flames with his body.
The fisherman, Harry Morris, 42, with Dennis Lacey, 32, were using a kerosene furnace when it exploded. A huge sheet of flame shot out towards Jeanette Humphrey, 2, only a few feet away.
Morris quickly threw the girl to safety. She escaped with shock and slight burns to one hand.
Jeanette's mother, Mrs. Gordon Humphrey, of Barrenjoey Road, Palm Beach, said Morris did "a wonderful thing".  An eye witness said the other man, Lacey, had his clothes charred off him and was terribly burned. Fisherman Burned Shielding Child From Flames (1950, August 15). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article99086998 

This history is threaded through with the lives of the people who occupied these bays and beaches and through them we sight how we are all interconnected, no matter the historical woven paths wandered, through marriages, in what interests us or the options available to people in any time that helped them choose a place to live and be. through these threads the names and expereinces of other local fishermen emerge:

Wilson's Beach - Little Mackeral The Families

The western foreshores of Pittwater are synonymous with early fishing days on the estuary with one beach named, alike Mullet island on the Hawkesbury for the abundance of fish that once ran in season here. Great Mackeral Beach and Little Mackeral Beach, called 'Wilson's Beach' during that family's decades long ownership of the place we now call Currawong, was a place where fishermen resided and early European residents made small farms.
As so many were farmers first, fish were sought to feed their families and for extra income among some changing times.

Little Mackaral Beach, was settled by John Clarke in 1823, a NSW Military Veteran of the 102nd regiment whom Martin Burke had met aboard the ship Tellicherry in 1806. The land was purchased by Martin Burke in 1824. John Clarke moved to Launceston, Tasmania, on retirement. Governor Thomas Brisbane formally granted the land to Burke on 16 January 1835.

Martin Burke was one of the five 'Wicklow Martyrs'. This description of Burke is one of a list of about 45 men who the government had published in Irish newspapers on 26th & 31st July 1799 and on 13th & 16th December 1799. Number 1 on the list was Michael Dwyer:

The following ROBBERS, MURDERERS and DESERTERS are now wandering about, and are occasionally concealed by disaffected persons in the Counties of Wicklow, Wexford, Carlow, Kildare, Dublin &tc and Rewards will be paid for securing such of them as are first mentioned agreeably to a Proclamation dated the 8th day of June last:
....
“MARTIN BURKE, five feet eleven inches high, dark hair, rather fair complexion, long nose bending downwards at the point, uneven teeth, long face, straight in the back, xat? Stoops in the shoulders down from his neck, strong legs and thighs, a little bowed at the knees, walks very upright, [blank] years old, born at or near Imale.

The July notices did not list a reward, however the December notices included a reward of “Two Hundred Guineas for taking him.”
Freemans Journal Tuesday 30 July 1805 page 2:

Thursday evening, Michael Dwyer, Martin Burke, Arthur Develin, Hugh Byrne and John Mernagh [sic], were conveyed from Kilmainham prison, by the Circular-road in carriages, and put on board an armed cutter in the river, which is to carry them to Cove, where a transport destined for Botany Bay, is ready to receive them.”

He was transported on the Tellicherry, arriving here on the 15th of February, 1806. By the end of 1806 Burke had formed a liaison with Phoebe Tunstall, a thirty nine year old convict who had arrived on the Nile from England in 1801 to serve a seven year sentence. Phoebe had been assigned to a small holder, Thomas Andrews, and she had a child by him in 1803. Her husband had operated a shop in Pitt Street in leased premises and, following his death in 1806, Phoebe and her young daughter Sarah, moved to Cabramatta to live with Martin Burke where he had a land grant. 

In late 1806 Martin Burke was arrested and charged with, “an attempt to disturb the good order and discipline of the colony”. It is not known who had brought the charges but in any event they were disproved and Burke was later released. 

Michael O'Dwyre, Hugh Byrne, Martin Burke, John Morner, Thomas McCann, William Morris, Arthur Develyn and Walter Clare, were put to the bar and indicted for conniving and intending to disturb the peace of this colony, by undergoing many persons to revolt from their allegiance, and to rise in open rebellion, which meant to overthrow His Majesty's Government therein, as well upon the 27th day of August last as at other subsequent periods, prior to the prisoners being taken into custody.

The evidence on the part of the Crown was clear and connected. It appeared upon the most respectable testimony, that the conduct of many of that defendants or prisoners who had been exiled for treasonable and seditious practices, had been untoward and highly disrepectful to their masters, at and about the above stated period; and that from this sudden change of conduct, in addition to the various informations that were communicated by persons whose veracity was to be depended on, no other inference was deducible than that the projected insurrection was upon the very point of bursting forth, and that the devoted victims to delusion and artifice were confident of a successful issue.

The prisoners were allowed every assistance requisite to their defence; which after some exculpatory argument, concluded generally with a point blank 
denial of the charge.

The Court was then cleared; and after a minute revision of the evidence, re-opened; when Thomas McCann and William Morris were found guilty, and the others acquitted.—The prisoners were taken from the bar, and ordered to be brought up to receive their sentences the following day; when 
Mr. James Ceroni, chief officer, and Mr. James Jeffries, purser of the General Wellesley, were then put to the bar and indicted on a charge of having seduced from their duty two seamen belonging to His Majesty's ship Porpoise, and encouraged them to desertion by permitting and contriving their secretion on board the ship General Wellesley and elswhere. After a clear and minute investigation, Mr. Jeffries was acquitted, and Mr. Ceroni being found guilty, was fined 20£ and sentenced to be imprisoned six months in His Majesty's gaol at Sydney.

Thomas McCann and William Morris were again brought forward, and ad-dressed by the Judge Advocate; who remarked to them, that notwithstanding the malignity of the crime they were convicted of upon, testimony clear and incontrovertible, yet the penalty incurred thereby did not extend to the lives of the. delinquents ; but the security of society from such foul, sanguinary, and abominable devices, rendered necessary the most exemplary punishment : " The Court did therefore adjudge and sentence them to receive one thousand lashes each; the Court recommending further, that as delinquents of the most dangerous principles and character, be removed by the most speedy conveyance to some remote place, where the baneful influence of their detestible principles might not be disseminated among other ignorant & credulous persons."

In pursuance of their sentence, the prisoners having received a part of their corporal punishment, have been sent away to different settlements, where the remainder will be inflicted.

May this example have a due impression upon the unwary mind, and guard it against the evil counsel of the villain, whose schemes are impotent, & whose presumption can alone be equalled by the rain which must inevitably fall upon himself and his coadjutors.

The odious project which has thus happily been laid open, had been in agi-tation for upwards of a twelvemonth; the secret informations received by Go-vernment rendered vigilance necessary, and every precaution that had been adopted was immediately succeeded by a change of measures among the principal agents in the work of intended massacre —and had their plots succeeded to their wish, dreadful indeed had been the fate of all, whom reason, loyalty, and humanity must inspire with sentiments of abhorrence and disgust at their intended plan of operations. COURT OF CRIMINAL JURISDICTION. (1807, June 7). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627444

William Bligh directed that Martin Burke, should go to Port Dalrymple (Launceston) in Van Diemen’s Land.  While awaiting transportation on board the vessel Porpoise in Sydney Harbour Burke arranged for Father James Harold to conduct a secret marriage service on the ship so that he was legally united with Phoebe Tunstall. While he was away Phoebe bigamously married a soldier, John Butler, at St Phillips Church in Sydney, ignoring the fact that her legal spouse was in exile in Tasmania. When Burke returned to Sydney early in 1809 Phoebe left her new soldier husband and returned with her young daughter, Sarah, to resume her life with Martin Burke. 

The reunion of the couple was marked by ill fortune since the house in which the pair were living caught fire and they were lucky to escape with their lives. Phoebe, Martin and young Sarah were left without any possessions or clothing and were reduced to a state of “extreme distress”. It appears that the other Irish families in the area came to the assistance of Burke and his small family and their house was rebuilt within a short period. 

Late on Tuesday night or early on Wednesday morning, a fire broke out in the farm house of Martin Burke, at George's River; which owing to the roof being thatched, scarce gave the persons, consisting of Burke, his wife, and child, time to escape ; but not a single article of wearing apparel or other property could be saved, by which the sufferers are reduced to extreme distress. SYDNEY. (1809, January 15)The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article627663

In 1809 Burke, along with those he had been transported with, was given a 100 acre land grant at Cabramatta. By 1810 Governor Lachlan Macquarie had arrived in the colony and the State Prisoners presented a joint petition to have their pardons and land grants reconfirmed by the new governor. The five Wicklow men received their pardons in July 1811 and at the same time their finances were given a boost since they received stock from the government herd. In 1812 Martin Burke, at the prompting of Phoebe Tunstall, took the decision to give up farming and leased a tavern in Pitt Street. In that year he sold his Cabramatta farm to an Irishman, Bernard Burn, for the sum of 190 pounds. Burke appears to have succeeded in his new career and in 1813 he took over the lease of another Pitt Street hotel, The Hope and Anchor, paying seventy pounds per annum for the property. 

By 1816 Burke had decided to return to farming and he leased 500 acres at Bringelly from the surveyor, John Oxley, at a fee of thirty pounds per annum. Phoebe Tunstall remained the licensee at the Hope and Anchor but it seems that the hotel was by that time less profitable than it had been, mainly because of the fierce competition in the Pitt Street quarter of Sydney. It was at this time that Martin Burke agreed to become a police constable in the Bringelly area which at that time had a reputation for lawlessness and bushranging. It is evident that Burke needed the pay and provisions which came with the job since by 1820 he was unable to pay the arrears in his lease and John Oxley took him to court for the sum of ninety pounds. 

In July of that year he resigned from his post as Constable at Bringelly but not long after he commenced a similar position at Pittwater. To settle his affairs Burke admitted his debt but as a consequence was forced to default on repayment of the debt and as a result thirty acres of land which he had purchased at Pittwater in 1813 were forfeited. That thirty acres of land was on the west side of the McMahon's creek (Bilgola Plateau and Newport - now in the Crown of Newport series of reserves). John Farrell ended up purchasing it for five pounds.

GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS.
SECRETARY'S OFFICE, 30th SEPT. 1820.
CIVIL DEPARTMENT.

HIS EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, on the Recommendation of WILLIAM MINCHIN, Esquire, Superin-tendent of Police, has been pleased to appoint Martin Burke to be a Constable at Pittwater, Broken Bay.

By His Excellency's Command,
J. T. CAMPBELL, Secretary.
GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS. (1820, September 30). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2179781

Oxley v. Burke.
By Virtue of a Writ of Fieri Facias to me directed, in the above-named Cause, I will Put up and Sell by Public Auction, at my Office, Hunter-street, Sydney, at the Hour 11 o' Clock in the Forenoon, of  Friday the 12th of July, a FARM, containing about 30 Acres of Land, situate at Pitt-water, part cleared; together with a HOUSE, and Growing Crops on the same ; the Property of the Defendant, unless the Execution thereon be previously discharged or superseded.
J. T. CAMPBELL, Provost Marshal Oxley v. Burke. (1822, July 5). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2181127 

Case No,1064,—John Farrell,of Macquarie-street, Sydney
Thirty acres, county of Cumberland, parish of Narrabeen, near Little Reef; commencing at the entrance of a salt water creek, and bounded on the west by Martin Burke's 50 acres, being a line north 44 degrees, west 29 chains ; on the north  by a line east 26 chains to the sea ; and on the east by the sea to the entrance of the salt water creek aforesaid. 
This land was located on an order of Governor Macquarie, in favour of James McNally, who, it is alleged, sold to Martin Burke, against whom the Sheriff sold to claimant. 
COURT OF CLAIMS. (1841, October 8). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1380. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230395565

In 1821 Martin Burke, Phoebe Tunstall and her two daughters (the second girl probably being the child of the soldier, John Butler) moved to Pittwater. 

After losing the thirty acres he then leased 700 acres from d’Arcy Wentworth and once again began farming. It was presumably to provide himself with an additional income that Burke had accepted an appointment as a police constable in the Pittwater region. Like his fellow Irish police officers Burke must have been aware of the irony of the situation which saw a one time bandit chief appointed as an officer of the law but, unlike Dwyer, Burke appears to have been a conscientious, if not very effective, policeman. However there were other colonial citizens who were less assured about the suitability of such an appointment and in 1823 Martin Burke’s private affairs came under scrutiny when his marital status was questioned after an allegation had been made that an officer of the law was openly. “living in sin”. Martin Burke replied to this questioning with a letter to d’Arcy Wentworth in which he explained  that he had been,“ Married in Sydney in 1807 by the Reverent W. (J.) Harold, Catholic clergyman. By this marriage I have no children - but my wife’s two. I have always supported and was allowed their rations at Government store......”

Having at last admitted his secret marriage, he felt more secure in his official position and he proceeded to build a farmhouse near Mona Vale where he established a large garden and soon after he set about purchasing additional cattle. 

In 1818 his step daughter, Sarah, had married an Irish wheelwright, David Foley per Guilford in 1818 and the couple now moved to Pittwater to help Martin and Phoebe run the property. This is the David Foley who was later murdered near his home in 1839.

In 1819 Martin Burke leased an additional 200 acres at Bayview and by 1822 he had 34 head of cattle on the farm. The property had thirty four cleared acres of which three acres were under maize, one acre was producing potatoes and another acre was devoted to a fruit orchard. 

In 1822 Martin Burke was accused of dealing in the “slop” clothing which was issued to prisoners. It appears that he was buying the official clothing which was issued free to convicts, probably in return for liquor, and then selling the garments for profit. It was a cheap and miserable trade since the garments were issued on a yearly basis and, once a convict had parted with his clothing, the winter months would see him ragged and shivering with insufficient protection from the chilly winter days. 

In 1823 John Clark, a Veteran soldier of the 102 Regiment who had come free to the colony per Tellicherry, was granted land about Great and Little Mackerel Beaches (so named for the abundant supplies of this fish caught off the beaches in the early days of settlement). Together with Martin Burke the two men began farming and grazing cattle in the area in a partnership which lasted for a number of years. 

In 1825 Martin Burke subleased his 700 acres to David Foley but he retained the right to graze his cattle on the land as well as to retain one room in the dwelling house and half an acre for a garden. By this time Martin Burke was again the subject of a complaint, the basis of which was that he grazed cattle in the area but had no stockyards or stockmen so that his animals frequently were grazing on the properties of others. 

As Martin Burke was the district pound-keeper the local residents had no means of seeking to have the Burke cattle impounded since Burke would immediately release his own animals while keeping other “stays” firmly under lock and key until hefty pound fees were paid. In 1826 the Superintendent of Police, Captain Rossi, reported on the situation when he wrote, “ the man’s interest is certainly at variance with his public duty”. Rossi recommended that the next constable and pound keeper should be someone who held no land in the area and he went so far to say that, given that Burke had made very few arrests in his six years as a police officer, he did not appear to be very diligent in the execution of his duties. Martin Burke was now in his mid fifties and, as his suitability for the role of officer of the law had been called into question, he may have been ready to give up the role of policeman. By 1828 Martin Burke had moved once more, to McIntosh’s 200 acre grant at present Bayview. Of the 200 acres, 12 had been cleared and cultivated, and he had 34 head of cattle. Living with Burke, then aged 57, were a 69 year old invalid named John Clarke, and two labourers. A map in surveyor Larmer’s field book showed Burke still living on McIntosh’s 200 acres in 1832.

Robert McIntosh Junior sold the 200 acres to William Timothy Cape on 6 June 1834, and this may well have been the time that Burke moved to Mackerel Beach.He continued to work on the property which he had leased until the acreage was sold in 1829. [1.]

Burke had remained friends with a soldier on the Tellicherry, John Clarke, who was entitled to select a grant of 100 acres when the Royal Veterans Company was disbanded on 24 September 1823. Clarke selected 100 acres of land, consisting of 60 acres at Great Mackerel Beach and 40 acres at Little Mackerel Beach. Martin Burke purchased the land from him in February 1824. 

By 1824 Burke was the sole owner of the land at Little Mackeral and Great Mackeral. 

9. Cumberland, fifty acres, parish of Broken Bay, situated at the basin at Pitt-water, commencing at a marked tree in a small bay, and bounded on the west by a line north 22 chains ; on the north by a line east 25 chains to Pitt-water; and on the south east and all other sides by that water to the marked tree. Applied for by Martin Burke. Price five shillings per acre. Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 5th Nov. 1833. SALE OF LAND. (1833, November 11). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12848144

CUMBERLAND-50 Acres Parish of Broken Bay, and at the Basin at Pittwater; applied for by Martin Burke ; price 5s. per Acre No Title. (1834, January 14). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 Edition: MORNING. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32145420

No. 188. By Martin Burke, of Pitt Water, to 100 acres of land, promised by Sir Thomas Brisbane to John Clarke, now of Launceston, a pensioner of the 102 ½ regiment, described as follows: situate in the county of Cumberland, parish of Broken Bay, 60 acres at Great Mackerel Beach, (in the western shore of Pitt Water, and 40 acres adjoining and extending towards an inlet called the Basin, bounded on the north by James Retbey's 40 acres, on the west by a line south 46 chains, in the south by a line east 18 chains, and on the east by the Little Mackerel Beach, Pitt Water, and The Great Mackerel Beach. CLAIMS TO LAND. (1834, April 28). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12849194

John Clarke passed away in 1939, at Launceston:
DIED.—On the 29th Dec., at the Springs, Mr. John Clarke, aged 80. Family Notices (1840, January 7). Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8750406

By this time Phoebe Tunstall had died and Martin Burke began to prepare for retirement, gradually disposing of his holdings but he retained the house, outhouses and enough land to support himself with hens and vegetables. 

In 1832 William Booth also claimed he had been promised the land, which he was farming, but possibly because Booth had made no improvements the first Crown grant was given to Martin Burke in 1835. 

Burke’s final years were spent in a wooden cottage near Mackerel Beach where he was close to old friends, the Sheehan and Flynn families. Martin was still living at Mackerel Beach at the time of the 1841 census but he became ill in 1842 and then moved to the Benevolent Asylum, a home for old men, where he died peacefully at the age of 72 and was buried on July 30th 1842. 

109. Robert Mackintosh, senior, 200, Two hundred Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North-east corner of Robert Mackintosh, junior, forty acres, and bounded on the west by that farm by a line South thirty-fit e degrees West thirty-two chains; on the South by a line South fifty-five degrees East fifty-two chains fifty links to Jeremiah Bryant's eighty acres ; on the East by Bryant's eighty acres and Peter Patillo's eighty acres by a line North thirty-five degrees East thirty-nine chains toPitt Water; and on the North by the waters of Pitt Water to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 1stOctobevr, 1017.' Quit-rent 4s. sterling perannum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
110. Peter Patillo, 80, Eighty Acres,Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North-east corner of Robert Mackintosh's two hundred acres, and bounded on the West by that farm by a line South thirty-five degrees West twenty sixchains fifty links to the North corner of Jeremiah Bryant's eighty acres ; on the South by Bryant by a line South seventy-four and a-half degrees East thirty-eight chains fifty links to a swamp called " Winne Jeramy ;" and on the East and North by that Swamp and Pitt Water to the commencing corner,
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 10th January, 1810. Quit-rent 1s. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
111. Jeremiah Bryant, 80, Eighty Acres,Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the South-east corner of Peter Patillo's eighty acres, and bounded on the North by that farm by a line. North seventy-four and "a-half degrees West thirty-eight chains fifty links to Robert Mackintosh's two hundred acres'; on the West by that farm by a line South thirty-five degrees West twenty-three chains; on the West by a line South thirty-five degrees East twenty-five chains to a swamp ; and on the East by the swamp to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 12th March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum,commencing 1st January, 1827.
112. John Taylor, 30, Thirty Acres, Parishof Narrabeen, commencing at the South-westcorner of John Williams' sixty acres, and bounded on the East by J. J. Therry's twelvehundred acres by a lire South twenty-threechains to a small Bay ; and on the South-west and North by the waters of Pitt Water to the
commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 16th January, 1316. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum,commencing 1st January, 1827.
113. Thomas Warner, 50, Fifty Acres,Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the Northcast corner, and bounded on the East by a sideHue of twenty-five chains; on the South by aWest line of twenty-five chains to Pitt Water;and on the West and North by the waters ofPitt Water to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31stMarch, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum,commencing 1st January, 1827.
114. Henry Gaskin, 50, Fifty Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North-east corner of Warner's fifty acres, and bounded on the West by a South line of twenty-nine chains; on the South by an East line of twenty chains ; on the East by a North line of twenty four chains to Pitt Water ; and on the North by the waters of Pitt Water to the commencing corner. Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31st March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per tan-num, commencing 1st January, 1827.
115. John Joseph Therry, 1200, One thousand two hundred Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the South-east comer of the Government Reserve of two hundred and eighty acres, and bounded on the North by that Reserve by a line West twenty-five chains to a Stream ; on the North by that Stream and Ca-reel Bay to the North-east corner of Henry Gaskin's fifty acres; on the West by Gaskin's by a line South twenty-four chains ; on the South by a line West twenty chains, and again by a line North four chains to the South-east corner of. Warner's fifty acres; on the North by Warner by a line West twenty-five chains to Pitt Water; on the West by the waters of Pitt Water to the North-west coiner of John William's sixty acres ; on the South by that farm by a line South fifty degrees East 38 chains ; on the West by a line South forty decrees West sixteen chains ; on the North by a line North fifty degrees West thirty-nine chains to the North corner of John Taylor's thirty acres ; on the West by Taylor by a line South twenty three chains to Pitt Water ; on the West by the waters of Pitt Water to the North-west corner of James M'Donald's thirty acres ; on the South by that farm by a line East eleven chains ; on the West by a line South twenty-three chains to Robert Melvyn's sixty acres; on the South by part of Melvyn's farm, and by Porter's and Anderson's farms by a line East fifty chains to Martin Burke's fifty acres; on the East by that farm by a line North six chains to a Stream ; on the East by that Stream, which is the Western boundary of John Farrell's sixty acres; on the South by that farm by a line East twenty-eight chains to the Village Reserve of one hundred acres ; on the East by part of the Village Reserve by a line North seven chains to a Stream ; on the South by that Stream, which is the North boundary of the Village Reserve to the Sea; and on the East by the Sea to the commencing comer.
Promised by Sir Thomas Brisbane, 200 acres, on 23d July, 1824 ; 500 acres on 1st September,1824; and 500 acres on the 19th December,1825. Quit-rent £9 8s. 4d. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1829.
116. John Farrell, 60, Sixty Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the North corner of Martin Burke's fifty acres and James M'Nally's thirty acres, and bounded on the South by M'Nally by a line East ten chains; on the East by the Village Reserve by a line North twenty-eight chains ; on the North by aline West twenty-eight chains to a Stream; on the West by that Stream to Martin Burke's fifty acres ; and on the East by that farm by a line North three chains to the commencing corner.
Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31st March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
117. Martin Burke, 50, Fifty Acres, Parish of Narrabeen, commencing at the South-east corner of Robert Anderson's sixty acres, and bounded on the West by that farm, by a line North thirty-six chains; on the East by James M'Nally's thirty acres, by a line South forty four degrees East twenty-nine chains, to the entrance of a salt water creek; and on the South by that creek to the commencing corner. Promised by Governor Macquarie on 31st March, 1821. Quit-rent Is. sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1827.
Classified Advertising. (1832, November 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2209217

Burke leased the 40 acres (16 hectares) that included Little Mackerel Beach to Patrick Flynn or Flinn. According to Honorah Collins, a long-term resident of the area in the 1880s, Patrick Flynn lived at Little Mackerel Beach between 1850 and 1854. Flynn/Flinn also leased Nappers Grant (Barrenjoey) from 1844 until 1850/51 and was known for his excellent vegetables and beautiful garden.

Patrick Flinn was listed in Low’s 1847 directory as landholder, Pitt Water. Patrick Flinn or Flynn arrived in Sydney by the Southworth on 9 March 1822. A ploughman and soldier, he had been convicted and sentenced to life transportation at Wexford County in March 1821, at the age of 30. His birth place was Limerick, and his native place Cork.  Patrick was already living at Pittwater in September 1830, when the Sydney Bench recommended he be given his Ticket of Leave. He was allowed to remain in the District of Pittwater. 

Government Notice.
Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 29th November, 1830.
HIS Excellency the Governor will hold His ANNUAL CONFERENCE with the CHIEFS and TRIBES of the NATIVES on Wednesday, the 5th of January next, at the Hour of Eleven in the Forenoon, at the Market-place, Parramatta.
By His Excellency's Command,
ALEXANDER McLEAY._
Public Notice.
Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 22d Dec. 1830.
THE following Prisoners of the Crown have obtained Tickets of Leave since the last day of Publication; viz:—
County of Cumberland.
PITTWATER.
Flynn Patrick, Southworth
Classified Advertising (1830, December 25). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from  http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2196864 

Just prior to his wife's passing another man's name appears, indicating the Flinns may have left their Barrenjoey farm prior to this:

NOTICE.-All Cattle and Horse's found trespassing on the lands of Barranjoey, Broken Bay, will be either impounded or the owners thereof sued for such trespasses.
RICHARD WILLIAMS.
May 4. 
Advertising (1851, May 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12926821

DEATHS.
At her residence, Parramatta-street, on Thursday, the 11th instant, after a protracted illness, Honora, the wife of Mr. Patrick Flinn, late of Pittwater, aged 60. Family Notices (1852, June 19). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60136311 

Patrick passed away a decade later:
DEATHS.
FLINN—At the residence of Mr. James Powell, Datchett-street, Balmain, Mr. Patrick Flinn,  late of Pitt Water, aged 84 years. Family Notices (1862, May 22). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60475764 

On 6 November 1834 Martin Burke sold the Great Mackeral 60 acres to James Marks for £50, provided that Burke should occupy the house and outhouses and three acres of the land during the term of his natural life.

The Little Mackeral section then passed to Cornelius Sheehan who leased it to various people. Cornelius Sheehan was tried at Cork City Court in 1823 and sentenced to 7 years. He sailed from Cork Ireland on 28 September 1823 on the transport ship Castle Forbes and arrived in Port Jackson on 15 January 1824. He was 44 years old, 5ft 7¼, brown eyes, bald-headed, brown complexion.

He was assigned at first to the Minto Road Party. By 1828 he was an assigned servant to Mr. James Jenkins at Long Reef when the following event was reported in the Monitor 19 March 1828:-
SUPREME CRIMINAL COURT, SATURDAY 8th. – John Naturau and William Rose, were indicted for stealing twelve bags, containing twelve bushels of maize, value £6 from the store of Mr. Jenkins, at Long-reef on the eleventh day of February last. Cornelius Sheehan, an assigned servant to Mr. Jenkins, deposed, that on the day in question, he left his master’s house to get some bullocks. On his approaching the creek, he saw a boat lying in the basin. There was no person in the boat. Three or four minutes after, he saw two men come out of his master’s paddock, and upon asking them who or what they wanted? was answered, they came on shore to look for fresh water. They enquired if his master wanted to purchase any oil, as they had some in the boat? Witness replied no; his master bought his oil in Sydney. They then went to their boat, and put away from the shore. Witness observed then put in again about 20 or 30 rods further up the creek, and having left their boat some time, he further saw them return with four bags, containing something, and put them into the boat. Witness then ran to the store, and missing four bags of maize, proceeded on to his master’s residence, which was about a mile distant, keeping the men in sight the whole of the time. Witness, by his master’s desire, procured a boat and a man named Hill, also in Mr. Jenkins’s service, and pursued the prisoners, who were making off. 
He captured them. Witness remained on shore, and on searching more closely, discovered there were six bags gone from the store, when the boat was brought back. He saw six bags in the boat, which he swears were his master’s property. Mr. Justice Dowling – Was the store always kept locked? Witness – It was; ....

Cornelius married Isabella Hindson on 22 October 1832. Their abode was Pittwater. They were living at Mackerel Bay in a wooden house at the time of the 1841 census, with Martin Burke and Patrick Flinn living in houses nearby.

On 19 December 1854 Patrick Flinn, his daughter Ellen and her husband Henry Merritt assigned their lease of Little Mackerel Beach to Cornelius Sheehan for £45. [LTO Book 40 No.52]

Cornelius is described in records as being a farmer at Pittwater, but whether he lived at Little Mackerel Beach or elsewhere is difficult to ascertain. The Sheehans appear to have been very quiet people. Isabella died in 1859, aged 84, and Cornelius died at Pittwater in September 1864. Jane Boxwell, known also as Jane Sheehan (Cornelius’ de facto wife?), married Thomas Cooper in 1865. 

On the 14th of January 1871 Thomas and Jane Cooper conveyed the land at Little Mackerel Beach to Joseph Starr, who was already living there, for £45. [LTO Book 128 No.186]  On 4 June 1872 Joseph Starr of Sydney, mariner, conveyed to Thomas and Sarah Wilson of Pittwater the 40 acre land grant at Little Mackerel Beach, for £60. The property was in Sarah’s name, with her son-in-law, James Tobin of Manly Beach as trustee. 

STARR-April 21,1887, accidentally drowned, off ketch Agnes Rose, whilst on her voyage to Port Stephens, Captain Joseph Starr, an old resident of Pyrmont. R. I. P. Family Notices (1887, May 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13651804

STARR.— April 21, 1887, accidentally drowned, off ketch Agnes Rose, Captain Joseph Starr. Family Notices (1887, May 21). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1088. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163280249

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION.
In the estate, goods, chattels, credits, and effects of Joseph Starr, late of Pyrmont, in the Colony of New South Wales, master mariner, deceased, intestate.
NOTICE is hereby given that after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication hereof, application will be made to the Supreme Court of New South Wales, in its Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, that letters of administration of all and singular the ate, good*, chattels, credits, and effects of Joseph Starr, late of Pyrmont, in the Colony of New South Wales, master mariner, deceased, who departed this life on the 21st day of April last, intestate, may be granted to Mary Ann Starr, of Pyrmont, in the Colony aforesaid, the widow of the said deceased.—Dated at Sydney, this 7th day of May, a.d. 1887.

WILLIAM ROBERTS,
Proctor for Administratrix,
165, York-street, Sydney.
3361 6s. 6d.
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1887, May 10). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 3146. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224296296

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION.
In the goods, chattels, credits, and effects of Joseph Starr, late of Pyrmont, in the City of Sidney, master mariner, deceased, intestate.
NOTICE is hereby given, that the accounts of Mary Am Starr, the administratrix in the above estate, have this day been filed in the proper office of this Honorable Court; and all persons having claims on the slid estate, or being otherwise interested therein, may come in before me, at my office, at the Supreme Court-house, King-street, in Sydney, on or before Friday, the 22nd day of March instant, at 11 o'clock in (he forenoon, and inspect the said accounts, and if they shall think fit object thereto.—Dated at Sydney, this 7th day of March, a.d. 1889.

(L.S.) T. W. GARRETT,
Registrar of Probates of the Supreme Court. William Roberts,
Proctor for the said Administratrix,
165, York-street, Sydney.
2171 6s. 6d. ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1889, March 8). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1862. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223990425

The Wilson family owned Little Mackarel until 1908, when the property was known as "Wilsons Beach". They, too, had previously been on the acreage named 'Mona Vale' by David Foley and they too were subjected to the Farrells tendency to try and rule other neighbours or drive them out.

Thomas Wilson arrived in Sydney on the Lady Nugent from England, on 6 April 1835. He was aged 21, single, a Protestant who could read and write. He came from Kent, and was a skinner and poulterer. With no former conviction, he was found guilty of assault and robbery at Montgomery quarter sessions on October 17th 1833, and sentenced to seven years. 

He was 5 feet 4¾ inches tall, with a ruddy and freckled complexion, brown hair and grey eyes, his eyebrows partially meeting. Among various marks and scars, he had (presumably tattooed) a sun, half moon, seven stars and a crucifix inside his lower left arm. In 1837 he was assigned to William George at Long Reef Farm, and was still there in January 1839. 

He received his Ticket of Leave on 29 May 1839, “allowed to remain in the District of Pitt Water”. He was living at Pittwater in a wooden house with another single male at the time of the 1841 census. With his wife, sometimes known as Priscilla and sometimes as Sarah, he had many children: 

1. WILSON Mary Jane,   b. 1843,   d. 12 Jul 1924, Manly Cottage Hospital, North Head, Sydney, NSW, Australia  
2. WILSON Emily L,   b. 25 Jan 1845, Lane Cove, NSW. Australia  ,   d. 31 Aug 1927, Mount Morgan, Qld.Australia  
3. WILSON Thomas,   b. 1847,   d. Yes, date unknown
4. WILSON Alfred,   b. 1849,   d. 6 Jul 1910, 15 Wilson Lane, Redfern, NSW.Australia  
5. WILSON Nancy Nelson,   b. 8 May 1852, Pittwater, New South Wales , Australia  ,   d. 7 Mar 1934, Gladesville, New South Wales, Australia  
6. WILSON Pauline,   b. 1854, Broken Bay, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1941, Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia  
7. WILSON Edward,   b. 1857,   d. 1935
8. WILSON Priscilla,   b. 1859, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1944, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
9. WILSON Clara Matilda,   b. 1862,   d. 1901, Vaucluse, NSW.Australia  
10. WILSON Richard William Henry,   b. 1864,   d. 1945, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
11. WILSON Bertha Rowena,   b. 1866, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 24 May 1944, Woy Woy, New South Wales, Australia  
12. WILSON Blanche A,   b. 1868, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1870, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
13. WILSON Edgar Rock,   b. 1873,   d. 1944, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia  

Mary Jane married James Tobin in 1861, Emily married James Warren in 1870, Thomas married Frances Oliver in 1870, Nancy married Albert H. Turner in 1872. A marriage between Thomas Wilson I and [Sarah] Priscilla Cundah in 1870 is recorded in the N.S.W. Births, Deaths and Marriages, suggesting that until this date it was a de facto marriage.

At a sale of land held at Sydney on 15 December 1853, Thomas Wilson and William Mildwater as tenants in common purchased Lot 33 at Curl Curl Creek (now Manly Creek), to the east of John Wheeler’s 100 acres. They paid £80 for 80 acres, and the deed of grant was issued on 13 February 1855. [LTO SN99/243] Wilson may have lived on this land for some years, as he had a house and land, freehold, in 1859, and Sand’s Directory listed him as gardener, Lagoon, in 1863, and farmer, Pittwater-road from 1865 to 1869, while William Mildwater was a grocer in Whistler Street, Manly.

The Wilsons were tenants of “Mona Vale” during the years 1866 to 1872. Alike the Foley family and Therry family before them they experienced the machinations of the Farrell family living at Newport who, it would seem, wanted no competition in the dairying occupation locally and would kill innocent animals and at least one person to serve their ends:

Mona Vale, Pitt Water District.— It seems that the spirit of animosity towards the tenants of this homestead has only been slumbering, and has now broken out afresh. The snake was only scotched, not killed. It will be in the recollection of many of our readers that we have had to report cattle stealing, cattle shooting, and even murder as having occurred in this district. Now again, the destruction of cattle has commenced, without the authors of such atrocities at present having been discovered. No later than last Wednesday, a valuable bull was missed from the paddocks at Mona Vale, at present occupied by Mr. Thomas Wilson, long well known as a resident of the Manly Beach and Pitt Water districts. Due search, as a matter of course, was made for the animal, which was subsequently found dead, having evidently been destroyed by a gunshot wound. This loss to Mr. Wilson is serious, as the bull was of a superior breed, and the only one on his run. A bullock belonging to a Mr. McMahon, residing on the North Shore, was also found dead from a similar cause, and the carcass was about a quarter of a mile from that of the bull, and on the same property. How far the authorities have been correct or justified in tho removal of the mounted troopers from the immediate vicinity of these occurrences it is not for us to say, but it is impossible for one sergeant or one policemen, resident at Manly, although mounted, to attend to the whole of the district and the requirements nearer at home. Sydney Empire 13 instant. GOONDIWINDI. (1867, March 20). The Toowoomba Chronicle and Queensland Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article212781143 


f.109 Mona Vale road to Broken Bay. Image No.: a5894117h from album: Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales

On 4 August 1870 Wilson saw John Farrell III driving some of his (Wilson’s) cattle on the side of a hill (Bushranger’s Hill) towards Farrell’s farm. A three-year-old heifer who was within six weeks of calving was missed, and after investigating, the police arrested Farrell and charged him with having portion of a stolen carcase in his possession. The legal proceedings were protracted, and while at the Central Criminal Court, Thomas Wilson received the shocking news that his daughter Blanche, aged 2 years and 2 months, had drowned at Mona Vale in a shallow pond about eighteen inches deep, on 11 November 1870. 

During the months this trial went on one report refers to where the family must have wanted to move, after the loss of their little daughter, soon after its conclusion, and tells of one who was based nearby, fishing, in the years prior to moving closer to what is now called Newport. The little girl was buried at st. John's anglican Church, then on the headland of Mona Vale-Bungan and part of the farm.

The testimomny of one Mr. Driver also seems to point to a community fear of the Farrells - no one gets over someone killing their dog with an axe - it also marks the third successive farmers on the premises who had had animals brutally killed by the Farrells:

WATER POLICE COURT.-WEDNESDAY.
(Before the "Water Police Magistrate and Mr. Kettle.)
John Farrell, junior, on remand, was charged with having a portion of a carcase of a stolen beast in his possession, the property of Thomas Wilson. Senior-constable Carton, stationed at Manly Beach, gave evidence corroborative of sergeant Bloomfield :

By Mr. Driver: Wilson complained of losing cattle. He also complained of losing a horse by shooting through the head. The horse reported to witness as being shot, he saw dead. Has had many conversations with prisoner's father. The beef was taken out of the cask and put in again. Witness wished to have it weighed. The steelyards wore there, but prisoner said the pea was lost. Defendant did not get the pea and give it to him. Bloomfield did not say ho could not weigh with steelyards. Witness would swear he did not see the pen. Could not say that prisoner appeared reluctant in answering questions. He did not say that he was going to wash him-self. He was shaking very much. He said it was from the cold. He did not hesitate to answer any questions. Did not say anything to him about answering questions. Witness did not say, "If you don't answer my questions and mind what you are about, in half-on-hour I'll have you by the wool." He was on the road all that night. He left Manly after twelve o'olock at night. He had a glass of grog before he left home, another at Wilson's, and some from a Husk that Wilson had with him. He was perfectly sober when he went to ' Farrell's. He may have smelt of liquor. He took sundry glasses before he commenced to search. He may have staggered when walking through Farrell’s house. He saw Farréll's brothers and sisters, and they had a good opportunity of seeing him. Witness does not drink much, he can't afford it. He does not take drink for nothing, although he took it from Wilson. Swears he did not take the branding-iron in his hand and place it on the safe, and ask, "If that is the way it is you put oaf" The steelyards were hanging; in the skillion. The pig that he saw was divided into two parts. He saw it in the barn on the Monday night. He has been engaged in garden work for a couple of years, but not in farming pursuits. He could not swear that the calf he saw had not been slipped. Could not swear that the paunch he saw was not that of a pig. He only judges from the masticated food in it. He has talked about the case very often. Knows another Farrell, a farmer. There is an old man in charge of the farm. He went there to search for prisoner. He also went to Mr. Hellery's, at Middle Harbour, to execute a search warrant, but did not execute it. The only search they made there was to look into the beef cask. The search warrant was obtained on his (witness's) information.
He has the warrant in court. It is granted the 9th of August, 1870. Mr. Smithers granted it. Does not know where the information is. On leaving the house, he did not hear Bloomfield call out to prisoner don't shoot any more cattle. Heard Bloomfield ask Farrell when ho killed the last beast, He replied. "Three or four weeks." Can't say that Bloomfield asked him if he could not say exactly. Bloomfield did not ask him if he killed a cow at Narrabeen.
Thomas Wilson, a farmer, residing at Monavale, Pitt Water, deposed that he saw prisoner on the fourth of this month, on horseback. Witness was in the road walking homo. He saw prisoner riding round some cattle of his and heading them up. Prisoner was on his (witness’s) farm then. Witness was talking to a man named Leek, and observed prisoner driving the cattle over the hill towards his" (prisoner's) place. Witness just came from the herd, and noticed the cattle. He did not notice' any particular one more than another. He noticed them all. The heifer in question was about four years old, and was red and white. He missed her the next day. She was heavy in calf, and was "ear marked," and no other brand. She was amongst the mob prisoner was driving. Have not seen her since, but looked for her the next day (Friday) in the same place that he saw her the previous day, but did not find her. He saw all the others there, and on Saturday morning he went out with his son and searched from nine o'clock until dark. He saw where the cattle had been driven over the bridge that separates the two farms. It rained on the Wednesday and he tracked where they were driven buck. Followed the tracks to within three or four hundred yards of prisoner's house. He also saw a horse track going and returning, following the cattle tracks. After making these searches he applied for a search warrant, and obtained one on his sworn information. The following Sunday he accompanied sergeant Bloomfield and constable Carton to prisoner's house. He heard the constable caution him, and asked him if he had any fresh moat about the house. After-wards found some meat in a cask. Prisoner said he got it from Wilson, the butcher, at Manly. Whilst the constables were searching, witness saw prisoner shake his head at a little boy, and he went out to the stock-yard as hard as he could go. Witness ran after him and saw him covering over something with cornstalks. Witness pulled the cornstalks from off the things, and found a young calf, and portions of the inside, under them. They seemed to be quite fresh. The calf was within six weeks of maturity. He has had thirty-five yours' experience amongst cattle. The appearance of the calf showed that it had been taken from the cow.
Had cautioned prisoner scores of times not to go on his run shooting and hunting, and went to his father’s house five or six week ago to complain of him. Never saw him on the run without a waddy, toma-hawk, or gun. He went to prisoner about cattle that he had lost before. Prisoner was never employed by witness. They did not visit each others places. 

By Mr. Driver : Had experience in cattle at Kent, England. Knew about cows before he went to "Wheeler's. From there he went to the bason. He was occupied there in fishing, for about six or seven years. He devoted his time there to breeding of cattle. He is rather hard of hearing. His sight is very good, considering his age. He is forty-six. Has not been mistaken on any occasion the last two or three months. Don't recollect the 2nd of April last. Don't remember reporting that he lost a black heifer on that day. His memory is pretty good. He told constable Carton then that young Farrell had been seen the previous day trespassing and dodging round his cows, but won't swear it. Might have told his father so, and if he did, he told the truth. He made a complaint to Cherry that had lost a red bullock that he purchased at Lane Cove. He never told anybody that it was killed at Pitt Water. Cherry sent him word that it had strayed back. Farrell, senior, was the first man to inform him where the bullock was.

-The court adjourned for lunch, and on its resumption, Mr. Driver continued the cross-examination : He saw young Farrell on the Little Reef Hill. He saw Leek working on the road when he spoke to him. It might be 600 or 700 yards away. It was from there he saw young Farrell. Cannot recollect whether there was any rain on the Thursday. It is not generally a sandy country. Sometimes large mobs of cattle run on his farm. As near, as he could guess, there was about thirty head of his cattle there. Did not go on his land. The bridge that he tracked the cattle across is about twelve or fourteen feet wide. He tracked them on the soft country. Constable Carton culled at his house towards Sunday morning.' Witness put a bottle containing brandy on the table. Can't say if Carton drank any. He took about three nobblers in a Husk to Farrell's. Carton drank some of that. Prisoner denied having fresh meat when asked by Sergeant Bloomfield, but afterwards showed the police some meat in a cask. Saw steelyards there. Bloomfield asked if anybody could weigh with the steelyards. Did not hear Farrell say that he could. Bloomfield asked witness if he could weigh with steelyards. They were got, but the pea was not an them ; it was produced after-wards ; young Farrell threw it, and said, " Here it is." On being questioned by the police, Farrell said he got it all from the butcher at Manly. He has no ill-feeling towards the Farrells. After they killed his dog with an axe he shook hands with them and made it up. 
To the Bench : The farms are not fenced in. Prisoner's house is about a mile and a half from witness's ; there is no boundary fence.

-James Wilson, butcher at Manly Beach, stated : Remembers sergeant Bloomfield going to him und inquiring about some meat; it was on a Sunday early in this month. He never sold prisoner any meat ; his shopman sold fifty pounds of salt meat to prisoner's father and mother. Can't say if it was sent to Pitt Water. The sale was effected on the 29th of July. Bloomfield showed him some meat at the watch-house ; they were rounds, and briskets It was neither fresh nor salt ; it appeared to him to have been put in pickle. One piece looked like his beef. It was not cut up as butchers usually cut up meat. It did not appear to have been put in good pickle. It would have kept as well without the pickle as with it in the same state as he saw it. Prisoner sent him a hide on the 15th of July. He sent up some before, but none since. Witness got the last hide from his (prisoner's) mother.
-By Mr. Driver : Has had experience in the butchering.' Farrell's family occasionally dealt with him. They have bought both fresh and salt meat in largo quantities. Beef would keep a long time in this weather. Persons unacquainted with the process of curing meat, and taking up a piece of it, would say it was corn beef. Beef taken out of pickle and placed in bags, and conveyed some distance,' would, by knocking about, probably look fresher than it was. He saw some pork amongst it. 
-By the Bench : The meat that Bloomfield showed him was leaner than what the fifty pounds was that he sold to Farrell's mother. It takes three or four days to properly corn and press beef. 
By Mr. Driver : He did not see the beef weighed and sent away.
-George Marshall: Sold fifty pounds of salt beef on the 29th July to prisoner's father. Has seen the meat that was seized at prisoner's place (at Manly Beach police-station). He could pick out a piece or two that he sold ; it did not all look alike. He saw about 1001b of meat. Does not believe that the rest of the beef, with the exception of one or two pieces, was that sold by him. The mass of beef that he saw differed very much ; it was-not so salt; it was differently cut up, that is another reason why he thinks it is not the same, The meat he saw was the meat of a small beast. He never bought beef from prisoner.' At the time he saw the meat he believed it had been in pickle for twenty four hours.
-By Mr. Driver : He could not tell how long it had been killed. Very likely it might keep a month this weather. Would sworn that he has not been speaking to Mr. Bloomfield outside the court. Has been butchering about thirteen years. Some of the meat he saw was sold to Farrell's people. Carrying meat out of pickle would alter its appearance materially.
-To the Bench : The meat he saw was lean, and did not correspond with the meat he sold. 
- Charles Leek, a roadmaker at Pitt Water, knows the prisoner; also knows Wilson. Recollects being with him on the 4th of this month. Saw prisoner on horseback driving cattle. He went out of witness's sight. Does not know what direction he was going. He was on the top of the hill, a good distance from where he was at work.
-By. Mr." Driver : It was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon. He was about a quarter of a mile away. Can't tell how ho was dressed. He was riding a bay horse Don't know how it was branded. Swear point blank it was him. If he saw Mr. Driver as many times at he has seen prisoner he could toll him. He may have been a mile away, from Wilson's house. He was more than three hundred yards away from Wilson's house. It might be three-quarters of a mile He was working alongside the telegraph line. Swears there was more than ten posts between where he was working and Wilson's house.
-To Mr Windeyer : He is positive it was prisoner. He is not mistaken about him at all. He was with him the night before. The court adjourned at four o'clock until Monday next, at eleven o'clock. Bail extended.
WATER POLICE COURT.—WEDNESDAY. (1870, August 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63110542 

In February 1871 John Farrell III was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment with hard labour in Parramatta gaol, but was transferred to Port Macquarie penal settlement.

While Thomas Wilson was at “Mona Vale”, his North Manly farm was let to Charles Brady, a silk grower, and his wife. In June 1870 there was a distress for rent, and Wilson sold Brady’s furniture, silkworms, etc. Wilson was present at the sale on 22 June, and purchased some goods himself. When he proceeded to take the goods away, Brady saw that the silkworms were being destroyed and remonstrated with Wilson, who agreed to leave them on payment of £1 to bind the bargain. Brady stated that he had agreed to make up the deficiency in rent, and Wilson had agreed to bring the furniture back for the price he had paid for it. About a month later Brady was ready to pay, but there was disagreement between the two, resulting in court cases in 1872. The court held that the goods belonged to Wilson. [SMH 12 June 1872] A perjury case brought by Brady against Wilson was dismissed. [SMH 17 June 1872]

Wilson and Mildwater offered the western half of their North Manly grant for sale in 1877. It was described thus:
“Manly Beach - Valuable block of land, in all about forty acres on the North Bank of Curl Curl Lagoon, about 1½ mile from the Pier at Manly, being the western half of Mildwater’s and Wilson’s grant, adjoining Wheeler’s 100 acre grant. It has been in cultivation, was formerly fenced, and otherwise improved. The greater portion of the land is rich alluvial soil, in every respect admirably adapted for Market Gardens, and the elevated parts are suitable as good Building Sites.

The attention of Capitalists, Speculators, Builders, and others is directed to the sale, as it is now but seldom that so large a block of land, within such easy distance of the steamers’ wharf at Manly is offered in one lot.” [SMH 10 Oct 1877; ML Subdivision map M5/205] -  [1.] 

In October 1880 Thomas nominated his youngest son, Edgar Rock, aged 7, as a pupil in the school which was being established at Church Point. He would be attending the school in company with his nieces and nephews, the children of his brother Thomas, who lived at Church Point, and the children of his sister Nancy, married to Albert Turner, who lived at Bayview, and later at Careel Bay. 

Prior to that (1865) four of the Wilson children had attended Manly Beach National School where Mr Thompson was the teacher. 

On the 6th of May 1892, at just 45 years of age, Mr. Turner drowned whilst returning home to Stokes Point from Bayview.

Fisherman Drowned.
The Manly police were informed on Sunday night that the body of a fisherman named Albert Turner, who lived at Stockpoint, Careel Bay, Fittwater, had been found that morning in Broken Bay, near Hazeldon. On Friday last Turner visited his brother in law Thomas Wilson at Bayview, and in the evening deceased left the house to return home in his sailing boat. Next day the boat was found on the rocks, with the sails set, by a man named Ball, and, believing that Turner had been drowned, a search was at once instituted, with the result that his body was found on Sunday morning. Deceased leaves a widow and seven children. Fisherman Drowned. (1892, May 9).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112947928 

Last night information was given to the Manly Police that the body of a man named Albert Turner, fisherman of Stokes Point, Careel Bay Pittwater, was found that morning in Broken Bay near …..? It seems that Turner on Friday afternoon had been on a visit to his brother-in-law, Thomas Wilson, who resides at Bay View Cottage, Bay View. He had been out fishing during the week in a sailing boat after having visited his brother-in-law was seen off in the boat on Friday night.
Nothing more was heard of him until his boat was found ashore on the rocks by a person named Henry Ball, with the sails set, but unoccupied. On this news reaching Turner’s friends they immediately went in search of him. His body was found by Thomas Oliver in the water, about a quarter of a mile from where the boat was discovered. It is surmised that deceased must have fallen out of the boat. Turner leaves a widow and seven children.”
(SMH Monday 9 May 1892 P.5)

A magisterial inquiry was held by the city Coroner at Pittwater, on Monday, on the body of the man Albert Turner, who was found drowned on the rocks at Broken Bay on Sunday morning. No fresh particulars were elicited, and a finding of accidentally drowned was recorded.” (SMH Wednesday 11 May 1892 P.7)

After Albert Henry Turner’s death, Nancy married John Shepherd Mulford of Careel Bay in 1895. John arrived in Sydney on 9th Apr 1886 aboard the Mariposa, from San Francisco.. Soon after her first husband's death they went and lived at Little Mackarel Beach, Pittwater and had two children, Castille and John Elmer, who were both born there.

Child 5 | Female
WILSON Nancy Nelson
Born  8 May 1852  Pittwater, New South Wales , Australia  
Died  7 Mar 1934  Gladesville, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried  9 Mar 1934  Waverley Cemetery, New South Wales, Australia  

Spouse  TURNER Albert Henry | F1556 
Married  16 Sep 1872  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Spouse  MULFORD John Shepherd, ,son of Castile and Subrino Mulford | F6307 
Married  3 Jul 1895  St David's, Surry Hills, , New South Wales, Australia  

Full Name Albert Henry Turner
Date of Birth c.1847
Place of Birth Unknown but arrived in Australia in 1865 as a cabin passenger on the ‘Norfolk’ with his brother, Philip.
Parents Frederick M. (Owned a Drapery business in London) Lucy
Religious Denomination Protestant Church of England
Marriage 1872 16 September marries Nancy Wilson District Registered: Sydney, Reg. No: 791/1872.
Nancy Wilson was born in 1852, the daughter of Thomas and Priscilla (Sarah) Wilson.

Children
1. TURNER Amy Louisa,   b. 1873, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 17 Jun 1939, a private hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
2. TURNER Mary Blanche,   b. 1875, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 5 May 1965, St Peters, New South Wales, Australia  
3. TURNER Ella Clara,   b. 1877, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1969, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
4. TURNER Harry Martin,   b. 1879, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1953, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
5. TURNER Albert E.,   d. 1888, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
6. TURNER Stephen Hugh,   b. 1883, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1887, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
7. TURNER Emily Louise,   b. 1885, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 27 Dec 1959, Wentworth Falls, New South Wales, Australia  
8. TURNER Emma Annie,   b. 1887, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 18 Sep 1971, Waverley, New South Wales, Australia  
9. TURNER Pauline Cecilia,   b. 1889, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1947, Waverley, New South Wales, Australia  
10. TURNER Jessie Annie,   b. 1891, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 14 Jun 1926, Mater Misericordia Hospital , North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Amy and Mary were listed on the July 1880 Application for a Provisional School at Church Point
1. MULFORD Castile M.,   b. 2 Feb 1896, Mackeral Beach, Pittwater , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 16 Nov 1965, San Francisco, California.USA  
2. MULFORD John Elmer,   b. 1898, Mackeral Beach, Pittwater , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 9 Oct 1966, Haberfield, New South Wales, Australia  

Charles Henry Johnson (19) was committed for trial on a charge of breaking and entering the house of John E. Mulford, at Carell Bay, Pittwater, and stealing therefrom a riding saddle and a pencil. The accused was seen carrying a saddle in the vicinity of the premises on the 28th ult., the date on which the robbery took place, while all the family were away from home. When arrested the pencil was found in his possession, and footmarks on the clay floor of the house which was broken into were found to correspond with the prisoner's boots. THE POLICE COURTS. (1893, May 6). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236027263 

Footprints in the Mud.
A young man named Charles Henry Johnson pleaded not guilty at the quarter sessions yesterday to a charge of having on April 28 last broken and entered the dwelling-house of John Shepherd Mulford at Pittwater, and stolen a saddle and a lead pencil, the property of Mulford. The case for the Crown was that accused was seen to leave the house (which had been left locked up) with the saddle on his arm. And further it was alleged that his boots corresponded with certain footprints in the mud leading up to the window where the entrance had been effected. Evidence was called for the defence to show that accused was not near the place, and that it was a case of mistaken identity. The jury found the accused not guilty and he was discharged. Footprints in the Mud. (1893, June 23).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112611396 

In 1908 a family problem erupted that lasted months for the by then aged Mrs. T Wilson Snr., (more below);

DISPUTED OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY.
Wilson v Goulding and wife.
Mr. W. A. Walker, instructed by Mr, Ayrault Burns, appeared for the plaintiff. Defendants appeared In person. This was a suit brought by Sarah Priscilla Wilson against William James Goulding and Amy I. Goulding, his wife, for a decree to restrain dofendant8 by in-junction from In nny way dealing with B2 acres of land at Little Mackerel Beach, Pitt-water, and asking that two documents of November 20, 1894, and of January 5 respectively, should be declared void as against the plaintiff, and that they should be delivered up to be cancelled. The statement of claim also asked that male defendant might be ordered to pay the plaintiff the value of the property and the profits obtained from the annie, and that the Usual Inquiry should be made, and accounts taken before the Master In Equity. The case for the plaintiff, who is a widow, aged 84, and unable to read or write, was that male defendant was married to her great granddaughter and prior to 1894 she (plaintiff) held the residue of a 999 years' lease of a property situated at Little Mackerel Beach, consisting of about 52 acres, and valued at £10 per acre. She had become liable to John Charles M'Intosh for law costs, and it was arranged between her and the male defendant that he should sell the property for her, pay the costs referred to, and hand over the balance of the proceeds to her. For this purpose she on November 20, 1894, executed a document which the male defendant told her was an authority to tell the property as arranged, but the document was not read over or explained to her. The male defendant did not pay the law costs, nor did be hand plaintiff the balance of the money. Subsequently she naked him for the document, but ho informed her that it was lost, and that In any case It was not worth the paper It was written on. 
Recently the Plaintiff discovered that one John Mulford was in possession of the land. She issued a writ of ejectment against him, and Mrs. Goulding was, upon her own application, let In to defend the action, claiming to be the landlord of Mulford. Plaintiff had discovered that since the pendency of the action of ejectment two documents purporting to deal with the property had been registered, and in consequence of this she on March 10 last withdrew the record in the ejectment action. The document of November 20, 1894, purported to be a conveyance and assignment of the interest of the Plaintiff In the property to the male defendant in consideration of the payment of £5 and the costs already mentioned. The second document was dated January 5, 1900, and expressed to be a conveyance of the property from the male defendant to the female defendant In consideration of the sum of 5s and an ante-nuptial agreement to settle the property on the female defendant on the solemnisation of the marriage. Plaintiff further stated that she never intended that the document of November, 1891, should be a conveyance or assignment, that she had no knowledge of Its contents, and believed It to be an authority to sell as previously stated. She further said that she believed there was no ante-nuptial settlement in writing, nor was there any consideration for It.
The defendants in their statement of defence stated that the conveyance of November, 1894, … over and fully explained to the Plaintiff before she executed It, and she was paid £5, which was the sum agreed upon. Plaintiff never at any time applied to male defendant for a return of the document, nor did he make to her the statement alleged in … 
Before 1894 the plaintiff was … to a firm of solicitors for £400, and was also Indebted to male defendant for sums advanced by him towards paying the costs. The solicitors were pressing her, and In consideration of the defendant taking over her liability in respect of the bill of costs and advances made  by wm, plaintiff proposed that he should take conveyance or assignment of the property, and it was on that understanding that the deed of November 20, 1894, was executed. It was read over to her and fully explained by Mr. Barnett Smith, then council clerk of North Sydney, and plaintiff knew well what she was executing; and It was not until she brought the action of ejectment that she made any claim in connection with the property. On January 5, 1900, the male defendant executed an agreement to settle the property on the female defendant prior to the marriage, and of this plaintiff was aware. Defendant also denied that the property was worth £10 per acre, and he averred that the plaintiff was fully aware that Mulford was the tenant of Mrs. Goulding. 
The case stands part heard. IN EQUITY. (1908, August 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14988198 

LITTLE MACKEREL BEACH 
AN OLD LADY'S CLAIM Won in the equity court
Mr. Justice .Street yesterday, decided the action in Equity between Sarah Priscilla Wilson, an old lady, aged 84 years, and her grandson-in-law, James Goulding and her grand-daughter, Amy L. Goulding, for on prior to set aside an alleged deed of conveyance from the plaintiff to the male defendant, find also a settlement by the male defendant, of the property known as Little Mackerel Beach, Pittwater, Manly, to his wife.Further particulars of the claim and defence have already been published. Mr. W. H. .Walker (instructed by Mr. Aynauit Burns) appeared for the plaintiff, and both defendants appeared in person. His Honor said that Mrs. Wilson and her son Edward appeared to give their evidence straightforwardly enough, and he had no reason to doubt that their story was true. Against that story the only evidence was that of the defendant Goulding, and so far as he was concerned he (his Honor) regretted to say the conclusion to which he had come was that he was a witness upon whom he could place no reliance whatever. 

Goulding was in conflict not only with Mrs. Wilson and her son, but with Mrs. Sanderson, Mrs. Pointing Goulding, his step-mother, and his own witness, Mr. Barnett Smith. He found that the indenture of conveyance was obtained from the plaintiff under circumstances which rendered It quite impossible that any validity could attach to It. The conclusion his Honor had come to was that both Mr. and Mrs. Goulding were not telling the truth as to any post-nuptial agreement having been entered into for the transfer of the property. That Doing so, and there having been no post-nuptial agreement, the post-nuptial settlement was nothing ..., the female defendant was in no better position than her husband. His Honor said that on the evidence the indenture was obtained by the male defendant under circumstances of fraud and misrepresentation, which rendered it void as against him, and also against his wife. Also the settlement of 1000 was void, as against the female defendant, and he ordered both documents to be delivered up to the plaintiff. Costs would be against the male defendant. LITTLE MACKEREL BEACH (1908, August 8). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 15 (EXTRA SPECIAL). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229093318 

Mrs. Sarah Priscilla Wilson sold the property to her son-in-law John Albert Sanderson, husband of her 8th child and the daughter named for herself, Priscilla, who then sold it to Pink Marie Stiles, the wife of Dr Bernard Stiles (Physician and Surgeon Sydney University 1906) of Newtown two years later. NSW Records show her owning the property from October 18th, 1912. 
By that time the property was known as 'Currawong'. 

Bernard Tarlton Stiles was the son of Rev. George Edward Carter Stiles, born at Windsor on October 23rd, 1835, a son of the Reverend Henry Tarleton Stiles. 

Henry Tarlton Stiles (1808-1867), was a Church of England clergyman, was born on 24 June 1808 at Bristol, England, a son of Carter and Sophia (neeTarlton) Stiles. According to family tradition he was intended for the Indian army. His strong Evangelical upbringing led him to the Church Missionary Society's college at Islington though 'his constitution [was] not considered calculated to withstand the effects of a Tropical Climate'. 

Rev. H T Stiles had scholarly interests—he hoped at one time that the Bristol Clerical Education Society might sponsor him at Oxford—and served as tutor in several important families, including that of (Sir) James Stephen of the Colonial Office. It may have been Stephen who prompted him to look to Australia, where the authorities had decided to recruit clergy and were having difficulty in securing an Englishman as master of the Female Orphan School. Stiles was appointed to this position in 1832 because of very high testimony to his peculiar fitness 'for the education and superintendance of Youth'. He was ordained deacon on 23 December 1832 and priest on 20 January 1833 by Bishop Blomfield of London. 


Henry Tarlton Stiles, Image No.: a2824355h, courtesy state Library of NSW, The Mitchell Library.

On 11 February he married Jane, the eldest daughter of Charles and Grace Hole, of Kingsbridge. The couple had six sons and two daughters, all born here, the son named for Samuel Marsden passing away May 13th 1841, Annie Jane passing away November 7th, 1849, William John Francis passing away December 8th 1842 - these children were interred at St. Matthews, Windsor, the rest of their children survived their childhood:

Children
STILES ANNIE J 1846/1849 V18491846 34A HENRY T JANE
STILES CLEMENT J W 1202/1847 V18471202 32A HENRY T JANE
STILES WILLIAM J F 987/1842 V1842987 26A HENRY T JANE
STILES SAMUEL M 1098/1840 V18401098 25A HENRY T JANE
STILES CHARLES T 791/1839 V1839791 23A HENRY T JANE
STILES MARY E 793/1837 V1837793 21 HENRY T JANE
STILES GEORGE E C 919/1835 V1835919 19 HENRY T JANE
STILES HENRY B A 988/1834 V1834988 18 HENRY T JANE

Stiles sailed in the Warrior and reached Sydney in July. He had been promised the first vacant chaplaincy in addition to the Orphan School mastership; alternatively, he might receive the charge of a parish. Within a month he was sent temporarily to St Matthew's, Windsor, and the appointment was made permanent before the year ended.

As an Evangelical with missionary interests, Stiles became a close friend of Rev. Samuel Marsden, who sent him to Norfolk Island in August 1834 and December 1835 to minister to condemned felons. In November 1836 he sent evidence to the proposed committee on transportation stressing the need for drastic reform of the penal system at Norfolk Island. 

These were to be Stiles's only excursions outside Windsor. He settled down to the duties of his parish, which included Richmond until 1842, Kurrajong and Clydesdale, and where the Hawkesbury River, the mountains, bad roads and the scattered population made pastoral visitation 'a work of great fatigue'. However, the parish was well-equipped with churches, schools and a rectory, and had wealthy influential parishioners.
:
HIS Excellency the Governor has been pleased to nominate the Reverend Henry Tarleton Stiles, to be Assistant Chaplain in New South Wales, until the pleasure of His Majesty shall be known; and, upon the recommendation of the Venerable the Archdeacon, to appoint him to take charge of the Towns and Districts of Windsor and Richmond.
By His Excellency's Command,
ALEXANDER M'LEAY.
Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 3d Sept. 1833. Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 2d Sept. 1833. TO MASONS AND OTHERS. (1833, September 9). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12847669 

The Reverend taught his own children and a few others in the district, among them John Tebbutt, known for his work in astronomy:

An Australian Astronomer.
John Tebbutt, of Windsor, F.R.A.S., the well-known Australian astronomer, is the grandson of a very old colonist. His grandfather, John Tebbutt, emigrated to this colony in the year 1801, bringing with him his wife, two sons (Thomas and John), and an only daughter. Soon after their arrival in the colony the family gave themselves up to farming pursuits in the Hawkesbury district, but this occupation proving rather unsuccessful they opened a general store in the town of Windsor, which rapidly became the most important in the district. 

John, the younger of the two brothers, married, and the fruit of this union was the birth, in Windsor, on the 25th May, 1834, of the subject of our sketch. The business referred to was closed about the year 1842, and the father then purchased the Peninsula estate at the eastern extremity of the town, built thereon a residence, and devoted himself to agricultural pursuits. The son was educated in private schools, his first tutor being the parish clerk, Mr. Edward Quaife, and in succession the Revs. M. Adam and H. T. Stiles, M.A., under the last of whom he received a sound, classical education. The attention of the youth, who was inclined to mechanical pursuits, was first directed to astronomy about the year 1853, and his love for the science was quickened in no small degree by his frequent intercourse with his first tutor, Mr. Quaife, who had a fair knowledge of its outlines, and some of whose early contributions may be found in the New South Wales Calendar and General Post Office Directory for 1835. It was not until 1864 that Mr. Tebbutt became possessed of instrumental means adapted for fairly good work, but in the meantime he had made great advances in the higher mathematics, and was thoroughly acquainted with the theory of astronomical instruments before he came to their actual employment. 

At the close of 1863 he erected a small observatory on the Peninsula estate, a property which he subsequently inherited from his father, the building being constructed of wood, and wholly the work of his own hands. In this building he installed a small trausit instrument and a 3¼ -inch refractor mounted by himself as an equatorial, His instrumental means gradually grew in importance, and for some, years past he has possessed two substantial observatories of brick, which accommodate an excellent 3-inch transit instrument by Cook and Sons, a 4½ -inch equatorial by the same makers, and lastly an 8-inch equatorial refractor by Grubb, acquired in 1886. A just idea may be found of the observatory buildings, old and new, from the views which accompany this sketch. Mr. Tebbutt was elected a member of the local Royal Society in 1862,and he is, therefore, one of the few members now living who joined it when it bore the title of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales. 

As early as 1863 his abilities were so far recognised by the Rev. W. Scott, M.A., the first Government Astronomer, that he was recommended as his successor to the office. In 1869 his work was considered of such importance that his private institution was placed in the list of principal observatories in the "British Nautical Almanac," and soon afterwards it was recognised in a similar way in the national ephemerides of the United States, France, Germany, Brazil, and Mexico. 

In 1867 Mr. Tebbutt was selected by the local Commissioners of the Paris Exhibition to write a paper on the "State and Progress of Astronomy in New South Wales." which was duly published in the catalogue prepared by that body and subsequently reprinted in an enlarged form in the "Industrial Progress of New South Wales, 1870." For this paper he received a commemorative silver medal. In 1873 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, but for 11 years previously his astronomical contributions were published by the society. As a proof of his industry, it may be stated that of the 36 annual volumes of the "Monthly Notices" since 1862, there is only one which does not contain work done by him. He has also been a regular contributor for the past 35 years to the "Astronomische Nachichten," which is really the international journal of the science, with the exception of some occasional Meteorological work, he has been the sole observer in connection with his observatory. In the reduction of the observations he has obtained occasional assistance from outside sources. 

He has had the pleasure of seeing a large portion of his work utilised by some of the most distinguished astronomers, and the testimonials, both public and private, which he has received from them are of the most gratifying character. His astronomical work has been of a varied character, but it was mainly directed to the observation of lunar occultations of stars, phenomena of Jupiter's satellites, comets, minor planets, and double stars. He has published no fewer than 987 observations of observations, which will hereafter afford splendid material, not only for the determination of a fundamental meridian for Australia, but also for settling some delicate questions with regard to the motions of the moon. The observations in this department have been continued partly at the suggestion of Professor Newcomb, of Washington. The observed occultations from 1873 to 1876 were utilised by Professor Auwers in 1884 for the determination of a fundamental meridian for Australia, and those from 1864 to 1870 just recently by Dr. Clemens. The discussion of the series for 1884-70 forms an inaugural dissertation read before the University of Gottingen. Although the data for these two discussions were obtained with the earlier and comparatively imperfect instrumental means their extraordinary accuracy has been amply attested by the authors. Mr. Tebbutt's observations will, therefore, in the future, be regarded as a fundamental point in the Australian system of triangulation. 

His comet work, too, finds a place in several well- known astronomical monographs, and in this connection it may be stated that he is the recognised discoverer of two of the grandest and most remark-able comets of the 19th century. One of them, namely that of 1861, was discovered by him six weeks before it was observed in Europe, and he was able, by the mathematical knowledge which he had at that time acquired, to compute the orbit, and predict the earth's close approach to the tail, a pre-diction which was subsequently verified. The other great comet, that of 1881, is referred to by Miss Agnes M. Clarke in her fine work on the "History of Astronomy during the 19th Century" as a very important one. Cometary photography, she says, came to its earliest fruition with it, and cometary spectroscopy made a notable advance by means of it. A just idea of Mr. Tebbutt 's connection with cometary astronomy may, perhaps, best be found by consulting a work by Dr. J. S. Gollas, edition 1894. 

Concurrently with his astronomical work he has carried on meteorogical observations. His work in this department from 1863 to 1890 has been published in six parts and distributed. Six years more work remains to be published, and these will then be available data extending over 35 years for investigating the climate of Windsor. At the close of last year Mr. Tebbutt discontinued this department of his work. He proposes, however, to continue the astronomical work as his leisure and declining years will permit. It may be mentioned that when in 1895 a branch of the British Astronomical Association was formed in New South Wales, Mr. Tebbutt was unanimously chosen as its first president, and the choice was highly commended by the best popular astronomical journal in England. Mr. Tebbutt married in 1857, and had seven children.



MR. TEBBUTT'S OBSERVATORY, WINDSOR.


MR. J. TEBBUTT, F.R.A.S.
An Australian Astronomer. (1898, February 26). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 443. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163802246 


"THE ASTRONOMER OF WINDSOR." 
MEMOIRS OF A SEARCH OF THE HEAVENS
"After making' considerable progress in the arts of reading, writing, and arithmetics for I find from my old school books that I was working at the rule of three, when eight years of age I was transferred in 1843 to an excellent school under the care of Rev. Matthew Adam, the minister of the local Presbyterian Church. Finally, in 1845, I was placed under the care of Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles. M.A., of the local Church of England. Here I had excellent opportunities for improvement, inasmuch as the school was comprised of only six students, of whom four were members of the clergyman's own family. But it was due partly to his instruction in the use of the globes, and partly to his frequently coming in contact with his old tutor, Mr Quaife, who had a love for astronomy, and also a good knowledge of its outlines— that, young Tebbutt's tastes were directed to the study of the science.' The bent of his mind was always towards mechanics, and the leisure hours of his boyhood were chiefly spent in the construction of farming implements and of models of various kinds of machines. It was, however, at a little later period in his life that he became fired with an ambition to do real work-in astronomy. My earliest efforts were, he says, hampered for the want of instruments. ... 
My earliest attempt that 1 can remember in the way of celestial observation was in May, 1853, when a comet rather conspicuous to the naked eye, was visible near the foot of the constellation Orion.' The only means in my possession at this time were an ordinary marine- telescope, and a celestial atlas. By these-means I fixed the apparent positions of the- comet by alignment with the stars in its immediate neighborhood.; During the first week of May the comet's path, lay between the foot of the constellation already named and the bright -star Sirius. Those observations with the accompanying sketches, form the first ' entries in a journal which I then commenced in connection with astronomical work. Gradually Mr. Tebbutt increased his apparatus and widened his sphere of knowledge by reading. 
Describing his discovery of the '61 comet, Mr. Tebbutt says; — . On the evening of May 13, 1801, while searching the western sky for comets, I detected a faint nebulous object near the star Lacallie...
MR. JOHN TEBBUTT.


NEW OBSERVATORY AND EQUATORIAL CHAMBER IN 1906, FROM THE NORTH-EAST. 
"THE ASTRONOMER OF WINDSOR." (1908, October 17). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 6. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238195245 


Rev H T Stiles's sermon after the passing of the Rev. Samuel Marsden remains on the record:

SAMUEL MARSDEN.
By VEN. ARCHDEACON GUNTHER.
"I have just had the opportunity, through the kindness of an old friend and school fellow, Rev. G. E. C. Stiles, of reading the sermon preached by his father at St. John's, Parramatta, on May 20th, 1838— the Sunday after the funeral of Mr. Marsden. Though I have endeavored for many years to obtain all the facts avail-able, I have not seen this discourse hither-to. If there is not much that has not al-ready been published, some important facts are emphasised and confirmed, and the testimony of the late Mr. Stiles is valuable, coming as it does from one who was not wont to use extravagant language and give play to his imaginative powers, but who had a well-balanced mind and singularly good judgment. Mr. Stiles dwells upon the character, labors, and the passing of his friend. His character is regarded as that of one possessing great energy and firmness of purpose, of a truly catholic spirit, and twice he refers to the sainted Marsden. 

"As a parish priest, his labors were worthy of the best days of the English Church. His habit when returning home from his work was to retire to his private room for prayer. His deep humility, simplicity and godly sincerity were conspicuous, and his faith was the secret of his missionary zeal. Speaking to a friend just before the end came of his hope, he declared that 'hope is indeed precious to me now.' His last words were 'precious, precious,' not 'New Zealand, New Zealand,' as some assert. I think that all truth-seekers and lovers of truth will be glad to have the testimony of Mr. Stiles, especial-ly as such very strange reports have been circulated at times, and not so long since I had to correct statements of a well-known English writer. "In estimating Mr. Marsden's work it is well always to remember the great difficulties he had to contend with and the constitution of society in the early days of the colony. What I have heard from those who knew him well and were associated with him in his work, what I have read of the opinions formed of him by friends in England and Australia, and what Bishop Broughton said of him, namely, 'if there ever was a truly honest man, Mr. Marsden is one . . . His genuine piety and natural force of understanding I held in the highest esteem while he lived, and still retain that in sincerely affectionate remembrance,' have led me to believe that Mr. Marsden was no ordinary character, but was raised up in the Providence of God to attempt and accomplish a great work. The memories of his life and work should never be forgotten, and will be, I believe, an inspiration, especially in our southern lands, through the ages."
SAMUEL MARSDEN. (1915, December 25). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86101185 

After 1860 Stiles was in poor health and in June 1866 his regular ministry ceased. On 21 June 1867 a great Hawkesbury flood occurred while Stiles lay dying. He directed that the church be opened to the homeless; 

From EARLY DAYS OF WINDSOR N. S. WALES With Nineteen Illustrations,  BY JA[ME]S. STEELE, MEMBER AUSTRALIAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY
Published by SYDNEY TYRRELL'S LIMITED, 99 CASTLEREAGH STREET 1916


The Rev. H.T. Stiles died on the 22nd June, 1867, within two days of his sixtieth birthday. His death occurred while the big flood was at about its greatest height, the water having entered the Presbyterian Church in George Street, where large numbers of refugees had slept the previous night. The last duty performed by the dying minister was to order that the church doors of St. Matthew's be opened in order to let the homeless people find a shelter from the rising flood.



The Rev. H.T. Stiles left a legacy of two hundred pounds to the church, which forms part of the present endowment. His family consisted of four sons—Henry, George, Charles, and Clement—and one daughter, Mary, who married the Rev. C.F. Garnsey in 1860. The second hob, the Rev. George Edward Carter Stiles, B.A., was born in St. Matthew's rectory in 1835, and is at present living in retirement at Lindfield, Sydney. Mrs. Stiles died at her son's rectory in Sofala about eight months after her husband's death, and is buried with him in St. Matthew's cemetery. The grave will be seen close to the chancel at the east end. Mrs. Stiles was closely related to the Hole family, well known in connection with the scholastic and banking affairs of the town.

The following is the inscription on the tombstone:—

The Rev. HENRY TARLTON STILES, M.A.,

Born June 24th, 1808, Died June 22nd, 1867.

Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and
he shall go no more out.—Rev. iii., ver. 12.
Lovely and pleasant in their lives. In their deaths they are not divided.

JANE STILES,

Wife of the Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, M.A.,

Born April 10th, 1803. Died March 24th, 1868.

For If we believe that Jesus died and rose again even so them also which
sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.
Their children arise up and call them blessed.

The Rev. H.T. Stiles, M.A., was succeeded by the Rev. Charles F. Garnsey in 1867. He had been teaching a private school in Windsor for some years, and was a son-in-law of the former incumbent, being married on the 27th December, 1860, at St. Matthew's, to Mary Emma, the only daughter of the Rev. H.T. Stiles. The Rev. C.F. Garnsey assisted in the rescue work during the big flood of 1867, and also the great fire of 1874. During his pastorate improvements were made to the organ. He also arranged a big evangelistic mission, conducted by the Rev. H.A. Langley, the church being crowded nightly, and additional seats were brought over from the public school. Mr. Garnsey left in December, 1876, for St. James's Church, Sydney, as assistant. In April, 1878, he was appointed incumbent of the important parish of Christ Church, Sydney. On leaving Windsor he was presented with a valuable gold watch by the parishioners, who also presented him with a silver salver on 20th May, 1873. He died on 3rd December, 1894, aged sixty-seven years.

THE CUPITT BROTHERS

WELL-KNOWN Windsor identities, the six Cupitt brothers, whose ages total 415 years, form an interesting link with the historic past. Sons of the late Thomas and Elizabeth Cupitt, of Cornwallis, five of them were rescued with their parents from the top of their homestead during the 1867 flood. They were among the homeless people who sought , shelter in St. Matthew's Church of England, the doors of which sacred edifice were ordered to be thrown open by the Rev H. T.Stiles to the refugees during that awful deluge. Reading from left to right the brothers are: Herbert U, Frederick A., Sidney T., Henry R., Albert J, and Edward J. 
Among The Pilgrims—Men and Women Who "Came Back" (1932, November 25).Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86054759 

STILES—June 22nd, at the parsonage, Windsor, the Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, M.A., aged 69 years. Family Notices (1867, June 29). Sydney Mail(NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166799309 

STILES—March 24th, at the Parsonage, Sofala, Jane, widow of the late Rev. Henry Tarlton Stiles, M.A., incumbent of St. Matthew's. Windsor, aged 64. Family Notices (1868, April 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13165054

A little about Dr. Stiles' father:
DEATH OF REV. G. E. C. STILES.
The Rev. George Edward Carter Stiles, of Lindfield, who for 58 years had been a priest of the Church of England, died at Yarrangi, Newtown, yesterday, at the age of 83 years. He had officiated at Lindfield since 1907. Educated at Oxford, he became incumbent of Christ Church, Sofala, with Tambaroora, in 1863, and subsequently he officiated at Cassilis and Merriwa, Berg Apton, All Saints, Parramatta, Canterbury with Belmore, and Belmore with Moorefield’s. 
From 1889 to 1902 he was curate of Woollahra and Watson's Bay, and from 1902 to 1906 he was curate in charge of the conventional district of Watson's Bay and Vaucluse. DEATH OF REV. G. E. C. STILES. (1919, February 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15826960 

STILES -February 25 at Yarrangi Newtown, George Edward Carter Stiles, aged 83 years for 58 years a priest of the Church of England. By request, no flowers. Family Notices (1919, February 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15826963 

Rev. G E C Stiles brought his family, including Bernard, then 4 years of age, home to Sydney per the Cuzco in November 1883:
ARRIVAL OF THE R.M.S. CUZCO.
.[BY CABLE.]
(REUTER'S TELEGRAMS.)
ADELAIDE, FRIDAY.
The Orient Steam Navigation Company's H M S Cuzco arrived at the Semaphore this morning, with the outward mails and passengers
The following is the passenger list -
For Sydney-Rev G E C Stiles, Mrs Stiles and family ARRIVAL OF THE R.M.S. CUZCO. (1883, November 17). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11835277 

Ships Lists - per Victoria State Records:
AGE
48 425 NOV - 11 B CUZCO 1883 STILES, ---- MRS
4 425 NOV - 11 B CUZCO 1883 STILES, BERNARD T MASTER
6 425 NOV - 11 B CUZCO 1883 STILES, DOROTHY M MISS
50 425 NOV - 11 B CUZCO 1883 STILES, G E C REV
2 425 NOV - 11 B CUZCO 1883 STILES, GEO MASTER

SILVER WEDDING.
"The friends and parishioners of the Rev. G. E. C. Stiles met at the . parsonage, Watson's Bay, on Saturday afternoon, on the occasion of the silver wedding of himself and Mrs. Stiles. Amongst the numerous suitable presents was one from the residents of Rose Bay, accompanied by a handsome cheque, and another from the residents of Watson's Bay, and an illuminated address from the girls of Shaftesbury Reformatory.
SILVER WEDDING. (1901, April 30). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228495036

George Edward Carter Stiles married Mary Elizabeth Maude Isaacson in April to June 1876, the marriage was registered at Tadcaster, in the county of West Riding of Yorkshire. This lady passed away at Manly in 1939, when the Dr. B Stiles had moved to and lived there. In her the family emphasis on education was continued:

STILES. - September 8, 1939, at Manly, Mary Elizabeth Maud Stiles, widow of the late Rev. George Edward Carter Stiles, aged 87 yearsFamily Notices (1939, September 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17643323

MRS. M. STILES.
M.H. and I.M.K. write:—
"With the passing of Mrs Maud Stiles, the Old Girls' Union of Normanhurst School, Ashfield, suffered a severe loss. After having been chief assistant mistress for some years Mrs Stiles became principal of Normanhurst in 1892, and retired in 1914 after 27 years of strenuous service but she continued to keep in touch with the school and with the O.G.U.

"She was a cultured Englishwoman and a keen educationist, and, under her administration, the school became one of the chief secondary schools of New South Wales. Her strong personality inspired all who were fortunate enough to come under her influence, and her sense of honour, her justice, her emphasis upon the idea of loyalty in its widest sense, and her own intellectual honesty, set us a very high standard.

"Her personal example, before and after her retirement, as well as her teaching that service to others was a fundamental duty has had a widespread effect, through very many of her old girls, upon the life of the community, so that we feel the world has been the richer for her having lived. "
MRS. M. STILES. (1939, September 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17628489


Album; Normanhurst School, pictorial collection, ca. 1890-1920; FILE TITLE: 2. Miss Evans, later Mrs. Kirwan King. Mrs Stile, Headmistress. Miss Jennings, Assistant Headmistress (Section cropped from). Image no.; c02722003h, courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

A quiet wedding was celebrated at the King's School Chapel, Parramatta, June 17when Mr. Sydney Stiles, of All Saints' College, Bathurst, younger son of Rev. G. Stiles and Mrs. Stiles, Normanhurst, Ashfield, was married to Miss Marjorie M'Culloch, second  daughter of the late Mr. H. M'Culloch and of Mrs. M'Culloch, Firholme, Parramatta.
The bride wore a white crepe de chine trimmed with satin, fringe, and point lace, and an Ivory satin hat, with velvet roses.
The ceremony was performed by Rev G. Stiles, and the bride was given away by her uncle, Judge Backhouse. The King's School Chapel was prettily decorated by some of the girl friends of the bride, and Miss Amy Spier presided on the organ. After the ceremony
a reception was held at Firholme. Later Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Stiles left for the Mountains, where the honeymoon was spent.
Amongst the guests were:-Judge and Mrs. Alfred Backhouse, Rev. G. and Mrs. Stiles, Miss Dorothy Stiles, Mrs Walter Backhouse, Miss Hills, Miss Jennings, Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Stiles, Mrs. Waugh, sen., and Miss Isabel Waugh. SOCIAL. (1911, July 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15257597 



Album; Normanhurst School, pictorial collection, ca. 1890-1920; FILE TITLE: 3. The Houses, Normanhust School, Ashfield. Jennings House is on the left, and Stiles House, on the right. The buildings were on the corner of Chandos and Orpington Street, Ashfield. (Sydney Mail, 13/7/32, p. 24). Image No.: c02722002h, courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

Bernard Tarlton Stiles was born in 1879, his birth registered at Loddon (April to June records), in the county of Norfolk. After returning to Sydney aged 4,Bernard attended Kings school, as had his father, and then Sydney University:

Bernard Tarlton Stiles, The King's School; SYDNEY UNIVERSITY. (1895, July 26).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238512071 

University Senior Examinations 
At the recent Senior Public University Examination five students, two boys and three girls, presented themselves from this district, and sat in St. Andrew's Schoolroom, which was placed at the disposal of the local committee by the Rev. J. Paterson. The examinations were capably conducted by the members of this committee, with its hard-working secretary, Mr. F. Ernest Stowe. The King's School sent up two candidates for the Senior, both of whom passed...  Bernard Tarlton Stiles passed second class in French, and third class in Ancient History, English, Latin, Arithmetic and Algebra.  Current News. (1896, December 19). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article85764607 

Degrees -
MB – Bachelor of Medicine 1906 Bernard Tarlton Stiles
CH.M – Master of SURGERY Bernard Tarlton Stiles
THE 'VARSITY FESTIVAL. (1906, April 12).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236841709 

FRATERNAL FESTIVITIES
ANCIENT ORDER OF FORESTERS.
Court Newtown Unity, No. 7614, held in quarterly financial meeting the other evening. in the Newtown U.F.S. Dispensary Hall. Belmore-road. Bro. F. W. Weaver. C.R.. presided, and here was a large. attendance of members. .General regret was expressed as the resignation of Dr, F. P. Sandes, who is a medical officer of the Court during the past six years, had gained the esteem of every member. Dr. Bernard Stiles. M.B., Ch.M.. Church-street, Newtown, was unanimously elected to succeed Dr. Sandes. … FRATERNAL FESTIVITIES (1907, April 12). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229531112 

From these connections to the Hawkesbury River it may be deduced that the Stiles family were aware of the existence of Pittwater long before acquiring property there. Stiles family members appear among early Pittwater Regatta results. A few social items of the Dr. Bernard Stiles show they had contact with people who were early land acquirers at Palm Beach:

CRAIG: — MAIDEN. — At St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney, on February 22, Mary, second daughter of Mr. J. H. Maiden, Director of the Botanic Gardens, was married to Dr. F. Brown Craig, youngest son of Captain R. Craig, of "Ailsa," Neutral Bay. Rev. Dr. Radford, principal of St. Paul's College, assisted by Rev. E. N. Wilton, B.A., precentor, performed the ceremony, the service being choral. The Cathedral was beautifully decorated with palms and flowers. The bride wore a charming gown of soft Ivory white satin, the bodice draped with Bruges lace, and carried a bouquet of white roses and lilies of the valley. Her veil, which was of old Limerick lace, was lent by Miss Hall (Hobart). She also wore a pendant of blue enamel and pearls, the gift of the bridegroom. 
Among those present were; — Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Maiden and the Misses Maiden, Captain and Mrs. R. Craig, Captain and Mrs. Hugh Craig, Dr. and Mrs. Gordon Craig and the Misses CraigMr. and Mrs. J. B. Craig, Mr. and Mrs. and Miss Davidson, Mr. and Mrs. Hamand, Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Wright,
…. Dr. and Mrs. Bernard StilesWEDDINGS. (1911, February 25). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238710813 

AT THE UNIVERSITY.
Nearly 1200 guests attended the reception held at the University on Saturday afternoon in-honor of the members of the Medical Congress.
… Mrs. Scot Skirving, black and white silk, and a black bat with crome lace;
… Dr. Lucy Gullett, biscuit-colored Shantung, with tan hat to match
… Sir Normand MacLaughlin (Chancellor of the University), Professor and Mrs. Anderson Stuart, 
… Dr and Mrs. Bernard Stiles, … PRESIDENTIAL RECEPTION. (1911, September 18). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238859908 

Pink Marie Stiles (nee Field) was the daughter of an African settler. Her marriage to Bernard Tarlton Stiles took place in 1908:
STILES - FIELD.- February 16, 1908, at St Paul's Church, Canterbury. N.S.W., by the father of the bridegroom, Bernard Tarlton, eldest son of Rev. G. E. C. Stiles, to P. Marie, youngest daughter of William Ralph Field, of Molteno, Cape Colony. Family Notices (1908, March 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14913756 

STILES— FIELD.— February 15, at St. Paul's, Canterbury, by the father of the bridegroom, Bernard T. C. Stiles to P. Marie Field Family Notices (1908, March 11). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 701. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164345902 

Molteno is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. High in the Stormberg Mountains, Molteno is South Africa's second coldest town and it is close to the country's only ski resort. P . M. Field was the daughter of William Ralph Field and Frances Farrell, who married in South Africa on November 23rd, 1865.



Soon after the nuptials the first of four children arrived;

STILES.—September 10, at 6 Erskineville-road, Newtown, to Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Stiles, a daughter. Family Notices (1908, October 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14999548 

STILES.— December 16, at Yarrandi, Newtown, to Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Stiles — a son. Family Notices (1909, December 22). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 59. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165736547 

STILES.-January 28, at Yarrandi, Church-street, Newtown, to Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Stiles-a daughter. Family Notices (1914, January 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15476219

STILES.-March 18, at Yarrandi, Church-street, Newtown, to Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Stiles-a  daughter. Family Notices (1915, March 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15577468 

Yarrandi, in old records, had an address of 2 Church street, Newtown. The couples' three daughters and son were frequent visitors to Little Mackeral.

Children 
STILES DOROTHY J 38481/1908  BERNARD T FINK M NEWTOWN
STILES REGINALD BERNARD 6716/1910  BERHARD T PINK M NEWTOWN
STILES PATRICIA F 1100/1914  BERNARD T PINK M NEWTOWN
STILES NORA F 14821/1915  BERNARD T PINK M NEWTOWN

Primary Application - Pink Marie Stiles 48 acres at Little Mackerel Beach Pittwater Shire Warringah Parish Broken Bay Volume 2442 Folio 224
Date range: 18/10/1912 to 03/01/1914 - NSW State Records

EXTRAORDINARY STORY
New Zealander Committed for Trial. 
SYDNEY, June 28 
Norman Edwin Keals, 27 years of age, a native of New Zealand, was before Mr. Smithers, SJM., at the Manly Police Court this morning on several charges of breaking-and entering, and stealing. Constable Jones, watch house keeper at Manly stated that on June 17 accused voluntarily made the fallowing statement and signed it:— 'In November last I was in Glenbrook looking for work. I came across a tent in an Emu Waitts camp belonging to Arthur Thompson. I went into the tent, and stole a bicycle from there, I rode the bicycle to Dawsott, and exchanged it for another which I found leaning up against a church. I afterwards saw in the papers that a … man, named Ellis was, fined £10 at the Penrith Court for stealing a bicycle from Thompson's tent. I did not know Ellis, and he had no part or share in the stealing of the bicycle. Afterwards I obtained a job on the railway; at Glenbrook till February, when I left. When... the' Salvation Army Industrial Farm at Deewhy. I entered the dining room, where I obtained some food. I afterwards stole a bicycle from there. I rode to Pittwater that evening, I entered Simpson's store at Bayview, and stole some tinned fish, biscuits, post cards, and about 2/0 in silver, also some bottles of soft drinks. These things I put in a boat there, and sailed down the bay. I got into broken water and the boat, capsized, I got ashore on to the rocks, where I spent the night. Next day I took a boat belonging to Dr. Stiles, in front of his house, which I entered, and from which I stole some food at Mackerel Beach, Broken Bay. I pulled to Careel Bay. I stole two coats, trousers, and shirts from a tent there. I went to Manly that night, and from there to Sydney, where I pawned my watch. I went to Taree and stole some clothes and money. Then I boarded a steamer at Newcastle and returned to Sydney. After working at Balmain for a while I went to Seven Hills with the intention of leasing a farm there. I failed to get a .farm, and on, my, return to Sydney I bought a revolver, with which I intended to commit suicide, I went to Manly and to the Salvation Army farm at Dee Why, where I stayed for a few days in a hayloft. From there I went to Newport, and after a few days I broke into Scott Fell's house at Mona Vale, and stayed there for a few days, and lived on food that I found in the house. I left Scott Fell's house and went to another furnished cottage owned by Edward Scott, where I broke in and remained until I was surprised by a party of week-end campers. I jumped out of a window and ran a-way, but they caught me and seat for a constable and gave me in charge. ...REMARKABLE CONFESSION. (1912, June 28). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228856742 

The Stiles family kept turkeys and cows and supplied fresh milk, butter, eggs and groceries to residents of Great Mackerel Beach.

One use Pink Marie Stiles may have put the property at Little Mackerel to comes through winning prizes for exhibits at the Royal Show of April 1913, 1914 and April 1915 - and selling these in chicks and egg form. Another item, when women were having children and trying to do more as well requiring them to hire help, also shows the family spent some of each year at Newtown: 

WANTED, a LAUNDRESS, two days a week; none but competent hands need apply
Mrs. BERNARD STILES,
Garrandi, Church-street, Newtown.
Advertising (1912, March 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15317145

THE OPENING.
BY THE GOVERNOR-
GENERAL.
IMPORTANT SPEECHES.
ANOTHER RAINY DAY.
The Royal Show was officially opened' by the Governor-General, Sir Ronald Munro Ferguson, yesterday afternoon, in the presence of a large gathering His -Excellency, together with the Governor, Sir Gerald Strickland, attended the official luncheon, which did not conclude until about 3 o'clock. Up until that time rain had been falling intermittently, and it was still sprinkling when, at half-past 3, the Governor-General and Lady Helen Munro Ferguson, the Governor, the Prime Minister, and other guests, were escorted to the grand stand by the president (Sir Francis Sutor), and the council of though Royal Agricultural Society. And then it stopped raining. Even as his Excellency pronounced the Show open the battle between the sun and the rain ceased, the clouds melted away, and there was glorious sunshine for the rest of the day.

THE ROYAL SHOW (1915, April 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28112061
 

POULTRY.
The display of poultry this year is ahead of former years in the matter of
Awards
Sussex, red; cock; Allen and Swadling, 1 au Mrs. Bernard Stiles, 2; .Leslie V. King, 3; lt. v.h.o.; Mrs. Bernard Stiles, v.h.c.; Leslie V. King George Woodward, b.c.; Leslie V. King, c. h.e'.; Mrs. Bernard Stiles.. b.c. . Cockerel: Mrs. Bernard Stiles, 1 Pullet; Mrs. Bernard Stiles 1 and ch; Mrs; Bernard Stiles, 2; Mrs. Bernard Stiles,, h.e,  POULTRY. (1915, April 1). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28112119 

Bear in mind Mrs. B. Stiles had recently given birth while all this was going on:

POULTRY
...whilst Mrs. Bernard Stiles swept the board in the new breed of Sussex, with what the judges said was an exceedingly good team.
Amongst the Exhibits (1915, April 15). National Advocate (Bathurst, NSW : 1889 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article157918008

Despite the crisis which the poultry Industry is passing through, the annual show of the Poultry, Pigeon, and Canary Club of New South Wales, which was opened yesterday at the Municipal Poultry Markets, brought together an excellent collection totalling over 800 entries...
There was considerable rivalry for "The Dally. Telegraph" Cup for the best team (cock, hen, cockerel, and pullet) in any variety in which there were six or more exhibitors; and the final, decision, rests between Bonaventuro Poultry Farm (Barred Rocks) and Mrs. Bernard Stiles (Red Sussex), both of whom scored four firsts. 
...while, the 'Australian Hen" trophy for the most successful exhibitor of Red Sussex was easily carried off by Mrs. Bernard Stiles.
POULTRY CLUB SHOW. (1915, June 4). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239035071


Advertising (1915, May 8). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page25730391


Advertising (1915, May 29). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239044110


Advertising (1915, August 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15605774

Outside of the summer season, part of the place was for rent - possibly the structure that was also later destroyed and replaced with 'Southend' - see below:

PITTWATER.— To Let, Camp Cottage, private beach, boatg., fishg. ev; c.Mrs. Stiles, Church St., Nwtn. Advertising (1916, April 29). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238787581

PITTWATER.— Furnished Cottage, opp. Palm Beach, vacant after Feb. 10th, 1918, Five rooms, verandah, private beach and wharf, 3 guineas per week. Apply Mrs. STILES. Church St. Newtown. Advertising (1917, December 1). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239234672 

PITTWATER. opposite Palm Beach.— Furnished Bungalow, wide verandah, all conveniences, private beach and wharf. Terms, £3/3/ per week. Apply Mrs. STILES, 2 Church Street. Newtown. Tel., 1023.  Advertising (1918, October 19). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239574492 

The Stiles family lived in the homestead for several years until it burnt down then built 'Africa', later renamed Midholme, a little to the northeast of the original farmhouse. The original Wilson house, replaced with ‘Africa’, named for Pink's old home, and later renamed ‘Midholme’ is a Federation style hobby farm from weatherboards and Fibro sheeting, a product used in many holiday homes during that period. 

The installation of these new structures was not without drama. Whatever had taken place behind the scenes, it gives us a closer date for the building of the new home 'Africa':

DISTRICT COURT.
(Before Judge Backhouse.) 
CONTRACTOR'S CLAIM. 
Alfred Wrigley Ellis, of Palm Beach, near Barrenjoey, sued Bernard Stiles, of Yarrandi, Church-street, Newtown, medical practitioner, and P. M. Stiles, his wife, for money alleged to be due under a contract. The claim, £66 10s 1d, was for time and money lost owing to the stopping by the defendants of their contract with the plaintiff for the erection of a cottage at Palm Beach. The defendants paid £18 15s into court, and denied further liability. Mr. A. R. J. Watt, instructed by Messrs. John M'Laughlin and Son, appeared for the plaintiff, and Mr. Clive Teece, instructed by Mr. J. T. Ralston, for the defendantsHis Honor returned a verdict for the plaintiff for the amount paid into court. DISTRICT COURT. (1918, March 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15773331 

Midholme homestead, c.1916 ‘Africa’ 
Midholme is a single storey, timber framed bungalow with weatherboard cladding and wide veranda to three sides. The broken back roof was of slate with terracotta ridge and hip cladding. 

Internally, the house has a central common room entered from the northern front door. The kitchen is in a rear addition to the house. A bedroom is located on each corner of the house. The laundry is in the enclosed southwest corner of the veranda. The southeast corner of the veranda is also enclosed. 

Believed to have been built around 1916, Midholme is a now a rare example of a farmhouse in the Pittwater region. Its wide verandas were originally semi-enclosed and the house was carefully positioned on the site to shelter from the southerly winds, the tidal beach and occasionally flooding creek. Built of timber frame with half weatherboard, half asbestos cement sheeting (fibro), it is perhaps one of the earliest uses of fibro in the district.  The Pittwater area generally is renowned for its early use of the material which was to become characteristic in the region due to its use in the construction of holiday houses (Design Plus, 2003) 



The 'Midholme' house stands on sandstone piers for ventilation and to avoid flooding in king tides or when the creek overflows. Originally the veranda was enclosed and these areas were traditionally used as sleeping places during days when the house was full or it was too hot to sleep indoors. 

The Stiles also used this front veranda as a school area, which other children from nearby bays would attend, when they were in residence with their governess or a tutor. Bernard and Pink Stiles (better known as Peggy) and their children - Bernard Jnr, Nora, Pat and Joy spent happy years at Little Mackeral, fitting in well with the local close-knit community and participating in Pittwater Regattas. 

ROWING EVENTS.
Starter, A. L. Dibb; timekeeper, E. Hires: Judge, Oscar Lind; umpires. W, J. Paddon and D. H. Wolf; handicappers, John Roche: and J. L. Wllllims.
Girls anal Boys' Singles Sculls (10 a.m.).
— Bernard Stiles, 3:sec: Joyce Stiles. 10: P. Erickson. I: Jim Loveridge. s: J. Erickson, Bert Ross. scr.  PITTWATER REGATTA (1923, December 22). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119192977 

Mrs. Stiles was also a lady who had time sand energy for others and building a better community:


OF INTEREST TO WOMEN. (1918, October 22). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114267921

Bernard Stiles, who was raised at Currawong in the early 1910s recalled the natural beauties of the place: 
'Regarding the flora and fauna I feel I should mention one bird, namely the Lyre Bird at Little Mackerel. These glorious birds were sheer delight to listen to in the morning, imitating every other bird in the bush, even the putt-putt of a motor boat or a man chopping wood was quite distinct. Koala bears and wallabies were also plentiful. Some of the wildflowers that grew on Little Mackerel and up on the Kuringai Plateau where the West Head Road now carries many sightseers are the many species of boronia, Christmas bush, flannel flowers, waratahs, Christmas bells and in one particular spot is a swampy patch that grows a very rare miniature native rose. Near this spot is the high knob where one can look west and see the Hawkesbury ridge and from the same spot look in the opposite direction and see the whole of Pittwater, Barrenjoey, Lion Island and Palm Beach, truly a unique view.' (quoted in Macken, 2003, 47-48) 

During their occupation of the property the Stiles also constructed a house and garden later known as 'Wilderness' or 'Southend'. Southend was constructed prior to 1937. The building was constructed in a Federation style, however it was destroyed by fire sometime between 1946 and 1949. The site contained gardens which were reportedly quite extensive and included vegetables and fruit trees to the northwest of the house. Bernard Stiles junior recalls that this building [Southend] replaced an earlier structure which also had gardens  containing jonquils and geraniums. Southend was also used as a general store by the Stiles family and for a brief period as a guest house.

Other features noted as being present or built during the time of the Stiles family include post and rail fencing, a jetty at the northern end of the beach and extending northwest following the tidal flat and south creek; tennis courts, flower gardens, a windmill, a dairy/stables and a well. The structure located just northwest of the farmhouse may have been the site of the kitchen for the homestead, later known as Canning Cottage, were the telephone was installed in the 1930s.

These enlarged sections from a Palm Beach panorama, circa 1917-1946 (1920) shows the structures at Little Mackeral and wharf at Great Mackeral and what looks like the SS Phoenix (ferry) out in the estuary:


Clareville wharf Pittwater near Avalon Beach - Small steam passenger vessel coming in. Image No.: c046220013h, from Album: Avalon, Pittwater CREATOR Rex Hazlewood, 1886-1968, courtesy State Library of NSW




Above 1; Little Mackeral. 2. Great Mackeral.


EB Studios (Sydney, N.S.W.). (circa 1917). Panorama of Palm Beach, New South Wales, 11 Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-162487775 - National Library of Australia

GOVERNMENT NOTICES. 
Notice under real property act.— application's having been made to bring the lands here-under described under the provisions of the Real Property Act, Certificates of Indefeasible Title will issue, unless Caveats be lodged in accordance with the Third Schedule to the mid Act, ON OR BEFORE THE 17th, DECEMBER, 1913:
No. 18,103. APPLICANT:— Pink Marie Stiles, Newtown. LAND:— County Cumberland, parish Broken Bay, Shire Warringah, 48a. 2r. 39p., at Little Mackarel Bench, Pittwater,— portion 10, parish, and part 100a. granted to Martin Bourke; adjoining properties of E. Cannell and trustee of Ku-ring-gai Chase. Advertising (1913, November 22). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2 (FINAL SPORTING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229353870 

Mrs. Stiles subdivided Portion 10 into a further 3 allotments during the Stiles family ownership of the property. These included the sale of lot 4/DP 978424 to Isaac Barry Evans and Harriet May (32 ¾ perches) in August 1918; Lot 1/DP 166328(1 acre, 1 rod and 36 perches) to Hector Henry Forsayth, a stock and sharebroker and ex-King's School fullback, in June 1920 (although he left for Oxford University in December 1919 and was in England until 1923) and Lot 1/DP 337208 (29 ½ perches) to Sophie Rock (formerly of Balmoral Beach) in 1937-39.

AN AUSTRALIAN AT OXFORD

MR. H.-H. FORSAYTH. It was announced in' our cables a' few days ago that H. H. Forsayth, whose parents re-side at Vaucluse and who is now a student at Oxford University, had been invited by Eng-land and Scotland to play In the trial matches for the selection of the International Rugby Union football teams.


MR. H. H. FORSAYTH.

Mr. Forsayth is the son of Mr. J. M. C. Forsayth, of Vaucluse Hall, Vaucluse, a well-known South Sea Island merchant, and who has always been an enthusiast in sport. His son, who is just 21 years of age, had a distinguished career at the King's School, Parramatta, where ho won a name for his play In the full-back position. He proceeded to Oxford University at the end of last year, and in his Iast season was awarded his full blue for football. "Another Australian, and incidentally an old boy of the King's School, R. H. Benington, was awarded his blue at the same time.

Mr. Forsayth is a typical Australian of the clean athletic type. He stands nearly six feet high and now weighs slightly .over 13 stone. Private advices recently received state that young Forsayth's play is regarded as very fine by expert critics, and it is expected that he will become one of the'finest exponents of his own particular branch of the Rugby game. AN AUSTRALIAN AT OXFORD (1920, December 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16882033

H. H. Forsayth, the old King's School boy, who played full-back for Oxford University and Scotland, tells us that the Ruby Union game has a remarkable grip in France. The players are making themselves highly proficient. YACHTING PREPARATIONS (1923, September 5). Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128113110

Forsayth and his wife constructed a house known as Northend within their allotment which fronted the beach in the 1920s. They also constructed a boatshed, a flagpole and a concrete retaining wall in an effort to obstruct the tide which was undermining the foundations of Northend. The concrete wall constructed to assist the retention of the Northend house did not stop the erosion of Northend’s foundations and it was demolished in the 1970s. 


Northend  (in background) 1964 - courtesy Patricia Nolan

Dr. Bernard Stiles had a brief turn in rural Wauchope:

Dr. Bernard Stiles, of Newtown, has taken over Dr. H G Bonneys practice at Wauchope, and the latter is proceeding immediately to Brisbane.PURELY PERSONAL. (1933, January 27).Macleay Argus (Kempsey, NSW : 1885 - 1907; 1909 - 1910; 1912 - 1913; 1915 - 1916; 1918 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article234250886 

MAINLY ABOUT PEOPLE. Dr. Sandes has arrived at Wauchope to take over Dr. Stiles' practice. MAINLY ABOUT PEOPLE. (1933, November 11). The Manning River Times and Advocate for the Northern Coast Districts of New South Wales (Taree, NSW : 1898 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article172257369 

By the late 1930's the Stiles family had moved to Manly;

Undated—Pittwater—Building septic  tank.—Mr.  Stiles, 14 South Steyne, Manly.  TENDERS CALLED (1939, June 7).Construction (Sydney, NSW : 1938 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222855457 

Death Caused By Strychnine, Says Doctor

SYDNEY.— Before she died on December 1, Mrs. Vera Doris Watt, of Kent Street, Collaroy, had told him she had taken an A.P.C. powder which tasted very bitter, Dr. Bernard Tarlton Stiles, of Manly, said in the Coroner's Court to-day at the inquest on Mrs. Watt.

Ronald Donald Pagett, of Epping, who has been charged with the mur der of Mrs. Watt, was present at the inquest. Dr. Stiles said that between 2 and 3 p.m. on December 1 he was called to Halt's pharmacy in Manly, where he saw Mrs Watt, who was unable to walk. She told him she had taken an A.P.C. powder which had tasted very bitter. She said she had taken ill on a bus travelling; from Collaroy to Manly. He ordered an ambulance to take her to Manly Cottage Hospital and just before It arrived she had a convulsion. Dr. Clarence Ernest Percy, Government Medical Officer, said he made an internal examination of the body and had submitted the contents of the stomach and part of the organs to the Government Analyst. The organs were healthy. Death was due to strychnine poisoning. Daniel Watt., returned soldier and a member of a Garrison Battalion, said he married the deceased on September 9, 1941, when she was a widow named Knox, aged 36, with two children. Proceeding.  Death Caused By Strychnine, Says Doctor (1941, December 29). The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 - 1947), p. 5 (Second Edition). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article172345043 

Bernard Stiles jnr. in 1944:

PROPOSED FROM PRISON CAMP
War-time Romance
The engagement announced to-day of Miss Helen Hollis and Sergeant Bernard Stiles, A.I.F., only son Of Dr. and Mrs. B Stiles, of Manly, is of special interest, as the proposal was made by letter from a prison camp in Germany.

Sergeant Stiles is a prisoner of war in Stalag 344, in Germany. He was with the 8th Division, and was captured in Crete, three and a half years ago. At the camp, he is the Red Cross representative, and supervises the distribution of the parcels. which, he says, arrive regularly, and help considerably to supplement, the food supplied to the prisoners of war.

Photo: MISS HELEN HOLLIS

When his proposal was accepted by Miss Hollis, he wrote and requested his mother to buy an engagement ring on his behalf. Mrs. Stiles selected a single-stone diamond ring, which Miss Hollis is now wearing. Miss Hollis is the youngest daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Hollis, of New Zealand, and lives with her sister, Mrs. Harold Warner, at Talwood Station, Talwood, Queensland. PROPOSED FROM PRISON CAMP (1944, December 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17931939

STILES-HOLLIS.-The Engagement is announced of Helen Hollis, Talwood Station, Talwood, Queensland, youngest daughter of the late Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Hollis (New Zealand), to Sgt. Bernard Stiles (P.O.W., Germany), only son of Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Stiles, of Manly, N.S.W. Family Notices (1944, December 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17931937 

The newly engaged  Helen was actually the sister of Elizabeth Hazel Hollis who married Queensland grazier and Australia's only WWI airship pilot (and airship station commander), Alfred Warner, A F E Warner. Mr and Mrs A Warner had a daughter, June, who married American and well known correspondent then Frank Kluckhohn and went to live in Connecticut, and a son, John Herbert Warner (26 November 1923 - 20 September 1991) who was a member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly and Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1983 until 1986. Interestingly J H Warner served with the RAAF as a Flight Officer-Pilot working in the Pacific and USA operating air-sea rescues during WWII. 

Helen and Reginald Bernard Stiles may have met at Palm Beach. The Warners would visit the area during the 'Season':

QUEENSLANDERS who are regular summer visitor to Sydney are Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Warner, of Warrindini, Talwood. They intend going to Sydney next week, when they will be accompanied by Mr. Warner's sister, Miss Marjorie Warner, who recently returned from abroad. The Queensland family with their son and daughter, (who are at school in Sydney), will spend Christmas at Palm Beach. A Few Lines To Say (1937, September 30). The Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 - 1954), p. 21. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article37904091 

MR. and Mrs., Alfred Warner, of Warrendine Station, Talwood, have taken a cottage at Palm Beach, Sydney, according to their annual custom, and are spending the holidays there with their children, who attend Sydney schools. ABOUT PEOPLE (1939, January 3). TheCourier-Mail(Brisbane, Qld. : 1933 - 1954), p. 1 (Second Section.). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article39034694 

Flat in Town.
Mrs. Alfred Warner, of "Warrendine" station, Talwood, Queensland, who with her husband, Mr. Warner, and two children, John and June, has been at Palm Beach for the past two months, has taken a flat at Ashdown, Elizabeth Bay, to be near Mr. Warner, who is a patient in St. Vincent's private hospital. Mr. and Mrs. Harold Warner, who were their guests at Palm Beach, are staying at the Hotel Australia. SOCIAL AND PERSONAL. (1939, February 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 21. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17549224 

Little Mackerel Beach was purchased by the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company in 1942. The Company planned to construct a picnic ground and shark-proof enclosure at Little Mackerel Beach as part of its larger tourism ventures. Those plans were never carried out (National Trust listing card, 2000). 

Palm Beach
Little Mackerel Beach -Two well furnished Cottages (with caretaker), all conveniences, telephone, 50 acres bush land, beautiful sandy beach, boating, fishing, free ferry from Palm Beach (2. miles). Wellwood, L.R E.A. Phone, PB. 69. Advertising (1942, November 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17829394 

Two More Ferries For Pittwater
Two more motor ferries are being' obtained by Port Jackson and Manly SS Co., Ltd., for its Pitt-water services, the general manager (Mr. C. E. Cameron) said today. The company had developed services from Church Point to Scotland Isle and around the Pittwater foreshores, and from Palm Beach to The Basin and Mackerel Beach. A diesel ferry to accommodate 100 passengers would be completed in a few days. The second ferry, also with the same capacity, was a naval craft under conversion. Two More Ferries For Pittwater (1946, April 10). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 14 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229471158

During the late 1940s the Port Jackson and Manly Steamship Company suffered an economic downturn and was forced to sell off many of its assets, including its holding at Little Mackerel Beach. The company's legacy there was modest and included the construction of a timber sea wall to mitigate beach erosion, and the erection of a small cottage near Midholme. This is now called Canning Cottage after Charles Canning, the company's caretaker who came to live there after initially supervising maintenance from Great Mackerel Beach. An undated plan of Little Mackerel Beach, probably from the late 1940s, shows the four residences, some outbuildings, a tennis court and a cultivation paddock on the banks of the creek. Photographs in the company's archives from about the same time show fencing and a row of small sheds, possibly chicken coops (Musecape & Beaver, 1999). 

In 1949 the Port Jackson & Manly Steamship Company sold the Beach to the New South Wales Trades and Labour Council for £10,000, including 4 cottages. Following on from the legislated 40-hour working week, and two weeks of paid annual leave, the Labour Council proceeded to use the site for holiday accommodation. Eight cabins were constructed between 1949 and 1952 and an additional "Vandyke" style cabins between 1950–1953 and in 1990 a managers house was constructed.

ARTIST'S IMPRESSION OF HOLIDAY CAMP

THIS is an artist's impression of what the Pittwater workers' holiday camp will look like when completed, superimposed on a photograph of the bush country as it is to-day.
ARTIST'S IMPRESSION OF HOLIDAY CAMP (1949, November 27). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18472720

HOLIDAYS FOR WORKERS
£10,000 Camp Site At Pittwater Purchased
Big industrial concerns and trade-unions 'are to co-operate in setting up a huge holiday camp for workers and their families on the western shore of Pittwater. 
As a site, the N.S.W. Labour Council last week bought the 48-acre Currawong Estate for £10,000 from the Port Jackson»and Manly Steam-ship Company. 
The aim is to build a camp to accommodate 500, on the lines of Butlin's holiday camps in Britain.
It will have a swimming pool on the estate's beach, a children's swimming pool, a sports ground, tennis courts, a cafe, a dining-hall, and a hall for dances and other entertainments.
There will also be a large number of small separate "chalets" with living- I quarters - for about four people in each.
Ferries will take holidaymakers across the estuary to Palm Beach for surfing.
A start will be made this summer, when about 36 holidaymakers will be accommodated in the three houses already on the estate.
The estate comprises two hill-sides with a large flat area between. This runs inland 400 yards from the water. The chalets will be built on level portions of the hillsides, and the fiat area will be a site for sports fields and camp buildings.
SPARE-TIME WORK
Mr. J. D. Kenny, M.L.C., assistant secretary of the N.S.W. Labour Council, originated the scheme. 
Mr. Kenny said last week: "There's not nearly enough holiday accommodation within a wage-earner's means, and hundreds spend their holidays at home.
"Difficulties are 'ahead in putting up the camp buildings. Home building must have priority over holiday camps.
"But we are going to get architects to design a type of chalet that can be built from available materials, chiefly timber. For labour we hope to get spare-time co-operation from members of building unions.
"We'll make a start, if possible, with four hostel-type buildings for young people, accommodating 24 in each.
'Each firm or union which helps to finance the camp will have chalets reserved permanently for its employees or members
"We don't intend to provide the rather regimented amusements that are popular in the English camps " HOLIDAYS FOR WORKERS (1949, November 27). The Sunday Herald (Sydney, NSW : 1949 - 1953), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18472721 

Surrounded by bush-fires, residents of Mackerel Beach sent urgent calls for help to Palm Beach. Two ferries, carrying volunteer firefighters, set out immediately. Trade union officials this after noon were mobilising firefighters to save the NSW Labor Council's holiday camp at Pittwater, which is threatened by bushfires. The camp, established for £15,000, is situated on Little Mackerel Beach.  Big bushfire menaces homes & farms in Loftus area (1951, October 23). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 3 (LATE FINAL ESYRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229727189 

UNION CAMP TO SEEK LICENCE
SYDNEY, Friday.
The N.S.W Trades and Labour Council,' at the Licensing Court on January 28, will seek a spirit merchant's licence for the general store at its holiday camp at Little Mackerel Beach, Pittwater.  The Councils' camp provides' cheap holiday accommodation for unionists' and their families.
The Assistant Secretary of .the Council, Mr. J. D. Kenny, said to-day that the licence would be sought because the camp was isolated from" the nearest hotel at Newport. He said the licence, if granted, would enable the general store to sell wine, spirits and bottled beer in two-dozen lots. 
UNION CAMP TO SEEK LICENCE. (1952, January 5). The Canberra Times (ACT : 1926 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2845657

PITTWATER (Metropolitan) - PITTWATTER Currawong Hol. Resort Little Mackeral Beach Furn. Cottages accom 5 pers £6/10/ 11 mins across Pittwater from Goddard’s Wharlf Palm Beach To pers affiliated to Labor Council of NSW a reduction of £ 1 p w is allowed For parties M4697

EASTER AVAIL - SCOTLAD IS Sm WB Cott , ace 4 Launch Easter avail XA2270 Advertising (1954, April 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 35. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18419595 

A few threads of Little Mackeral must ignite a little curiosity about what was happening at Great Mackeral:

Great Mackeral Beach

from Album Hood Collection part II : [Foreshores: Sydney Harbour, rivers, lakes and waterways; beaches] Circa 1920 - 1950 Photos 25-28. [Beach scenes, Pittwater ?] Images  No.: a230022h, a230023h (under New Approach Dedicated article of 1920 below) and a230024h, Courtesy The Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW.

Great Mackerel Beach

As can be read above. Martin Burke sold the 60 acres he had had at Great Mackeral to James Mark in 1834. Prior to that part of the land had been owned by James Kirby, whose father was a marine with the First Fleet. On 9 March 1831, aged 34, he petitioned Governor Ralph Darling for a grant of land, saying that he was the only support of his 63 year old mother; he possessed 20 head of cattle but no land for their pasture. He selected land at Great Mackerel Beach and received his grant of 40 acres on 18 October 1831. 

On 16 April 1832 James Kirby of York Street, mariner, conveyed the land to George Green of Sussex Street, shipwright, for £9. George Green built boats at Pittwater (Careel Bay and Clareville) and was one of the early great rowers of Australia. You can find out more about the Green Family in Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Green Family
This acreage was sold to James Marks on 16 March 1836. [1.]

James Marks knew the King family - records indicating the property, perhaps once slated for a yachting rendezvous place alike The Basin, was purchased by the father of Elizabeth Connell (nee King)when she was a mere 12 years of age. A bit about James Marks;

DEATH OF MR. JAMES MARKS.
After an illness extending over several weeks, Mr. James Marks died at his residence, 'Arlington,' Edgecliff - road, Woollahra, yesterday. The- deceased was a brother of the late Hon. John Marks, M.L.C., and father of Drs. Herbert and Arthur Marks and Mr. Walter Marks, the owner of the well-known yacht Culwulla. For a brief term the deceased gentleman, who was 72 at the time of his death, occupied a seat in Parliament. DEATH OF MR. JAMES MARKS. (1907, January 13). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126272073 

Death of Mr James Marks. 
Mr James M Marks, of "Arlington", Edgecliff-road, Woollahra,, died at his residence on Saturday, after a brief sickness at the age of 72 years. The deceased, who was a son of the late Mr James Marks, of Culwulla, Jameroo, was born in Sydney in 1835 and upon attaining manhood he followed pastoral pursuits for a number of years in the Illawarra district. In 1878 he relinquished his earlier line of business, went to Sydney, and settled down at Waverley with his family for a time. Eventually ho cast in his lot with the people of Woollahra, the neighbouring suburb, and he had his residence there until his death. The deceased took an earnest interest in public matters, and was a member of the Wollahra Municipal Council for a number of years. Mr. Marks gave a good deal of attention to politics, and in 1894 he came forward at the general election, and secured a seat for the Woollahra Constituency in association with the late Mr. J. H. Want, and Merss. J. O, Neild(now Senator), and King, before political centres were divided into single electorates. Owing to health, considerations Mr. Marks only remained a member of the Legislature for the term of one Parliament, shortly after his retirement he made a tour round the world, spending three years in visiting places possessing ancient and modern interest. 

In all the manly sports the late Mr. Marks was always ready to take a part. He had an especial fondness for yachting, and was well known among all the yachtsmen and fishermen on the waters of Port Jackson. The flags of the yachts in the harbour on Saturday were at half mast, and a number of city establishments paid similar respects to the deceased. 
Rifle shooting was onto of the late Mr, Marks hobbies, and when marksman had to try their skill on the old rifle range the deceased shot sufficiently well to appropriate a number of trophies. As an elderly man he took delight in associating with the young men an their pastimes, for he believed in encouraging the rising generation in the desire for pure and manly sport. Mr. Marks was a benevolent man those who know him best declare that his hand was never out of his pocket, and many an anonymous benevolent act was done of which he was the author. He was associated with a number of charitable institutions, but never took any active part in their management. He was a liberal supporter of church work and was a prominent member of the Woollahra Presbyterian Church. He leaves a widow, three sons and two daughters. The only surviving brother is Mr. Samuel Marks (late of Terragong); who reside at Roseville, near Tarramurry. The remains of the late Mr, Marks were interred in the Waverly cemetery on Sunday afternoon last, the funeral cortege being an imposing one. Death of Mr. James Marks. (1907, January 15). The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser (NSW : 1863 - 1947), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article103177337 

Walter Mark's Culwulla III pictured rounding Lion Island in 1914: 
MR. W. M. MARKS' CULWULLA III. Designed by W. Fife, of Fairlie, Scotland ; builder, W. Ford, jun., Sydney, 1907. Length over-all, 50ft. l.w.l., 30ft., beam, 9ft. 3in.; tons, 13. MR. W. M. MAKES' CULWULLA III. (1910, February 22). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article10054129  

Visit: The Postponed America's Cup Of 1914: Bermuda Once A Refuge For The British Shamrock IV And An Australian RPAYC Commodore Part Of The Trials Crew

PRINCE ALFRED YACHT CLUB.  OCEAN RACE— BROKEN BAY AND BACK. The Basin Cup was raced for yesterday under the auspices of the Prince Alfred Yacht Club. It is the longest ocean race of the season, the course being from Fort Denison to Broken Bay and back, a distance of about 42 miles. Last year the first Basin Cup, which is named after the the well known yachtsmen's camping ground at Broken Bay, was presented by Mr. Harry Cox, at whose suggestion the race was placed on the programme, and was won by Rawhiti. This year's cup has also been donated by Mr. Cox, and yesterday's winner turned up in Mr. E. E. Saver's Fleetwing.
The race was sailed under the system of classification, that no two boats of the same take first and second prizes. Result : Fleetwing (E. E. Sayer), 57min  1Rawhltl (C. T. Brockhoff), 4min 2 White Wings (J. A. Muston), 7min 
Other starters : Awanui (A. C. Saxton) scr., Culwulla (W. M. Marks) 62min, Heather (N. H.Murray) 54min, Magic (J. Murray) 56min, and Herreshoff (C. Duval) 75min. At the time of starting, .10 a.m., a nice breeze from the northeast prevailed. Good process was made down to the heads, where, however, a belt of calm practically brought  all the competitors together. Awanui was the first out of the doldrums, and, leaving Rawhiti, the first yacht to reach South Reef, for the time being becalmed, opened out a big lead. The latter, however, was the next boat to strike the breeze, and she was followed by Heather. It was but a fickle breeze on the work along the coast. Long Reef saw Rawhiti with a lead of some 15min from Awanui. At Lion Island the times were:  Rawhiti 3.7.12, Awanui3.16.46, White Wings 3.18.1, Fleetwing 3.40.27, Heather 3.41.60, Culwulla 3.57.30, Magic having given up before this stage was reached, whilst Herreshoff retired, and made for the Basin, Broken Bay. They had a good run back as far as Long Reef. Here the wind again failed, and Awanui and White Wings ran on top of the leader. Picking up the breeze again, they reached the harbor without further delay, Awanui in the meantime having passed Rawhiti. At the finish the times were : Awanui 6.24.30, Rawhiti 6.26.0,White Wings 6.31.13, Fleetwing 7.7.42, Heather7.21.20, and Culwulla 7.21.32. Thus alter adjusting the time allowances Fleetwing won by 11min 18sec from Rawhiti, which had 2 min 1 sec to spare from White Wings.PRINCE ALFRED YACHT CLUB. (1907, December 15).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126274730


NEW SOUTH WALES ACADEMY OF ART.
SECOND ANNUAL EXHIBITION
Certificate of Merit
No. 51, "Creek Mackerel Beach," Pitwater, Broken Bay- G P. Slade, amateur, N.S W.
Advertising (1873, April 30). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63229822

Primary Application - 
Elizabeth Connell 100 acres at Pitt Water in Parish Broken Bay County Cumberland Date Range: 1863-01-01 to 1886-05-27

No. 6,327. Pitt Water, near the Basin, 60 acres, fronting Great Mackeral Beach,—is part of 100 acres granted to M. Burke.
Elizabeth Connell, wife of William Moore Connell, Merri Merri Station, Galargambone
NOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT. (1886, March 19). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1881. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227666155

NOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT. APPLICATIONS having been made to bring the lands hereunder described under the provisions of the Real Property Act, Certificates of Indefeasible Title will issue, unless Caveats be lodged la Form B of the said Act, on or before the date named opposite each case respectively
Great Mackeral Beach, — is part of 100 acres granted to M. Burke 
Name of applicant: Elizabeth Connell, wife of William Moore Connell.
Residence: Merri Merri Station, Galargambons
Date up to and inclusive of which Caveat may be lodged: May 27th
Advertising (1886, May 22). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107288757

In Memoriam.
William Moore Connell.
The late Mr. W. M. Connell, of Avoca station, whose death we lately announced, was a member of a well-known Irish family, his grandfather (Anthony Connell, of Kinsale), having been one of Her Majesty's Judges. He was an intimate friend of Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator." Amongst the heirlooms of the Connell family are several letters written by him to his sons, then leaving for Australia, and containing the fruits of a ripened experience of the world. 

One of these sons was appointed Assistant Commissary-General to the Forces in Western Australia, and he was the father of the subject of this notice. The family was also connected with Sir John Moore, the hero of Corunna. 

Mr. W. M. Connell was born in Sydney nearly 70 years ago. He bought Avoca about 1870 continuing to reside there ever since.Owing to a severe and protracted illness, a few weeks ago he consulted Dr. Bertram, of Coonamble, who held out no hopes, but advised a visit to the Hot Lakes of New Zealand as the only chance of prolonging life a little. On returning to the station, however, Mr. Connell collapsed from heart failure, and passed away in the most peaceful manner. His sisters — Mrs. Allen, wife of a well-known Savings Bank official, and Mrs. W. F. Buchanan, of Killarney station, Narrabri, and his brother (Mr. Henry Connell, once P.M. at Kiama)— all pre-deceased him. He leaves a widow, three sons, and a daughter.

Mr. Connell was one of the best known and most esteemed men on the Castlereagh. The writer can testify to his native goodness of heart to travellers. In this, as in other ways, he upheld the best traditions of the Australian country gentleman. Most assuredly the district will long continue to hold, in honour and affection, the memory of William Moore Connell.
In Memoriam. (1904, August 20). Dubbo Dispatch and Wellington Independent (NSW : 1887 - 1932), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228578606

CONNELL  WILLIAM M 9004/1904 Father: HENRY Mother: ELIZABETH A COONAMBLE - NSW Births, Deaths, Marriages records
Marriage: 2871/1875 CONNELL WILLIAM MOORE KING ELIZABETH KIAMA - NSW Births, Deaths, Marriages records

CONNELL—KING.—June 10, at Christ Church, Kiama, by the Rev. J. H. L. Zillman, William Moore Connell, J.P., of the Merri Merri, Coonamble, youngest son of Assistant Commissary-General Connell, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the late Alexander King, J.P., Avoca, Kiama. Family Notices (1875, June 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28405344

CONNELL—KING—June 10, at Christ Church, Kiama, by the Rev. J. H. L. Zillman, William Moore Connell, J.P., of the Merri Merri, Coonamble, to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of the late Alexander King, J.P., Avoca, Kiama. Family Notices (1875, July 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13356799

KIAMA.
Saturday, 5.30 pm.
Mr. Alexander King, JP, died at 3 o'clock this morning.
KIAMA. (1867, March 23). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166798938

THE LATE MR. A KING. The mournful duty again devolves on us this week of recording the death of another one of our oldest and most successful residents. On Sunday afternoon last, the mortal remains of of Alexander King, Esq, J.P. were interred in the Anglican Church graveyard, Kiama being followed there by a large number of the most respectable and wealthy residents from all parts of the district. The deceased gentleman took up his abode in this neighbourhood, with his still surviving brothers, at a very early period of its settlement ; and by the force of his industrious and thrifty habits had succeeded in obtaining a very comfortable temporal position. His intelligence and sagacity recommended him to the Government for the honor of J.P., which was conferred on him five or six years ago, and the duties of this office were performed by him honorably and creditably. Mr. King leaves behind him a widow and a large family, by whom, as well as a large circle of relatives and friends, his death will be deeply deplored. LOCAL ITEMS. (1867, March 21). The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser (NSW : 1863 - 1947), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113834907

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION.
In the will of Alexander King, late of Kiama, Illawarra, in the Colony of New South Wales, Esquire, deceased.
NOTIC is hereby given, that after the expiration of fourteen, days from the publication hereof, application will be made to this Honorable Court, in its Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, that probate of the last will and testament of the abovenamed deceased may be granted to John Marks, of Jerragong Swamp, near Jamberoo, Illawarra aforesaid. Esquire, and Samuel Charles, of Eureka, near Kiama aforesaid. Esquire, the Executors named in the said will.—Dated this 11th day of April, a.d. 1867.
ROBERT HALL OWEN,
Proctor for the Executors,
Shoalhaven-street, Kiama. By his Agent, R. W. Robberds,
159, Castlereagh-street, Sydney. 
ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1867, April 16). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 991. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225471489 

Children:
CONNELL  HAROLD MOORE P 5036/1876 WILLIAM M ELIZABETH RANDWICK
CONNELL  HENRY NORMAN 16729/1880 WILLIAM MOORE ELIZABETH KIAMA
CONNELL  LESLIE G 23494/1882 WILLIAM M ELIZABETH COONAMBLE
CONNELL  VERA E 29335/1887 WILLIAM M ELIZABETH COONAMBLE

A COONAMBLE DISTRICT GRAZIER.
Probate of the will of the late Mr. William Moore Connell, grazier, of Merri Merri, in the district of Coonamble, has been granted. The value of the estate was sworn at £47,950, and the duty amounted to £1789. The testator appoints his wife sole executrix, and directs that, the station known as Upper Merri shall be managed and kept in trust for the benefit of his wife and four children, Harold, Henry, Leslie, and Vera Connell. A half interest is secured to the widow, the other half going to the children. 
A house in William-street, Sydney, is left to Henry when he comes of age, and a property at Lane Cove is similarly bequeathed to Harold. To Leslie is left the property known as Mackerel Beach, containing 100 acres. The station is to be worked in conjunction with other lands owned by testator in the Coonamble district. A property known as St.Damien's is left to the deceased's wife, and a house in Bourke-street, Woolloomooloo, to Harold. Bequests of £800 each are made to Leslie and Vera, and of £100 to Mr. G. Fuller, M.H.R.
A COONAMBLE DISTRICT GRAZIER. (1905, February 25). The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate (NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article76127385

Society Wedding.
Rowe- Connell.
Much Interest was evinced in the marriage of Captain Ruskin Rowe, son of the late  Colonel Rowe and Mrs. S. Rowe, of North Sydney, with Miss Vera Connell, only daughter of the late Mr. W. Moore-ConneIl, of Avoca Station, Gulargambone, and Mrs. Moore-Connell of “St. Damiena”, Neutral Bay which was solemnised at St. James's Church yesterday. The service was fully choral, and was conducted by the Rev. Wentworth Shields. The bride was given away by her brother, Mr. Harold Moore-Connell. She wore a lovely gown of ivory duchesse satin mousselinei draped with tulle, the corsage of Limerick lace being embroidered in silver and seed pearls, while the court train of Limerick lace was lined with pink shirred ninon, and her plain tulle veil arranged with orange blossoms formed a cap. She carried a bouquet of carnations, which, with a diamond pendant, were the bridegroom's gifts. 

The Misses Gladys Fuller, Florence Christmas, Gwendoline Fuller, and Gladys Rowe were in attendance as bridesmaids, wearing white crepe de chine with tunics of fillet lace and white ninon boleros relieved with sashes of wedgwood-blue satin, and White tagel hats with ostrich feathers and wedgwood-blue moire ribbon. They carried bouquets of cerise roses, which, with pearl earrings, were the bridegroom’s gifts. The two maids of honor were Marjorie and Dorothy Connell, nieces of the bride. They wore dainty frocks of white net and Valenciennes lace over silk, and white hats relieved with pale blue. They received gold Nellie Stewart bangles from the bridegroom. 

Mr. Reg Prevost acted as best man, and Messrs. Leslie Connell, Chris Rowe, and F. Robinson were the groomsmen. During the service Mr. Emit Sussmileh sang "The Song of Thanksgiving." Subsequently a reception was held at the Australia, where the drawing-room was effectively decorated with pink and white lilies, pink roses, and trails of smilax.

The bride's mother was attired in a handsome gown of black Chantilly lace and ninon de sole over white satin; relieved with touches of cerise and del blue, arranged with diamenti buckles, and a picture hat relieved with turquoise-blue feathers. The bridegroom's mother wore black crepe de chine and a black and white toque, and carried a posey of mauve sweet peas. Mrs. Arthur Rickard, sister of the bridegroom, wore vieux-rose crepe de chine Inlet with floral silk '' veiled In ninon, and a black simdow lace hat. Mrs. G. W. Fuller (aunt), sapphire and white spotted silk-relieved with a cherry sash, and a hat en suite. Mrs. Steer Bowker, oyster-grey crepe de chine and a black tulle hat. 

The guests included Mr. arid Mrs. Leo Rowe, Mr. and Mrs. Clive Archer, Mr. and Mrs. David Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Buchanan, Captain, and Mrs. Bert Rowe, Mr. and Mrs. H. Hall, Mr. and Mrs. H. Ross, Mr. and Mrs. H. Connell, Mr. and Mrs. H. Norman Connell, Mesdames R. Christmas, G. Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. O. Chapman, Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm Stephen, Mr. and Mrs. Ascher, Mr., and Mrs. Young, Mr. and Mrs. A. Chapman. Mr. and Mrs.  F. Marks, Mr. and Mrs. P. Christmas, Mr. and Mrs. F. Paton, Mr. and Mrs. Griffiths, Mr. and Mrs; S. Farrell; Mr. and Mrs. M'Bride, Mr. and Mrs. E. Barker, Mr. and Mrs. Sautellp, Mesdames H. Connell, H. Palmer, C. Buchanan, Walter Marks, Spain, Alderson, R. Arnott, Misses, Harrison, Violet and Kathleen Buchanan, R. Rowe, May Summerbelle, Messrs. A. Rickard, G. W. Fuller, F. Rowe, Donkin, J. Houston, C. Rowe, C. Arnott;. R. A. Warden, Percy Summerbelle (U.S.A.) and J. Houston.
The bride and bridegroom left for Mount Kosciusko, the bride wearing a gown of cell-blue cachemere de sole finished with an embroidered ninon coatee and a white hat wreathed with ostrich feathers. They received numerous telegrams of congratulations from absent friends.SOCIETY WEDDING. (1913, November 2).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (SUNDAY EDITION). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229345659 

CONNELL. -June 17, 1942, at her residence, Merribah, Ocean Avenue, Double Bay, Elizabeth, widow of the late William Moore Connell, of Avoca Station, Gulargambone, and mother of Harold Moore, Henry Norman (deceased), Leslie Gordon, and Mrs. Vera E. Ruskin Rowe.  Family Notices (1942, June 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17799139

Born 1851 to Alexander and Margaret King

The first subdivision land sales advertised for Great Mackerel were advertised in 1918, when it was named 'Big' to differentiate between 'Little' Mackerel Beach;
PRELIMINARY ANNOUNCEMENT. 
AUCTION" SALE ON THE LAND.
NEW YEAR'S DAY.
BIG MACKEREL BEACH,
KURING-GAI CHASE, PITTWATER.
One mile from Palm Beach, one mile from the Basin. The Iast important sandy beach intact and still in private hands near Sydney.
ABSOLUTE WATER FRONTAGE; NO GOVERNMENT RESERVATION.
A veritable Paradise of shimmering sand and semi-troplcal vegetation.
Splendid boating, bathing, and fishing, with a north-easterly aspect.
An Ideal pleasaunce for the families of Professional and Commercial men.
Great Mackerel Beach is, in fact, one of the very few highly-desirable stretches of Foreshore on the entire Coastline of this otherwise magnificent National Estate.
Further particulars from
MESSRS. H. W. HORNING AND CO., LTD.,
AUCTIONEERS, MOORE-STREET, SYDNEY. Advertising (1918, October 9). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221415993

Great Mackerel Beach Wharf dedicated on Saturday January 3rd, 1920:

KURING-GAI CHASE
New Approach Dedicated
On Saturday the residents of the locality assembled on Great Mackerel Beach, Kuring-gal Chase, Pittwater, to take part in the dedication of the new wharf and adjacent foreshore to the public. The occasion was one of much rejoicing in the district. Not only has the entire foreshore been made available to residents and to the community generally, but access has been afforded where previously there was none to one of the most delightful gorges of Kuring-gai Chase. KURING-GAI CHASE (1920, January 5 - Monday).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 4 (CABLE EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221385001 



This wharf was installed to allow access as parcels of land were to be offered for sale:

OLD COINS FOUND
On Great Mackerel Beach
Shortly before the Christina holidays, When Mr. James Curdy, a surveyor, was engaged in the work of subdividing Great Mackerel Beach, Kuring-gai Chase, Pittwater, he stumbled upon some copper coins of the reign of George III, intrinsically, of course, they are worthless enough, as the gigantic pennies of those days can hardly be said to have attained "a collector's value." But on the other hand their presence on Great Mackerel Beach is a matter of some Interest. Until the construction of the wharf, a few weeks ago, the spot was not easy of access, and it is hardly likely that the occasional visitor who found his way ashore from an open boat would drop them from the pocket of a pair of "shorts" as he wandered Inland in search of drinking water. Of course the coins may be part of the "treasure" that, according to local tradition lies buried with the bones of an early settler. Or again, they may have been carried there by a convict. 
OLD COINS FOUND (1920, January 12).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5 (CABLE EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221381363 

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death.



1797 British Penny Specifications: Weight; 28.3 g, Diameter; 36 mm Composition; copper. Minted; Soho, Handsworth, England. Mintage; approx. 8,601,600 (inc varieties). 1797 British Penny Design - Obverse and Reverse; Conrad Kuchler. Now semi-rare and have collector's value.
Notes: laurel has 11 leaves, SOHO mintmark below shield, first British or English copper penny. Images courtesy of Gold Guinea.

The first copper penny to be circulated in Britain, the cartwheel penny was designed to combat counterfeiting. Designed to weigh its exact value in copper, (one ounce), the 1797 penny was very large.

The 1797 British penny obverse features the robed laureate bust of King George III facing right. The legend reads: 'GEORGIUS III-D:G-REX.' The reverse shows Britannia seated facing left, holding an olive branch and a trident with a shield resting beside, with a ship in the distance. The legend reads 'BRITANNIA.' above, with the date below.


Advertising (1920, January 7). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239657823 

The charms of Pittwater will be difficult to exaggerate, and the growth of the resort seems to be assured. Some very successful sales have been held in this locality, and another attractive subdivision, known as the Great Mackeral Beach estate, will be offered by Messrs. H. W. Horning and Co. to-morrow, Monday, afternoon. The estate has the distinct advantage of being right at the beach, where a new wharf has been built, which is used for a launch service to Newport and the Hawkesbury River. The subdivision includes a fine bungalow residence and a number of well-planned allotments, admirably suited for bungalow homes or week-end cottages. Arrangements have been made by the agents for launches to leave the Newport wharf for the convenience of those who will prefer to reach the scene of the sale from this point. TO-MORROW'S SALES (1922, January 1).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128213237 

RIVAL SALES IN VILLAGE Pittwater Has One
For buyers, to-morrow, all roads will lead to Manly. Some, doubtless, will so through the village and on to Pittwater, where the Great Mackerel Beach sale, postponed on Monday because of the storm, will be held. But many will be unable to overcome the temptations of free motor buses and ringing bells at the ferry, wharf. With two land sales within a short distance of each other, there will be rivalry aplenty, and the man who's not sure where he is suing will be lucky if he gets there.  MANLY TO-MORROW (1922, January 6).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2 (CRICKET EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225215102 

In 1934 the site was used as a camp for a Chauvel film with the Chauvels staying on site - the image below looks similar to Little Mackerel's open flats:

"HERITAGE." Plans for Crowd Scenes. GOVERNOR PHILLIP'S LANDING.
More than a hundred men. most, of them unemployed, have been given work for to-day as "extras" in the Australian picture, "Heritage."' which Mr. Charles Chauvel is producing for Expeditionary Films. Ltd. Seventy of the men were selected in Sydney,  and a large number in the district about Pittwater. To-day, all these will be transported to Great Mackerel Beach, where they are to take part in scenes depicting the landing of Governor Phillip.
The settings for Governor Phillip's camp have been faithfully reproduced from sketches prepared by Mr. Ray Lindsay from original sources in the Mitchell Library and elsewhere. Much difficulty has been experienced, however, in damming the small stream which flows from the hills to the beach, and which is Intended to represent the historic Tank Stream of Circular Quay.  Several hundred bags, to be filled with sand for that purpose, were sent from Sydney yesterday. Hitherto, the tides have moved all the sandbags available at Pittwater.
It is hoped to make a start with the crowd scenes at Pittwater this morning. The film should be sufficiently advanced by the end of the week to be taken to Melbourne by Mr.Chauvel for "cutting." 
RE-ENACTING SCENES FROM THE FIRST SETTLEMENT. (1934, October 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from 
http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28021154

THAT enterprising couple, the Charles Chauvels, have found the quaintest little beach. In among the rocks and tea-tree, high above Mackerel Beach, near Pittwater, from which they will be able to keep an eye on the extras to be utilised in finishing their film, "Heritage," and, incidentally, the social-lights across the bay at Palm Beach. And what do you think they found there? Pasted on the front verandah was a large photograph of a group of those luscious Mack Sennett bathing girls, just too, too Mae Westy for words. It quite brought Charles' 'Hollywood days back to him when ho used to scamper round as one of Douglas Fairbanks' publicity men. Incidentally, this week Pittwater will resound to the commands of Governor Phillip's military, and the curses of his convict men. Nevertheless, Mrs. Chauvel thinks her little pill-box on the hill is the most restful spot since she left the Blue Lagoon in Tahiti. Catty Communications (1934, October 27). Smith's Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 - 1950), p. 21. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article235490112


Photograph: RE-ENACTING SCENES FROM THE FIRST SETTLEMENT. (1934, October 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28021154

Visit: Filmed in Pittwater


BOY DROWNED NEAR PALM BEACH
Frank Barnett, 3, was drowned at Great Mackerel Beach, near Palm Beach, on Saturday. The boy, who was holidaying at the beach with members of the family, who live in Grafton Avenue, Naremburn, fell into the water from a jetty. BOY DROWNED NEAR PALM BEACH(1945, April 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17936624 

HUMAN BONES DUG UP
Police believe that human bones found at Mackerel Beach, Pitt-water, yesterday are those of an aboriginal.
Mr. Max Walters was sinking a well on his property when he noticed the bones at a depth of about five feet. He carefully built in the hole to avoid disturbing them, and then called the police.
Detective-Sergeants Sawyer and Jar-dine and other police went to Mr.Walters's property. Working by the light of torches and lanterns, they dug a pit six feet square and six feet deep. The bones recovered include the roof of a skull and part of a jawbone with teeth attached. The skull was much thicker than in any European, and had evidently been buried 50 or 100 years ago. The bones will be submitted to expert medical opinion to-day. HUMAN BONES DUG UP. (1947, May 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27900064

The Basin

As can be read above and seen below, The Basin was a place where many a local fisherman made his home and a place that attracted many visitors for fishing. Due to its ability to shelter people, it was also a place yachts would shelter in. The sweep of the tides, or sharks chasing schools of fish, meant it was a haven for fishermen:



Blind Cove, Pittwater, N.SW. 

This beautiful little bay shown in our illustration, formerly private property, has been made a reserve of by Government, and is now practically a cruising ground for the yachting community of Sydney. A more useful and delightful sheet of water could not have been chosen, situated as it is at the entrance to the Hawkesbusy River, just opposite Barrenjoey. To the north is the broad expanse of water known as Brisbane Water, and to its south Pittwater, which is now connected with Sydney, Newport, and Manly by means of a coach running daily. Blind Cove, also called The Basin, is a safe refuge in the very worst of weather. It owes its name of Blind Cove to the fact of its being invisible to the incomer until he has almost reached its entrance, which is very narrow and hidden from view by a low stretch of sand ; but inside this narrow passage there is deep water, and the height of the hills surrounding the basin (some 600 feet) so thoroughly shelter it from heavy winds that it might well be called Looking-glass Bay. It is on account of this, and also the beauty of the surrounding scenery, that has made it one of the principal rendezvous of yachtsmen. Blind Cove, Pittwater, N.SW. (1883, March 10). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 26. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70996783

CRUISING IN THE HAWKESBURY.
It has often been said that our aquatic amateur sailors: were unequal to the task of venturing outside the Heads; but the number who have gone out during the holidays, to explore "fresh fields and pastures new," both north and south, completely disproves any such statement, and the only reason that- those . extended cruises do not occur' oftener is because it is useless going outside unless one has at least three days to spare from business. The beautiful waters of the Hawkesbury had representatives from the different sailing clubs. The S.A.S.C. and the D.B. A.B.C. were in great force.  Commodore Dietrich. Commodore McDonnel, Vice-commodore Milson (Waitangi), and the Vice-commodores of the P.A.Y.C. and D.B.A.S.C., all went up in their boats, thus setting a good example to the other members and bearing silent testimony that we have a nucleus of at least one hundred well trained boat sailors. Exclusive of five yachts there were at least 20 boats counted about the bays in the Hawkesbury, all of which sailed out from the Heads from Tuesday to Thursday morning. Camping out is now held in high favour and becoming- even quite fashionable, and this too by persons owning boats that hitherto have been looked upon as mere racing machines. The Sydney Amateur Sailing Club was represented by the Asteroid, Dreamland, Lottie, Snowdrop, Muriel, Cutty Sark, Wanganella, Psyche, Colleen Bawn. The Double Bay A. Sailing Club by the Curlew Iris. The Lottie being also the commodore's boat of the other club. Besides- these, there were- also present the Viking, Mr. Charlton's new boat, the Weringa, Pearly Sybil, Agnes, Zuleika, Corinne, Maritana ; the latter having made a very fast trip from Sydney. The weather was very favorable both going and coming. In going down there was a good muster on Thursday morning, some ten boats going out in close order. Some had gone on Wednesday afternoon and one on Tuesday morning. The time made was very good both ways. A capital opportunity was given to beat the river, as there was a fine S.E. wind and flood tide. and the majority made their way as far as Beroura Creek which was honoured by the Dreamland, Lottie, Wanganella, Curlew, Zuleika on Christmas Day; whiles just below were the Waitangi and Muriel, with the Pleiades and Viking in Cowan Creek. Some boats, anchored in Wogonga Creek, the Asteroid was lying very lonely under Long Island; and some three or four others went over to Pittwater and the Basin. On Friday most of the boats worked lower down the river, and in the sea reach the Violet, Mistral and Sao, were met coming from Sydney; followed by the Wolverene, which, if report be true, found amusement and instruction in shelling the banks of Cowan Creek, and thereby setting fire to the bush and so disfiguring nature. Certainly from the basin reports were heard, and soon after bush-fire smoke was seen moving in clouds. 
On Saturday evening there was a large muster at the Basin, 12 boats and three yachts laying there waiting for the return trip on Sunday. Punctually at 8 p.m. the Waitangi, the flagboat, of the fleet, fired her cannon; which is repeated at 8 a.m., when the flag is hoisted. At night the scene on shore was very lively, as most of the-crews had mutual friends, and told various yarns. of their aquatic experiences, and it was pretty late before the various crews turned in except for those who were going out with the early westerly at daylight. The Cutty Sark left the basin first, followed by the Snowdrop, Pearl, and the Young Harry, a fishing boat from Double Bay, hired by some amateurs.. These three got well off the land by 10a.m.; but found the E.N.E very late in coming in. Soon after the Dreamland and Wanganella, with the Sibyl, from the river, put out, getting an offing about 11 a.m. The Dreamland came back very fast, catching the Pearl, which had a long start of:' some two or three miles, and boating the Wanganella by some 12 minutes. When Long Reef was reached, the scene would have made a very pretty picture. There were six boats in a heap astern or the Wanganella, and four aboard, with some yachts bowling along at a fast pace. The trip took from two and a half to three hours, and more for, slower boats, from Barrenjoey to South roof, and the wind was not too much aft to stop the jib from drawing. The Curlew, Iris, Colleen Bawn, stayed behind, and perhaps others but all the rest, so far as we can learn, reached home safely without accident. The fair wind did not necessitate anyone having to overland it from Pitt Water to be in time-for business. Besides these sailing boats, there were numerous skiffs taken round by steamer, and the two steam yachts Eva and Northumbria steamed up. What other ports were visited by the clubs and other boats will, doubtless, be duly recorded; but for Broken Bay it may be said that it had the lion's share, and it is gratifying, to know that when such an occasion as this just past offers itself our amateurs are only too glad to vary the monotony of the smooth harbour for a lurch and a roll on our own sunny ocean.
CRUISING IN THE HAWKESBURY. (1885, January 3). Australian Town and Country Journal (NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 38. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71021899


Graham, H. J. (1884). Our camp, the Basin, Broken Bay Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-135522855

… There was not much time to stop as we purposed camping at the Basin in Pittwater that night. The distance from Brooklyn is about 10 miles. A pull of about 8 miles down opens out the Heads, Whist Head on the south, and Boxhead on the north with Mount Elliott and Lion Island in the centre. This view with the open Pacific for a background was magnificent, and as we soon got into the heave of a lone. N.E. swell our spirits rose until we all felt, I am sure, as happy and free as boys. Lion Island is one of the few places blessed with a sensible yet appropriate name ; its top has the appearance of a lion couchant and so striking is the resemblance as to leave no doubt as to identity. The sun had disappeared behind the western hills before we reached the outer point of south head, there was yet some distance to pull to the Basin so we decided to go round the head next day. We soon found a quiet little place well sheltered in one of the numerous little bays and pitched our tent for the night. It was our intention to have reached Pittwater on Thursday so as to go outside shnappering on Friday. We therefore sent word to the fisherman with whom we proposed going to that effect.
Four a.m. on Friday saw us out and busy, so that long before daylight we wore again afloat. The pull round Whist Head was enjoyable in the extreme; the sharp morning air and fresh breeze together with the novelty of the surroundings producing those emotions which make a man glad he is alive. We were midway between the heads when the sun rose. Many writers, at various times, have described or attempted to describe a sunrise at sea. I am not going to try it. Such a sunrise as we saw on that and the two following mornings is beyond the ability of the ordinary mortal to paint. The gorgeous splendor of the eastern sky, as the orb appeared on the horizon, and the first rays glinted across the unruffled surface of the sea, lighting up each object in its path with a delicacy of warmth and color unattainable by the artist, until we were bathed in the full rays of glowing sunshine. To us, freed for the time from business cares, it was a veritable glimpse of heaven. Each individual mentally ejaculates "Splendid!" Can anything be more magnificent ? And the music of the plashing surf brings back the answer-The heavens and the earth are His, and the sea also. 
 Just before reaching the basin a large fishing boat was seen in the offing. This proved to be the boat we wished to go out in.
As we subsequently learnt, our message had not reached its destination, so in this part of our programme we were doomed to disappointment. As we were well supplied with fishing tackle we soon found a way to amuse ourselves in such waters as it was safe for our craft to go. The Basin is one of the loveliest spots of as pretty a bay as can be found ; for the most part it is as nature made it, no unsightly excrescences have yet arisen to disfigure the primeval grandeur of this quiet spot, save here and there a fisherman's cottage giving just sufficient life to prevent its claim to solitude.
On Saturday we were fishing off one of the points hoping to intercept a stray shnapper, but instead we caught sundry small fry from red bream to mackeral, when presently something-I believe a jew fish-took a line. Then the fight began. In a few fathoms, then away with a rush until, after some playing, the lines became fouled and we lost him. After that a couple of " stingVrocs," big enough to load a barrow. Then I hooked a fish which the skipper pronounced a schnapper, but the hook straightened out before I could land him. So much fish about attracted the sharks, one of which betrayed a fondness for prepared mackeral. Soon the fun became fast and furious. All other lines were quickly pulled in to give the skipper every chance, and when he finally came onboard we were just as much excited and pleased as ifwe had caught a sperm whale. It proved to be a young " whaler " about five feet long. The whaling shark is the prettiest and most symmetrical of all the shark tribe; its usual habitat is in deep water, it is rarely found in much frequented harbours, and is not the shark which scours the nooks and little bays in search of filth and offal or stray dogs.
There is a time for all things, and amongst them came the time for us to return. I must confess we all very reluctantly recognised the fact. One of our party had promised to be home by a the following Monday morning, so we had to retrace our steps. There was a good stiff south-wester blowing when we left the Basin, and it was noon before we arrived at Brooklyn. We dropped the steward here, and as we had a soldier's wind up the river, we hastened to make the best of it. 
… From Penrith to the Sea. (1894, June 2).Nepean Times (Penrith, NSW : 1882 - 1962), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108683486 

A Basin fish story which brings in the cows of the Basin and their 'diet';

'Talking about the cow with the crumpled horn,' remarked the truthful man of the party, 'I had a rather interesting experience at the Basin, Pittwater, the other day with a specimen of that domesticated race.' the party settled itself down with an unmistakable air of boredom, while the irrepressible one only yawned his disapproval. Unabashed, the truthful man,proceeded: 'I had caught two flat head and a black bream, the latter about this long— ambiguously indicating with outstretched hands an area of country which would fill the heart of any homestead lessee with gladness, 'I had left them on the beach for about five minutes while I ran up to the tent adjacent. On my return, judge of my surprise at seeing a cow solemnly scoffing the sole remaining flathead, (She had already polished off its brother and the black bream). 
This bit of barefaced robbery I could not condone, so at once started to wade in, which caused the animal to hastily, discard the fish's head and pass the remainder into its capacious interior. Later on I remonstrated with the owner; who stated the incident was a common one, and that his cows often made a hearty lunch off the blubber cast up on the sands. Ahem ! that— that's all !' 
The party Iooks at itself for several moments, and like the Arabs, it silently stole away. 
In the distance, there came floating back to the ears of "George Washington" the voice of the ''Irrepressible One,' who innocently queried, 'Say, Mister, I wonder where we get our salt butter from? Pittwater!
FISHERS AND FISH. (1901, December 18). Sydney Sportsman (Surry Hills, NSW : 1900 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167263999

Some of them climbed trees to look for fish runs, as shown above in this page's opening threads;

FISHERMAN’S MISFORTUNE
Geo. Hibbs, fisherman, of Hawkesbury River (N.S.W.), who was on a fishing expedition at Pittwater, climbed a tree overlooking the river to watch a shoal of fish, when the bough of the tree on which he was standing broke, and he fell to the ground. His comrades found him in an unconscious state. He died the following day.  FISHERMAN'S MISFORTUNE. (1911, May 3).Globe (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1914), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98387907 

PINNED DOWN BY LEG
FISHERMAN FELL 20 FT. WITH TREE; 
When an apparently sturdy tree collapsed and fell on him at the Basin, Pittwater, yesterday, Nelson James Woodbury, fisherman had his left thigh fractured, his right knee Injured, a severe cut inflicted, on his left leg, and abrasions to the left foot. Woodbury climbed about 20ft. up the tree, as Is the habit with Broken Bay fishermen, to watch for the shoals of travelling fish, which pass through the waters. When the tree gave way he fell 20ft. to the ground, and was pinned down by the leg until his cries, attracted his mate, who liberated him: Suffering intense agony, Woodbury had to be rowed a mile and a half to Palm Beach, from where the Manly Ambulance was called. He was taken to Manly Hospital. PINNED DOWN BY LEG (1935, January 16).The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236463263 

Easter parties are being made up, and excellent camping grounds in N.S.W., where fishermen should be able to do without meat, are: — The Basin and Palm Beach (Pittwater.) , Patonga Creek (Broken Bay), Moonee Moonee Creek (Hawkesbury), Waitemolle and Wreck Bay (Sussex Inlet). Flies should be used over the tents and trenches cut round them, to ensure dry sleeping quarters. FISHING (1915, March 10). Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129351340 

Last week fish were found in large numbers on the Palm and Barrenjoey beaches. Mr. P. Heyland, who visited Palm Beach, states that mullet, whiting, and garfish, were said to have been driven ashore by porpoises and large tunny, kingfish, and-tailer.Several people gathered the fresh fish on the beaches and were duly thankful, although rather dubious about their freshness. They need have had no misgivings if the fish were firm, their gills red, and their odor right. Such gifts from Neptune should be grabbed at once. But the probable cause of their demise was military operations near Barranjoey. FISHING. (1915, April 25). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229333634 

 Pittwater Basin, New South Wales - by Charles Bayliss circa 1880, Image No.: PIC/11549/1-60 LOC PIC Album 85, courtesy National Library of Australia.

OTHER RESORTS NEAR THE CITY.

… After leaving Manly, a most interesting drive can be made to Pittwater, near Narrabeen. There is good accommodation at Rock Lily, as well us at Newport, which stands at the head of Pittwater. Barranjoey Lighthouse and the entrance to Broken Bay are not far distant, and some excellent fishing can be obtained in the bays adjacent to Newport.
Above:'Entrance to the Hawkesbury'
ENTRANCE TO THE HAWKESEURY RIVER . PICTURESQUE N. S. WALES. (1898, December 17). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), , p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115384967

THE BASIN. PITTWATER.

Net fishermen long ago killed the Basin as a whiting and bream haunt of repute, but outside it the fish are still occasionally caught. This is one of the first places near Sydney whence the whiting used to be reported, and it is still possible before the netters get to work, and in the deep water beyond their limit, to snare a few of the tasty fish. At the entrance to the Basin in times gene by splendid hauls used to be. caught. . . THE BASIN, PITTWATER. (1906, August 29). Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), , p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120326946 

Stolen Fishing Net

During the last couple of days a fishing net 250 yards long, valued at £15, was stolen from Mr. Lebbeus Hordern’s yacht at The Basin, Palm Beach. Stolen Fishing Not (1918, October 12). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221421347 


Messrs. Fraser, McKeown, Long and Goodwin, during a ten days' camp near the Basin (Pittwater) struck a rich variety of fish, including red bread of takeable size, black bream, flathead and a 71b black rock cod. During one heavy thunderstorm a flock of terns was killed, probably by hail, and their bodies were washed up on the beach. ROD AND LINE (1922, December 17). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128220598

THE BASIN

MAN INTERFERES WITH NATURE TRUST INVITES SUGGESTIONS

Nature unadorned and unaided by her highest animal development sometimes blunders, and humanity sometimes blunders in trying to help her. In most of her domains Nature discords symmetry and arranges her beauties in orderly confusion, but when man tries to help her to readjust her boundaries, he unfortunately generally thinks and plans in straight lines — harsh utilitarian contours— that rob her of her pristine loveliness. At the basin in the Pittwater Arm of Broken Bay Nature has given humanity a rich inheritance, and, because one of her elements has been breaking the bounds of others, mankind, as represented by the Kuring-gai Park Trust, has come to her assistance, with success in some respects, and with artistic failure in others. The Basin has been misbehaving itself. Ordinarily it is a delectable lake-like expanse of deep marine water, nestled in a huge amphitheatre clothed with eucalypts and other rich forest growths, situated near the mouth of the Pittwater Arm of Broken Bay, on the Kuring-gai Chase. During many years, however, it has been quietly eating into part of the peninsula that nearly encloses it, and the trust has felt called upon to protest. In doing this the Trust has done well, but its aid has been chiefly solid and mathematical, rather than artistic. When it builds a retaining wall it forgets that exactly the same rigidity may be achieved by curves and irregularities of upper structure as by lines of block masonry. The artistic conception is dwarfed by the useful and possibly the expedient. 

Much splendid work has been done, and is still being done, under the direction of the trust in and outside the Basin. The channel entrance, which was threatened with shoaling by the sand from a little outer bay, is now protected, and. probably something more will be done to pro-vent tile Basin from cutting further into the peninsula from inside. Across the outer Inlet a retaining wall of sandstone blocks has been constructed, but provision has not been made for the scour from the hills to get rapidly away, and the consequence is that the reclaimed land is often a knee-deep bog. A channel to let the water away is needed, and the lines of the wall itself should be in keeping with nature's beautiful outlines round the Basin. Only in basalt country does one see squares and oblongs, and' the country round this attractive spot is not basalt, but irregular sandstone, with intrusions of other rocks. To relieve the uncouth symmetry of the retaining wall, natural rock buttresses might have been substituted for the top ungraceful oblongs. 

ALRIGHT IN TIME. 

Mr. Harrison, secretary of the trust, maintains that the wall has improved one of the camping grounds just outside the channel entrance, and that in time the land at present boggy just inside the wall will drain and give more well-grassed camping space. He says that most of the yachtsmen and motor-boat owners who frequently visit the Basin are pleased with a newly-erected wharf and shelter-shed near the little southern outer beach, even if it has spoiled a fisherman's hauling ground. The main outer beach is not being touched. 

RUSTICITY SACRIFICED. 

The red-roofed shelter is certainly a pleasant color relief to the rest of the structures, and on the whole the artistic sense of visitors is not outraged by that improvement. Inside the basin a wharf has been completed. It, too, is needed, but it is at present devoid of grace. It is not perhaps too late for the suggestion of some regular visitors to be acted, upon, that it be given a rustic finish. Utility may be combined with grace by the utilisation of natural timber shapes, instead of sawn rectangular timbers. Even sawn triangles look better than quadrilaterals in certain places. 

SWIMMERS' WANTS. 

Another Improvement meditated is an enclosure for swimmers in the basin near the new wharf. This is necessary; but again, the wall proposed to be erected is to be topped by quadrilaterals, and be an evidence of the acquaintance of mankind with Euclid's squares, instead of Nature’s harmonious irregularities. It is not too late for the trust to instruct its workmen to construct the wall so that its top, at least, may be rocks from the hillside, and not a footworn horizontal pathway. It is not necessary for anyone to walk along it, but if of squared masonry It will invite wandering feet.  

DIFFERING OPINIONS.

At the seaward end of the outer beach, where parties find safe swimming water, the trustees are proposing to place another wharf of stone, and to run from it a netting to prevent sharks entering a bathing enclosure. Opinions amongst yachters and motor-boaters vary respecting this. Some condemn the proposals entirely; preferring the natural surroundings. Others say the idea is good, as they have always felt they would like to swim in a bit deeper water, but they feared the huge sea-sharks that swim around Barranjoey and West Head and chase whiting and red-bream up into the Basin. The trustees are not obstinately wedded to any proposal. Inquiry shows that they welcome ideas, especially artistic ones allied with practicability, but they do not have them given to them often. They find critics wait till something is done, and then fall upon it with scorn. Any yachtsman, therefore, who has a thorough appreciation of the necessities of the Basin and puts his ideas into writing, will receive attention. For instance, another improvement meditated is the planting of trees about tho 20 acres surrounding Peggy's house. The trees on the camping area are not as beautiful as they might be. One proposal before the trustees was to plant an avenue of pines along tho outer edge of the camping ground — the straight line business again— and another to plant here and there a few silverbark tea trees, Port Jackson fig trees, and flame trees. The latter proposal seems to find the greater favor amongst those who visit the Basin oftenest. 

WATER FOR CAMPERS. 

One thing needed greatly has apparently not yet been authorised by the trustees, and that is a cement water well, . as Irregular in shape as may be possible, on' the line of the little creek at the northern end of the peninsula. Once the old users of the place had a cask there to hold the water, but it has fallen to pieces, and in dry weather campers have to pull a long way across the Basin to a spring up the hill-side. No doubt the trustees will see to this. They are anxious to please and anxious to adorn, not to disfigure nature. By the way, nobody wants to shift Peggy, who has a life tenancy of part of the peninsula at 1s a year rental, and who is one of the picturesque identities of the place. She is Mrs. Mary Ann Morris, and she has lived , there for 47 years. THE BASIN (1915, May 30). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 23. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229334724 



 THE BASIN, BARRANJOEY. 1903 The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser

This shows how wide the entrance to The Basin was and why steamers may have been able to access the 'Inner Basin' or 'Blind Cove' as shown in the 1883 sketch above.

A FAVOURITE HOLIDAY RESORT

THE BASIN, BROKEN BAY

A FISHERMAN'S HOME AT THE BASIN, WHERE MRS. MORRIS HAS RESIDED FOR 37 YEARS.

MRS. MORRIS AND HER PETS.

ENTRANCE TO THE HAWKESBURY RIVER. -THE BARRANJOEY LIGHTHOUSE.

HEAD OF THE BASIN. THE BASIN, BROKEN BAY, NEW SOUTH WALES.

BAY VIEW, PITTWATER. (possibly included here as the photographer was transported to The Basin from the Bayview Wharf)

AN IDEAL CAMPING GROUND, HAWKESBURY RIVER.

A FAVOURITE HOLIDAY RESORT. (1903, December 30). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), , p. 1706. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164902107

Above: "AN IDEAL CAMPING GROUND, HAWKESBURY RIVER. "1903 The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser article

Below: "GRILLED FISH FOR BREAKFAST." 1903 The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser article

Barrenjoey, the Southern Sentinel Headland of Broken Bay. 

The photograph was taken from The  Basin, an inlet of Pittwater, where for years the various yachting clubs of Sydney used to rendezvous at Easter. Around The Basin; a path has been cut, leading- zig-zag fashion through a wealth of tropical foliage to the Flagstaff -Lookout at Lovett's Bay, whence a beautiful panoramic view is obtained to .the southwards. . Around the foreshores there are a .number of caves', .while the Kuring-gai Chase trustees have built fireplaces and provided shelter-sheds with tables and watertanks, making the region a delightful one for the holiday-maker..There are several ways of reaching The Basin and the surrounding' country, but the easiest from Sydney is by way of Manly and Newport. A good service of motor boats, several .of them run by returned soldiers, make regular trips.CALL OF THE AIR AND THE SEA. (1920, April 28). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), , p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article159028149

YACHTSMEN'S FRIEND. THE LATE MRS. MORRIS.

Mrs. Mary Ann Morris, better known to Sydney yachtsmen as "Sally" or "Peggy," died on Monday last at her home at the Basin, Broken Bay, where she had resided for the past 63 years. Her death will be regretted by the yachting fraternity of Sydney, as her hut was a port of call for yachtsmen, when visiting Broken Bay, and they obtained from her supplies of fresh milk and eggs.

Mrs. Morris was the wife of the late Dicey Morris, and, prior to 1867, resided with her husband at Balmoral Beach. About that time her husband sold wood to Admiral Hornby's Flying Squadron during its visit to Sydney, and, with the money thus made, he built the hut at the Basin, Broken Bay, in which Mrs. Morris lived. The couple went to live in this hut at the Basin In 1868, and the husband engaged in fishing there. He did not live long after settling at Broken Bay, and his boat was acquired by a fisherman named Sam Strongman, who also lived at the Basin.

Mrs. Morris kept a few cows and fowls, and was always ready to supply visiting yachts-men with milk and eggs. She also often baked a very welcome damper for them. She adopted three lads at different times, one of whom was with her up to the time of her death. She possessed a good collection of yachting pictures, and recognised every yacht as it dropped anchor In the Basin. Her memory for faces was also very good, and she never forgot the owner of a yacht which had visited the Basin.

She was known to many as "Peggy," while to others she was better known as "Sally." Amongst the oldest members of the yachting fraternity who were well acquainted with Mrs. Morris were the late Mr. H. C. Dangar, the late Mr. James Milson, the late Mr. Grafton Ross, the late Mr. Jack Want, and the late Sir James Fairfax and their various successors, including Mr. F. J. Jackson, who owned the property at the back of the reservation which was subsequently resumed by the Kuringgai Chase Trust.YACHTSMEN'S FRIEND. (1921, June 9 - Thursday).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15960831 

"PEGGY' MEMORIAL

The memorial. In the form of a sundial, erected by Sydney yachtsmen- at "The Basin," Pittwater, to the late Mrs. Morris, well known to all visitors to Broken Bay as "Peggy" will be unveiled at noon tomorrow (Easter Sunday) by Mr. Alfred G. Milson. A large fleet of yachts and cruising craft journeyed to tho Bay for tho Easter holidays, and a good muster of yachtsman is expected at the function. Mr. Paul Ross, commodore R.P.A. Y.C.. is hon, treasurer to the fund, and will be pleased to receive further contributions, as the amount already subscribed is far from sufficient to cover expenses. "PEGGY' MEMORIAL (1922, April 16). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), , p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223948591 

PEGGY OF THE BASIN.

A sundial mounted on a trachyte pedestal was unveiled as a memorial to the late Mrs. Morris at The Basin, Pittwater, Broken Bay, on Easter Sunday by Mr. Arthur Milson, of the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron, in the presence of a number of yachtsmen, by whom the funds for its erection were subscribed. Mrs. Morris, who was known to and respected by sailing men as Peggy, lived at The Basin for many years, and was a general favorite. She made it her business and pleasure in life to see to. the comfort of the campers at that favored spot, and her death last year was a great loss to frequenters of the place. PEGGY OF THE BASIN. (1922, April 26).Referee (Sydney, NSW : 1886 - 1939), , p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article127924554 

IN HONOUR OF 'SALLY.' 

At the Basin, Broken Bay, recently, a sun-dial was unveiled by Mr. A. G. Milson in the presence of a large number of boating men in honour of the late Mrs. Morris ('Sally'), who for: very many years was a friend of the yachtsmen who visited that beautiful spot-.  No title (1922, May 10). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), , p. 32. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169770154 

 Unveiling Memorial to Mrs.  Morris (Sally) - The Basin, Broken Bay - Easter 1922.

SCENES AT THE MOUTH OF THE HAWKESBURY RIVER (N.S.W.). 


(1929, March 30). The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), p. 66 (METROPOLITAN EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article140820173

A Fracas that shows a shift in the envisioned future uses of The Basin, once mostly inaccessible to many, now slated to become a more public-friendly place with Mrs. Morris gone. There was also, if there were 20+ yachts and boats visiting in 1885 with four people at least aboard each, amounting to around 100 visitors, and increased waste and sewerage problem that would only have multiplied in the decades betweem, and possibly the reason behind Dr. Stiles having a septic tank put in at Little Mackeral in 1939;

INNER BASIN, PITTWATER.

The objection raised by yachtsmen to the Kuring-gai Chase Trust's proposal to close the Inner Basin, Pittwater, against yachts and launches, and to reserve it for the exclusive Use of bathers, evoked the reply from the trustees that they had been driven reluctantly to consider such a proposal by the action of yachtsmen themselves. The basin is almost entirely enclosed, and there is practically no scour by the tides. Sanitary conveniences have been provided on shore by the trustees, but, it is stated, the obvious requirements of the situation have been ignored by most owners of craft using the basin. The result has been to create within the pool so serious a nuisance that the only alternative appears to be the closing of the basin altogether. Before reaching a final decision, the trustees intend to confer with the committee of the Pittwater Yacht Club. INNER BASIN, PITTWATER. (1934, November 12). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17138900

"The Basin Swimming pool Pittwater" - "Looking across water towards bushland rising in background, fence visible across surface of water." Title continues: "The fence is to keep the sharks out." [ca. 1926-ca. 1928].by Gladys E. Moss, 1900-1950, photographer. "The Basin; Pittwater" - Title inscribed on album page beneath image.- Courtesy State Library of Victoria, Image No. :701711210

"Looking along water towards two men walking across wooden bridge". Inscribed on album page next to image: "The netting under the footbridge keeps the sharks from the bathing-pool on this side. The rock in the foreground is jagged with oysters." [ca. 1926-ca. 1928].by Gladys E. Moss, 1900-1950, photographer.  "The Basin; Pittwater" - Title inscribed on album page beneath image. Courtesy State Library of Victoria  - also described as 'an inlet of Cowan creek' for Image No.: 701711211

THE BASIN, PITTWATER.

Mr. A. D. Walker, commodore of the Royal Motor Yacht Club, Broken Bay branch, said yesterday that opposition was being expressed to the proposed closing, by the Kuring-gai Chase Trust, of the Basin, Pittwater. More than 200 yachtsmen and their crews attended a meeting of protest, and a petition had been sent .to the Minister for Lands. Many public bodies, and aquatic clubs had expressed opposition. He had received copies of many letters sent to the Minister, objecting to the trust's proposed action.

Mr. Walker said that during the Christmas holidays his club appointed a committee to investigate statements made by Mr. Orchard, chairman of the trust, about yachtsmen polluting the Basin. It found that the allegations were Incorrect, and that large parties were swimming in the baths without complaints of any kind. The committee discovered that the trust granted permits for a number of .well-conducted camps on the flat, for which It charged 5/ a tent a week. THE BASIN, PITTWATER. (1935, January 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17137390

A SHARK-PROOF FENCE. TO THE EDITOR OF THE HERALD.    

Sir,—Mr. R. B. Orchard's proposal to close the basin at Pittwater to navigation would be better understood if his critics would go, as I have done, to the Lands and Navigation Departments and examine his scheme, as disclosed by the letters from the Trust. This gentleman would appear to have the goods all right. A bridge and ingenious shark-proof fence are to span the entrance. The fence will have movable sections for ingress and egress of small boats (Mr. Orchard even mentions pleasure launches in the "Herald"  to-day) and what is more interesting than anything else, is the introduction of the principle of the spurious coin machine some-where, because a boat can be admitted and a shark rejected by the one and the same movement. Mr. Orchard does not reveal the secret of his invention, but the letter assures the Minister that "this beautiful stream" will thus be converted into "a safe swimming   area." The letter indicates the commercialisation projects to follow the installation of the shark-proof fence, and thus we find that money, and not pollution and skin diseases, is at the root of the trouble.

I am, etc.,

D. WHITE.

Hon. Sec. Pittwater Basin Defence of The Basin, Jan. 9. Committee. A SHARK-PROOF FENCE. (1935, January 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17141446

PITTWATER BASIN.

Conference Called.

In the hope of securing an amicable settlement of the dispute over the proposed closing of the inner basin at Pittwater, the Minister for Lands (Mr. Buttenshaw) has arranged a conference of the interests concerned. It will be attended by three members of the Kuring-gai Chase Trust, and one representative each from the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron, the Royal Motor Yacht Club, and the Pittwater Basin Defence Committee, with the Minister as chairman.

The secretary of the Pittwater Basin Defence Committee (Mr. D. White) said yesterday that although he and other members of the committee opposed the Trust's scheme they realised that the trustees were acting in good faith. PITTWATER BASIN. (1935, January 19).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17128236

TO CONFER - Pittwater Closure

The honorary secretary of the Parks and Playgrounds Movement (Mr. C. E. W. Bean), said to-day that the Minister for Lands had informed him that he was calling a conference of the trustees of Kuring-gai chase, and three representatives of yacht clubs and other objectors to the proposed closing of the Inner basin at Pittwater. Pollution of the water is the reason for proposing to close the basin. Yachting bodies, supported by the movement, have asked the trustees to keep the basin open In the Interests of the boating public. TO CONFER (1935, February 8). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 11 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230271797

PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS.

Pittwater Basin Discussed. The Parks and-Playgrounds Movement yesterday decided to co-operate in any solution of the problem of the alleged pollution of the ' Pittwater Basin, and to ask the trustees of the area to preserve and perpetuate the primitive beauty of the Basin.

The chairman (Mr. A. J. Small) said motor, boat owners and yachtsmen should suggest how the nuisance might be abated. There was no doubt that pollution occurred.

Mr. D. White (Pittwater Basin Defence Committee) said that the Basin was a refuge for yachtsmen and others, and the committee was opposed to its closure as suggested by the trustee. He understood that petrol pumps were to be erected, and Norfolk Island pine-trees were to be planted in the area, and his committee opposed that spoliation of the primitive beauty of the foreshore. Mr. D. G. Stead said that, while pine- trees were very beautiful, they would be out of place at the Basin. PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS. (1935, February 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17160432

The Basin is now geared towards being a safe area for families to camp, and geneartions of locals and visitors have and continue to have memorable days and weeks there, which includes catching their supper from the sea on occaision!

The Thomas And Priscilla Wilson Family

CATTLE STEALING.
John Farrell (the younger) appeared to answer a charge for that he did, on the 4th day of August, 1870, at Pittwater, feloniously steal, take, and carry away a cow, the property of Thomas Wilson.
The prisoner, who pleaded "not guilty," was defended  by Mr. D. Buchanan, instructed by the prisoner's attorney,Mr. Richard Driver. Mr. G. F. Davis conducted the case for the Crown.
This case was a charge of cattle stealing at Pittwater, previously tried, at the end of which the jury seised of the case did not agree, and were eventually discharged. The particulars were, for the most part, the very same as those of the former trial, which, it will be remembered, was very fully reported in this newspaper. The witnesses for the Crown were Thomas Wilson, William B. Hassard, Çharles Leek, senior, John Leek, Charles Leek, junior, senior-constable Bromfield, senior-constable John Carton, Alfred Wilson, George Marshall, James Wilson, Thomas Playfair, and Mr. W. M. Brownrigg. The evidence for the defence was John Farrell (the father  of the prisoner), James Farrell (the prisoner's brother), Sarah Anne Farrell (the prisoner's sister), John Boyle, James Wheeler, James Wheeler, jun., John Murray, William Murray, and Thomas  James Foley. The evidence of the first threeof these witnesses went to contradict the statement  of the Leeks, and to account for the meat found by the police, and relied upon as proof of the charge brought. The rest of the witnesses gave evidence as to character.
Mr. BUCHANAN addressed the Court for the defence at some considerable length.
Mr. DAVIS replied.  
His HONOR summed up.  
The jury retired to deliberate at 9.20 p.m.
The jury reappeared in Court at half-past 9, and re-turned a verdict of guilty.
The counsel for the Crown prayed judgment.
His HONOR said that before he proceeded to pass a sentence on the prisoner he desired to look into his notes respecting a case tried by him in 1865, in which the prisoner’s name appeared.
Remanded for sentence.  
CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. (1871, February 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13213514

CONDUIT Priscilla Sarah
1824 - 1915
NSW BDM Register deciphered the surname incorrectly as Cundah.
Priscilla arrived here on November 9th, 1840 at age 16 years as a bounty immigrant aboard "Royal Consort".
Bounty immigrants were free immigrants whose passage was paid by the colonial government under the `bounty scheme'. Under this scheme, an incentive or reward (i.e. bounty) was paid to recruiting agents in Britain to find suitable skilled labour and tradespeople, then ship them out to the new colony.

The Royal Consort, 529 tons, Westren, with emigrants, was advertised to sail from Gravesend on the 5th and from Plymouth on the 10th of July for Port Phillip and Sydney. VESSELS ENTERED OUTWARDS. (1840, October 6). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31725738 

SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE ARRIVAL. 
From London, yesterday, having left Plymouth 16th July, the barque Royal Consort, 569 tons, Captain Western, with 245 Emigrants, under the superintendence of H. Watson, Esq., Surgeon. Passengers, intermediate – Miss Baker, Messrs. Cobb, George T. and W. Waring, Blakely, Baker, Brooks, and Henry. SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE THUS WE HOPE TO PROSPER. (1840, November 10). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2550039 

SHIP NEWS.
The Royal Consort arrived yesterday, with two hundred and forty five bounty emigrants, all in very good health; one adult and nine children died during the passage. She spoke  the following vessels on her passage: - Anne Mary, from Liverpool to Sydney. in latitude41 ° 58N longitude, 11 ° W on the 2nd of August. On the 29th of August spoke of the Dutch ship Prince Hendrick, all well latitude,  33 4'N , longitude, 18°6' 50 W bound  to Batavia. October 4th in latitude 39 ° 21 10 '  & , longitude 41 ° 4 V 1 spoke the Dutch  barque Margaretta Christina bound from Texel  Batavia, all well, out eighty days On the 13th of September passed the, French barque La Amelia, from Bordeaux to Bourbon mid Mauritius m latitude 30 ° 36 S , longitude , 1 i °1V4I'W October 24th at 45 minutes past 4,  a m , passed a ship's bowsprit, appeared to have  belonged to some vessel whose burthen would be from 350 to 400 tons painted white, with    bowsprit shroud, dead eyes & c attached carried away about the gammong , latitude, 40 20' S  longitude, 120 ° 50 I Between the longitude of 118° L and ...saw great numbers of spermwhales  it passed in longitude 121 ° L two whalers trying out.  SHIP NEWS. (1840, November 10). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12866434 

Birth  6 Jun 1824  Dunford, Wiltshire .U.K   
Christened  11 Jun 1824 
Gender  Female 
Died  14 May 1915  29 Willoughby St, North Sydney, NSW.Australia   
Buried  Gore Hill Cemetery, Sydney.Australia   

Father  CONDUIT Richard,   b. 1766,   d. Yes, date unknown 
Mother  DOWNTON Jane,   b. 1791,   d. 10 May 1871, Pennyfarthing St, Salisbury, UK   

Family  WILSON Thomas, , Transported Convict,   b. 1817, Maidstone, Kent  ,   d. 10 Nov 1890, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   
Married  16 Aug 1870  Scots Church, Sydney, NSW .Australia   
Although the NSW BDM marriage year is recorded as 1870, well after all their children were born, Thomas and Priscilla officially married at this time.

WILSON - The Relatives and Friends of the Family of the late MRS. SARAH PRISCILLA WILSON are kindly invited to attend her Funeral; to leave the residence of her daughter, Mrs. Pauline Goulding,  29 Willoughby St, North Sydney, this AFTERNOON at 2 pm. for Gore Hill Cemetery. WOOD, COFFIL AND COMPANY LTD. Family Notices (1915, May 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15580674

Children   
1. WILSON Mary Jane,   b. 1843,   d. 12 Jul 1924, Manly Cottage Hospital, North Head, Sydney, NSW, Australia  
2. WILSON Emily L,   b. 25 Jan 1845, Lane Cove, NSW. Australia  ,   d. 31 Aug 1927, Mount Morgan, Qld.Australia  
3. WILSON Thomas,   b. 1847,   d. Yes, date unknown
4. WILSON Alfred,   b. 1849,   d. 6 Jul 1910, 15 Wilson Lane, Redfern, NSW.Australia  
5. WILSON Nancy Nelson,   b. 8 May 1852, Pittwater, New South Wales , Australia  ,   d. 7 Mar 1934, Gladesville, New South Wales, Australia  
6. WILSON Pauline,   b. 1854, Broken Bay, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1941, Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia  
7. WILSON Edward,   b. 1857,   d. 1935
8. WILSON Priscilla,   b. 1859, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1944, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
9. WILSON Clara Matilda,   b. 1862,   d. 1901, Vaucluse, NSW.Australia  
10. WILSON Richard William Henry,   b. 1864,   d. 1945, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
11. WILSON Bertha Rowena,   b. 1866, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 24 May 1944, Woy Woy, New South Wales, Australia  
12. WILSON Blanche A,   b. 1868, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1870, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
13. WILSON Edgar Rock,   b. 1873,   d. 1944, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia  

WILSON Thomas, Transported Convict
Thomas Wilson was tried at Montgomery Road on 17 October 1833 and was sentenced to seven years. Convicted for Assault & Robbery.

He sailed on the convict ship Lady Nugent and arrived in the colony in 1835. The Lady Nugent sailed from Sheerness (a port in the Thames River, London) on 4 December 1834, with 286 male passengers on board, and arrived in Sydney on 9 April 1835. He was sent to Prospect to work for William Lawson, one of the explorers of the Blue Mountains. On 29th May 1839 he was granted a ticket of leave, six months before his sentence was completed. He served this final part of his seven year sentence with the one master, who probably resided in the Pittwater District, where his ticket-of-leave was permitted to be served. 

Ticket of Leave: PITTWATER.  Wilson Thomas, Lady Nugent. Classified Advertising. (1839, June 20). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2549640 

He may be the same Thomas Wilson who signed his name to the Petition for the formation of Manly as a Municipality. The family was living in Lane Cove in 1842 and in 1854 in Pittwater. They were living in Manly in 1861 when daughter Mary Jane married.

Born  1817  Maidstone, Kent  
Died  10 Nov 1890  North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia      
Married  16 Aug 1870  Scots Church, Sydney, NSW .Australia  
Father  WILSON Thomas | F1656 Group Sheet 
Mother  NELSON Nancy | F1656 Group Sheet 

Child 1 | Female
WILSON Mary Jane
Born  1843   
Died  12 Jul 1924  Manly Cottage Hospital, North Head, Sydney, NSW, Australia  
Buried  Roman Catholic section of Manly Cemetery, NSW.Australia  

Spouse  TOBIN James | F1626 
Married  22 Jul 1861   
Spouse  SAILLARD Louis Richard | F1627 
Married  1897  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  

Mary Jane Wilson married James Tobin on 22nd July 1861. James Tobin, a dairy farmer, lived at Manly Beach, and owned a few properties in what would now be the centre of Manly. On 11th August 1890 James Tobin drowned at Circular Quay:

Drowned at Circular Quay.
The unknown man - who was drowned at the P. and O. Company's Wharf, Circular Quay, on Monday night, has been, identified as James Tobin, dairyman, who had been a resident of Broadview, Manly for the last thirty-five years. Deceased was a married man, 55 years of age, and hasleft a widow and ten children. Tobin, who was a man of means, left his home at Manly on Monday to go up the line for the purpose of purchasing a farm, but as he did not return home up to yesterday the police were communicated with, and the result was that yesterday afternoon the son identified the clothing and photograph of his father. Drowned at Circular Quay. (1890, August 16 - Saturday). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113335828

The 'son' was William. 

THE FRIENDS of Mrs JANE TOBIN are respectfully Invited to attend the Re-Interment of her beloved HUSBAND, James Tobin, late of Manly, TOMORROW (Wednesday) AFTERNOON, at 2 o'clock p.m., from Redfern lo Rookwood Cemetery. 
THE FRIENDS of WILLIAM, JOHN, and MICHAEL TOBIN are respectfully invited to attend the Re-Interment of their beloved BROTHER, James Tobin, late of Manly, TO-MORROW (Wednesday) AFTERNOON, 2 p.m., from Redfern for Rookwood Cemetery.
THE FRIENDS of Mr J. O'CONNELL are respectfully Invited to attend the Re-lnterment of his beloved UNCLE, James Tobin, late of Manly, TO-MORROW (Wednesday) AFTERNOON, 2 p.m., from Redfern for Rookwood Cemetery.
THE FRIENDS of WILLIAM, JOHN, and MICHAEL TOBIN are respectfully Invited to attend the Re-Interment of their beloved BROTHER, James Tobin, late of Manly, TO-MORROW (Wednesday) AFTERNOON, 2 p.m., from Redfern for Rookwood. Family Notices (1890, August 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13775170

 In 1897 Mary Jane married Richard Louis Saillard. Mary Jane died on 12th July 1924 in Manly Cottage Hospital aged 81, and is buried in the Roman Catholic section of Manly Cemetery.

WATER POLICE COURT. WEDNESDAY. BEFORE the "Water Police Magistrate, with Mr. J. I. Kettle, Mr. E. Raper, Mr. J. Williams, and Mr. N. D. Stenhouse. The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) Thursday 6 October 1864 p 8 Article
... was also fined 5s., with costs, for using abusive language to the same complainant. Mary Wilson, ... Pittwater, was charged with stealing and driving away fourteen cows and three calves, the property of James Therry, of the same place, and John Farrell, Thomas Collins, Mary Ann Farrell, and Lavinia ... 233 words

WILSON Mary Jane
1843 - 1924
Birth  1843 
Gender  Female 
Died  12 Jul 1924  Manly Cottage Hospital, North Head, Sydney, NSW, Australia   
Buried  Roman Catholic section of Manly Cemetery, NSW. Australia   

Family 1  TOBIN James,   b. 1835,   d. 11 Aug 1890, Circular Quay, NSW.Australia   
Married  22 Jul 1861 
Children   
1. TOBIN Mary P,   b. 1862, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
2. TOBIN William Thomas,   b. 1864, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1936, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
3. TOBIN Catherine,   b. 1867, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 5 Apr 1951, Rockdale, New South Wales, Australia  
4. TOBIN John S,   b. 1869, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1911, Braidwood, New South Wales, Australia  
5. TOBIN Ellen Faith,   b. 1871, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
6. TOBIN Ellen Prudence,   b. 1871, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
7. TOBIN Jane Clarissa,   b. 1873, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1891, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
8. TOBIN Margaret Caroline,   b. 1875, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1944, Hornsby, New South Wales, Australia  
9. TOBIN Rose A,   b. 1877, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
10. TOBIN James,   b. 1880, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
11. TOBIN May Agatha,   b. 1882, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1968, Ryde, New South Wales, Australia  
12. TOBIN Emily G,   b. 1886, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown

Family 2  SAILLARD Louis Richard,   b. Abt 1840, France.,   d. 1907, Manly, New South Wales, Australia   
Married  1897, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   

Child 2 | Female
WILSON Emily L
Born  25 Jan 1845  Lane Cove, NSW.Australia  
Died  31 Aug 1927  Mount Morgan, Qld.Australia  
 
Spouse  WARREN James | F1657 
Married  16 Aug 1870  Scots Church, Sydney, NSW .Australia   
WARREN James,   b. 1837,   d. 1911 

Children   
1. WARREN William,   b. 15 Dec 1870, Paddington, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 21 Mar 1958, Murgon, Qld.Australia  
2. WARREN George,   b. 1872, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1952
3. WARREN Alice,   b. 11 Nov 1875, the family home at ."Bowra Station", Cunnamulla, Qld.Australia  ,   d. 22 Nov 1956, Biloela , Qld.Australia  
4. WARREN Hugo,   b. 1878,   d. 1977
5. WARREN Henry,   b. 16 Jul 1880, Pilton, Qld.Australia  ,   d. 12 Aug 1957, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia  
6. WARREN Minnie,   b. 21 Sep 1882, Westbrook, Qld.Australia  ,   d. 23 Sep 1956, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  
7. WARREN James,   b. 1886,   d. 13 Jul 1958

Child 3 | Male
WILSON Thomas
Born  1847   
Died  1921
Married    1870 - Frances Oliver, of Oliver Family Church Point   

A History of the Original St John’s Cemetery
Some of the early Pittwater pioneers were buried at the site of the first St John the Baptist Church of England, Pittwater, alongside the original Church (1871 – 1888).
In 1958, with the help of an early drawing of St John’s and Boulton’s Farm and early maps of the area, the original site of the Church was rediscovered by the Grandson of the Rev. Stoddart, and the local historian, Percy Gledhill. 

Two gravestones were uncovered and were moved to the grounds of the present Church. The gravestones were for:

William Frederick Stark
Accidentally killed during the erection
of the new Barrenjoey Lighthouse
Wed. 16th Feb. 1881
Aged 25 Years

and

Annie Priscilla Wilson
Aged 2 Years (1880 – 1882)
Dearly loved daughter of Frances and Thomas Wilson

Thomas (son) married Frances (born 1852) in 1870 Oliver (Fanny)
A report in the Australian Churchman of 9th January, 1870 states that “The Rev. Guerney at his farewell thanked Mr Wilson for the use of his home as a place of worship”. (Source: “Manly & Pittwater, Its Beauty and Progress”. P.W. Gledhill). This would have been Thomas Wilson Snr.

NSW Births, Deaths and Marriages records of the children with parents named Thomas and Frances Wilson - those in bold are likely to be the offspring of the children - the others listed are not confirmed:

WILSON  THOMAS WILLIAM 5329/1870 THOMAS FRANCES ST LEONARDS
WILSON  HENRY EDWARD 5262/1872 THOMAS FRANCES ST LEONARDS
WILSON  FRANCES M 5928/1875 THOMAS FRANCES ST LEONARDS
WILSON  EMMA 6381/1876 THOMAS FRANCES ST LEONARDS
WILSON  UNNAMED 7089/1878 THOMAS FRANCES ST LEONARDS - Ernest ?
WILSON  JOHN 26173/1879 THOMAS FRANCES WOLLONGONG
WILSON  GEORGE HENRY 27555/1880 THOMAS FRANCES WOLLONGONG
WILSON  ANNIE PRISCILLA 8341/1880 THOMAS FRANCES MANLY
WILSON  EMILY J 9619/1882 THOMAS FRANCES MANLY
WILSON  EDNA 21168/1883 THOMAS FRANCES WOONONA
WILSON  OLIVE 24656/1886 THOMAS FRANCES WOONONA
WILSON  ELIZA A 13055/1886 THOMAS FRANCES MANLY
WILSON  FREDERICK J 10464/1889 THOMAS FRANCES MANLY
WILSON  RUBY M 21129/1891 THOMAS FRANCES MANLY

At the Church of England, Newport, a wedding took place on May 31, when Mrs.W. Smith (widow of the late Mr.W. W. Smith, and second daughter of Mr.George Nash) was married to Mr. Ernest Wilson, third son of Mr. Thomas Wilson, of Pittwater, by the Rev. B. Elwen. The bride wore heliotrope satin, with Honiton lace, and wreath and veil, and carried a shower bouquet. Three bridesmaids were in attendance(Miss "Letty" Smith, only daughter of the bride, and the two Misses Graves). Mr. W.Johnson acted as best man, and Mr. W. Graves as groomsman. The wedding breakfast was served in a large marquee at the residence of the bride.
SOCIAL. (1905, July 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14670096

Wilson -March 13 at Lidcombe hospital, Thomas Wilson (SON) late of Pittwater beloved father of Ernest Wilson of Mona Vale aged 75 years. Family Notices. (1921, March 12). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15944413

Ernest Edgar Wilson, passed away in 1964, death recorded at Manly.

Child 4 | Male
WILSON Alfred
Born  1849   
Died  6 Jul 1910  15 Wilson Lane, Redfern, NSW.Australia  
Buried    C/E Cemetery Botany, Anglican b-row-4 grave 245(No Headstone)  
Spouse  WILSON Anne Murie | F1680 
Married  1874  Paddington, New South Wales, Australia  
WILSON Anne Murie,   b. 6 Aug 1854, Cook's River, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 19 Jul 1936, Tod St, Kingsgrove NSW.Australia   

Children   
1. WILSON Alfred,   b. 1876,   d. 1876  
2. WILSON Thomas,   b. 1877,   d. Yes, date unknown
3. WILSON Blanch Augusta,   b. 1881,   d. 1919
4. WILSON Isabella Fugo M,   b. 1884,   d. 1959
5. WILSON Ann Murie,   b. 1886,   d. 1964
6. WILSON Norman Campbell,   b. 1889,   d. 1958
7. WILSON Margaret Reed P,   b. 1889,   d. Yes, date unknown
8. WILSON Adam M L,   b. 1891,   d. 1957
9. WILSON Albert Ernest,   b. 1893,   d. 1970
10. WILSON Alfred E C,   b. 1895,   d. 1970

Child 5 | Female
WILSON Nancy Nelson
Born  8 May 1852  Pittwater, New South Wales , Australia  
Died  7 Mar 1934  Gladesville, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried  9 Mar 1934  Waverley Cemetery, New South Wales, Australia  

Spouse  TURNER Albert Henry | F1556 
Married  16 Sep 1872  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Spouse  MULFORD John Shepherd, ,son of Castile and Subrino Mulford | F6307 
Married  3 Jul 1895  St David's, Surry Hills, , New South Wales, Australia  

Full Name Albert Henry Turner
Date of Birth c.1847
Place of Birth Unknown but arrived in Australia in 1865 as a cabin passenger on the ‘Norfolk’ with his brother, Philip.
Parents Frederick M. (Owned a Drapery business in London) Lucy
Religious Denomination Protestant Church of England
Marriage 1872 16 September marries Nancy Wilson District Registered: Sydney, Reg. No: 791/1872.
Nancy Wilson was born in 1852, the daughter of Thomas and Priscilla (Sarah) Wilson.

Fisherman Drowned.
The Manly police were informed on Sunday night that the body of a fisherman named Albert Turner, who lived at Stockpoint, Careel Bay, Fittwater, had been found that morning in Broken Bay, near Hazeldon. On Friday last Turner visited his brother in law Thomas Wilson at Bayview, and in the evening deceased left the house to return home in his sailing boat. Next day the boat was found on the rocks, with the sails set, by a man named Ball, and, believing that Turner had been drowned, a search was at once instituted, with . the result that hia body was found on Sunday morning. Deceased leaves a widow and seven children. Fisherman Drowned. (1892, May 9).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved January 24, 2018, fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112947928 

After Albert Henry Turner’s death, Nancy married John Shepherd Mulford of Careel Bay in 1895. John arrived in Sydney on 9th Apr 1886 aboard the Mariposa, from San Francisco.. Soon after her first husband's death they go to live at Little Mackarel Beach, Pittwater and have two children, Castille and John Elmer.

Date of Death 6 May 1892
Age at Death 45 years
Place of Death Marine Death. Drowned in Pittwater/ Broken Bay whilst returning home to Stokes Point from Bayview.
Notice/Report of
Death/Funeral
“Last night information was given to the Manly Police that the body of a man named Albert Turner, fisherman of Stokes Point, Careel Bay Pittwater, was found that morning in Broken Bay near …..? It seems that Turner on Friday afternoon had been on a visit to his brother-in-law, Thomas Wilson, who resides at Bay View Cottage, Bay View. He had been out fishing during the week in a sailing boat after having visited his brother-in-law was seen off in the boat on Friday night.
Nothing more was heard of him until his boat was found ashore on the rocks by a person named Henry Ball, with the sails set, but unoccupied. On this news reaching Turner’s friends they immediately went in search of him.
His body was found by Thomas Oliver in the water, about a quarter of a mile from where the boat was discovered. It is surmised that deceased must have fallen out of the boat. Turner leaves a widow and seven children.”
(SMH Monday 9 May 1892 P.5)

“A magisterial inquiry was held by the city Coroner at Pittwater, on Monday, on the body of the man Albert Turner, who was found drowned on the rocks at Broken Bay on Sunday morning. No fresh particulars were elicited, and a finding of accidentally drowned was recorded.” (SMH Wednesday 11 May 1892 P.7)
Children
1. TURNER Amy Louisa,   b. 1873, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 17 Jun 1939, a private hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
2. TURNER Mary Blanche,   b. 1875, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 5 May 1965, St Peters, New South Wales, Australia  
3. TURNER Ella Clara,   b. 1877, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1969, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
4. TURNER Harry Martin,   b. 1879, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1953, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
5. TURNER Albert E.,   d. 1888, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
6. TURNER Stephen Hugh,   b. 1883, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1887, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
7. TURNER Emily Louise,   b. 1885, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 27 Dec 1959, Wentworth Falls, New South Wales, Australia  
8. TURNER Emma Annie,   b. 1887, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 18 Sep 1971, Waverley, New South Wales, Australia  
9. TURNER Pauline Cecilia,   b. 1889, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1947, Waverley, New South Wales, Australia  
10. TURNER Jessie Annie,   b. 1891, Manly, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 14 Jun 1926, Mater Misericordia Hospital , North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Amy and Mary were listed on the July 1880 Application for a Provisional School at Church Point
1. MULFORD Castile M.,   b. 2 Feb 1896, Mackeral Beach, Pittwater , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 16 Nov 1965, San Francisco, California.USA  
2. MULFORD John Elmer,   b. 1898, Mackeral Beach, Pittwater , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 9 Oct 1966, Haberfield, New South Wales, Australia  

Child 6 | Female
WILSON Pauline
Born  1854  Broken Bay, New South Wales, Australia  
Died  1941  Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried    St Thomas Church of England Cemetery , St. Leonards, New South Wales, Australia  
Spouse  GOULDING Eugene | F1488 
Married  1874  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Family  GOULDING Eugene,   b. 20 Jan 1833, Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 15 Dec 1892, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   

Married  1874  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   
On the marriage document of Eugene Goulding and Pauline Wilson it is listed that he was born in Ireland however this is not the case as he was born in Parramatta. Could be that his father William was Irish.
Children   
1. GOULDING Eugene Thomas,   b. 4 Dec 1875, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 14 Jan 1948, Ettalong Beach, New South Wales, Australia  
2. GOULDING Eric Edward, ,Accountant,of Lyndhurst Station,Queensland,Aust.,   b. 24 Nov 1877, 23 Jeffrey Street , Milsons Point, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1958, Queensland, Australia  
3. GOULDING Clara Elinor,   b. 20 Dec 1879, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 1953, Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia  
4. GOULDING Cryalin Vivian,   b. 28 Jun 1882, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 29 Jun 1918, France.  
5. GOULDING Merle Nelson,   b. 1884,   d. 1929, North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
6. GOULDING Verner Guy,   b. 30 Jan 1887, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 1960, Parramatta, New South Wales, Australia  
7. GOULDING Arol Montague Nathaniel "Monty",   b. 3 Sep 1889, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 10 Dec 1972, Brookvale, NSW.Australia  
8. GOULDING John,   b. 26 Feb 1892, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 1892, Milsons Point, NSW.Australia  

Child 7 | Male
WILSON Edward
Born  1857   
Died  1935   

Child 8 | Female
WILSON Priscilla
Born  1859  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
Died  1944  death registered at Manly, New South Wales, Australia  
Married  1884  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
SANDERSON John A, of Little Mackerel Beach, Pittwater, NSW,   d. 1948, death registered at Manly, New South Wales, Australia (father's name was Banka)

Children   
1. SANDERSON Carl Alber,   b. 1885, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  Died 1885 - death registered at Newtown.
2. SANDERSON Nellie E,   b. 1886, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  

Priscilla Sanderson, dearly beloved wife of John Sanderson and darling mother of Nella and Fleda, aged 84 years. At rest.
SANDERSON. - The Relatives and Friends of Mr John Sanderson and Daughter, Nella, are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of his dearly beloved Wife and her loving Mother, Priscilla Sanderson: which will leave her late residence, Barrenjoey Road, Newport Beach, This (Monday) Afternoon, at 2 o'clock. for the Mona Vale Cemetry. F. Tighe and Co., 32 Sydney Road, Manlv. XU4529.
Family Notices (1944, August 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17917857

SANDERSON, John Albert. - November 22, 1948 at his residence, 34 Seaview St, Newport BeachJohn Albert Sanderson, husband of the late Priscilla Sanderson and dearly loved father of Nella and Elfleda, aged 87 years. At rest.
SANDERSON. - The Relatives and Friends of the late JOHN A. SANDERSON are kindly invited to attend his Funeral; to leave his late residence 34 Seaview Street, Newport Beach, This (Tuesday) Afternoon, after a short Service commencing at 2 15 p.m., for Mona Vale Cemetery. F. TIGHE and CO., A.F.D.A. XU4529. 32 Sydney Road, Manly. 
Family Notices (1948, November 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18100957

Child 9 | Female
WILSON Clara Matilda
Born  1862   
Died  1901  Vaucluse, NSW.Australia  
Buried     
Spouse  NEWTON Frederick Purse,   b. 1857, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown 
Married  1884  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia   

Children   
1. NEWTON Pearl Victoria,   b. 1884, Redfern , New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1970, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
2. NEWTON Vere P,   b. 1887, Paddington, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
3. NEWTON Thomas R G,   b. 1891, Woollahra, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
4. NEWTON Gladys A,   b. 1893, Woollahra, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
5. NEWTON Edward Basil W.,   b. 1895, Woollahra, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1964, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
6. NEWTON Frederick Purse,   b. 1901, Vaucluse, NSW.Australia  ,   d. 1901, Vaucluse, NSW.Australia  

Child 10 | Male
WILSON Richard William Henry
Born  1864   
Died  1945  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried     

Child 11 | Female
WILSON Bertha Rowena
Born  1866  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
Died  24 May 1944  Woy Woy, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried  26 May 1944  Point Clare Cemetery, New South Wales, Australia  
Spouse  MUNDAY John, ,of Newtown,New South Wales | F6552 
Married  30 Mar 1882  Sydney, New South Wales, Australia  

MUNDAY— WILSON.— March 30, by the Rev. Dr. Fullerton, Mr.  John Munday, of Newtown, to Bertha Rowena, seventh daughter of Mr. Thomas Wilson, of Pittwater. Family Notices. (1882, May 6). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 692. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162028609 

Child 12 | Female
WILSON Blanche A
Born  1868  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
Died  1870  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
Buried     

WATER POLICE COURT.-WEDNESDAY.
(Before the "Water Police Magistrate and Mr. Kettle.)
John Farrell, junior, on remand, was charged with having a portion of a carcase of a stolen beast in his possession, the property of Thomas Wilson. Senior-constable Carton, stationed at Manly Beach, gave evidence corroborative of sergeant Bloomfield :
By Mr. Driver: Wilson complained of losing cattle. He also complained of losing a horse by shooting through the head. The horse reported to witness as being shot, he saw dead. Has had many conversations with prisoner's father. The beef was taken out of the cask and put in again. Witness wished to have it weighed. The steelyards wore there, but prisoner said the pea was lost. Defendant did not get the pea and give it to him. Bloomfield did not say ho could not weigh with steelyards. Witness would swear he did not see the pen. Could not say that prisoner appeared reluctant in answering questions. Ho did not say that he was going to wash him-self. He was shaking very much. He said it was from the cold. He did not hesitate to answer any questions. Did not say anything to him about answering questions. Witness did not say, " If you don't answer my questions and mind what you are about, in half-on-hour I'll have you by the wool." He was on the road all that night. ' He left Manly after twelve o'olock at night. He had a glass of grog before he left home, another at Wilson's, and some from a Husk that Wilson had with him. He was perfectly sober when he went to ' Farrell's. He may have smelt of liquor. He took sundry glasses before he commenced to search. He may have staggered when walking through Farrell’s house. He saw Farréll's brothers and sisters, and they had a good opportunity of seeing him. Witness does not drink much, he can't afford it. He does not take drink for nothing, although he took it from Wilson. Swears he did not take the branding-iron in his hand and place it on the safe, and ask, "If that is the way it is you put oaf" The steelyards were hanging; in the skillion. The pig that he saw was divided into two parts. He saw it in the barn on the Monday night. He has been engaged in garden work for a couple of years, but not in farming pursuits. He could not swear that the calf he saw had not been slipped. Could not swear that the paunch he saw was not that of a pig. He only judges from the masticated food in it. He has talked about the case very often. Knows another Farrell, a farmer. There is an old man in charge of the farm. He went there to search for prisoner. He also went to Mr. Hellery's, at Middle Harbour, to execute a search warrant, but did not execute it. The only search they made there was to look into the beef cask. The search warrant was obtained on his (witness's) information.
He has the warrant in court. It is granted the 9th of August, 1870. Mr. Smithers granted it. Does not know where the information is. On leaving the house, he did not hear Bloomfield call out to prisoner don't shoot any more cattle. Heard Bloomfield ask Farrell when ho killed the last beast, He replied. "Three or four weeks." Can't say that Bloomfield asked him if he could not say exactly. Bloomfield did not ask him if he killed a cow at Narrabeen.
Thomas Wilson, n farmer, residing at Monavale, Pitt Water, deposed that he saw prisoner on the fourth of this month, on horseback. Witness was in the road walking homo. He saw prisoner riding round some cattle of his and heading them up. Prisoner was on his (witness’s) farm then. Witness was talking to a man named Leek, and observed prisoner driving the cattle over the hill towards his" (prisoner's) place. Witness just came from the herd, and noticed the cattle. He did not notice' any particular one more than another. He noticed them all. The heifer in question was about four years old, and was red and white. He missed her the next day. She was heavy in calf, and was "ear marked," and no other brand. She was amongst the mob prisoner was driving. Have not seen her since, but looked for her the next day (Friday) in the same place that he saw her the previous day, but did not find her. He saw all the others there, and on Saturday morning he went out with his son and searched from nine o'clock until dark. He saw where the cattle had been driven over the bridge that separates the two farms. It rained on the Wednesday and he tracked where they were driven buck. Followed the tracks to within three or four hundred yards of prisoner's house. He also saw a horse track going and returning, following the cattle tracks. After making these searches he applied for a search warrant, and obtained one on his sworn information. The following Sunday he accompanied sergeant Bloomfield and constable Carton to prisoner's house. He heard the constable caution him, and asked him if he had any fresh moat about the house. After-wards found some meat in a cask. Prisoner said he got it from Wilson, the butcher, at Manly. Whilst the constables were searching, witness saw prisoner shake his head at a little boy, and he went out to the stock-yard as hard as he could go. Witness ran after him and saw him covering over something with cornstalks. Witness pulled the cornstalks from off the things, and found a young calf, and portions of the inside, under them. They seemed to be quite fresh. The calf was within six weeks of maturity. He has had thirty-five yours' experience amongst cattle. The appearance of the calf showed that it had been taken from the cow.
Had cautioned prisoner scores of times not to go on his run shooting and hunting, and went to his father’s house five or six week ago to complain of him. Never saw him on the run without a waddy, toma-hawk, or gun. He went to prisoner about cattle that he had lost before. Prisoner was never employed by witness. They did not visit each others places. 
By Mr. Driver : Had experience in cattle at Kent, England. Knew about cows before he went to "Wheeler's. From there he went to the bason. He was occupied there in fishing, for about six or seven years. He devoted his time there to breeding of cattle. He is rather hard of hearing. His sight is very good, considering his age. He is forty-six. Has not been mistaken on any occasion the last two or three months. Dont't recollect the 2nd of April last. Don't remember reporting that he lost a black heifer on that day. His memory is pretty good. He told constable Carton then that young Farrell had been seen the previous day trespassing and dodging round his cows, but won't swear it. Might have told his father so, and if he did, he told the truth. He made a complaint to Cherry that ha lost a red bullock that he purchased at Lane Cove. He never told anybody that it was killed at Pitt Water. Cherry sent him word that it had strayed back. Farrell, senior, was the first man to inform him where the bullock was.
-The court adjourned for lunch, and on its resumption, Mr. Driver continued the cross-examination : He saw young Farrell on the Little Reef Hill. He saw Leek working on the road when he spoke to him. It might be 600 or 700 yards away. It was from there he saw young Farrell. Cannot recollect whether there was any rain on the Thursday. It is not generally a sandy country. Sometimes large mobs of cattle run on his farm. As near, as he could guess, there was about thirty head of his cattle there. Did not go on his land. The bridge that he tracked the cattle across is about twelve or fourteen feet wide. He tracked them on the soft country. Constable Carton culled at his house towards Sunday morning.' Witness put a bottle containing brandy on the table. Can't say if Carton drank any. He took about three nobblers in a Husk to Farrell's. Carton drank some of that. Prisoner denied having fresh meat when asked by Sergeant Bloomfield, but afterwards showed the police some meat in a cask. Saw steelyards there. Bloomfield asked if anybody could weigh with the steelyards. Did not hoar Farrell say that he could. Bloomfield asked witness if he could weigh with steelyards. They were got, but the pea was not an them ; it was produced after-wards ; young Farrell threw it, and said, " Here it is." On being questioned by the police, Farrell said he got it all from the butcher at Manly. He has no ill-feeling towards the Farrells. After they killed his dog with an axe he shook hands with them and made it up. 
To the Bench : The farms are not fenced in. Prisoner's house is about a mile and a half from witness's ; there is no boundary fence.
-James Wilson, butcher at Manly Beach, stated : Remembers sergeant Bloomfield going to him und inquiring about some meat; it was on a Sunday early in this month. He never sold prisoner any meat ; his shopman sold fifty pounds of salt meat to prisoner's father and mother. Can't say if it was sent to Pitt Water. The sale was effected on the 29th of July. Bloomfield showed him some meat at the watch-house ; they were rounds, and briskets It was neither fresh nor salt ; it appeared to him to have been put in pickle. One piece looked like his beef. It was not cut up as butchers usually cut up meat. It did not appear to have been put in good pickle. It would have kept as well without the pickle as with it in the same state as he saw it. Prisoner sent him a hide on the 15th of July. He sent up some before, but none since. Witness got the last hide from his (prisoner's) mother.
-By Mr. Driver : Has had experience in the butchering.' Farrell's family occasionally dealt with him. They have bought both fresh and salt meat in largo quantities. Beef would keep a long time in this weather. Persons unacquainted with the process of curing meat, and taking up a piece of it, would say it was corn beef. Beef taken out of pickle and placed in bags, and conveyed some distance,' would, by knocking about, probably look fresher than it was. He saw some pork amongst it. 
-By the Bench : The meat that Bloomfield showed him was leaner than what the fifty pounds was that he sold to Farrell's mother. It takes three or four days to properly corn and press beef. 
By Mr. Driver : He did not see the beef weighed and sent away.
-George Marshall: Sold fifty pounds of salt beef on the 29th July to prisoner's father. Has seen the meat that was seized at prisoner's place (at Manly Beach police-station). He could pick out a piece or two that he sold ; it did not all look alike. He saw about 1001b of meat. Does not believe that the rest of the beef, with the exception of one or two pieces, was that sold by him. The mass of beef that he saw differed very much ; it was-not so salt; it was differently cut up, that is another reason why he thinks it is not the same, The meat he saw was the meat of a small beast. He never bought beef from prisoner.' At the time he saw the meat he believed it had been in pickle for twenty four hours.
-By Mr. Driver : He could not tell how long it had been killed. Very likely it might keep a month this weather. Would sworn that he has not been speaking to Mr. Bloomfield outside the court. Has been butchering about thirteen years. Some of the meat he saw was sold to Farrell's people. Carrying meat out of pickle would alter its appearance materially.
-To the Bench : The meat he saw was lean, and did not correspond with the meat he sold. 
- Charles Leek, a roadmaker at Pitt Water, knows the prisoner; also knows Wilson. Recollects being with him on the 4th of this month. Saw prisoner on horseback driving cattle. He went out of witness's sight. Does not know what direction he was going. He was on the top of the hill, a good distance from where he was at work.
-By. Mr." Driver : It was between four and five o'clock in the afternoon. He was about a quarter of a mile away. Can't tell how ho was dressed. He was riding a bay horse Don't know how it was branded. Swear point blank it was him. If he saw Mr. Driver as many times at he has seen prisoner he could toll him. He may have been a mile away, from Wilson's house. He was more than three hundred yards away from Wilson's house. It might be three-quarters of a mile He was working alongside the telegraph line. Swears there was more than ten posts between where he was working and Wilson's house.
-To Mr Windeyer : He is positive it was prisoner. He is not mistaken about him at all. He was with him the night before. The court adjourned at four o'clock until Monday next, at eleven o'clock. Bail extended.
WATER POLICE COURT.—WEDNESDAY. (1870, August 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63110542 


Before the Water Police Magistrate and Mr. Kettle.
John Farrell appealed on remand, charged with having a portion of a stolen beast in his possession. Thomas Playfair, butcher, Sydney, gave similar evidence to that given by Wilson, butcher, of Manly Beach.

Alfred Wilson deposed : I drove the cart containing the meat, seized by constable Broomfield, from prisoner's house to Manly Beach, the water did not touch the beef whilst the cart was being drawn throught the lagoon. 
By Mr. Driver : The water of the lagoon came to the tail of the cart ; it might have touched the bottom of the bags containing the meat ; after being brought from Farrell's house to our house the meat was turned out of the bags. This being the case for the prosecution, Mr. Driver asked the Bench what was the charge he had to answer, and being informed that it was for having a poition of the carcase of a stolen beast in his possession, he called

James Wilson, butcher, of Manly Beach, who deposed : I have given evidence for the prosecution in this case ; prisoner's father had bought on an average of 40 or 50 lbs. meat a week from me.

George Marshall, resworn, deposed : I have previously given evidence in this case, and in stating that I sold some meat to prisoner's father on the 29th July, I made a mistake, as upon looking over the books suite, I find that it was on the 23rd : huge quantities of meat have been pur-chased at our shop by the Farrells, and it has always been delivered at their house at Manly ; the lot sold on the 23rd July was 50 lbs. : there is also an entry made by my employer of 50 lbs sold to Farrell on the 29th, but I do not kuow whether it refers to the same meat sold on the 23rd, I think it does.

John Farrell deposed : I own some property at Pitt Water ; I have several farms and some stock ; prisoner is my son, and lives on one of the farms ; everything on the place belongs to me ; I know Mr. Thomas Wilson, of Mona Vale, he spoke to me about my son in April, when Messrs. Foley and Murray, and my wife, were present ; he said that he was sorry he had to complain about my son, who, he said, was continually trespassing on his place, and hunting his cattle ; witness asked him when he was there last ; and he said, yesterday morning ; witness said, are yon sure ; and he said yes, he could not be mistaken ; as he was seen by those who knew him well ; witness told him that he had made a mistake, for on yesterday morning he was on board the steamer on his way to Sydney ; he then said, "Well, if it was not him it must have been somebody else ;" when I said that my son was on board the steamer going to Sydney, it was true ; at the same conversation Wilson complained that he had lost a black heifer, and prisoner had been seen dogging his cattle ; I have had some years' experience in managing cattle, and the length of the navel cord of a calf depends on the age of the calf and the condition of the cow ; it varies from twelve inches to three feet ; I keep pigs on my farms, and they are turned out into paddocks to get their living ; it is not an unusual thing for pigs to eat grass ; I sometimes get meat from Wilson at Manly Beach, and at other I kill ; I killed a small heofer at my yard at Pitt Water about the last week in July ; about 2 cwt. was left at Pitt Water, and the remainder was sent to Manly ; it was cut up by prisoner ; in July, about the 23rd, I sent down about ½ cwt. of meat, and subsequently I went down and killed the heifer ; meat in July would keep fresh for about a fortnight ; there is a hill between the little reef and the road where Leek works, and it would be impossible to see anybody on the reef from the road ; the meat taken from my place by the police I claim as my property.

James Wheeler deposed : The distance from where Leek works and the little reef ridge is from half a mile to three- quarters of a mile ; the hill on the left hand side obscures a portion of the ridge.

Mr. Windeyer having addressed the Bench, his Worship Mr. Kettle intimated his opinion that the prisoner was not properly before the Court, and the Water Police Magistrate, not being satisfied on some of the points, deferred giving his opinion until Friday in order to go through the evidence again.WATER POLICE COURT. (1870, August 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13211321

CATTLE STEALING.
John Farrell (the younger) appeared to answer a charge for that he did, on the 4th day of August, 1870, at Pitt-water, feloniously steal, take, and carry away a cow, the property of Thomas Wilson.
The prisoner, who pleaded "not guilty," was defended  by Mr. D. Buchanan, instructed by the prisoner's attorney,Mr. Richard Driver. Mr. G. F. Davis conducted the case for the Crown.
This case was a charge of cattle stealing at Pittwater, previously tried, at the end of which the jury seised of the case did not agree, and were eventually discharged. The particulars were, for the most part, the very same as those of the former trial, which, it will be remembered, was very fully reported in this newspaper. The witnesses for the Crown were Thomas Wilson, William B. Hassard, Çharles Leek, senior, John Leek, Charles Leek, unior, senior-constable Bromfield, senior-constable John Carton, Alfred Wilson, George Marshall, James Wilson, Thomas Playfair, and Mr. W. M. Brownrigg. The evidence for the defence was John Farrell (the father  of the prisoner), James Farrell (the prisoner's brother), Sarah Anne Farrell (the prisoner's sister), John Boyle, James Wheeler, James Wheeler, jun., John Murray, William Murray, and Thomas  James Foley. The evidence of the first three of these witnesses went to contradict the statement of the Leeks, and to account for the meat found by the police, and relied upon as proof of the charge brought. The rest of the witnesses gave evidence as to character.
Mr. BUCHANAN addressed the Court for the defence at some considerable length.
Mr. DAVIS replied.  
His HONOR summed up.  
The jury retired to deliberate at 9.20 p.m.
The jury reappeared in Court at half-past 9, and returned a verdict of guilty.
The counsel for the Crown prayed judgment.
His HONOR said that before he proceeded to pass a sentence on the prisoner he desired to look into his notes respecting a case tried by him in 1865, in which the prisoner’s name appeared.
Remanded for sentence.  
CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. (1871, February 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13213514

Death by Drowning.— About 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon, a child named Blanche Wilson, aged two and a half years, the daughter of Thomas Wilson, of Mona Vale, Pitt Water, was found drowned is a creek near her father's residence. The deceased was playing with some other children when aha fell in George Smith, Esq., J.P., of Manly Beach, has gone out to hold an inquiry.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 1870. (1870, November 12). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107131400

CHILD DROWNED. -About 2 o'clock on last Friday afternoon a little girl about three years of age, daughter of Mr. Thomas Wilson, farmer, of Mona Vale, Pitt Water, was found dead in a shallow waterhole near her father's residence. It appears that the poor child was a little before the accident seen playing with some other little children near the waterhole, and it is supposed that she must have overbalanced herself and fallen in. 
Her companions were of too tender an age either to render assistance or give the alarm. The melancholy intelligence was communicated to the child's father at the Central Criminal Court, while he was there engaged prosecuting in a case of cattle stealing. On Saturday last, Mr. Smith, J. P., of Manly Beach, went overland to Pitt Water to hold an enquiry into the child's death.The Sydney Morning Herald. (1870, November 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13222910

Coroner's Court This Day
DEATH BY DROWNING AT PITT WATER. 
An inquest was held by George Smith, Esq., J.P., at Mona Vale, Pitt Water, on Saturday last, to inquire into the death of a child named Blanche Augusta Wilson. — Priscilla Wilson, wife of Thomas Wilson, of Mona Vale, said, on oath, the deceased is her daughter. About 2 o'clock, yesterday afternoon, 11th instant, I left the house to assist in the hay-field, leaving the deceased alive and well in the front garden, which is enclosed by a close paling fence, five feet high. When in the field I saw persons running from the hay-stack towards the water- hole, and imagining something had occurred I ran also towards the waterhole. I found Francis Collins, James Mann, and my son Thomas Wilson, holding and rubbing the wet body of the deceased. It did not appear to have any signs of life, but was very warm. I had the body taken up to the house, stripped, and put into a hot bath, and rubbed for several hours ; but no signs of any breathing ever presented itself. Whilst so engaged, I sent for my ! nearest neighbour, Mr. George M'Intosh, who came over and assisted to restore animation, but without effect. My husband was away; from home at the central criminal court, Darlinghurst, and is there again this day. The deceased was two years and one month old. From the time I left the child at home until I saw its body just taken out of the waterhole, only about fifteen minutes elapsed. 

— Nancy Wilson, daughter of last witness, said, about half-past 2 o'clock, after fixing the bonnet of the deceased, in a few minutes missed her, and upon inquiry found she ! had gone out of the garden gate. I went down to the hay-stack, which is about two hundred yards from the garden, and inquired of my brother Thomas if he had seen Blanche. He said no. Hearing some one calling I went to the waterhole, where I saw the deceased, quite wet, in my brother Thomas's arms.
— Thomas Wilson, brother to last witness, said he was assisting to unload the dray at the hay stack, on the afternoon in question, when his sister Nancy came down to inquire if he had seen the deceased. He said no. Samuel Hewitt at the stack then said there is something in the pond. He ran over to the rushes and saw the body of the deceased in the water, which was only about a foot deep, and appearing very green on the surface, which would deceive a child, or even a graver person in walking near the edge, as the grass is very long He helped to get it out and rub it, but it did not appear to have any life.
— Francis Collins, son of John Collins, of Joseph Town, Pitt Water, said, he saw the body of deceased in the green rushes face downwards which was hid by a sun bonnet which had got twisted round her face 
— Samuel Hewitt, a farm labourer in the employ of Thomas Wilson, of Mona Vale Farm, said, between 2 and 3 o'clock on the afternoon of the 11th. He was on the top of the hay-stack, and hearing someone ask for the deceased, he looked round, he saw something in the waterhole, and called out to Francis Collins, who ran directly to the spot. 
— From the evidence adduced, Mr. Smith was of opinion that the occurrence was purely accidental.  Coroner's Court This Day (1870, November 18).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107134581

The Late Case of Drowning at Pitt  Water - 
On this day week, Mr. George Smith J.P., of Undercliffe. Manly, held an inquiry at Mona Vale, Pitt Water, respecting the death of a little girl, aged two years and one month, named Blanche Augusta Wilson, who had been found drowned in a waterhole near her father's residence; in which after hearing the evidence he came to the conclusion that the occurrance had been purely accidental. Six witnesses were examined, most of whom gave corroborative evidence either of the finding of the body or of the means resorted to restore animation. Priscilla Wilson, the mother of the child, and wife of Thomas Wilson, farmer of Mona Vale, stated that about 2 o'clock on the after noon of Friday, the 11th instant, she left the house to assist on the hay field, leaving the deceased alive and well in the front garden, which was enclosed by a close paling fence five feet high; when in the field she saw persons running   from the haystack towards a waterhole to which she also ran, imagining something had occurred she found Francis Collins, James Warren, and her son Thomas Wilson, holding and rubbing the wet body of the child, which, although very warm, did not appear to have any signs of life ; she had the body taken up to the house, stripped, and put in a hot bath and rubbed for several hours without any sign of breathing presenting itself while engaged in that duty she sent for her nearest neighbour, Mr. George McIntosh, who hurried over and used every exertion to restore animation, but without effect. Her husband was away from home at the Central Criminal Court on the day on which the accident occurred, and was also absent there on that day (Saturday). Thomas Wilson, brother of the deceased, said that on the 11th instant he was unloading the dray at the haystack, when his Sister Nancy came and asked him if he had seen deceased. he said No, I have not seen her; a man named Hewitt who was on the stack then said, " There is something in the pond ; witness immediately ran over to the rushes and saw the body of the child in the water, which was only about a foot deep, and appeared very green on the surface, so as to deceive a child or even a grown person in walking near the edge as the grass was very long ; he helped to get the body out of the rushes, and with others endeavoured in vain to restore animation.  
Advertising. (1870, November 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13211179

INJUNCTIONS.
Mr. W. A. Walker, instructed by Mr A. Burns, appeared in support of an application by Sarah Priscilla Wilson, aged 84, widow, of Manly, for an injunction restraining William James Goulding and his wife, Amy L. Goulding (grand-daughter of plaintiff) from dealing with certain leasehold property comprising about 52 acres, known as “Little Mackerel Beach, at Pittwater'' Mr. Watt, instructed by .Mr. J. J Kley, ' appeared, for defendants. An Injunction was granted until the hearing of the suit. EQUITY COURT. (1908, April 1). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14916980 

(Before Mr. Justice Street.)
DISPUTED OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY.
Wilson v Goulding and wife.
Mr. W. A. Walker, instructed by Mr, Ayrault Burns, appeared for the plaintiff. Defendants appeared in person. This was a suit brought by Sarah Priscilla Wilson against William James Goulding and Amy Goulding, his wife, for a decree to restrain defendants by injunction from In any way dealing with 52 acres of land at Little Mackerel Beach, Pittwaterand asking that two documents of November 20, 1894, and of January 5 respectively, should be declared void as against the plaintiff, and that they should be delivered up to be cancelled. The statement of claim also asked that male defendant might be ordered to pay the plaintiff the value of the property and the profits obtained from the same, and that the Usual Inquiry should be made, and accounts taken before tho Master In Equity. 

The case for the plaintiff, who is a widow, aged 84, and unable to read or write, was that male defendant was married to her great granddaughter and prior to 1894 she (plaintiff) held the residue of a 999 years' lease of a property situated at Little Mackerel Beach, consisting of about 52 acres, and valued at £10 per acre. She had become liable to John Charles McIntosh for law costs, and It was arranged between her and the male defendant that he should sell the property for her, pay the costs referred to, and hand over the balance of the proceeds to her. For this purpose she on November 20, 1894, executed a document which the male defendant told her was an authority to sell the property as arranged, but the document was not read over or explained to her. The male defendant did not pay the law costs, nor did be hand plaintiff the balance of the money. Subsequently she asked him for the document, but he informed her that it was lost, and that In any case It was not worth the paper It was written on. Recently the Plaintiff discovered that one John Mulford was in possession of the land. She issued a writ of ejectment again him, and Mrs. Goulding was, upon her own application, let in to defend the action, claiming to be the landlord of Mulford. Plaintiff had discovered that since the pendency of the action of ejectment two documents purporting to deal with tho property had been registered, and in consequence of this she on March 10 last withdrew the record in the ejectment action. The document of November 20, 1894, purported to be a conveyance and assignment of the interest of the Plaintiff In the property to the male defendant in consideration of the payment of £5 and the costs already mentioned. The second document was dated January 5, 1900, and expressed to be a conveyance of the property from the male defendant to the female defendant. In consideration of the sum of 5s and an ante-nuptial agreement to settle the property on the female defendant on the solemnisation of the marriage. Plaintiff further stated that she never Intended that the document of November, 1891, should be a conveyance or assignment, that she had no knowledge of Its contents, and believed It to be an authority to sell as previously stated. She further said that she believed there was no ante-nuptial settlement in writing, nor was there any consideration for It.
The defendants In their statement of defence stated that the conveyance of November, 1894, Ti ir,catl over and fully explained to the Plaintiff before she executed It, and she was paid £5, which was the sum agreed upon. Plaintiff never at any time applied to male applicant for a return of the document, nor did he make to her the statement alleged In ÎW to ". 
Before 1894 the plaintiff was indebted to a firm of solicitors for £400, and was also Indebted to male defendant for sums owed by him towards paying the costs. The solicitors were pressing her, and In consideration of the defendant taking over her liability in respect of the bill of costs and advances made by him, plaintiff proposed that he should take conveyance or assignment of the property, and it was on that understanding that the deed of November 20,' 1894, was executed. It was read over to her and fully explained by Mr. Barnett Smith, then council clerk of North Sydney, and plaintiff knew well what she was executing; and it was not until she brought the action of ejectment that she made any claim in connection with the property. On January 5, 1900, the male defendant executed an agreement to settle the property on the female defendant prior to the marriage, and of this plaintiff was aware. Defendant also denied that the property was worth £10 per acre, and he averred that the plaintiff was fully aware that Mulford was the tenant of Mrs. Goulding. 
The case stands part heard.
IN EQUITY. (1908, August 5). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14988198

IN EQUITY.
(Before Mr. Justice Street.)
DISPUTED OWNERSHIP OF PROPERTY.
Wilson v Goulding and wife.
Mr. W. A. Walker, instructed by Mr. Ayrault Burns, appeared for the plaintiff. Defendants appeared in person. This was a suit brought by Sarah Priscilla Wilson against William James Goulding and Amy L. Goulding, his wife, for a decree to restrain defendants by injunction from in any way dealing with 52 acres of land at, Little Mackerel Beach, Pittwater, and asking that two documents of November 20, 1894, and of January 5, 1900, respectively, should be declared void as against the plaintiff, and that they should be delivered up to be cancelled. The statement of claim also asked that male defendant might be ordered to pay the plaintiff the value of the property and the profits obtained from the same, and that the usual inquiry should be made, and accounts taken before tho Master in Equity. The particulars of the case on both sides have already appeared.

His Honor, after hearing the evidence and the addresses on behalf of both parties, said he had come to the conclusion that the deed of November 20, 1894, was obtained by defendant William James Goulding by misrepresentation, and that when plaintiff executed It she believed that what she was signing was only an authority to him to sell the property, pay certain law costs due by her, and hand the balance over to her. That being so, it was voidHe was also of opinion that the document of January, 1900, purporting to be an ante-nuptial settlement of the property on Mrs. Goulding by her husband was void. He, therefore, made a decree in terms of the first prayer of the plaintiff's statement of claim, and directed both documents to be delivered up to be cancelled. Defendant William James Goulding to pay the costs of the suit.
IN EQUITY. (1908, August 8). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15006278

While all this was going on, and Blanche drowned, the Farrells were doing their utmost to cause more distress:
Thomas Wilson, of Mona Vale, Pittwater, was found guilty of having two bulls which trespassed on the growing crops of John Farrell. He was fined 8s, with 5s 6d costs. Mr. Driver for the complainant, and Mr. Roberts for the defendant. WATER POLICE COURT.—FRIDAY. (1870, October 15). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63112055

CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT.
FRIDAY.
Before His Honor Mr. Justice FAUCETT.
CATTLE STEALING.
John Farrell, the younger, appeared on bail to answer to a charge, for that he did on the 4th day of August, 1870, at Pitt Water, feloniously steal, take, and lead away a cow, the property of Thomas Wilson. Prisoner pleaded not guilty, Mr. Davis, assisted by Mr. Windeyer, appeared to conduct the prosecution ; and Messrs. W. B. Dalley, assisted by Mr. C. J. Manning, instructed by Messrs. Leary and Driver, defended the prisoner.

Mr. Davis having opened the case, called Senior constable Edward Broomfield, who deposed that, in company with constable Carton, he went to prisoner's house on Sunday, 7th August;that Wilson was also with him, and they had a search warrant; prisoner was at home, and witness said to him " are you John Farrell " ; he said " yes ; " witness after giving the usual caution, asked prisoner whether he had killed a beast there lately, to which he replied "no," and upon being asked when he killed last, stated about five or six weeks ago; he said he had not a hide of the beast he killed last as he had sold it to Wilson, the butcher of Manly Beach ; witness asked him if he had any fresh meat on the pre-mises, and he answered no; witness then produced the search-warrant, and proceeded to search the premises, and in a skillion outside found a cask ; prisoner after hearing the warrant read, said he knew nothing of the heifer, and had not killed her ;after taking the sack off the cask, he (witness) said to prisoner, " Hulloa, Johnny, what do you call this, this looks like fresh beef ; " he then took the beef out of the cask, and it appeared to be quite fresh, with a little salt thrown over it; witness asked prisoner where he got the meat from, to which he replied, "That came down from Wilson the butcher at Manly, the week before last, and it was fresh ; " there were about 200 lbs. weight or more in the cask, and witness told prisoner so; the search was then continued, and witness upon going to the stockyard found under some corn-stalks the carcase of a calf, a paunch, and portions of en-trails all quite fresh. When questioned about the carcase prisoner said a cow had slipped the calf, which he had dragged into the yard. He did not know where the cow was, but told witness that he might go and look for it if he wanted it. From his (witness's) experience his opinion was that the calf had not been slipped ; witness went again to the house on Monday evening to bring the beef away, but upon going to the skillion found that half the meat had been taken away; he took away the remainder and showed it to Wilson at Manly, and on the Wednesday following it was taken to Sydney; the meat was weighed at Wilson's and proved to be 130 lbs. ; when witness visited prisoner's house on the second occasion the calf which witness had seen in the stockyard was gone.

Cross-examined by Mr. Dalley : He (witness) had taken nothing to drink when he went to Farrell's except some tea; when prisoner spoke of the cow slipping a calf he said, witness believed, " one of my cows," or "one of the cows," but he would not swear he said either. Constable Carton might have taken something to drink, but he did not see him; proceedings were initiated against the pri soner on the 5th or 6th of August, when a search warrant was issued; he arrested him on the Thursday, 11th, charged with having a portion of a stolen carcase in his possession ; the charge was heard, and upon leaving the court witness arrested prisoner on the present charge; this was on Friday, 2nd September, nearly a month after the first charge.

Re-examined by Mr. Windeyer: He was perfectly sober when he went to Farrell's house, and he believed Carton was also sober.

Senior-constable John Carton stationed at Manly Beach, who accompanied constable Broomfield to Farrell's house, generally corroborated the latter's evidence. He had two or three nobblers of brandy on the way to Farrell's, but was not intoxicated or incompetent to perform his duties.

Henry Hassard deposed that he was formerly ship's boy on board the Menan, and ran away to Pitt Water about two months ago ; he went to Farrell's place, who told him he could not get across Broken Bay ; prisoner used to look after the farm there and his father used to come there once a week ; witness was down at the farm in August and was there on the 4th, when he came back from Sydney to Pittwater; he got there about 7 o'clock in the evening, and prisoner went out when he got there ; he came in about an hour afterwards, stayed in awhile, and asked him (witness) to go out with him to Poyner's camp, about 300 or 400 yards from the farm ; they went about 100 yards, when he told him to wait until he came back with a pack of cards ; prisoner went back to the house, and witness, after waiting ten minutes and finding that prisoner had not come back also returned to the house, and found that Farrell was not there ; witness went to bed about 9 o' cl.ock in a room occupied by prisoner, and about an hour after wards he heard one of the dogs make a noise as if it was pleased , prisoner's sister went out and brought in the dog, and shortly afterwards witness heard the report of a gun; this was about half an hour after the dog was brought in ; the gun sounded apparently a quarter or half a mile away from the house, and about ten minutes after the first shot he heard another; about an hour and a half after the shots were fired prisoner came into the bedroom, and brought the dog with him ; he went to bed, and after he had been there about an hour or an hour and a half he got up again and went out of the room ; at this time witness was awake, and remained so for a quarter of an hour afterwards; prisoner did not come in while he, (witness) was awake, but he awoke him in the morning ; when prisoner got up after being in bed an hour, he dressed himself ; at breakfast prisoner told him to go to Cooper's a place near the farm, and part of the ground used by prisoner; prisoner's brothers, Thomas and Daniel, accompanied him, and Farrell said he would follow them with the horse and cart ; witness left about 8 o'clock for Cooper's, and prisoner arrived there about 10 o'clock; he had then on different clothes from the clothes he was wearing when witness left him that morning; they remained at Cooper's till about 12 o'clock, and afterwards returned to the house, where witness told prisoner he was going to Sydney ; when witness got back to the house he noticed some blood upon the gate, which appeared to be fresh; the mark was upon that part of the gate which a person would take hold of in going in or out; on the way to Cooper's witness noticed some tracks of cattle; there were both horse and cattle tracks, and appeared to be fresh; the tracks were pointed out to him by prisoner's brother; after going into the yard he went round to the back of the house, past the , washhouse, and saw the pickle-cask heaped up with something ; he did not see what it was heaped up with, because it was covered with a bag ; they were short of beef at this time in the house ; but previously some corned beef was brought in a bag from Wilson's at Manly; five weeks previously to this a beast had been brought to the farm in a cart by prisoner's father and killed ; it was cut up, and the hind quarters were kept for the use of the house ; it was after that they were short of beef, and in consequence a pig was killed ; about a week before this he saw the pickle cask, it was not heaped up then.

Cross-examined by Mr. Dalley : It was on the day preceding the occurrences described by witness, that prisoner's father told him (witness) that he could not stay at the farm any longer, and must take his clothes away as he might get into trouble if he permitted witness to remain there any longer ; there had been a quarrel some few weeks previously to this between prosecutor and the prisoner's father, about a dog; witness had frequently been out shooting with prisoner ; had upon one occasion assisted in driving prosecutor's cattle off prisoner's farm; witness was staying at a boarding house, and sergeant Anderson told him before he gave any evidence, that his board would be paid; he (witness) thought it rather strange that prisoner should change his clothes on the morning of his visit to Cooper's, because he did not do so before in the morning ; he would not swear that he did not tell anybody that he would get £20 if the case was successful.

Thomas Wilson deposed that he remembered seeing prisoner on horseback about an hour before sunset on the 4 th of August ;at that time he was leading his (witness's) cattle ; witness had been looking after cattle and was going home, and whilst talking to a man named Leek and his two sons working on the road, he turned round and saw the prisoner drive the cattle over the hill towards his own place ; he saw prisoner coming out at the hill side from some low scrub, and was sure it was the pri-soner ; he know him very well and could not be mistaken about it ; he (witness) had just left the cattle on the side of the hill ; the heifer was about three years old and was within six weeks of calving ; she was amongst the mob prisoner was driving; he had never seen the heifer since, although he had searched all over the run ; the animal was a red-and-white heifer, branded with a slit in the ear; witness followed the track down to the creek and over the bridge to within 300 yards of prisoner's house; there appeared to be some marks as if the cattle had been driven back over the bridge; when the search warrant was issued, witness accompanied the constables to prisoner's house. [Witness then gave the particulars of what occurred at prisoner's farm as already described by constable Broomfield.] He had frequently cautioned the prisoner about coming upon his (witness's) run.

Cross-examined by Mr. Dalley : He was stopping talking to the men at work when he saw Farrell; the hill where he saw the prisoner coming out was some distance from where he was standing ; it was called, to the best of his knowledge, the Little Reef Hill ; that was the name which it was known by in his family; at a distance of half a mile from where he saw the cattle he could identify any one of them by the colour ; he had often found cattle that had strayed from his run after a lapse of six months,and persons from whom he had purchased them had sent letters to him about cattle that had strayed ; witness complained to prisoner's father that the latter was continually on his run hunting the cattle.

Charles Leek deposed that he was a labourer, and recollected in August last being engaged upon a road near prosecutor's house; he remembered seeing Mr. Wilson driving home; he also saw prisoner driving cattle on the hill, but did not know whose they were; did not know the name of the hill where he saw prisoner driving along, but had heard that it was called Little Reef Hill ; when he saw the prisoner it was between 5 and 6 o'clock.

Cross-examined by Mr. Manning : Had been in the district for some time ; he was about a quarter to half a mile from where he saw the cattle; when Wilson came up he had been looking at the cattle.

John Leek, son of last witness, deposed that he recollected working with his father on the road at Pitt Water on the 4th August, and seeing Mr. Wilson during the evening ; he saw prisoner driving cattle on the hill near the sea beach ; was quite sure he saw prisoner.

Cross-examined by Mr. Manning : His father told him, a while afterwards, that it was the 4th of August, and Mr. Wilson told him that the prisoner was driving the cattle.

Charles Leek, brother of last witness, recollected when his father was working upon a contract on the Pitt Water Road ; he had seen the prisoner several times, and had spoken to him ; on the 4th August Mr. Wilson came down to them, and subsequently he saw prisoner driving cattle on the hill ; he lost sight of him in a short time, and did not see him again ; was quite certain that prisoner was the man he had seen.

Cross-examined by Mr. Dalley : He heard Mr. Wilson say, " There is John Farrell;" he knew it was the 4th August, because Monday was the 1st.

James Wilson deposed he was a butcher living at Manly Beach ; in the months of July and August he was on business there ; knew John Farrell ; he recollected sergeant Broomfield showing him some meat, and had previously, to the 8th or 9th of August last, supplied prisoner with meat; on the 23rd July, he had supplied Farrell at the farm with some meat ; he looked over the meat brought him by con-stable Broomfield, and found that it was badly cut ; it looked like corned beef, but had apparently only been in pickle twenty-four hours; he never bought a hide on the 4th. August, and had not purchased one since the 15th of June.

George Marshall, assistant in the shop of last witness, swore that the last occasion upon which he supplied prisoner with beef was upon the 23rd June.

Thomas Playfair deposed that he was a butcher carrying on business in Sydney, and recollected constable Broomfield showing him some beef on the 9th or 10th of August ; it was the meat from a small beast ; the meat was badly cut up, but there were two or three pieces which were well cut and which had been longer pickled than the other pieces ; the meat was that of a full-grown cow.

William M. Brownrigg, a surveyor, was called to give evidence as to the locality upon which the cattle were seen when they were driven by prisoner, he having made a survey of the place at prosecutor's request ; a person standing on the hill would easily be seen, especially during the evening, with a setting sun, but it might be hard to recognise any-thing at a quarter of a mile distant ; he was able to dis-tinguish two white cows on the hill.

Alfred Wilson, farmer, and a son of prosecutor, remembered some beef being brought to his father's that had been taken from Farrell's house; it was taken to Manly Beach, and was in the same state when it got there as when it was taken into the cart.

This was the case for the Crown, and counsel for the defence reserved their case until to-morrow.
The jury were handed over to the care of Mr. Deputy-Sheriff Uhr for the night.
CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. (1870, November 12). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13218871

Child 13 | Male
WILSON Edgar Rock
Born  1873   
Died  1944  Gosford, New South Wales, Australia  
Buried     
Spouse  BARKER Mary Eleanor | F1498 
Married  1895  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
BARKER Mary Eleanor,   b. 1872, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia  ,   d. 1905, Gosford, New South Wales, Australia   
Married  1895  St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.   
Children 
1. WILSON Edgar Roy,   b. 1896, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 16 Aug 1916, the vicinity of Pozieres, France during the battle of The Somme  
2. WILSON Dorothy I,   b. 1898, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
3. WILSON Ruth,   b. 1900, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1900, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  
4. WILSON Esther M,   b. 1902, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. Yes, date unknown
5. WILSON John Cuthbert,   b. 1904, St Leonards, New South Wales , Australia.  ,   d. 1950, Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia  

Notes  Married:
Although the NSW BDM marriage year is recorded as 1870, well after all their children were born, Thomas and Priscilla officially married at this time.
CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. (Abridged from the S. M. Herald.) WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 15. (Before his Honor the Chief Justice.)
The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893) Tuesday 21 February 1871 p 4 Article
... CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT (Abridged from the S. M. Herald.) Wednesday, FEBRUARY 15. (Before his Honor the Chief Justice.) John Farrell the younger appeared to answer a charge of stealing a cow, the property of Thomas Wilson, at Pittwater, on the 4th August last. The case was tried and reported at the ... 240 words
Francis (Fanny) Oliver (daughter of W. Oliver of McGaas Creek and Lovett Bay 1852  married Thomas Wilson 1870 (son of)


Advertising. (1919, January 22). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15821205


Pittwater - Album Pittwater, N.S.W., ca. 1887-1890 / photographer unknown  Presented by Mr E. Northwood, November 1986
Pic. Acc.A4367002h, courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

JOAN WILSON (Careel Bay) recently helped her father rescue a sheep that had strayed into the water. "It floundered around In the bay, about 200 yards out from an old jetty. Joan writes. "When we succeeded in bringing it to safety, we discovered that it was completely exhausted. When It recovered, we gave it some water and led it to some green grass." News from the LETTER BOX (1940, January 14).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 2 (SUPPLEMENT TO THE SUNDAY SUN AND GUARDIAN SUNBEAMS). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231234511 

WILSON -Tn loving memory of Private Edgar Roy Wilson eldest son of Mr and Mrs. E. R Wilson, Careel Jenkins strect. North Sydney killed in action at Poxieres, August 16. 1916 Greater love hath no man than this. Family Notices (1921, August 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15942347 

SCULLING.
FAMILY AFFAIR Wilsons Collect a Treble
THE Wilson family, of Careel, practically scooped the pool at the Broken Bay Rowing and Sculling Club's gala yesterday at Pittwater. They collected the youths' single sculls, the men's heavy boat race, and the event for women. In addition the family collected several minor prizes. BROKEN BAY CLUB.

Youths' Single Sculls: G. Wilson, scr., 1; W. Solomons, scr., 2; D. Porter, 9sec., 3. Won by a quarter of a length. Men's Single Sculls: C. Wilson, 1; J. Wilson, 2; F. Wilson, 3. Won by a quarter of a length. Mixed Doubles: C. Mudie and Miss D. Dickens, 7sec., 1; J. Erickson and Miss B. Erickson, 7sec„ 2; J. Wilson and Miss F. Wilson, 10sec., 3. Won by a foot. Mens' Doubles: J. and P. Erickson, scr., 1; C. Mudie and J. Dickens. 6sec. 3; C. Wilson and G. Hastie, 3sec., 3. Won by a length. Women's Sculls: Miss M Wilson, 30sec., 1; Miss J. Gilroy, scr., 2; Miss D. Dickens, 23 sec., 3. PITTWATER AQUATIC CLUB. Youths' Gladstone Skiffs, ¼ mile.— First event: C. Hickson, 23sec., beat D. McFee. 21, by three lengths. Second event: G. Leach, 13, beat F. Smith, 10, by four lengths. Final: McFee, l; Leach, 2; C. Hickson, 3. Won by half a length. Men's Gladstone Skiff Handicap. — First event: N. Fox, 7, beat F. Smith, senr., 24, by 6 Inches. Second event; J. Hanlon, 12, beat V. Fox, 11, by a length and a quarter, event: N. Fox, 17, beat F. Smith, senr., 14. Won by half a length; quarter of a length between second and third.
SCULLING. (1935, December 8). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169352861

ALLEN—WILSON - The Engagement Is announced of Betty, third daughter of Mr and Mrs. F. J Wilson of Careel Bay, Newport and Raymond Joseph youngest son of the late Mr and Mrs Harry Allen, late 18 Farnham Street Leicester England. Family Notices (1946, February 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 30. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17970685 

KERANS-WILSON.- The Engagement is announced of Jean youngest daughter of Mr and Mrs F J Wilson of Careel Bay to Hugh youngest son of Mr and Mrs C W Kerrans of Croydon. Family Notices (1951, May 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 36. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18213077 


f.110 Mount Saint Patrick road to Broken Bay.: Image No.: a5894118h all three from album: Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales - Mount Saint Patrick was the name for what we now call Bangalley Head - Mount Saint Mary, opposite, is where Stapelton park now sits atop this hill/'mount'. Visit John Collins of Avalon and Careel Bay Jetty and Boatshed

References And Extras

1. 1996. PROFILES OF THE PIONEERS IN MANLY, WARRINGAH AND PITTWATER by Shelagh Champion, OAM, B.A.(Lib.Sc.) and George Champion, OAM, Dip.Ed.Admin. Revised 2013. Available online


 100 Year Old Heritage-Listed Pittwater Home Midholme Receives A New Breath Of Life

17 Oct 2014 - Pittwater Council - recorded in Pittwater Online News Community News October 2014

When Midholme was built in the early 1900s, few could envisage it still being ‘alive and kicking’ in 2014 – thanks to conservation work carried out by skilled Pittwater Council trades staff.

Midholme is the main homestead at Currawong, at the northern end of Pittwater, accessible only by water.  The beautiful home comprises four bedrooms, two bathrooms, a spacious kitchen, dining and lounge rooms overlooking stunning views. Interestingly, there’s a difference of opinion about the actual date Midholme was built – but it’s generally believed to have been constructed around 1911.

But the home needed significant conservation work.  The $500,000 project came about through the generosity of the Friends of Currawong and Pittwater Environmental Foundation who funded the project.   Work began at Midholme on 28 July and completed just nine weeks later.

Midholme was constructed on more than 120 sandstone piers, which required the expertise of a structural engineer.  Some of the works undertaken included:

-Refurbished verandah

-Replaced north, south and eastern deck

-New verandah posts

-New hardwood timber stairs

-Refurbished interior wall, floor, ceiling and door finishes

-Refurbished bathrooms, kitchen and laundry. 

- Roof re-slated using slate imported from Wales, to match originals.

- New ant caps installed to more than 120 sandstones piers.

Council staff worked alongside other skilled local tradesmen to ensure the project was completed on time and within budget.  .

Wherever possible, the original materials were retained and restored. Where materials were badly dilapidated, they were replaced with new ones to match the original as closely as possible.

At times, the conservation work provided numerous challenges.

“Firstly, we needed to get all material and staff to site by barge.  Plus, there were challenges associated with the heritage characteristic of the property, and the evolving nature of the work,” said Donald Gibson, Principal Officer, Building Services.

Pittwater Mayor Jacqueline Townsend said the restoration works at Currawong were a real testament to the high quality of workmanship applied and the teamwork between Friends of Currawong, Pittwater Environmental Foundation, council staff and contractors.

“Everyone involved took enormous pride to ensure the conservation works were completed to a very high standard, ensuring this unique heritage property will still be around for many decades to come.”

Midholme is now available for hire and is a beautiful place for a family holiday or a romantic getaway!

For more information: www.currawong.com.au

Currawong - NSW Heritage and Pittwatre Council notes - to 2011
Manager's Cottage, 1990 
The manager's cottage stands on the site of Southend. It replaced the earlier cottage that was burnt down in 1954. The Manager's cottage is a timber framed building clad in fibrous cement sheeting with a corrugated steel gabled roof. It has casement windows on the front (eastern) elevation which are probably recycled (National Trust Listing Card). 

TUTA Building, 1997 
This conference facility was built on the elevated land behind the north cabins in a style reminiscent of Midholme. 

Natural heritage description and values 
The Escarpment and steep slopes 
The rocky escarpment surrounding the holiday resort is in the Watagan Colluvial Soil Landscape Grouping which is characterised by rolling to very steep hills on fine-grained Narrabeen Group sediments. Local relief is 60-120 metres with slopes greater than 25%. There are narrow convex crests and ridges, steep colluvial side slopes, occasional sandstone boulders and benches. Vegetation typically comprises tall open-forest with closed-forest in sheltered positions. Soils are typically shallow to deep (30-200 cm) Lithosols/Siliceous Sands (Uc1.24) and Yellow Podzolic Soils (Dy3.21, Dy3.41, Dy4.11) on sandstones; moderately deep (100-200 cm) Brown Podzolic Soils (Db1.11), Red Podzolic Soils (Dr2.21) and Gleyed Podzolic Soils (Dg2.21) on shales. Land in the Watagan Soil Landscape Grouping is generally not capable of urban development, regular cultivation or grazing. Soils on sandstone crests and very steep side slopes in these areas are likely to have moderate erodibility but an extreme erosion hazard for both non-concentrated and concentrated flows. Topsoil and subsoil losses arising from urban development are likely to be high. Large variations in soil properties occur over short distances, requiring detailed assessment of surface movement potential (Musecape & Beaver, 1999). 

The Flats 
The flatter area on which Midholme, the manager's cottage and the sporting facilities are located has been classified in the Warriewood Swamp Soil Landscape Grouping. This is characterised by level to gently undulating swales, depressions and infilled lagoons on Quaternary sands. Local relief is less than 10 metres and slopes are less than 3%. The water table is at less than 200 cm. The area is mostly cleared of native vegetation. Soils are typically deep (greater than 150 cm), well sorted, sandy Humus Podzois (Uc2.32) and dark, mottled Siliceous Sands (Uc1.21) overlying buried Acid Peats (0) in depressions, deep (greater than 200 cm) Podzois (Uc2.12, Uc2.32) and pale Siliceous Sands (Uc1.2) on sandy rises. Limitations for this soil landscape grouping are given as localised flooding and run-on, high water tables and highly permeable soil. Land in these areas has a generally low to moderate capability for urban development, with localised swampy areas not capable of urban development. The photographic record and site investigations for Currawong indicate frequent swampy areas on the flats. Drier areas are generally capable of regular cultivation and grazing. The historic record for Currawong suggests that in the 19th century and during the Stiles period of occupation the flats area was used for grazing of dairy cattle and growing of some food crops for domestic consumption. Soils on the flats are likely to have low erodibility and a low erosion hazard for non-concentrated flows, moderate to high erosion hazard for concentrated flows and low to moderate hazard for wind erosion (Musecape & Beaver, 1999). 

The Beach 
Although not shown on the Sydney 1:100,000 Soil Landscape map, the beach and foredune areas at Currawong are likely to have similar soil landscape characteristics to those at Great Mackerel Beach. These have been mapped as Narrabeen/Marine which has beaches and coastal foredunes on marine sands. Beach plains with relief to 6 metres, slopes less than 3%, foredunes with relief less than 20 metres and slope gradients up to 45%. Spinifex grassland/herbland to closed-scrub on foredunes. Soils are deep (greater than 200 cm) Calcareous sands (Uc1.11, Uc1.12) on beaches, Siliceous Sands (Uc1.21, Uc1.22) and occasional compressed sands on foredunes. Limitations include extreme wind and wave erosion hazard, non-cohesive soil, very low soil fertility and high soil permeability (Musecape & Beaver, 1999). 

Vegetation and escarpment 
The study of the Currawong site by Macquarie University students carried out in 1978 provides a detailed analysis of the vegetation (Musecape & Beaver, 1999). A visual study by Craig Burton, in the Barrenjoey Peninsula and Pittwater Heritage Study, 1989, analysed the spatial and visual structure of Pittwater and mapped areas considered to have a high degree of visibility and considered essential to conserve the environmental heritage and scenery of the place. Burton has mapped visually significant areas based upon historic viewing points, steep slopes and visibility from public areas. The slopes and escarpment at Currawong are ranked as visually significant by Musescape and Beaver (Musecape & Beaver, 1999).
Physical Condition and/or
Archaeological Potential:
The physical condition of the buildings and facilities of the holiday camp are generally good. The site is still operational, providing holiday accommodation and is maintained by Unions NSW. Most of the holiday cabins date back to the 1950s and have been well maintained. The heritage listed homestead Midholme was in poor condition in the late 1980s but was restored in 1993. Three of the other original farm buildings (Southend, Northend & Canning's Cottage) no longer exist, however, some archaeological potential should exist. In relation to indigenous occupation of the site, it is considered that there is high archaeological potential, as yet not explored. Other archaeological potential may exist in relation to the early use of the site as a working farm. (Pittwater City Council SHI, 2005)   

Some of the results list the family members of local fishermen who may have had an  inside edge on aquatic competitions, especially those involving rowing;

PITTWATER REGATTA
A Successful Function META WINS THE SKIFF CHAMPIONSHIP
Notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather, a large number of spectators congregated to witness the second annual Pitt-water regatta. The steamer Narara was flagship, and accommodated a .large complement of sightseers. The ManJy Band was 'stationed aboard, and enlivened, the proceedings. The racing was for the most part good. The regatta officials were;— Sailing: Starters, J. Cronin, S. J. Keegan; judge, B. Cormack; timekeepers, L. Gibbons, D. Henry; umpire, A. May; handicappers, W. Sykes, J. Barnett, junr., J. Booth, E. . Miles, - W. Boulton; .hon. treasurer, S. Greig; hon. secretary, John Roche; assistant hon. secretaries, Miss G. Lloyd, S. B. Bond; committee, Miss G. Lloyd, Messrs. K. Sykes, E. J. Miles, S. Stiles, S. B. Bond, N. H. Graham, 1 J. Booth, J. Duffy, J. -W. Austin, S. Grelg, W. Boulton, W. Reid, J. Roche, J. Williams, . C. Hastie. Results of the various contests were:— 
SAILING EVENTS skiffs championship. 1 
Meta (E. W. Moppett) 
Nereid (P. Milson) ; I 
Heather (J. Crouch)
SAILING BOATS, 14ft. 10 18ft. 
Myee (J. Baiter), scr. ' 1 
Petrel (H. Wilson), 5min. 
Dauntless (W. Boulton), lmln. 
LICENSED FISHING BOATS HANDICAP. 
Favourite (C. Buchan), 5min
Winnie (S. Sly), 6 min 
Principle (E. S. de Rusett), 8min. & 
ROWING EVENTS BOYS' HANDICAP (14 years and under). 
H. Sykes, 7 sec 
A. Erickson, 3sec. 
F. Finge, 3sec 3 
GIRLS' HANDICAP (16 years and under). 
E. Sykes G. Stiles 3 
LADIES HANDICAP. L. Arter, scr E. M. Devlin, 2sec. -2 
YOUTHS HANDICAP (18 years and under). 
E. Devlin, scr 1
E. Sykes, scr ; 2 
J. Hansen, scr 3 ' 
DOUBLE SCULLS HANDICAP. 
J. Sykes and C. Hastie, 25sec 1 
S. Heaton and D. Fulton, 30sec 2 
LADIES AND GENT.'S DOUBLE SCULLS' HANDICAP. 
E. N. Devlin and E. Devlin, 25sec. 1 
L. Arter and W. T. Oliver, scr. 2 
SINGLE SCULLS HANDICAP 
J. Marton, lOsec. 1 
J. Hastie, 35sec 2 
LADIES' DOUBLE SCULLS HANDICAP. 
E. Devlin and L. Arter. s:r 1 
G. Lloyd and Mrs. Hill ig, Isec 2 
OLD BUFFERS' HANDICAP; 
F. Erickson,11sec, 1 
M. Linguist, 35sec 2 
MOTOR LAUNCH HANDICAP. 
Greeba (K. Bennett), 3mtn 1 
Hastings (A. G. Stiles), 6min 2 
Fairbanks (J. Barnett), scr 3 
After the regatta a dinner and dance were held at Newport. PITTWATER REGATTA (1908, February 2). The Sunday Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1903 - 1910), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227131852 

A G Stiles is Arthur George Stiles, who lived at Newport, on the waterfront. Records indicate he was the son of Joshua Stiles, a brother of Carter Stiles, who were both born to George Stiles.

Department of Lands,
Svdner. 15th December. 1909
FORFEITURE OF SPECIAL LEASES.
IT it hereby notified, for general information, that the Special Leases specified hereunder are declared forfeited for non-payment of rent, in accordance with the provisions of the Crown Lands Acts. The forfeiture will take effect at the expiration of thirty clear days from this date.
S. W. MOORE.

Stiles, Arthur George, of Newport. 
Jetty, boat-shed and storage purposes
Below high-water mark, Pittwater, fronting the Queen's-parade, town of Newport, parish Narrabeen, county Cumberland, shire Warringah.
FORFEITURE OF SPECIAL LEASES. (1909, December 15). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 6748. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226592051

STILES-At his daughter's residence (Mrs King), 17 Wells street. Balmain Arthur George eldest son of the late Rev Joshua Stiles, London England, in his 81st year.
STILES -At his daughter's residence (Mrs King), 17 Wells street Balmain, Arthur George, dearly loved father of Millie, Amy, Arthur, Sid, Reg, and Gladys in his 81st Year . At rest
STILES-At his daughter's residence (Mrs King), 17 Wells street, Balmain, Arthur George, dearly loved brother in law of Mrs C Edwards, Mrs E Jennings, S J Bromley and the late Mrs Kate Gumley. Family Notices (1927, February 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16354094

Kate Gumley is set in bold as Arthur G married her sister Amy Sarah Louisa in 1865, while Kate Gertrude married William George Gumley in 1885 and the family had land at Newport too, opposite where the Royal Motor Yacht Club now is. 

Marriages.
GUMLEY- BRUMLEY.-April 22, 1885, at St. Thomas' Church of England, Balmain, by the Rev. E. D. Madgwick, William George Gumley, eldest son of the late Henry Gumley, of Ulladulla, to Kate Gertrude Brumley, youngest daughter of S. J. Brumley, late of Tasmania and granddaughter of the late Dr. 
Brumley, R.N., of Kent, England.
JENNINGS-BRUMLEY.-May 24, 1884, at Wesleyan Church, Paddington, by Rev. Mr. Corner, Frederick, second son of Mr. T. Jennings, of Balmain, to Eliza Sarah, third daughter of S. J. Brumley, late of Tasmania, and granddaughter of Dr. Brumley, R.N., of Kent, England.
STILES-BRUMLEY.-July 7, 1874, at Church of England, Bathurst, by Rev. Arthur G. Cato, Arthur George, eldest son of Mr. Joshua Stiles, of Cheshunt, England, to Amy S. L., eldest daughter of S. J. Brumley, late of Tasmania, and grand-daughter of Dr. Brumley, R.N., of Kent, England. Family Notices (1885, July 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13592574

This was placed on the market in the mid 1930's but the family still had use of a residence then bought in what is now Gladstone street, Newport, near the old A G Stiles home. The relatives of Kate Gumley then purchased this home and used it as a Summer residence into the late 1950's. The house, albeit slightly changed, is still there.

Mr. Lloyd, the gentleman who took people on fishing trips to Towler's Bay and beyond:

LLOYD.—May 15, at his residence, The Shells, Church Point, Pittwater, William Fredrick Lloyd, in his 80th year. Family Notices (1927, May 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16366289 

LLOYD-The Funeral of the late WILLIAM FREDERICK LLOYD, of Pittwater, will leave Our Private Mortuary, 02 The Corso, Manly, THIS DAY (Tuesday), at 2.30 o'clock, for the Manly Cemetery. T. WAUGH and CO., Funeral Directors. Family Notices (1927, May 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16381562 

MR. W. F. LLOYD.
Mr. William Frederick Lloyd, whose death took place at his home in Pittwater last week, was a well-known resident of Manly and outlying districts for a quarter of a century. Born in Sydney eighty years ago, he was for many years in the service of Mr F. Lassetter, of George-street. He was one of the senior officers, when he retired to start a business for himself, as a commercial broker. His father, for a considerable period, was superintendent of the Government Dock at Cockatoo.
The late Mr. Lloyd, was a nephew of the late Mr. George Alfred Lloyd, of Elizabeth Bay. The deceased was a keen cricketer in his younger days and always a most enthusiastic fisherman. MR. W. F. LLOYD. (1927, May 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16375320 

John and James Marks (just one insight available):

Banquet to Messer’s John and James Marks, Jamberoo
A very choice and successful banquet was given to Messrs. John and James Marks, at Jamberoo, on Wednesday evening last, those gentlemen being so entertained and feted as a slight mark of respect toward them prior to their early departure from the district to reside permanently in Sydney. The event took place in the C. E. Schoolroom in the village of Jamberoo, the interior of the building being profusely yet tastefully decorated with evergreens and also banners bearing inscriptions.

Prominent among the latter was a large banner, stretched above the Chair and Chairman, bearing the motto 'Advance Jamberoo' and another similarly placed over the Vice-Chair, with the inscription 'Welcome to our Worthy Guests !' in large letters. Two rows of tables were placed along the room, there being idso cross tables at each end.  The Chair was filled by Mr. D. L. Dymock, who performed the duties of the position with credit to himself and satisfaction to the company. The Vice-Chair was occupied by Mr. S. W. Gray, M.P., that gentleman’s performance of the duties devolving upon him in that respect being also quite satisfactory and successful. Owing to the schoolroom not being available for the occasion until late in the afternoon of the day, it became impossible to commence the dinner until half-past 8 o'clock. At that time, the Chairman and Vice Chairman took their respective positions, the former having Mr. John Marks immediately on his right and Mr. James Marks on his left. The room and tables wore then tolerably well filled, the number of gentlemen who sat down to dinner being between 60 and 80, — Kiama, Gerringong, Shellharbor, Macquarie River, Dapto, Wollongong, and even Wingccarribee, as well as Jamberoo, being represented in the company. The edibles, etc. , with which though tables were abundantly supplied, were very good, and altogether the spread V/as most creditable to Mr. G.Tate, of the Jamberoo Arms, and Mr. Braham, of the Exhibition Bakery, in the village, these two gentlemen being the persons who were the immediate providers of the dinner. The Kiama Public Band was in attendance, and played several airs in the course of the banquet with good effect, the only objection to their performance being that they gave too much music in some instances. At the hour mentioned, the dinner was commenced, the Chairman having first said grace. After all had done ample justice to themselves 'and, the good things provided to tempt and appease the appetite, the toasting part of the business was proceeded with. Before entering upon that part of the programme, however, the Chairman read a letter from Mr. H. Council, C.P.S. , and from Major Black, expressing the regret of those gentlemen at being unable to attend the banquet owing to reasons stated in each instance. He also read a letter from Mi-. D. L. Waugh, now of Sydney, but for many years -a resident of Jamberoo, expressing very much regret at not being able to take the Chair at the banquet, as had been arranged by the Committee and intended by himself. This letter also set forth in forcible and comprehensive terms the high esteem in which the writer held the guests of the evening, whom he had known most intimately from their childhood. Several unusually prominent excellencies of character were at the same time particularly referred to by Mr. Waugh as being possessed more especially by Mr. John Marks. The usual loyal toasts having then been disposed of with all honors, The Chairman gave the toast, 'Our Guests.' Ho said he regretted very much Mr. Waugh's inability to be present that evening to preside at the banquet. That gentleman had known the guests of the evening for an uninterrupted period of 34 years, in the course of which time the strongest friendly attachment had existed between them. He regretted Mr. Waugh's absence that evening the more as lie (the Chairman) was conscious of being, incompetent to do anything like justice to the guests in proposing the toast to the meeting. Mr. John Marks towered so high above the ordinary level of intellect and moral excellence that he (the Chairman) fully realized his utter inability to give that gentleman anything like his due meed of praise. Mr. John Marks exercised a great power and influence for good in the district in which he resided. His example, counsel, and unassuming generosity and liberality had won for him the esteem of all with whom he came in contact. Nor was Mr. James Marks much less worthy of similar praise, though not so old or so much of a public man as his brother, Mr. John Marks.

Indeed, so highly were the Messrs. Marks regarded around where they lived, that their names had become household words, as it wore, throughout Jamberoo. It would be hard to fully ascertain the extent of their social influence. And in years gone by, when the district did not enjoy such palmy days as now in the way of education and facilities for acquiring knowledge, Mr. John Marks had done good service to many of the young men by whom he was surrounded. He alluded more particularly to a Debating Society, which was first started at Jamberoo in 1845 or 1846, and which eventually flourished in Kiama for a long time, producing good results. The services of Mr. Marks in connection with that institution had been incalculable. He (the Chairman) regretted that a man of such capacity of mind as that with which Mr. John Marks was endowed should be out of Parliament, and especially when ho could so well afford to devote the necessary time and attention to such duties. He hoped, however, that before long Mr. Marks would re-enter Parliament, and thereby give the country the advantage of his intelligence, ability, and patriotism. He could not think of the meeting that evening being for a farewell purpose. 

Although the Messrs. Marks were leaving the district, they would frequently be visiting the old locality and old friends, no doubt, so that there would be many opportunities of seeing them and enjoying their company occasionally. Were it likely to be otherwise, it would be hard indeed to say farewell to them. Their liberality was great, but yet so unassuming that it became a delicate matter to refer to in public. They gave of their means very frequently where none but those whom they befriended knew of such acts of kindness, all their actions in that way being done as pure-minded and gentlemanly alone would do such. And they were not only liberal in the cause of charity, but also in the cause of religion; the noble structure (the now Presbyterian Church) approaching completion a few yards from where the banquet was being held almost owed its existence to their liberality. And although they (the guests) were removing to the metropolis, their hearts would still be warm as over toward Jamberoo and their old friends and acquaintances. He was almost certain that, like the Duke of Argyle, who once said that he never saw a Scotch lassie in London but it. made his heart leap for joy, so the hearts of Messrs. John and James Marks would warm in a similar manner whenever they should see an old district friend in Sydney for the future. Altogether he (the Chairman) felt that he could not do full justice to the estimable characters and qualities of Mr. John Marks and his brother were ho to speak throughout the whole night. But though the two gentlemen mentioned were departing from the district, he was pleased to learn that they were still leaving behind them a good and true member of their family. He alluded to Mr. Samuel Marks, whom he was glad to find was going to reside in Jamberoo very soon. That fact afforded him and many others great pleasure, and, moreover, he hoped the name of Marks should novel- become unrepresented in Jamberoo. In conclusion, he again called upon the company to drink to the toast ' Our Worthy Guests.' It need scarcely be stated that the toast was drunk with acclamation and all honors. Mr. John Marks, on rising to respond, 'said that of all occasions on which ho had addressed public assemblies in the course of his life, his mind had never been so distracted between different feelings as was the case with him that evening. The flattering speech of his friend who had not sat down, and the many familiar and friendly faces he saw before him, caused him to scarcely know what to say, what to commence with, or where to leave off. Although the cause of his going to Sydney should be calculated to afford pleasure to any one, ho .could not say that that pleasure was to him unmingled with pain. Such was human nature arid the circumstances of life. How frequently was it that a matter for joy and pleasure' caused tears to flow, and the sobs of sorrow to be heard. Such happened to be the case in many instances in life. 

For instance, how frequently was pain experienced and tears caused to flow in connection with marriages, where all was known to be an occasion for pleasure and happiness. Yet even under the most advantageous of such circumstances heartfelt pain was experienced by the breaking up of old bonds consequent upon the formation of new ties, however favorable. He might say that his position and feelings in the present instance were somewhat similar to those to which he referred It was impossible for him to bid anything approaching to a farewell to his many old and sincere friends in that room and elsewhere in the district without feelings of sadness and sorrow. As regarded the banquet that evening, he had looked upon it as a matter of supererogation from the first intimation ho had of it, knowing as he did that he had already been the recipient, of public and private favors from the people of the district for a period of nearly 40 years. And that being the fact, the giving of the banquet was, in his opinion, unnecessary and undeserved, and it would only add to the great debt of gratitude he already owed and should ever be unable to pay his friends in Illawarra. His connection with the district had ever been to him a pleasing one, even in times when matters on the South Coast wore different, to what they now are. When he first came to the district, some 40 years ago, there was only about, two houses in Shellharbor, not many more in Kiama, and the now almost archiepiscopal village of Jamberoo had then no existence. Many of the faces he saw before him reminded him of his friends in the days of his youth. There was no friendship so lasting or so deep as that formed in youth and continued into manhood, if such friendship was founded on purity of thoughts and feelings. And if friendships were not based upon such a foundation, they would not stand the test of time and circumstances very long. The so-called pleasures of vice were not lasting, nor could they be so. The pleasures of pure and unselfish actions and feelings, however, were lasting ;is lifo itself. Whilst he might say that lie was painfully conscious of the large number of true and sincere friends he had in the district, he was at the same time equally aware of his own shortcomings. But if the greatest than the world ever saw acknowledged that he had loft undone what he should have performed, how much more likely was he (Mr. Marks) to fail and come short of fulfilling all his duties to the community and country in which he lived. Although that meeting was by no means of a political character, he would go so far as to remark that one of the main principles of his life was to respect the opinions of those who might differ from him. Ho looked upon that principle as the best ballast by which to steady one's vessel continually in the troubled sea of public life. By respecting the opinions of other people, we raised ourselves above the narrowness of mind and ideas that were the cause of so much vexatious trouble and annoyance in society. Now that he (Mr. Marks) was about to leave the district, he should do so without a shadow of ill-feeling toward any one in it. This was to him a great source of happiness, when he remembered all the public storms in which the carrying out of his political principles and opinions had involved him from time to time in the past. Whenever occasion had required of him that he should administer vinegar, he served it out liome empathically, and he cast all the oil at his command upon the troubled waters whenever he had an opportunity to do so. Such having been the object of his public life, he hoped he should leave no person behind him in the district that should entertain the least ill-will toward him. 

He was about to make his home in the metropolis, but he should ever remember the district and people of Kiama with warm feelings of friendship and affection, and should always look back upon the poetry of his life as having been passed under the grand shadow of Saddleback. And he should look upon the friends of his youth in this district is the warmest, the truest, and the best lie ever had. He had reached a time of life at which it was said a person might make many acquaintances but few friends. He could say no more than to thank all his friends present in the warmest manner of which he was capable for their kindness evinced towards him, and to express a hope that he should frequently have the pleasure of seeing them, though he should not be a resident of the district. Again he thanked them most sincerely. In the course of his remarks, a slight faltering which was frequently perceptible in Mr. Marks' voice evidenced that he had something to do to keep his feelings in subjection. Mr. James Marks said he was so overpowered with what had been said of himself and his brother that evening} that he hardly knew how to attempt to respond, so far as he was concerned. And the fact of seeing so many of the friends of his youth present embarrassed him still more, knowing as he did their genuine and kindly feelings towards him. In a few days he should be leaving the dear old place and friends where and amongst whom he had passed the best years of his life. Although the step-he wits taking would be to his advantage, he, nevertheless, should leave the district and his district friends with sorrow. He had not been a public man, as was his brother, but he took a deep interest in the district at all times, and should do anything that might lie within his power in the future to its advantage. He thanked those present most heartily for their kindness toward him, and he hoped he should frequently have an opportunity of seeing them all from time to time. Mr. James Colley, J. P., proposed 'The Parliament,' which was responded to by Captain Charles, M.P., the member for the district. Mr. John Biggar, J.P., proposed ' The Army, STavy, and Volunteers,' Mr. W. S. Thompson responding on behalf of the Army, Captain Charles for the Navy, and in the absence of Major Black no person responded for the Volunteers. Mr. F. H. Noble proposed ' Municipal Institutions,' which was responded to by Mr. R. Miller, J.P. (Mayor of Gerringong). Mr. John Hiim-ahan proposed ' The Commercial and Agricultural Interest of the district,' coupling with the toast the name of the Chairman. Mr. J. M'Gill responded on behalf of tho Agricultural Interests, and Mr. Stewart, of Jamberoo, Mr. T. J. Fuller, of the City Bank, Mr. Short, of the Commercial Bank, and Mr. M'Donald, of the E. S. & A. C. Bank, for the Commercial Interests. The Chairman answered for himself. The Vice-Chairman proposed ' The Intellectual Progress of the District,' which was responded to by Mr. John Taylor (surveyor) in some written remarks, having special reference to the old Kiama Debating Society. Mr. W. Molos, J.P., proposed (incidentally) 'Mr. Samuel Marks' (who is about to leave Albion Park for Jamberoo). Mr. Samuel Marks responded, and in conclusion proposed 'The Ladies,' which in turn was responded to by Mi-. W. C. King. ' The Press' having been acknowledged by Mr. A. Campbell, and the Chairman and Vice Chairman being honored in the usual manner, the proceedings (which were very lengthy) terminated. 
Banquet to Messrs. John and James Marks, Jamberoo. (1875, October 29).Illawarra Mercury (Wollongong, NSW : 1856 - 1950), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article135865608 

A few other older reports on Pittwater and fishing here;

The Bush Fisherman.
(FOR THE "FREEMAN.")
I began fishing when quite an infant, my tackle consisting of a piece of thread and a bent pin, and the first thing I caught was my father's hat, which I whisked into the river. He "whisked" me up the bank. Another time I nearly knocked the old man's eye out, besides smashing his pipe, with a beaky, or garfish. I can still see him, with the back of his hand to the damaged optic, looking round for a stick with the other one.
Then he took his belt off, and, holding it doubled in his hand, stalked round bushes and logs like a man after a snake, but I was studying the law of self-preservation round the next bend. We knew nothing of the elaborate tackle of the town sportsmen, nor did we bother to play a fish, if it weighed a hundredweight. Either the line broke or the fish left its native element as quickly as hands could hoist it. Lines and hooks were all we parted cash for. If no bottle in the house could spare a cork we used a piece of light wood for floater, the line being bow-knotted round the middle of it. A rod was cut in the scrub, a long black myrtle stick for choice; and on the way to the river we shuffled our feet through the grass, and turned over logs and litter for grasshoppers, crickets, and frogs, which we put into a pickle-bottle or jam-tin.


FAVOURITE FISHING SPOT— COWAN CREEK.

At certain times, when this bait was scarce or failed to tempt the piscatorial appetite, we chopped white grubs out of scrub trees and cobra from submerged logs, rooted for sand-crickets along the water's edge, caught shrimps with a piece of mosquito-netting drawn over an iron hoop, and occasionally did good service in the garden digging for worms. Fresh meat we used only when nothing else was available, that being the special delicacy of eels, catfish,., and turtles, a trio that no one wanted to have dealings with. When one of these bites the bush fisherman shifts his ground at once, though he can sit without a bite of any kind for hours at a stretch. Nothing disgusts him more than to be fooled by a turtle. The amphibian is cunning; he is an aggravating nibbler; he bites slowly and cautiously, cleaning hook after hook without getting pricked. Sometimes he allows himself to be drawn nearly to the surface, by way of giving the angler encouragement to feed him, then wiggles his tail delightedly and scampers back. If the line is cast in a different spot to dodge him, after a brief hunt round he pops his head up, takes in the situation, and disappears with a laugh in his little, blinking eyes. Presently he is nibbling at the hook again. The Richmond, and its tributaries teem with turtle. I once counted forty-five perched on a dead cow, floating down in midstream, while the water immediately round it was thick with them; and one summer, on Tomki run, I counted 117 travelling overland, one behind the other, and miles away from water. They had come from the river and were making for the inland lagoons. My favourite style of fishing was with the rod and line, and the pursuance of this sport has led me into some queer predicaments. I have paddled myself out on a log to reach a coveted spot, and have had to hang the flapping things to my belt with a wire hook; I have straddled overhanging limbs, at times having to swing the fish towards me and catch it between my knees. The river then was fringed with thick scrub, and where the fishing was good one seldom had a free swing for his rod. 

On one occasion I straddled a sapling which spanned the mouth of a creek, about ten feet above water, and cast out. The floater had scarcely touched the water when it was jerked under and drawn away in the quick, decisive manner that delights the heart of an angler. I had just got the weight of the fish when the sapling snapped, and further proceedings were delayed while I took a plunge bath. After scrambling out I had a wild chase through scrub and bush after my rod. Gliding like a live thing along the surface, diving into the deep holes, dipping and plunging, with many a mad rush it shot down the creek and out into the broad river. That was the last I saw of it—and I had walked five miles to fish that hole! I was somewhat recompensed, however, a week later. Seven miles below the creek I, caught a perch that had a hook stuck firmly in its upper lip. To this was attached about four feet of line, with my floater on the end of it. Another day I lost two hooks within a few minutes, and half an hour later, at a different spot, I landed a catfish with both hooks in its mouth. 

Generally, after losing one or two fish, no further bites will be obtained for some time. This has led people to believe that such fish as the perch, bream, mullet (the latter is not often caught on a line) have some method of communication. Now, it must be admitted that, before a fish can communicate danger to others, it must first be conscious of danger itself. That it is not is shown by the fact of its biting at another spot shortly after escaping. It gets elsewhere in a great hurry after a tussle with a hook, and fish, like most things else, follow a leader. During a school holiday I had my first experience with a net. 

I was staying with a farmer named Harry Beckford, who borrowed the net from a neighbour. It was too short, Harry said, to put in the river; the fish would get round it, so we took it to a creek five miles down. We also took a large sack each to carry the fish home. We decided to stretch it across a deep hole, just above where the stream emptied into the river. As we had no boat I had to swim across with one end and lash it to a tree. Then, I sat naked on one bank and Harry sat smoking his pipe on the other. An hour had passed when a fish struck it in midstream. As Harry knew of no other way of getting it out, I had to untie my end of the net and swim back with it. We hauled it out in a tangled heap, collecting a lot of grass and wood and twigs in the process. But we didn't collect that fish; it escaped. Our second venture was a mile above Tatham bridge. Here was a deep pool, clear as crystal, in which a shoal of mullet were swimming about; above it the stream shallowed suddenly, being no more than a foot deep, with a clean, sandy bottom. We stretched the net across this shallow, and again I had to undress. This time I was told to plunge in below the pool, and swim up stream to drive the fish into the waiting meshes. It reminded one of an old blackfellow who compelled his lubra to dive in the river to put fish on his hook when they wouldn't bite; when she failed to catch any he chastised her, then commissioned her to stalk the basking turtle and spear eels. How ever, I plunged in and swam up, shouting and splashing, and now and again emitting a terrified yell as the darting mullet brushed my sides or tickled me with a fin. About twenty leaped over me, and one did actually dart into the net. Harry was tremendously excited, and yelled to me to come and take it out. I was rather long in coming, so he rushed in himself with his boots on, and had got nicely wet, when the fish got out on its own account. We then, one on each bank, dragged the net into the pool, and went half a mile down, and beat the water all the way back with long sticks. We astonished a lot of fish that were feeding quietly in weed-beds. The floaters were bobbing when we returned. I untied my end, and Harry dragged the net across. He wasn't going to take any risks this time. Out it came with a splash—a squirming, wriggling mass of eel. Harry said lots of things, but nothing printable. The net was a pitiable sight when we had done belting that eel. It had gaps from end to end, and a great quantity of leaves, twigs, and branches were rolled in it and glued to it with slime. "How much did Dougherty say he wanted for it?" asked Harry. "A pound." He threw it under a bush. "Fetch the sacks, boy. We'll get." Some time later I drove with two men named Dalton and Page to a lagoon for net fishing. We took a small canoe with us, and reached the place about sunset. 

While the men dropped the net I made a fire and boiled the billy. During supper we frequently heard the splashing of the floaters, and anticipated a good haul. His pipe filled, Dalton and I got into the canoe to secure the fish. At the first lift we got a surprise. Entangled in the meshes were the heads of five mullet. We pulled a little further along and lifted again, with the same result—heads. In fact, it was the same right to the end of the net. Every fish had been decapitated, and we brought back 27 heads. We examined them at the fire, and, after much speculation, concluded they had been bitten off by some monster inhabiting the lagoon. Page then decided to remain on the water and ascertain if possible what kind of a thing it could be. I went with him, armed with a lantern. We were scarcely afloat when there was a commotion in midwater. We hurried out and lifted the net. Near the top was the head of a perch. It was quick work, and we were more interested than ever. We remained there with the light covered, waiting for an opportunity of proving the nature of the pirate. We had waited about half an hour when the chance came. A mullet struck the net near the surface, and I flashed the light upon it. In a few seconds a broad, dark head shot up, and almost at a chop the fish was severed. With a great splash it turned down-wards, and we saw the long white belly of an enormous eel! After that there was nothing for it but to lift the net. The lagoon was literally alive with rapacious eels, and from the rapidity with which they snapped up the meshed perch and mullet they appeared to be patrolling the net. I once embarked in the fish industry in a professional sense. It was at Texas, on the Severn River, while spelling horses. This Darling feeder teems with black bream and Murray cod, and they bite so well that we could have supplied Sydney and Melbourne with fish had facilities for exportation permitted. The Texas housewife, if short of meat for dinner, has only to say to her partner: "Just trot down the bank and get me six bream for dinner and a cod for supper while I get the pan ready." He goes down with his rod and hand-line, and in ten minutes returns with the required number. Texas is a great tobacco-growing district, though the industry is mostly in the hands of Chinese. We regretted this, as the Mongolians could not be induced to barter with us when we wanted vegetables, and among the few whites outside the town we did better. We exchanged fish for tobacco at the factory, and for beef at the station. What we could not dispose of immediately we salted and stacked under a tree for the mail-man, who, the Texas people told us, bought all he could get at 3d a pound, taking a load every week to Stanthorpe and Goondiwindi. The lady, behind the grocery counter also informed us that we had a monopoly of the business, as the local anglers were up to their eyes in tobacco harvesting just then. We were pleased and bought a lot of groceries. Pleasure now became business, and each day we carried to camp as much fish on a long pole as the two of us could stagger under. Even then we had once or twice to tether a cod in the river till morning. 

Our favourite spot overlooked a little bay, or arm of the river, where the bank rose perpendicularly for twelve feet from the water. On our right was a landslip, forming a little landing-place about six feet square, and only a foot above water-level. From here we cast out our big ground line for cod, leaving it tied to a small horse-bell, which was secured to a root. Then from the high bank, we fished for black bream with rod lines till the bell rang. We started baiting with frogs, but the supply being inadequate we cut up a bream and baited with that. The bait was taken as fast as we could throw in; one particular afternoon we caught bream at the irate of 250 an hour. The big line below was not idle, the jingle-jingle of the bell interrupting us frequently. One of us would jump down, and, hand over hand, haul in a big brown beauty. We got a pair of sheep shears out of one, the blades of which we used for scaling. It is not every fish that comes to your hand bringing with it implements with which to have itself cleaned. It was hot weather, and the cod, being exceptionally fat, were hard to cure; but by the end of the week we had a great, square stack as high as our tent. Then we inter-viewed the mailman at the local pub. "No, he wasn't taking any more. The market had drooped; besides, they went bad on the road in this hot weather. He had to throw his last lot overboard, and the stench of it was so powerful that the stock inspector had threatened to prosecute him for creating a nuisance." 

Next morning we left Texas very early. We also left the fish. While travelling along the Ward and Barcoo Rivers in 1895, we caught plenty of fine fish with our bare hands. It was a dry time, and these rivers were merely chains of shal-low ponds. Our method was to puddle these by rushing to and fro through the water. As soon as it became thick the fish would rise to the surface, when, by plunging the hands under them, it was an easy matter to throw them ashore. Rounding up schools of fish on horseback is good sport, too. In company with a stock-man I was one morning riding along the Serpentine Lagoon, on Wooroowoolgen run, looking for cattle. It was after heavy rain, and we found the water flowing over at the lower end, and running across a grassy flat into an anabranch of the Richmond. On this flat the water averaged about six inches in depth, and mullet and perch were passing across it in hundreds. Noticing a big one occasionally flapping on its side to negotiate a shallow place, we thought it would be an easy matter to catch them. So we tied our horses to a bush and, discarding our boots, sailed in. In a few minutes we were sopping wet, and excitement accounted for several croppers over tussocks and rocks. Puffing and laughing, we returned to our horses without having secured a single fish. Our next venture was more successful. We built a wing with logs and bushes from one side of a billabong. Then, mounting our horses, we rode out to yard fish. The water was very clear, flowing over a carpet of flattened grass. Riding one at the side and one behind, lashing the water with our whips when the fish, attempted to break, and yelling like myalls at a kangaroo drive, we shot them inside the wing, and thence into the billabong. When we had yarded about a hundred we blocked the mouth, and drove them ashore by galloping up and down the stream. I have on two occasions caught an old boot with the rod line; I have yanked my fish up into a tree and had to climb after it; and once I hauled a dead dog to the surface. But the most curious thing I ever caught on a line was at Eurombar Lagoon, Dawson River. We were after barramundi, a rare lung fish of large size, difficult to catch. Following instructions, I selected a place where concealment would be easy, in a patch of blady grass. I baited with a large frog, just hooking it by the skin, so that it would kick about and attract the fish, which often swims partly out of water. I cast out, then sat down, and remained so quiet that I fell asleep. I must have slept an hour, and on waking commenced to haul in my line. To my astonishment, instead of coming from the water, I was hauling it through the long grass from up the bank. There was a great commotion at the end of it, and the grass was agitated as though the tail of a cyclone was tangled in it. Tradition has it that this lagoon was haunted by a bunyip. The blacks dreaded it, and none would ever swim in its waters. I thought of this as I drew the line in. Had it actually been a bunyip, I could not have been more startled than I was at the reality. It was a large snake. It broke into the clear space where I stood in a writhing mass of coils, darting and striking at the line. I picked up a waddy, and while it bit at its own body, killed it. I made no attempt to recover my hook. I was content to cut the line. Either the frog had kicked ashore, when it fell a prey to the snake, or the snake had taken it while swimming in the water. 

An old station hand, named Ben Buckle,had meanwhile been fishing a small hole just below the huts. We were having tea when he returned. He came in with a fixed stare in his eyes, and nothing in his hands. "By gosh!" he said breathlessly; "you fellers ought to've been dawn there just now." "Why?" asked two or three at once. "I was pulling up," Ben said, throwing his hat in the corner, "when a sollickin' cod cops th' hook an' holds on like a roped bull—" "No cod in these waters," a brumby hun-ter informed him. "No cod," cried Ben, elevating his brows; "dunno anything else as could be as big, 'ceptin' it be th' bunyip." "Did you catch it?" the brumby hunter inquired. "No, mate. Two men couldn't a caught that fish. He 'ad th' power of a man-eater. I'll take my affidavy he couldn't turn round in that there hole 'thout rubbin' scales off his tail.. Never seen th' like of it." The other man laughed. "Ben's had a go at old Colossus," he remarked. "What th' daghorn sort o' critter's that?" Ben demanded. "The big fish that always gets away." Ben scowled. "Thousands of people have lost their re-putations and imperilled their immortal souls over that fish"' the brumby hunter went on. "And the brute is still at large." "I've heered of him in a good many places," Jimmy the Shepherd put in; "but I never thought to hear of him out here." "Theress no mulga about it, my boy," Ben declared. "Th' tussle I 'ad with it es made me feel a bit wopsy, I ken tell yer." "What become of it?" asked another man. "Dunno. S'pose it's in th' hole somewhere. Took hook, line, rod, floater, an' all. Warn't no ordinary fish that." After supper Jimmy and the brumby hun-ter went down to look for the tackle. They found it floating under the bank, and when Jimmy tried to pull it up something weighty, with a big spring in it, held it back. A little investigation showed that the hook was fast round the end of a thick, supple root growing out into the water. When he pulled on the line the root would bend up-wards for a foot or so, and quiver and sway like a fish tugging. "This is Ben's big fish," he remarked, tussling with it as he imagined Ben had done. 
EDWARD S. SORENSON.
The Bush Fisherman. (1906, December 15). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 70. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108031250

A TRIP OVERLAND TO BROKEN BAY, THE
MOUTH OF THE HAWKESBURY.
THE distance from Sydney to the above unfrequented spot is about thirty miles-easy of access, although, perhaps, less visited than any part of the environs of the metropolis, simply because people are not aware of such an excursion being possible ; and also because of the necessity of a guide, or minute description of the route, to supply Which I have undertaken to describe my last journey on Easter Monday, two days being sufficient to accomplish it on horseback, the only conveyance it admits of.

We started from the North Shore Ferry in Windmill-street at noon, and ascending the road leading from the ferry to the top of the hill, turned to the right, opposite the chapel, and took the excellent road to Middle Harbour, about three miles of which are in good condition. Turning then to the left we enter the scrub, when a bridle-path is seen with a belt of trees, a hundred yards from the main road, this being the only guide to turn off to Middle Harbour. A mile through this path leads to a somewhat rugged descent to the sandy spit, projecting half way across, where Mr. Ellery, on being hailed, brings the punt across to fetch both cattle and men. The charge for this service is half-a-crown each way, and if the horses are swam across, sixpence less.

The punt being under repair, we had to swim the horses-a very safe proceeding, which they appeared to enjoy amazingly ; although at first I was not over-confident in the propriety of tumbling my favourite steed to so very unceremonious an immersion. The distance is about a quarter of a mile, and free from sharks. The scenery of this inland bay is very fine; and I may as well mention en pono»« that a small boat can be had to row two miles further up the harbour to its extremity, into which the Willoughby Falls discharge from the North Shore, which everybody ought to make a point of seeing.

On landing from the punt we looked in at Ellery's, where everything reminds you of a neat English farm ; and the oude wife having regaled us with plenty of new milk, we ascended the zigzag path, cut in the solid rock at least 200 feet high, and reached the path leading to Manly Beach on the right, distant only three miles ; and to Pitt Water and Broken Bay on the left, distant about twenty-four miles from the punt. To a stranger, a little difficulty exists in taking the right path for each place ; but Mr. Ellery never fails to explain the proper direction, and often accompanies a stranger to the top of the hill to see them right. 

The first landmark is a log-bridge over a wide creek, which leads through two or three small farms adjoining each other ; then a very good bridle road continues through thickly-timbered forest, when suddenly the sea is heard to break, and then immediately appears in an opening on the right, between two heads forming a large lagoon, running inland, called the Deewi lagoon, which is crossed in its narrow part by a wooden log-bridge. A sandy bar keeps out the water from the lagoon, except when the sea breaks in and then fills it, from which it again gradually drains out. A wild duck suddenly arose, disturbed by our noise, which gave an indication of work for the gun in this locality.

The road from here to Pitt Water follows immediately the line of the coast northward, which makes it easy without a guide as you cannot go wrong, and a small farm every two or three miles also enables milk to be had, and perhaps a crust ; but no other accommodation in the commissariat is to be expected unless, as in our case, you have friends on the road.

Passing Jenkins' farm there is a level piece of beautiful turf nearly two miles long, and a quarter of a mile broad, quite fitted for a racecourse ; forming the finest gallop anywhere near Sydney, and almost of it-self worth the trouble of riding out to. After this, bush occurs again, and then the Narrobin lagoon is reached, half a mile wide-sometimes nearly dry, sometimes up to the horses' knees or girths, and at times impassable. "We found it very low, but filled with fish of various sizes, darting in all directions. This back water extends inland quite out of sight, but is a perfect level sand all over, and, if not fordable, can he crossed by the bar of sand which shuts it out from the sea.

The road continues alternating with fine galloping ground over the downs, on the sand-hills and through the bush ; every now and then magnificent headlands appearing suddenly as you emerge from the bush, generally enclosing between them a fine sandy bay, upon which the ocean rolls in with a most majestic appearance from the heights above.

Near Mr. Farrell's farm are cliffs at least 100 feet high, from which a man fell, whilst shooting birds, from the rock giving way ; and, strange to say, he was not much hurt, as he walked out a few days afterwards. The beach underneath is covered with debris of trees and timber, driven down the Hawkesbury by the recent floods, and drifted about here into the bays. The road from Farrell's to the flagstaff has not the sea in view, being amongst bush and steep gullies, over picturesque murmuring creeks. We crossed a tent, where men were boring for coals on the Rev. Mr. Therry's land they have reached 150 feet without success ; but it appears that the cognoscenti have pronounced the seam to be deep but certain.

That it is hard stuff in some strata, is seen by four inches only having been gained in the last two weeks. If coal is found, a tramway to Manly will save a sea voyage to Newcastle, and open a great traffic.

Suddenly, after emerging from a tortuous mountain track, we come in full view of the magnificent estuary of Broken Bay or Pitt Water, running nine miles inland, with water enough for the largest man of war : here the Juno formerly went for gunnery practice, and ascended five miles up.

The middle water is the mouth of the Hawkesbury, several miles in extent, and beyond it is the bar of Brisbane Water, known by the surf beating over it, and difficult of access for any but coasters and steamers, the deep channel being narrow with less than two fathoms of water This runs inland sixteen miles ; East Gosford, a rising township, being at the head of the head of the navigation.

Thus the Hawkesbury has Brisbane Water on the north, and Pitt Water on the south of its embouchure , all three compused between the North and South heads, and about ten miles across. The appearance is not unlike Sydney Harbour near Middle and North Harbours, with the exception of more width, and heavier timber all around.

The first thing that met our eyes on the shores of Pitt Water, was a small colony of Chinamen, who live in tents, and are engaged in curing fish caught there, for the Melbourne and Sydney markets a dozen small boats are engaged in the trade, which I hear has been a good hit, although, just now, there are no fish, which is attributed to the great floods having driven them all out to sea. Another mile along a level piece of turf by the water side, brings us to the coast-guard station, where Mr Ross has for several years been in charge. He very politely led us to the too of the lock, where the flagstaff is placed commanding a splendid view of all the surrounding scenery for many milts in nil directions. This is Barenjo on the south Head, and is about 100 feet high. Several soldiers, made out of trees, as large as life, and painted, are placed about, and might actually serve as landmarks to vessels entering these complicated waters they would be more useful several miles up the mer, where steamers have often taken the wrong channel, owing to the numerous wide branches on either side, rendering the proper channel difficult to recognise.

Thus ends the trip to Broken Bay, which, for diversity of scenery of entirely an opposite nature, constantly' recurring, forming a succession of panoramas of forest, lagoon, green turf, sand hills, mountains, gullies, creeks, precipices, and (few and far between) settlers farms, I will venture to affirm, cannot be equalled in so short a distance of thirty miles in any part of Australia, and will much repay the trouble of the journey and somewhat plain fare attendant upon it, as, after Manly, there is no accommodation for travellers, and supplies should be carried with them from there from Manly, the distance to Barenjo is twenty-one miles, and can be performed, starting early in the morning, there and back the same day, half the road being a splendid turf, which part of the ground can be got over quickly, and the remainder offering no difficulties to the rider.

This trip can only be performed on horseback, but you can avoid taking a horse across Middle Harbour by hiring one at Manly Beach, and going from there to Broken Bay, the road, after crossing the Manly Lagoon, being the same as I have attempted to describe.
JUNIUS
A TRIP OVERLAND TO BROKEN BAY, THE MOUTH OF THE HAWKESBURY. (1861, April 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13059376 

FISHING.
Notes by ' Plomb.'
Deewhy lagoon, which lies about five miles from Manly on the road to Newport and Bay view has been treated to a cleansing by the ocean several times during the last two months. The place was full of fish, and after the first outrush of water many loads of fine fish were left in a few inches of water on the flats bewildered as to their whereabouts. The Salvation Army, to whom the lagoon apparently belongs, had 'a scoop,'' for men went out with bags and baskets and picked up the fish alive and ran some in to Manly and some to Sydney, where they brought good prices. Permission to fish in Deewhy lagoon must be obtained from Colonel Estell, of the Salvation Army. Narrabeen Lake is still open to the sea, and the recent netting operations have considerably reduced the chances of getting any sort of a haul just yet. The place was closed against net-fishing in May of this year, but a correspondent informs me that it is continually netted by one or two individuals who seem to have accurate information as to the whereabouts of the inspector of the Fisheries Department. 
During the spring months picnics will be common, and there are sure to be some youthful devotees to the sport of Izaak Walton trying with rod and hand-line the waters adjacent to the rocks at the harbour picnic grounds. Two or three fish are invariably caught, and as these are looked at askance by the maternal relatives, it may be as well to mention some of the likely fish with their culinary qualities. A kelp fish is usually a dark mottled chappie with a pair of pectoral fins like wings. He is tough and good eating. He usually swallows the hook and as much of the line as he can grab. A wirrah is another likely boarder in the boy's basket. It has a tough skin, and is spotted all over like a trout. As an edible morsel it is superlatively tough. An eel is sure to be caught, and two things might be noticed in connection with this slimy one. He should be despatched by a blow from a stick when caught and should be skinned when taken home after being dipped into boiling water. Parrot fish of various colours, some lustrous green, others red, some marked longitudinally with rich coloured stripes, some mottled and variegated, are all excellent eating. Of fish to be shy of a general rule should be made to avoid all scaleless fish or those which, can erect or depress at pleasure small spines about the head and body. George's River is affording excellent sport to the thousands of fishermen who try its waters. Black bream in particular are being freely caught, but the black-fish have taken an early departure. The latter bit well at the beginning of the winter and lasted till August, but now they ate scarce. Few regret them, for they are not highly regarded as food. But it is long since there were so many black-bream in the river. 
Among successful fishermen there during the week were Messrs, E. Balmer and F. West, 17 black-bream ; Messrs. O. Arnold, A. Joyce, and E. Turner, 15 black-bream. Mr. F. Boyal, a well-known Ashfield angler, with a party at Jewish Point, George's Biver, caught 48 fine black-bream on one trip recently. They kellicked and waited for the tide, throwing in plenty of berley or ground bait, and niter 5 p.m. the fish appeared and gave them all the sport they wanted. Woy Woy fishing is very slack. It will take some time to recover from the netting it has had. The aboriginal camp at La Perouse in Botany Bay is a curious place to visit. Some piscatorial trophies are lying about the camp, and they include some very large schnapper sculls. The blacks are experts with the hand-line, and can be engaged to pilot fishermen on to the best ocean grounds near Botany Heads. They are expert rock fishermen, and, having the balance and sure-footednese of goats, are able to get to some astonishing places to fish. Long Reef is just now well supplied with fine rock fish. An early morning tramp from Manly, or, better still, a trip in a buggy or on a bicycle, soon lands one at this famous ground. If it cannot be fished one side the other will probably be good. Given suitable bait for rock-fish such as crab, cungevoi, yellow-ray; and squid, there should be no trouble in securing proper, squire, carp, mowang,  and red rock-cod. 
A very sad occurrence during the week was the Ioss of two brothers named Denison while on a rockfishing trip. The place where they fished, ' Pussycat,' is a well-known fishing resort near Cape Banks, the northern headland of Botany Bay. The two unfortunate men were swept into the sea through venturing into a dangerous place while a heavy sea was running and no assistance could possibly be given them. 
Rock-fishermen are rather prone to underestimate the power of an inrushing wave, and we would urge caution upon all those who fish about the rocks. Every year the sea claims half-a-dozen victims in the vicinity of Sydneyand men seem slow to profit by the warnings.When the sea is breaking, and making a lot of froth round the foot of the dins, the rocks are unsafe. 
A salmon-trout weighing 111lb. is said to have been caught in the Fish River Creek, Oberon district, near the residence of Mr. William Eaton. The Fisheries Department would be glad of particulars from any resident who saw the fish. The Amateur Fishermen's Association of New South Wales announce a harbour fishing excursion for members and friends, ladies included, to be completed in the evening by a dance or concert in a pavilion at Middle Harbour. The affair will take place when a moonlight night early in October is available. FISHING. (1897, September 18). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 625. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163795542 

Pittwater: Lovely Arm of the Hawkesbury

By NOEL GRIFFITHS

I HAVE before me a map of Pittwater, showing every bay and point, every beach and wharf and creek. This much-used map is not crowded with detail, but is just sufficiently complete to satisfy all the requirements of an imaginative mind. There is, in fact, all the material for the background of a novel— aboriginal lore, tales of pioneers, of piracy and smuggling, hidden treasure, shipyards and sailing races.


The pier at Pittwater, local 'headquarters' of the yachting and sailing fraternity.

SEE, here at the mouth of Broken Bay, is Lion Island, officially known as 'Mount Elliott,' but its more popular name will live after the other is forgotten because of the island's amazing resemblance to a lion couchant. And here is Barrenjoey. Where the well constructed lighthouse now stands with its fixed white light, visible for fifteen miles, there was once only afire basket and a tall white pillar.' At that time smugglers crept round into Pittwater, for it was easy to discharge contraband there and send it to Sydney without paying duty. So serious did this illegal traffic become that, after the detection of a vessel aptly named the Fair Barbarian engaged in, this illicit trade, a Customs officer was stationed on the .inner beach near the headland to report suspicious happenings. To bluff intending smugglers, this ingenious officer constructed a tall wooden soldier equipped with a drawn sword, to suggest, armed vigilance, but, alas, an irate skipper mistook the intention and hurriedly put ashore to 'rescue' the redcoat who was signalling in distress.

IT is hard to believe that in this serenely beautiful spot piracy preceded smuggling, yet we are told by Collins in his 'Account of the English Colony at –Port Jackson' that in September, 1797 —'A boat, the largest and best in the Colony, belonging to the government, was, on her passage to the Hawkesbury, whither she was carrying a few stores, taken possession of by a part of the boat's crew, being at the same time boarded by a small boat from the shore, the people in which seized her and put off to sea, first landing the coxswain and three others, who were unwilling to accompany them, in Pitt Water in Broken Bay. These men proceeded overland to Port Jackson, where they gave the first information of this daring and 'piratical transaction.' But there are earlier historical references to Pittwater even than that. In fact, in Governor Phillip’s first despatch from the settlement at Port Jackson to Lord Sydney he recounts how on 2nd March, 1788, he set off to explore Broken Bay, about twenty miles north, in an urgent search for land suitable for cultivation, and came across: '. . . . the finest piece of water I ever saw and ' which I  honoured with the name of Pitt Water.* Wm. Pitt the younger was at that time Prime Minister of England. It would contain the navy of Great ' Britain'. 

RIGHT: A Paradise for the boating man and the fisherman, yet near enough to the city to be easily accessible, Pittwater is a much frequented resort in holiday-time.

Phillip described in this despatch his encounters with the natives, one of whom proved friendly and helpful, .. but when Phillip chided him with the theft of a spade 'this destroyed our friendship in a moment and seizing a spear he came close up to me, poised it and appeared determined to strike.' But Phillip fixed him firmly with his gaze, for he chose 'rather to risk the spear than fire on him,' so that at last the native capitulated and, dropping his spear, left. 

When the natives discovered that Phillip was minus a top tooth there was a great clamour, and the loss gave him some merit in their eyes, because the forcible removal of one of their own front teeth was an indication that they had attained manhood and the status of warrior. 


Pittwater was once a busy farming district, but few traces remain of the old homesteads and orchards.

LONG after the district was settled the aborigines proved troublesome, and present-day residents whose grandparents pioneered it describe how the 'Barrenjuee' tribe roamed the bush by day, calling at lonely bark and split-log shanties when the husband was away, demanding flour and tobacco of some lonely girl-mother who kept a musket near the door for her protection. At night these black marauders 'bandicooted' the crops of potatoes and stole the settlers 'maize. Slowly vanishing memorials to this large and troublesome tribe are their rock carvings on the headlands of Kuring-gai Chase and their middens, great heaps of oyster, whelk and cockle shells. 

As the settlements on the Hawkesbury flourished, so Pittwater grew in importance. It was a port of call for vessels bound for Sydney. Mails came from the north, via Gosford and Brisbane Water, to the wharf at Newport. Farms on the foreshores produced grain, vegetables, and butter. Shipbuilding began to rival farming in importance. There were shipyards at Stoke 's Point, Scotland Island and McCarr's Creek. On Scotland Island, so it is recorded, is buried a three-legged pot full of 'holey' dollars, hidden by two men who came down the river in a stolen boat, laden with booty. These men, it is said, were arrested at Pittwater and sent back to confinement, never to return to retrieve their loot.*

When the sun is setting behind Pittwater Nature is seen in one of her most peaceful moods.

PITTWATER has lost most of its economic importance since those stern days when sloops were tediously built on the different points and great logs of timber were hauled from the nearby woods, when there was a salt works on 'Salt Pan' Creek and Ah Chuey ran a flourishing fish-drying business near Careel Bay. But it has gained a new importance. Boats are still built on its foreshores — luxurious pleasure craft in sheds crammed with a wonderful assortment of masts, chains, canvas, spars, paint, and cordage. And in those peaceful, secluded retreats boats are being scraped, cradles made, masts repaired, and sweet-running engines overhauled. Here are sunburnt men who carry on the traditions of a century and more who, if not lineal descendants, are worthy successors of the stout-hearted pioneers; men like Gus, the Swede, who lives on his launch and occasionally signs on for a cruise to the Barrier Reef — a man of Viking strain, holder of a mate's certificate, too old now for an active life, but who can't escape the lure of lapping water beside a boat or the tang of fresh salt breezes in his nostrils. 

Then there's Billie ? , who has fished the length of Pittwater for forty years or more, who knows every bend and nook of it and can read its every mood. When a southerly blows and ruffles its surface he is dull and listless, but when a sharp 'nor'-easter' sweeps across the hills he is all activity — fish will be plentiful and in no time he'll be chugging past Great Mackerel Beach with its two uncharted graves, past the Basin, past Soldiers' Point. Soon the bucket in his launch will be filled with bream and leather-jacket, flounder, mackerel and whiting. He'll 'threadle' his hooks as he goes along, with juicy earthworms from near the mangrove swamps, for the fishing itch is in his makeup and will be till he dies.

RIGHT : A view with a glimpse of Lion Island (officially known as Mount Elliott). This is one of the most beautiful vistas on the coast.

THE great occasion of the year at Pittwater is the annual regatta, when the week-end cottages nestling cosily at the water's brink all spring to life. The hundreds of neat white craft, riding at their moorings, assume a new activity. Boats are pushed out and sails unfurled, hydroplane engines 'rev.' and roar, and soon the blue stretch is graced with gleaming sails which sweep majestically past while luxurious cruisers plough importantly towards the club house. On them will be seen happy, charming girls and sun-bronzed men and older men with grizzled hair and keen blue eyes, and robust, clean-limbed youngsters growing up in the best traditions of yachting and cruising and a glorious outdoor life. Aye, it is a kind retreat, this beautifully clothed arm of the Hawkesbury. It is good to tramp its shores, to penetrate the almost virgin bush where wattle, waratahs, Christmas bells and flannel flowers luxuriate ;to lie on some green, shady slope and watch the sun scintillating on its broad expanse the while large white clouds float majestically high above tall and stately trees. It is the peaceful playground of a busy city; meet place to retire to adjust one's perspective when work grows wearisome and details assume quite wrong proportions. 

A sunset behind Church Point, the vicious tug and flurry of a fish on the end of a well-baited line, the strong caress of wind against a sail, the tense moment after the skipper's curt 'prepare to go about,' bump and scrape of fender against wharf — and life resumes its zest again.*

AS I have said, it is an ideal background for a book... if you can resist the lure of it and settle down to work.

The serene appearance of Pittwater to-day conveys no suggestion of its turbulent past, though visitors blessed with imagination do not find it difficult to conjure up visions of long - dead smugglers, pirates, and revenue, officers. Some bad men plied these waters in the 'good old days,' and the local bushland was peopled by warlike blacks, who harried the settlers and stole everything they could lay hands on.

*See Vol. VI. (1920) Inl. and Proceedings of the Royal Australian Historical Society.

Pittwater:. (1938, December 28). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166525296 



Hawksbury [i.e. Hawkesbury] River fishermen with shark, N.S.W., 1914, nla.obj-136548260-1, courtesy National Library of Australia
Pittwater Fishermen - Great Mackerel - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2018  

Previous History Pages:  

Marie Byles Lucy Gullett Kookoomgiligai Frank Hurley Archpriest JJ Therry Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor Bowen Bungaree W. Bradley 1788 Journal Midholme Loggan Rock Cabin La Corniche La Corniche II Lion Island Bungan Beach Botham Beach  Scarred Trees  Castles in the Sand Dame Nellie Melba lunches at Bilgola Spring, 1914  First to Fly in Australia at North Narrabeen  Mona Vale Golf Club's Annual Balls  Governor Phillip camps on Resolute Beach  Ruth Bedford  Jean Curlewis  Mollie Horseman  Charlotte Boutin  May Moore  Neville W Cayley  Leon Houreux   Frederick Wymark  Sir Adrian Curlewis  Bilgola Heron Cove  Mullet Creek  Shark Point  Woodley's Cottage  A Tent at The Basin Collin's Retreat-Bay View House-Scott's Hotel  Bilgola Cottage and House  The First Pittwater Regatta  Women Cricketers Picnic  Filmed In Pittwater   Governor Phillip's Barrenjoey Cairn Waradiel Season The Church at Church Point  Governor Phillip's Exploration of Broken Bay, 2 -€“ 9 March 1788   Petroglyths: Aboriginal Rock Art on the Northern Beaches  Avalon Headland Landmarks  Steamers Part I  Pittwater Aquatic Club Part I  Woody Point Yacht Club  Royal Motor Yacht Club Part I Dorothea Mackellar  Elaine Haxton  Neva Carr Glynn  Margaret Mulvey Jean Mary Daly  Walter Oswald Watt Wilfrid Kingsford Smith John William Cherry George Scotty Allan  McCarrs Creek  Narrabeen Creek  Careel Creek Currawong Beach Creek  Bushrangers at Pittwater Smuggling at Broken Bay  An Illicit Still at McCarr's Creek  The Murder of David Foley  Mona Vale Outrages  Avalon Camping Ground   Bayview Koala Sanctuary  Ingleside Powder Works  Palm Beach Golf Course  Avalon Sailing Club  Mona Vale Surf Life Saving Club  Palm Beach SLSC Part I - The Sheds  Warriewood SLSC  Whale Beach SLSC Flagstaff Hill Mount Loftus Pill Hill Sheep Station Hill  S.S. Florrie  S.S. Phoenix and General Gordon Paddlewheeler   MV Reliance The Elvina  Florida House  Careel House Ocean House and Billabong  Melrose-The Green Frog  The Small Yacht Cruising Club of Pittwater Canoe and I Go With The Mosquito Fleet - 1896  Pittwater Regattas Part I - Dates and Flagships to 1950  Shark Incidents In Pittwater  The Kalori Church Point Wharf  Bayview Wharf  Newport Wharf Palm Beach Jetty - Gow's Wharf  Max Watt  Sir Francis Anderson  Mark Foy  John Roche  Albert Verrills  Broken Bay Customs Station At Barrenjoey  Broken Bay Water Police  Broken Bay Marine Rescue - Volunteer Coastal Patrol  Pittwater Fire-Boats  Prospector Powder Hulk at Towler's Bay  Naval Visits to Pittwater 1788-1952  Pittwater's Torpedo Wharf and Range Naval Sea Cadets in Pittwater S.S. Charlotte Fenwick S.S. Erringhi  P.S. Namoi  S.Y. Ena I, II and III  Barrenjoey Headland - The Lessees  Barrenjoey Lighthouse - The Construction Barrenjoey Broken Bay Shipwrecks Up To 1900  Barrenjoey Light Keepers  Douglas  Adrian Ross  Newport SLSC 1909 - 1938 Part I Overview  North Narrabeen SLSC - The Formative Years  First Naval Exercises by New South Wales Colonial Ships –The Wolverene at Broken Bay  Bilgola SLSC - the First 10 years  North Palm Beach SLSC  A History of Pittwater Parts 1 and 4 Pittwater Regattas - 1907 and 1908  Pittwater Regattas - 1921 - The Year that Opened and Closed with a Regatta on Pittwater Pittwater Regatta Banishes Depression - 1933  The 1937 Pittwater Regatta - A Fashionable Affair  Careel Bay Jetty-Wharf-Boatshed Gow-Gonsalves Boatshed -Snapperman Beach  Camping at Narrabeen - A Trickle then a Flood Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek'   RMYC Broken Bay Boathouse and Boatshed Barrenjoey Boat House The Bona - Classic Wooden Racing Yacht Mona Vale Hospital Golden Jubilee - A Few Insights on 50 Years as a Community Hospital Far West Children's Health Scheme - the Formation Years  The First Scotland Island Cup, Trophy and Race and the Gentleman who loved Elvina Bay  Royal Motor Yacht Club Broken Bay NSW - Cruiser Division History - A History of the oldest division in the Royal Motor Yacht Club   Royal Motor Yacht Club€“ Broken Bay€“ Early Motor Boats and Yachts, their Builders and Ocean Races to Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury and Pittwater  The Royal Easter Show Began As the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales   The Mail Route to Pittwater and Beyond  The Wild Coachmen of Pittwater - A Long and Sometimes Bumpy Ride on Tracks Instead of Roads  The Fearless Men of Palm Beach SLSC's Surf Boats First Crews - A Tale of Viking Ships, Butcher Boats and Robert Gow'€™s Tom Thumb 'Canoe'   Furlough House Narrabeen - Restful Sea Breezes For Children and Their Mothers   From Telegraphs to Telephones - For All Ships at Sea and Those On Land Mona Vale Training Grounds - From Lancers on Horses to Lasses on Transport Courses Fred Verrills; Builder of Bridges and Roads within Australia during WWII, Builder of Palm Beach Afterwards   Communications with Pittwater  Ferries To Pittwater  A History of Pittwater - Part 4: West Head Fortress  Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur  Early Pittwater Launches and Ferries Runs Avalon Beach SLSC - The First Clubhouse Avalon Beach SLSC The Second and Third Clubhouses From Beneath the Floorboards at Hyde Park Barracks Bungaree Was Flamboyant  Andrew Thompson - 'Long Harry' Albert Thomas Black John Collins of Avalon Narrabeen Prawning Times - A Seasonal Tide of Returnings  Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings and Pearl Kings and When Not to Harvest Oysters  Yabbying In Warriewood Creeks  Eeling in Warriewood Creeks (Includes A Short History of community involvement in environmental issues/ campaigns in and around Narrabeen Lagoon - 1974 to present by David James OAM)   Eunice Minnie Stelzer - Pittwater Matriarchs  Maria Louisa Therry - Pittwater Matriarchs Manly's Stone Kangaroo, Camera Obscura,  First Maze and 'Chute' - Fun Days in Sea Hazes from 1857 On  A Salty Tale of the Kathleen Gillett – A Small Reminder and Celebration of Our 70th Sydney to Hobart   Katherine Mary Roche - Pittwater Matriarch  Sarah A. Biddy Lewis and Martha Catherine Benns Pittwater Matriarchs A Glimpse of the Hawkesbury.(1883) By Francis Myers. Illustrated by J C Hoyte   Pittwater's New Cycle Track of 1901 Manly to Newport  The Rock Lily Hotel  Barrenjoey House The Pasadena Jonah's St Michael's Arch  The First Royal Visitor to Australia: the Incident at Clontarf March 12th, 1868  Pittwater: Lovely Arm of the Hawkesbury By NOEL GRIFFITHS - includes RMYC Wharf and Clareville Wharf of 1938 + An Insight into Public Relations in Australia George Mulhall First Champion of Australia in Rowing - First Light-Keeper  at Barranjuey Headland  Captain Francis Hixson - Superintendent of Pilots, Lights, and Harbours and Father of the Naval Brigade  The First Boat Builders of Pittwater I: the Short Life and Long Voyages of Scotland Island Schooner the Geordy  The Marquise of Scotland Island  Boat Builders of Pittwater II: from cargo schooners and coasters to sailing skiffs and motorised launches  130th Anniversary of Australia’s Sudan Contingent - Local Connections of the first Australians to Serve  The Riddles of The Spit and Bayview/Church Point: sailors, boat makers, road pavers and winning rowers The Currawong: Classic Yacht VP Day Commemorative Service 2015 –  at Avalon Beach RSL Cenotaph: 70th Anniversary   Captain T. Watson and his Captain Cook Statues: A Tribute to Kindness  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern or Wiltshire Parks to McKay Reserve – From Beach to Estuary  Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer  Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks Pittwater Regatta Air Race Trophies: from 1934 and 1935 and The Pilot Who Saved William Hughes  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves:  A Headland Garden  Early Pittwater Paddlers,  Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Green Family  Elanora - Some Early Notes and Pictures  The Stewart Towers On Barrenjoey Headland  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Williams Family  Early Cricket in Pittwater: A small Insight Into the Noble Game from 1880's On  The Pacific Club's 2016 Carnival in Rio Fundraiser for Palm Beach SLSC Marks the 79th Year of Support  Bert Payne Park, Newport: Named for A Man with Community Spirit  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Fox Family  Surf Carnivals in February 1909, 1919, 1925, a Fancy Dress Rise of Venus and Saving Lives with Surfboards  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Paddon Family of Clareville  Mermaid Basin, Mona Vale Beach: Inspired 1906 Poem by Viva Brock  Early Pittwater Schools: The Barrenjoey School 1872 to 1894  The Royal Easter Show and 125th Celebration of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College: Farmers Feed Us!  The Newport School 1888 to 2016  Pittwater's Ocean Beach Rock Pools: Southern Corners of Bliss - A History  The Royal Botanical Garden Sydney Celebrates 200 Years in 2016 The Porter Family of Newport: Five Brother Soldiers Serve in WWI  Church Point and Bayview: A Pittwater Public School Set on the Estuary  The Basin, Pittwater: A Reprise: Historical Records and Pictures  Lighthouse Cottages You Can Rent in NSW - Designed or Inspired by Colonial Architect James Barnet: Includes Historic 'Lit' Days records   Bayview Days Ships Biscuits - the At Sea Necessity that Floated William Arnott’s Success  Mona Vale Public School 1906 to 2012    St Johns Camden: 176th And 167th Anniversaries In June 2016 - Places To Visit  Narrabeen Lagoon And Collaroy Beachfront: Storms And Flood Tides Of The Past  Avalon Beach Public School - A History   Muriel Knox Doherty Sir Herbert Henry Schlink  Shopping And Shops In Manly: Sales Times From 1856 To 1950 For A Fishing Village  Sir Edward John Lees Hallstrom   Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club's 150th Sailing Season Opening: A Few Notes Of Old  A Few Glimpses Into Narrabeen's Past Beauties   Dr. Isobel Ida Bennett AO   Taronga Zoo 100th Birthday Parade: 1000 Reasons To Celebrate  War Memorials: Manly, October 14, 1916  Avalon Beach Golf Links: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  War Memorials - Mona Vale, November 14, 1926  Annie Wyatt Reserve Palm Beach: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II Tumbledown Dick Hill  Waratah Farm and Narrabeen Plums: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Mark Twain, J.F. Archibald And Henry Lawson - Did They Go Fishing At Narrabeen In The Spring Of 1895?: Probably!  Bayview Baths Centenary Celebration in November 2016 hosted by Bayview-Church Point Residents Association  Dr. Jenny Rosen's Historical Timeline  Palm Beach RSL - Club Palm Beach Celebrating 60 Years  Early Years At Narrabeen: The Plane Sailing Day Of 1944 The  Five Ways- Six ways Junction; Kamikaze Corner - Avalon Bilgola  RPAYC Season on Pittwater and coming of Jubilees in Summer of 1938 Local Explorers’ Modern Day Discovery - Governor Phillip’s First Landing site, Campsite and contact with Local Aborigines in Pittwater: The Case for West Head Beach  Rendezvous Tea Rooms Palm Beach: links with 1817 and 1917: Palm Beach Stores  and Fishermen St Cloud's Jersey Stud: Elanora Heights: Pittwater Fields of Dreams  Roderic Quinn's Poems And Prose For Manly, Beacon Hill, Dee Why And Narrabeen  A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists: The Estuary  Celebrating World Radio Day: The Bilgola Connection With The Beginnings Of Radio In Australia  Emile Theodore Argles - champion of all Australians without a Voice - a very funny Satirist, Manly Poet and Pittwater Prose Writer and Litterateur  Sydney Harbour Bridge Celebrates 85th Birthday: A Few Pittwater Connections  Victor James Daley: A Manly Bard And Poet who also came to Pittwater and the Hawkesbury  Let's Go Fly A Kite !: Palm Beach Whistling Kites Inspire sharing How to Make Standard, Box and Whistling Boy Kites - school holidays fun with a bit of Australian and Narrabeen history  Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space, and Of Many Captains  Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I: Coastal Landscapes and Seascapes  The Bayview Tea Gardens 1920 to 1923 When Run By Thomas Edward And Annie Newey (Nee Costello) An Australian and RPAYC Commodore Aboard an America's Cup Challenger of 1908 and 1914   Henry Lawson - A Manly Bard and Poet: on his 150th Birthday  Historic Catalogue and Record of Pittwater Art I: Artists and Artists Colonies  Opportunity To Visit Submarine War Grave Renews Memories Of 75 Years Ago  Early Bayview - insights courtesy Don Taylor and Margaret Tink Retracing Governor Phillip's Footsteps Around Pittwater: The Mystery Of The Cove On The East Side   Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: John (Jack) Ralston and Nora McAuliffe  Patrick Edward Quinn: A Manly Prose writer who gave us A Run To Pittwater (1889) and Songs for the Federation of Australia  Avalon Beach North Headland Indian Face 'Falls': An Everchanging Coastline  Nautical Treasure In Suburbia  Pittwater: Where the Wild Flowers Are 1917 to 2017  Narani, Captain Cook Celebrations At MVPS And Elvina Bay Memories - 1970s  Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: Alrema Becke Queen of Palm Beach  The Beachcombers Surfboard Riding Club: Palm Beach, NSW - 1959 to 1961 Year Dated Beer Bottles Found at Taylors Point  Early Pittwater Surfers: Avalon Beach I  - 1956: The Carnival That Introduced The Malibu Surfboard and Being Able To SurfAcross A Wave Face - Reg Wood Anecdotes    Mona Vale SLSC To Be Completely Renewed + A Few Insights from the Pages of the Past  The Firecracker That Closed Narrabeen Hotel By Ken Lloyd (Savalloyd) + Narrabeen Hotel Licence Transfer Trail  Traces Of WWII Coast Watchers Found On Bangalley Headland - 1942  Early Warriewood  SLSC insights per Norman Godden + Extras  The Macphersons of Wharriewood and Narrabeen: the photo albums of William Joseph Macpherson  Angophora Reserve Avalon 1938 Dedication  Avalon Preservation Association History by Geoff Searl Pittwater Summer Houses: 1916 Palm Beach Cottage and Palm Beach House  Pittwater YHA: Some History  WWI Historian Presents New Film On The Beersheba Charge At Avalon Beach Historical Society Meeting  Newport's Bushlink 'From The Crown To The Sea' Paths: Celebrating Over 20 Years Of Community Volunteer Bushcare Results  Pittwater Fishermen: The Sly Family Narrabeen Exploits and Manly Community Contributors: The First Surfboat at Manly Beach  Women In The Surf Life Saving Movement As Life Savers: From At Least 1910 Locally - Awarded Medals For Saving Lives From 1880 In NSW  Windsor Bridge: Planned Destruction Of Historic Link With A Pittwater Connection The Rise Of The Cruising Season: A Look At Some Early Australian sailers and Local Visitor Beauties Pittwater Fishermen: Barranjoey Days Polo By The Sea 2018: Over A Hundred Years Of Loving This Game In Pittwater  Australia Day Regatta Began As Anniversary Day Regatta  Black Bakelite Telephone: Early Pittwater Phone Numbers  Hy-Brasil, Avalon Beach - Pittwater Summer Houses  Ferry Names for Emerald Class: The Gibbs-Turner Original Magic Button  Pittwater Summer Houses: A Tent At Palm Beach's Governor Phillip Park 'Neath Barrenjoey  Pittwater Summer Houses: The Cabin, Palm Beach - The Pink House Of The Craig Family  Manly's Early Sand Sculptors: How Pennies Can Become Pounds and Found A New Art   Retracing Governor Phillip's Footsteps Around Pittwater: The Mystery Of The Cove On The East Side by Geoff Searl and Roger Sayers 230th Anniversary Edit March 2018  Black-Necked Stork, Mycteria Australis, Once Visited Pittwater: Pair Shot in 1855