January 14 - 20, 2018: Issue 343

Pittwater Fishermen: Barranjoey Days

MONSTER SHARK Catch at Barrenjoey 
FISHING ADVENTURE
The largest shark caught for many a day was secured at Barrenjoey last Saturday night under unusual circumstances. The story of the capture was told by Mr. W. W. Woodley, who with his brother, Mr. E. J. Woodley, have been going to Barrenjoey for week-ends for almost 30 years. They have had many adventures with sharks before their last adventure, but they have never seen so vicious or so large a specimen before. Telling the story to-day, Mr. W. W. Woodley said that, as usual, they set their nets for fish before going to bed, and at 11 o'clock they were awakened by an uproar on the beach. 

"We went to the door of our camp and listened. The noise came from the sea. A shark had become mixed up with the net. In the act of seizing a fish, one of its teeth, which later measurement showed to be over two inches in length, caught, in the not, which, fortunately, was now, and held it.

"We saw him in the net at daylight. He was lying still, and, from the boat, we gave him a prod. He was still alive, so we rowed further out and spent some time fishing. Several hours later, with the assistance of another fisherman, we dragged the shark to the beach. 

MONSTER SHARK

"He was 15ft long, his jaws were 2ft 3in by 18ini, and he wan 8ft round the girth. When we opened him up we found that, he had swallowed porpoise a short time before he had been caught, in the not. Only the lower end of the porpoise was left, but that measured him; in length. "The shark was a dark grey, nearly black, color, and was snowy white on the belly. To haul him on to the beach eight men were required. The lighthouse keeper (Mr. Sullivan) gave us a hand and his daughter took the photos. 
MONSTER SHARK (1923, October 31).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 7 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222676757
A look into fishermen associated with Barrenjoey and the beaches on the edstuary side; Customs, Observation Beach and Snapperman, affords us a glance into days that shift from the original custodians of this place, and their capacity to save a newly arrived emigrant through teaching them fishing ways here, as well as handing on knowledge of when which fish were running, such as that once known as Waradiel* Season, to colonial fishermen who not only caught fish but dried fish here, and then the advent of excursionists aboard steamers visiting the Pittwater estuary and fishing as part of their day trips.

EXCURSION TO BROKEN BAY. 
ONE of the most attractive of the provisions made for the enjoyment of New Year's Day, was an excursion to Pittwater and the mouth of the Hawkesbury, in the Illawarra Steam Navigation Company's fast and commodious steamer Hunter. The genial fineness of the weather and the smoothness of the water, offered potent inducements to those who were familiar with all the holiday resorts in the vicinity of Sydney to pay a visit to Broken Bay. The Hunter was accordingly well filled for the trip-indeed, too well filled, as the passengers were in excess of the sitting accommodation. As the excursion was determined on several days ago, the company's  largest steamer should have been engaged. There were upwards of three hundred passengers on board, and that number would have been comfortably accommodated in the Kembla. The Hunter left the Phoenix Wharf, under the command of Captain Keft, shortly before eleven o'clock, and reached Broken Bay about one o'clock. On dropping anchor off the Customs Station, Mr. Ross, the coastwaiter came on board and offered his services to pilot the steamer to a part of the Bay where the passengers would, on landing be able to visit the cave and the hole in the rock, objects of much interest to tourists. Some of the party who were acquainted with the locality, stated that that would be the best place to land the excursionists, on account of the vicinity of the cave, and also of the excellent sport obtainable in the way of shooting and angling; it was, however, decided to take the steamer to the small inlet at Pittwater

Here the boats were lowered, and about half the passengers landed and dispelled in small groups. Most of those who had provided themselves for the excursion soon found out the most cozy nooks under the shade of the rocks, and made hearty meals in the true picnic fashion. The remainder of the afternoon was spent by some of the party in clambering the abrupt embankments and gathering the splendid ferns and palms growing in wild luxuriance; by others in fishing and oystering, and by a few in collecting sea weeds while the less curious preferred a  siesta in the cool shade. In the meantime, the steamer left Pittwater and proceeded for a few miles up the Hawkesbury - not far enough, however, to give the expectant excursionists a very impressive idea of the much-extolled scenery of that river. 

On returning to Pittwater many of the passengers went ashore and enjoyed a stroll along the beach,-the whole of the party re-embarking soon after five o'clock. A few minutes before six the Hunter steamed out of Broken Bay, and landed all her passengers in safety at eight o'clock. During the outward passage, the wind being light, the motion of the vessel was the occasion  of discomfort to very few on board; but, on returning, there was rather more motion, though the sea was by no means rough, and the distressing effects were widely experienced- the more so on account of the crowded decks. As the sea voyage was little above an hour in duration, the sea sickness was looked upon as a comparatively trifling inconvenience, and, excepting that there was no band on board, it constituted the only drawback to an extremely pleasant and propitious excursion. The decided success that has attended the trips of the Kembla and the Hunter to Broken Bay will, probably, have the effect of rendering that spot a regular holiday resort in future.  EXCURSION TO BROKEN BAY. (1862, January 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13069605

The abundance of middens loaded with oyster and other shells were sent to Sydney Town to form the cement between many of those fine old sandstone buildings - as well as forming part of the diet of those who were here originally and those who came here. Visit Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary. In the Ships Lists coaster after coaster lists amongst its produce 'shells'.

Shells, 545 bushels, from Pittwater.-VESSELS EXPECTED IN SYDNEY. (1849, March 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12902448


AN OYSTERING PARTY, SYDNEY HARBOUR - OLD SYDNEY, and its Harbour and Bays. (1889, May 2).Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63621626

Around Barrenjoey was also the place where the first fishing trawling net trails occurred, signalling a new phase in the rise of fishing as a profession and is one of the places the end of such trawling methods occurred, signalling what has occurred in recent times through the NSW Department of Primary Industries where professional fishermen have now been shifted to a new form of hopefully sustainable fishing in the wild.

In Barrenjoey's changes we can also see the establishment of Aquatic Reserves, a change from slaughtering sharks as we recognise their place in helping balance an aquatic environment as well those who fished these places and the interconnections between families in what was once a sparsely populated peninsula. These were also the men who went out and saved those in peril prior to the establishment of Water Police and Marine Rescue and these are the people whose knowledge of how a breeze may tip a boat under a headland, or where a missing boat or where fish may be found in which season or tide, proved to be the difference between life and death for some and hunger and a feast for others. They were the Customs Station men and the early farmers who could be ferrymen to the Central Coast for those who walked the whole way from Manly, just to enjoy the views.

Investigating articles and notes from the few hundred years also indicates the gradual reduction in size of sea creatures seen or caught or the once well-known abundance of the same:

Last Sunday a turtle weighing upwards of 600 weight was taken by some fishermen at Broken Bay with a shark hook, introduced by accident into the eye. The same evening it was brought in, and retailed at 6d. per pound. SYDNEY. (1805, December 8). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626980

AGED TURTLE
Caught in Broken Bay.
YACHTSMEN INDIGNANT.
Strong protests have been entered by residents of the Palm Beach district, yachtsmen, fishermen, and naturalists against the action of a party of fishermen in catching a big black-turtle off Lion Island, Broken Bay, this week.

The turtle, which weighed about a ton, was of a great age, and had frequented the waters of Broken Bay as far back as the memory of some of the oldest residents of the district. It was a familiar object to yachts-men and fishermen visiting the locality over many years.

A resident of Palm Beach stated last night that people living in the district had regarded the turtle as an old friend, and they were incensed when they learned that it had been caught with a rope, hauled ashore, and shot.

A veteran yachtsman said he had been visiting Broken Bay for more than 50 years, and during that period he had often seen the turtle. It was almost tame, and never did any harm. Sometimes it was mistaken for an overturned skiff. He was particularly sorry to learn that it had been caught.

The honorary secretary of the Palm Beach Surf Life-saving Club, Mr. J. G. Rohr, said he had been 'directed by his club to express in the strongest terms disapproval of the action of the fishing party which caught the turtle. In doing so, he though he was voicing a feeling of resentment which much be very general among those who were acquainted with the waters of Broken Bay. The old turtle was, as far as was known, the only specimen of its kind in the area, and possibly it was one of the few survivors on this section of the Australian coast. It was a familiar and welcome sight to members of the club and to yachtsmen and boating people who visited Pittwater. "So frequently had our members met with the old warrior when bringing the surf boat around Barrenjoey, that most of us felt that we were almost on speaking terms with him," he added.

The secretary of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (Mr. S. A. Lord) said he would institute an inquiry into the matter.

Mr. T. C. Roughley, economic zoologist at the Technological Museum, said he Joined In the protest against the catching of the turtle. Its capture could serve no purpose: it seemed to him futile, and cruel. It was obvious from the weight of the turtle that it was of a great age, as the rate of growth among turtles was slow. AGED TURTLE (1936, March 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17341700

This item, by frequent visitor to Pittwater Ella McFadyen, also reminds us of the vast store of petroglyphs this place is home to, many of which record the seasons of whale migrations, seal visitations, as well as the now unknown ceremonies that accompanied seasonal fish runnings.

LONE TURTLE OF PITTWATER.

This aboriginal carving, which is of unique interest, is described in a neighbouring article.
LONE TURTLE OF PITTWATER. (1940, January 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved January 8, 2018, fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17653541

STONE AGE NEWS.
Turtle "Scoop."
By Ella Mcfadyen.

Here and there among the carvings the Australian blacks have left behind them, we find one that is neither a tribal record nor the tale of a hunting, but simply the work of a black re-porter recording an item of Stone Age news.

Years ago, near Somersby Falls, Gosford district I saw a rock in an orchard. It was clearly incised with a good impression of the head and forepart of a seal above a wavy line that is exactly the same convention that we use for a sea line in our cartoons. Below this line the artist fumbled for a form and vaguely suggested hindquarters like those of a bear. This could not be other than a report of a seal seen, but not captured off the coast of Broken Bay. Seals do visit these parts at rare intervals and Woy Woy fishermen have twice made captures of them. The blacks had carried away a very good eye picture of the creature.

The decision of the military authorities not to pursue the making of a road right out to West Head may happily preserve another news time of long ago. I only came on this carving of a turtle recently, though I have trod the track near it often. It is a large turtle as the hat photographed beside it shows, and the weathering of the rock shows that it was made many years ago. I had to fill the faint grooves with white sand to secure a picture. Turtles are not native to Pittwater but one old and very large turtle was known to Pittwater yachtsmen for about 50 years, and survived until very recently, when-alas! -the interesting old sea wanderer was brutally slaughtered by a party of holiday makers.

Thanks to the unknown reporter whose "special edition" probably came out long before Sydney s first paper was printed we have this record of Pittwater's lone turtle, the destruction of which has been deplored by all nature-lovers.
STONE AGE NEWS. (1940, January 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17653507

The visit of Governor Phillip to the Pittwater Estuary in March 1788, weeks after the First Fleet landed in Port Jackson, also records a young indigenous woman 'singing' from her bark canoe as well as; 'It was now first observed by the Governor that the women in general had lost two joints from the little finger of the left hand.' [1.]

James Napper (1787 circa to 1827) travelled to Sydney NSW as ships surgeon on board the Kangaroo, arriving in January 1814. During the voyage out he married a passenger Emma Luttrell in Rio. Emma was the daughter of Dr Edward Luttrell who had travelled to NSW [Free Settler "Experiment" 1804]  with his family. Kangaroo was an armed naval brig, which in March 1814 completed the evacuation to Sydney of the first settlement at Norfolk Island. Mr. Nappers name appears in a June 1814 list to receive land. He became ill in 1815 and on recovery was transferred to the Emu.

James Napper was formally granted 400 acres on March 16, 1816 between Whale Beach and Palm Beach which he call Larkfield. Larkfield may be a name associated with his family. He left Sydney on January 28th, 1816 as surgeon on board the Emu, along with his wife Emma and infant son Richard. The couple also had a daughter, Marie Ann, born circa 1814-1815, while in Australia.

Notices in the Government Gazette for him to collect cattle assigned to him continued to appear until later that year, commencing in June 1816. These were to be collected from Seven Hills.

A CARD.- Dr. PARMETER respectfully acquaints the Ladies and Gentlemen of Sydney, that he will remove to No. 10, O'Connell-street, on the 22d Inst, the late residence of Mr. Napper. -The Public may depend upon Dr. P's medical assiduity, whether as a Physician or a Surgeon. Classified Advertising (1816, March 16). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2176584

By July 1822 D’Arcy Wentworth was in possession of Napper’s 400 acre farm, and advertised it to let:

TO be LET, TWO FARMS, situate at Pitt-water, the one containing 700 Acres, and the other 400 Acres of Land, nearly contiguous to each other, and particularly well calculated for the purposes of Grazing Fix this textand Agriculture.-Apply to D'ARCY WENTWORTH, Esq. the Proprietor, at Sydney.Classified Advertising (1822, August 2). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2181203

In the 1841 census Michael Sullivan (convict transported in 1819 for 7 years - Ticket of Leave granted) was shown as living at Barrenjoey; he was married, with three children. He was then living on and working the farm which some sources state was to have been on the site of the present Palm Beach Golf course. Other sources state the 'hut' was at the end of what is now Waratah street, Palm Beach where an old spring and creek may still be found.

The hut, or a version of it, then called the 'Fisherman's Cottage' until only a few years ago when it was demolished, was occupied by local artist Mick Glasheen and formed part of his most recent exhibition at Newport: - that this place being in Waratah street preludes a forward time when the Gonsalves family, with generations of men associated with fishing, also had their home in the same street only closer to the golf course's south end.






The South Head of Broken Bay is called by its native name, Barranjoey. It is a bold, rocky headland, situated at the extremity of a long narrow strip of land separating the main ocean from Pitt Water, and has evidently been an island at some former period, with a spit of sand running out from it towards the south. This sand-spit would be gradually extended by every gale till the island was at length married indissolubly to the main, the ceremony of joining hands having been performed by Father Neptune himself. 

There is a small patch of alluvial land of the first-rate quality near Barranjoey Head, on which a very industrious small settler of the name of Sullivan has set down, within the last few months, on a lease from Mr. Wentworth, the proprietor. The extent of land he has managed to clear and put into crop in so short a time, is as creditable to the settler as the splendid crop of maize and tobacco it bears is to the land. The neighbour-hood of Pitt Water and Brisbane Water is considered particularly favourable for the growth of onions, and the raising of that useful article of horticultural produce for the Sydney market, is the main dependence of the small settlers in these districts. The past season has been considered rather unfavourable, however, for this crop, the late rains, which have come in such good time for the maize, having been too late for the onions ; but we found a very tolerable crop notwithistanding on various farms in both districts. The scenery near Barranjoey is romantic and interesting in a very high degree, the land and water being finely disposed for a picture, and the forest trees on the low ground along Pitt Water being remarkably umbrageous and beautiful, while the view from the Head itself — including the vast Pacific ; Pitt Water separated from it by the narrow strip of land above-mentioned, and running up for the remaining part of its extent between two ranges of considerable elevation, and losing itself at length in the distance ; Broken Bay, with the lofty, precipitous rocky island, called Mount Ellis, guarding the entrance of the Hawkesbury, and standing off, like a sentinel on duty, from its opposite shore, while the lower reaches of that noble river are seen stretching far inland between the lofty and barren ranges that line the whole extent of its course from the Blue Mountains to the ocean — all this is uncommonly fine. Second or third-rate writers of literary articles of this kind regularly wish for the pencil of a Claude, or a Salvator Rosa, when they find themselves in such situations as we found our-selves in, to our no small gratification and delight, when we stood perched for a time on Barranjoey Head ; but as such idle wishes would not save any of our readers who might be desirous of experiencing the same pleasurable emotions, the trouble and fatigue of a long pedestrian tour through the bush, we shall not put ourselves to the trouble of uttering them.

If any of our readers should be desirous of visiting the district of Brisbane Water, which we can assure them is well worth visiting, we would by all means advise them to postpone their visit till some of our enterprising colonial speculators shall have put a steam-boat on the course between Sydney and Brisbane Water. For our own part we crossed Broken Bay in Sullivan, the small settler's small boat ; and as there is a large extent of shallow water on the north side of the Bay, on which the sea breaks violently (whence its appropriate name, Broken Bay) whenever there is the least wind from certain quarters, we confess that sailing in such a vessel is somewhat dangerous. Rollers rise instantaneously, even in the mildest weather, in the Bay, and when one of these breaks on a small boat she is almost sure to be swamped, and all on board drowned. Colonial Statistics. (1838, February 28).The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31720524

Mr. Sullivan would have seen:

SHIP NEWS.
THE DENMARK HILL.
The ship Denmark Hill, Captain Clements, the property of Mr J. S. Brown, while lying at Newcastle for the purpose of taking in coals, a few days since took the ground, and went over on her broadside, but she was righted, without, as was supposed having received any material damage. She put to sea for the purpose of coming on to Sydney on Thursday morning, then leaning considerably and a few hours after she had cleared Nobby's Island, a fresh leak was sprung and the pumps got choked with coals. The pumps were hoisted upon deck and cleared, and upon endeavouring to replace them, Captain Clements found the coals had shifted and blocked up the well and that it was impossible to do so. As the water was gaining fast on them, the vessel was run under the lee of Bird Island, about thirty miles from Newcastle, where the anchor was let go in the hope of being able to stop some portion of the leaks. A little after four o'clock the Sophia Jane steamer, from Newcastle bound to Sydney hove in sight, when the captain of the Denmark Hill gave orders to slip the cable, make sail on the vessel, and stand in the course of the steamer, in order to obtain assistance. About six o'clock the Sophia Jane came up, when the Captain of the Denmark Hill informed Captain Griffin that she had then five feet water in the hold, and as the leak was in-creasing he requested Captain G. to stay by them that night, us he did not expect the vessel would keep afloat till morning. The wind at that time falling light, and there being every appearance of a westerly breeze setting off the land in the night, Captain Griffin thought it advisable to tow the Denmark Hill into Broken Bay, to which Captain Clements consented, and at the same time requested that the vessel might be laid on some beach inside the harbour, where she would ground. Captain Griffin immediately ordered the warps to be got aft, and the boats to be lowered down for the purpose of running them on board the Denmark Hill, then tying astern with her main top-sail aback. The ends of the warps were taken 0n board and made fast, during which time the steamer had drifted to leeward of the Denmark Hill, which occasioned the warps to hang in a bight ; and the boat returning from the Denmark Hill to the steamer, for the purpose of getting hold of a towline hanging over the stern, Captain Griffin was unable for some time to gather headway upon the steamer, lest the warps should come in contact with the boat and capsize her; nor did he do so until the Denmark Hill was close on board of the steamer. On nearing, the jibboom of the Denmark Hill carried away the main-mast head of the steamer, and her own jibboom and foretop mast head, the foretop-gallant mast and yard the same time going over the side, and the foretop sail yard, falling on the cap, was carried away the bunt and fell on deck. Capt. Griffin was compelled for the safety of the steamer to make some headway, in doing which the warps became a little tighter, and the men in the boat, in order to clear themselves, passed the warp over their heads, which unfortunately occasioned the boat to capsize, and two of the men were precipitated into the water; the other (the mate of the steamer) succeeded in saving himself by clinging to the tow-rope over the stern, by means of which he got on board. A boat from the Denmark Hill was immediately lowered, but before it could reach the unfortunate men they were drowned. There was a very heavy swell on, which carried away the warps by which the Denmark Hill is being towed, several times, but Captain Griffin got a third one on board, and succeeded, in reaching the entrance of Broken Bay about three o'clock on Friday morning, at which time Captain Clements hailed him again, to enquire how long it would be before he could run his vessel on shore as she was settling down fast and the water was then up to her between-deck beams, and on being told about an hour, he replied, " It is not possible she can keep up above half an hour longer". Finally, however, they succeeded in grounding her on a sandy beach between Barrenjoey and the mainland, where she now lies. The Sophia Jane did not arrive in Sydney till seven o'clock on Friday morning. SHIP NEWS. (1839, April 29). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28653656 

In June 1842 Michael Sullivan was associated with Daniel Farrell in the Fair Barbadian smuggling affair. On 2 May 1843 the newly appointed Customs Officer at Broken Bay, John B. Howard, wrote to the Collector of Customs: “Our neighbours the Sullivans are horrid folks, especially the woman -
she threatens us with all manner of persecutions - I think she is mad - In order to get some hold of the place I got a written engagement from Sullivan to rent me all the land twixt the Creek and his boundary for £3 a year till his Lease Expires. I gave him £1 in advance and got the Coxswain to witness the agreement.” 

Howard wrote again on 25 May 1843: “There was a most unaccountable and terrific sea running in Pitt Water that afternoon without any wind - Sullivan and the oldest fishermen say they never saw anything to equal it. No boat could possibly have ridden at moorings - indeed all my sawed stuff, shingles &c. were washed off the Beach, some of it as far as Sullivan’s cultivation & the reck of the Rover into Sullivan’s garden.” 

On 10 June he wrote: “I was surprised to observe in the Herald of the 6th instant Sullivans Farm to Let (it is called Napper’s Grant). I can make nothing of these neighbours - they tell me that they hold a Lease and have paid their rent up one day and then deny it the next.” 


Advertising (1843, May 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12411610

The Sullivans told Howard that they paid £25 per annum for their farm. The correspondence also states that Sullivan had a hut, and that the tide flowed up Sullivan’s Creek. Mr. Sullivan was listed in Low’s 1847 directory as landholder, Pitt Water, and in the Sydney Commercial Directory for 1851 as “dealer in shells for lime”. He would then have been aged 63. [2.]

The whole of Napper’s grant, with the exception of the Customs Station, was leased to Patrick Flinn on 28 February 1844 for £17-10-0 per annum. [State Records 4/5113 p. 239]

A relevant anecdote has been recorded:
“… There was once a well-cultivated garden. It was kept by an old man named Pat Flynn.
… Old Pat’s garden is still remembered, for he grew vegetables of many sorts and sold them at a low price. He delighted to tell visitors of a day when, during a furious storm, the waves of the ocean had swept across the isthmus.” [M. Anderson, RAHS Journal 6, p.4, 1920]

Patrick Flinn was listed in Low’s 1847 directory as landholder, Pitt Water. Patrick Flinn or Flynn arrived in Sydney by the Southworth on 9 March 1822. A ploughman and soldier, he had been convicted and sentenced to life transportation at Wexford County in March 1821, at the age of 30. His birth place was Limerick, and his native place Cork.  

Patrick was already living at Pittwater in September 1830, when the Sydney Bench recommended he be given his Ticket of Leave. He was allowed to remain in the District of Pittwater. 

Government Notice.
Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 29th November, 1830.
HIS Excellency the Governor will hold His ANNUAL CONFERENCE with the CHIEFS and TRIBES of the NATIVES on Wednesday, the 5th of January next, at the Hour of Eleven in the Forenoon, at the Market-place, Parramatta.
By His Excellency's Command,
ALEXANDER McLEAY._
Public Notice.
Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 22d Dec. 1830.
THE following Prisoners of the Crown have obtained Tickets of Leave since the last day of Publication; viz:—
County of Cumberland.
PITTWATER.
Flynn Patrick, Southworth
Classified Advertising (1830, December 25). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2196864 

Just prior to his wife's passing another man's name appears, indicating the Flinns may have left their Barrenjoey farm prior to this:

NOTICE.-All Cattle and Horse's found trespassing on the lands of Barranjoey, Broken Bay, will be either impounded or the owners thereof sued for such trespasses.
RICHARD WILLIAMS.
May 4. 
Advertising (1851, May 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12926821

DEATHS.
At her residence, Parramatta-street, on Thursday, the 11th instant, after a protracted illness, Honora, the wife of Mr. Patrick Flinn, late of Pittwater, aged 60. Family Notices (1852, June 19). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60136311 

Patrick passed away a decade later:

DEATHS.
FLINN—At the residence of Mr. James Powell, Datchett-street, Balmain, Mr. Patrick Flinn,  late of Pitt Water, aged 84 years. Family Notices (1862, May 22). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60475764 

It seems probable that Richard Williams may have lost a Winter crop or two too if the loss of lives and ships a few years later is any indication:

LOSS OF THE SCHOONERS NORNA, HARP, RAPID, AND ARIEL.
CAPTAIN CULLEN, of the Norna, with his crew and one man belonging to the Ariel, left Broken Bay yesterday morning about eight o'clock, and reached town in the evening. He has furnished us with particulars respecting the loss of the above vessels. The Norna, 43 tons, sailed for Newcastle about five on Sunday evening, the wind E.S.E. The Ariel, Rapid, and Harp, bound to Newcastle, were in company, and put back to Broken Bay. The Norna was off Bungareenore about 12 o'clock. The wind then changed to E.N.E., and fearing more easterly weather, ran back to Broken Bay, and brought to an anchor about three a.m. on Monday morning. It blew hard from the eastward all Monday, varying from E. to S.E. At ten p.m., let go second anchor, both chains to an end, the gale and squalls increasing in violence. About four on Tuesday morning, the Harp went ashore close to West Head, were she now lies bilged. Between nine and ten the Rapid was close ashore in the breakers, the sea making a breach over her. The crew for safety took to the boats, and went on board the Ariel ; the Rapid went ashore shortly after. The Ariel parted one anchor, slipped the other chain, and made sail, and run ashore under Barranjoey. Finding there was no hope of saving the Norna, the crew also took to the boats and had to run some distance up the Hawkesbury. The vessel immediately drifted ashore, and became a total wreck. The barque H. M. Warfield rode out the gale safely. The sea was running a great height on Tuesday and Wednesday morning into the Bay. No lives, we are happy to say, were lost, but the crews have lost their all. The Harp belongs to Mr. E. M. Sayers, and is said to be insured; the Norna to Mr. H. B. Morris. It was reported that a schooner was seen ashore near Mount Elliott. The Policeman, and the Paterson Packet, for Newcastle, sailed on Sunday, a few hours before the Norna. The master of the Harp with some of the Rapid's crew, also walked from Broken Bay yesterday. Two of the Rapid's crew went on to Newcastle in the H. M. Warfield. The captain of the Rapid had his leg severely injured in hoisting the boat on board the Ariel, and is staying at Broken Bay with the captain of the Ariel. Some heavy pieces of timber were seen floating down the Hawkesbury yesterday morning. LOSS OF THE SCHOONERS NORNA, HARP, RAPID, AND ARIEL. (1857, July 31).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12998714 

Stranding of the Steamer Star.— The steamer Star, which left Sydney for the Hawkesbury on Tuesday evening last, at seven o'clock, is on shore on the Back Beach, inside Broken Bay. The cause of this disaster, we understand, was in consequence of a mistake in the land marks, Barrenjoie having been taken for Mount Elliot. One man was drowned in attempting to reach the shore. As soon as intelligence of the disaster reached the coast station immediate assistance was rendered. The Star is the property of Mr. Marshall, of Balmain, and we are informed she is not insured. No title (1857, August 24). The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List (NSW : 1844 - 1860), p. 193. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161171301 

Although it may seem Barrenjoey was an isolated and deserted place, the opposite is clearly true - as shown in in the wonderful serial written by Charles deBoos:

MY HOLIDAY. I
(From the Sydney Mail, September 7.)

Long before our arrival at the tents, if we had had any doubt with respect to the correctness of our surmise, our noses would have at once dispelled it; for the strong smell of the fish, cured à la Chinoise, that saluted our olfactories was so overpowering as to cause us to hesitate whether we should run the gauntlet of the tents, or whether we should give them a wide berth by making a detour. As it happened, however, that we required to replenish our stock of tea and sugar, it became absolutely necessary that we should visit the tent, these enterprising foreigners keeping the only depot on the Peninsula for the sale of these articles; and, consequently, "the ancient fish-like smell" had to be encountered.

Chinaman's or Snapperman Beach and Observation Point, Palm Beach, Newport Digital Order Number: a106120 circa 1912, Broadhurst Image, courtesy State Library of NSW.

As we approached we met with all the materiel of a fishery. First, a long and apparently valuable seine was spread out on the grass a little above the beach to dry, and a boat hauled up on the sand showed that it had been recently used. Another, and a somewhat smaller, boat was moored out in deep water ready for use. A little further on, about ten or a dozen bushels of guardfish were spread out on the grass to cure, with small hopes, as I should imagine, of their drying under the influence of the weak and wintry sun. Next a small tent full of barrels of all kinds, but principally the light American oak flour barrels, showed the preparations for packing the fish obtained and dried during the summer season. Ten or a dozen yards further on was another tent,-the fish store-in which were piled up heaps of snapper and large-sized bream, all cured and ready for the Celestial consumption for which they had been prepared; and here we found the two Chinese, master and man, who owned the location. The master appeared a tolerably decent looking and intelligent man, who spoke English sufficiently well to be understood, and who very readily gave us all the information in regard to his fishery that we demanded from him.

Their mode of procedure is this:-they fit out boats for persons willing to fish for them, of course keeping an account against them, for materials, rations, &c, supplied, and taking from them all the fish they catch suitable for curing, at a certain fixed price. The smaller fish they allow them to take into the Sydney market. In the season they have from fifteen to twenty boats at work fur them, principally manned by Europeans, besides which they buy from all who choose to come to them, offering to the fishermen the further convenience of the store they carry on, and from which they supply tea, sugar, and biscuit at a very small advance upon Sydney prices. We bought, at 3s. per lb., some really fine black tea, very much superior to any that is to be procured ordinarily at the grocers' shops of the metropolis. Sugar was 6d. per lb., similar to that for which 5d. is paid in Sydney ; whilst Wilkie's best cabin biscuits are retailed at 4d. per lb. As soon as the fish are procured they are cut open and gutted, lightly rubbed with salt, and then spread out in the sun to dry. In the summer this is very speedily and effectually done, although not without the fish obtaining that peculiarly rank and offensive smell that all who have passed by a Chinese store must have noticed. The supply of fish is allowed to accumulate during the summer, heaped in a tent devoted to the purpose, the heaps being occasionally turned, and every care taken against damp and wet; and so soon as the drying season is over-when the sun ís too far from the zenith as to have lost his power-the packing is commenced. No further trouble is taken in the packing, than to lay them in the barrels as closely as they can be got, and to press them down as hard as can be done with the hands. They are then headed up and forwarded to Sydney, to be distributed all over the interior wherever Chinese most do congregate. This season they had obtained about two hundred barrels of fish.

Besides this fishing station on Pitt Water, there are also others at Brisbane Water, on Tuggerah Beach Lake, and on Lake Macquarie, all carried on by Chinese. There are several others also to the south-ward of Port Jackson, though my Chinese informant could not give me the names of the places where they ore established. All these fisheries have been formed by Chinese merchants resident in Sydney; that at Pitt Water belongs to a Chinese merchant in George street, whose name I could not make out, although I tried very hard to do so. The Chinese from whom I had these details was a kind of superintendent or manager of the fishery, keeping accounts against the fishermen with perfect correctness, and keeping the books of the station in the same way as an English storekeeper would do. He showed his board of colored beads by which he did all his reckoning, his multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction ; but after about half-a-dozen explanations, which he went through with most exemplary patience, neither of us could make head or tail of it, albeit Nat, who considers himself exceedingly clever at accounts, said he thought he saw what the plan was.

Having purchased our stores, and obtained all the information we could from the boss, we filled our billy with water, and, obtaining the permission of the locataires, put it over their fire. When they found that we were going to take our midday repast, they brought out biscuit and butter and spread them before us, and when our pot boiled, produced their own tea and sugar for our use, thus performing the right of hospitality in true bush fashion. We were rather pleased at this, as we had previously imagined that the very last place to go to for a feed would be a Chinese tent. We made an excellent meal of biscuit, butter, and watercresses, and I think rather astonished master John at the quantity of comestibles that we managed to stow away. They had pressed us very hard to try some of their fish, and they certainly had a string of very fine fat mullet hanging up in their private tent, no doubt as a special delicacy, but neither of us could stand the odour, which nothing but long habit or absolute starvation could have overcome.

All the stronger for our meal-snack, Tom called it-we lighted our pipes, resumed our loads, and bade adieu to our entertainers, thanking them for the kind hospitality which they had furnished, the more particularly as it had been unsought on our part.

Crossing a bright clear brooklet that ran close to the rear of the tents, a couple of hundred yards brought us to a rocky headland forming the northern boundary of the cove on which the Chinamen were located. This we crossed by a miserable track knee deep in mud, and, arrived on the other side, we had Barranjuee full in front of us, about three quarters of a mile distant, with a long cleared flat, that had the appearance of having been at one time cultivated, lying between us and the mountain. This flat, which now intervened between us and Barranjuee, was scarcely two hundred yards across at the widest part dividing the Pacific from Pitt Water, and joining Barranjuee to the main. It is very low, and is fully exposed to whole sweep of the south-eastern gales that at some seasons prevail upon the coast, throwing up the waves in watery mountains upon the long beach that faces seaward, and scattering the spray in drenching showers right across into the bay. A dense scrub of ti tree and honeysuckle grows on the seaward side of the flat, forming a thick protecting belt almost up to the mountain, and this Nat and I determined to push through, whilst Tom went on ahead to the Customs stationwhose white cottage we could see glistening brightly against the dark back ground of the vast cliffs of the mountain.


We had been led to expect that on the edge of this scrub we should put up any quantity of wonga wongas, and as Nat and I were desirous of making a triumphal entry into the station with a brace or two of these fine birds hanging at our girdles, we determined upon trying our luck. Carefully, and in a most sportsmanlike manner did we stalk along through the fern, which here grew as high  as our waists, and formed an excellent cover for birds if they would but have come there. I fully expected every minute to put up, if not a wonga wonga, at all events a brace of quail; but we went on and on, and still nothing appeared. Nat audibly gave vent to his dissatisfaction, and stated as his private and particular opinion, that we had been humbugged. He uncocked his piece and threw it over his shoulder, whilst I was in the act of doing the same thing, when whirr !-up with a loud flapping of wings, that from its suddenness quite unnerved me and threw me off my guard, rose a magnificent wonga wonga, which in my agitation appeared to me as big as a turkey. It  heeled round leisurely in front of me and lodged in the branches of a honey- suckle, full in sight, though out of gun-shot from where we stood, whilst I stood with mouth and eyes open, incapable of doing anything but watching its flight.

"What the mischief was that?" said Nat, in evident astonishment at the sound.

“Didn’t you see it? " I asked.

" Not a bit," he replied.

"It was a wonga, and as large a one as ever I saw. See, there he is on the honeysuckle vender, the fourth bough from the top."

"I see him," shouted Nat, as he darted off into the bush. ....MY HOLIDAY. (1861, September 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13063749

The oriental fish-curers were still present years later:

On the eastern side of Pitt Water, between Barrenjoey and the farm of Mr. Collins, there is a fishing station, of Chinese and Europeans, and even here the neatness of the huts and the care bestowed on the cultivation of flowers are really pleasing to contemplate. The hut of the European is literally covered with foliage, and surrounded with bee hives, on which he bestows much attention. The Chinese cure the fish caught for exportation, and their establishment is a perfect pattern of order and cleanliness, and like the hut of their neighbour, is in the midst of flowers, many of rare description. A RIDE TO BARRANJOEY. (1867, March 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13150778 

BROKEN BAY.

[FROM OUR CORRESPONDENT] 

June 24 – We have had tremendous weather, but, as far as Pitt Water is concerned, no damage has been done with the exception to one of our picturesque curiosities, St. Michael’s Arch. It has at length to the too mighty elements and the destroying influence of time, that which was the admiration of all who have beheld it is now almost baseless fabric-there is only about one half of the outer support left, looking at it at a distance it has the resemblance of a coloured pillar. In its fall it carried a large portion of the overhanging rock with it, a thousand tons of gigantic boulders, and in such masses that I think it will stop the ingress from that part to the cave, but at yet we have had no close inspection for the rollers are dashing to the height of the stupendous rocks. The only idea I can give of the gale is that the froth of (not spray) the sea came over Mount St. Joseph, opposite the house, half a foot in size, and spread itself down to the dam, at times shading the heights of the mountain,-its resemblance was that of an overwhelming snow storm.

The sea at Barranjoey washed away the flower garden in front of the Chinamen's huts, taking soil and all, so that the beach comes close up to their door. There must have been awful havoc in the Hawkesbury, for all the beaches from Barranjoey to the Long Beach are strewn with fragments of houses, boxes, chairs, door frames, dead pigs, hay, wheat, broken bedsteads, weather-board sides of houses, oranges with large branches, pumpkins, melons, corn cobs, and other debris, that scarcely any portion of the beaches can be seen. Mr. Conolly picked up a workbox, in which was contained a number of receipts and letters directed to Mr. Moss, Windsor. The beaches on which are the debris is Barrenjoey, Whale Beach, Collins's Beach, Mick's Hollow Beach, Farrell's Beach, Mona Beach, and Long Beach, so it may be imagined the great extent of destruction. BROKEN BAY. (1867, June 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13144304 


W.H. Raworth (Brit./Aust./NZ, c1821-1904). St Michael’s Arch, NSW [Avalon] c1860s. Watercolour, signed lower left, obscured title in colour pencil verso, 34.2 x 56.5cm. Tear to left portion of image, slight scuffs and foxing to upper portion.  Price (AUD): $2,900.00  at:https://www.joseflebovicgallery.com/pages/books/CL181-53/w-h-raworth-c-brit-aust-nz/st-michaels-arch-nsw-avalon 

BROKEN BAY AS A HARBOUR OF REFUGE.

To the Editor of the Herald.

Sir, - The late heavy gales suggest that the Government ought to take measures for making a harbour of refuge of portions of Broken Bay. That opinions as to its suitability for the purpose are conflicting I admit ; but surely when it is borne in mind that there is no port where a vessel may take shelter from a storm between Port Jackson and Port Stephens, it is worth while ascertaining the truth of the matter. During a short visit, I took the opportunity to make inquiries as to the difficulties in the way of vessels entering; and also the best places for them to make, and, from what I then ascertained, there can be little doubt the bay is not sufficiently well charted. There would be some difficulty in working up to the basin in a S.E. gale, but no difficulty whatever in making the smooth waters of Cowan if there were a guide in the shape of a lighthouse on Barrenjoey. I believe a suggestion was made some time ago to have a light placed on Elliott Island. This would, it appears to me, be a very undesirable situation, as the light could not be seen until vessels were well round either the North or South Heads of Broken Bay, whereas it ought to be visible well out to sea.

Except to the captains of the vessels that regularly trade there, its advantages are almost unknown, even to the traders on the coast.

I remain, Sir, yours obediently,

F. C. B. 

BROKEN BAY AS A HARBOUR OF REFUGE. (1867, June 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13142244 

The Barrenjoey lights came on soon after: - visit Barrenjoey Lighthouse - The Construction

LIGHT ON BARRENJOEY.-On Monday last, the Superintendent of Pilots (Mr. Hixson), the Engineer for Harbours and Rivers (Mr. Moriarty), and several other gentlemen, proceeded to Broken Bay in the Government steamer Thetis, where they fixed and determined upon a site for the light proposed to be erected at Barrenjoey.

His Excellency the Governor, and about twenty other gentlemen, availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting Broken Bay, Pitt Water, and the mouth of the Hawkesbury. Abridged from the SM Herald, June 9.  ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE. (1868, June 11 - Thursday). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18733795 

On the 8th instant, the Governor and a party of officials visited Barrenjoey, on Monday last, to determine the spot on which the intended light is to be placed. NOTES OF THE WEEK. (1868, June 13).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28423959 

Not altogether unconnected with the subject of colonisation and settlement, and certainly not devoid of interest to shipmasters and owners trading from England to this port, is the official announcement just made, that on and after the 20th of this month two temporary fixed lights will be exhibited on Barrenjoey, the inner south headland of Broken Bay, a few miles to the northward of Port Jackson. 

We believe that the frameworks for the lights have already been sent down by the Government steamer Thetis; and there can be no question that a light has long been required in that spot. But, to an unprofessional person, it would appear somewhat imprudent to light up these beacons on so short a notice. So far as the coasting trade is concerned, the notice may be quite sufficient; but there is nothing uncommon in vessels from England, coming in to the land from seaward, making the coast near Broken Bay ; and what must a captain think if, getting close under the land in the evening, he sights one or both of those lights, which the official notice says " will be visible at a distance to seaward of about twelve miles " If aware of the lights having been placed upon Barrenjuey he would of course be on his guard, but in ignorance of that fact, would it not be possible for him to mistake them for the Sydney lights? Of course the Government and the nautical authorities have no object but the safety and security of our maritime commerce; but we might be permitted to put the case suggestively-whether it would not be prudent to give a far more extended notice before causing those beacons to be lighted. The Empire. (1868, July 15). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60855199 

Monday, July 20.— Recd, at 12.56 a.m. –

Barrenjoey lights will Appear to-night for the first time. LATEST NEWS, (1868, July 21). The Newcastle Chronicle (NSW : 1866 - 1876), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111330247 

As a singular coincidence it may be mentioned that for a number of years large numbers of goats could be seen browsing about the ravines and precipitous cliffs in the neighbourhood of Barrenjoey. They had become very wild, and frequented the most inaccessible cliffs; and, although often seen perched in some rocky point, they were very difficult to approach within rifle range, and were therefore safe from molestation by man. Yet, singular to say, although these animals had been there for many years, a few months ago it was found that they had all suddenly disappeared. It is clear that they were not killed, for in no instances have any remains of them been found, and in no way can the residents of that part of the country account for their mysterious disappearance.-Ed ] A VISIT TO MONTAGUE ISLAND. (1869, September 15). Empire(Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60896387 

Telegragh to connect Barrenjoey with Broken Bay, £1350. THE ESTIMATES. (1869, October 21). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18740581 

BARRENJOEY LIGHTS.

Mr. WINDEYER called the attention of the Government, and especially of the Treasurer, to the lights at Barrenjoey. There were two lights, which were a quarter of a mile apart, and the keeper's house was built at a considerable distance from them. There was a necessity for another person to aid him. It was a rule in the United Kingdom that there should be three men for every island or rook lighthouse. In this case these two lights at a considerable distance, and there is enormous labour involved in keeping up these two lights. 

The keeper often has to remain exposed to wind and rain all night. (Mr. HILL; Hear, hear.) He has to light the lights from the outside, which is almost in itself impossible when the weather is rough. And instead of receiving the same remuneration as other lighthouse- keepers, namely, £180 a year, he only receives £150 a year. There was even more danger .than before the lights were put up; for captains would, of course expect to see the lights there. He moved the adjournment of the House.

Mr. SAMUEL said he would inquire further into the subject. The Superintendant of Lighthouses had recommended that this man's salary should be raised to L180 ; but he considered that he ought to perform all the duties. The Government contemplated the erection of a permanent lighthouse there. But some delay had arisen from a dispute about the title of the land.

Mr. WINDEYER said it was impossible that one man could attend to two lights. While he was at one the other might be put out.

The motion for adjournment was negatived. PARLIAMENT. (1870, March 9). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60891977 

The first light keeper was George Mulhall, known for his prowess as a rower. The lights didn't stop visiting and local fishermen from perishing in the sea though:

Sad Boat Accident. — A young man named Tucker was drowned at Broken Bay on Monday last, from the capsizing of the ketch Ada. The deceased with three others, had arrived near the Heads of Broken Bay, on a fishing exclusion from Sydney on the previous evening but as there were no lights at Barrenjoie, they stood in for the land. On Sunday they found themselves a mile away from the lighthouse. They entered the Heads on Monday, and on rounding the inner Head a small dingy broke, away. -in jibing in endeavouring to recover .the' dingy the ketch went down. The Customs boat picked up three and the West Hartley No. 2, ' one. Tucker was however, drowned. A magisterial inquiry was held on Tuesday, when an open verdict was returned. ST. MARY'S LITERARY ASSOCIATION.— (1871, December 30). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120727681 

TEMPORARY LIGHTS, BARRENJOEY(BROKEN BAY).

The Screens have been removed from these lights. They will now be seen from the southward when Barrenjoey is open, off the South Head of Broken Bay.

FRANCIS HIXSON, Superintendent. 

NOTICE TO MARINERS. (1872, January 20).Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60880257 

BROKEN BAY

Barrenjoey, Friday evening.

The schooner Caledonian capsized to-day in Pitt Water. Melville, master, drowned. Crew saved. The vessel went down in about four fathoms water. Mellville's body has been recovered. The crew have been supplied with what they required by Mr. A. Black. TELEGRAMS THIS DAY. (1872, October 5). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114735772 

CORONER'S COURT, THIS DAY
Captain Melville of the Schooner Caledonia
An inquest was held this morning, before the City Coroner, at the Lord Clyde Hotel, Pyrmont, on the body of Donald McLennan, alias Melville, who was drowned off Broken Bay on Friday last, through the capsizing of the schooner Caledonia, of which vessel he was the master. The body was brought to Sydney, yesterday, by the steamship Diamantina.

Isabella McLennan: I reside at Point-Street, Pyrmont, and recognise the dead body just viewed at my residence, as that of my late husband, Donald McLennan. This name was his proper one; but he was generally known by the name of Donald Melville. He was fifty seven years of age, a native of Scotland, and a master mariner. He commanded the schooner Caledonia, which traded between Sydney and Port Stephens. On Wednesday night last, at about 9 o'clock, he left, home with the intention of going to sea. I saw no more of him till his dead body was brought home, yesterday, by constable Martin. Deceased has been in the colony about twenty-two years. We have been married sixteen years, and have one child. He (deceased) was a man of temperate habits, and has commanded the Caledonia for about five years. 

Peter Barry deposed: I am a mariner, and have been employed for the last three years as mate on board the schooner Caledonia. I recognise the dead body just viewed by me as that of Captain Donald Melville, who was master of the schooner Caledonia. On last Friday morning we left Sydney, in ballast, bound for Port Stephens. There was about five tons of cargo on board. The crew consisted of the master, myself, and two other men. The tonnage of the vessel, which was a fore and aft schooner, was between 43 and 50 tons. Before we reached Broken Bay the weather was thick, squally, and rainy, and the deceased determined to run into Broken Bay for shelter. Between Barrenjoey light and the Custom-house station we had very little wind, being under the lee of the land. We were then close-hauled on the port tank, and we passed the Customs' station. The wind was then W.S.W., and the time about half past 11 a.m. While on the port tack, and reaching over for Soldiers' Creek, for anchorage, we attempted to put the vessel about on the other tack, when she was struck by a squall which split the inner jib and fore trysail - though the sails were in good condition. We then dropped anchor in about four fathoms of water. The anchor held on by very little chain. At this time the only sails set were the foresail and mainsail. Deceased, not thinking the position of the ship safe, (it being close to some rocks, and exposed to the squalls) directed the men to heave to the anchor short. I and the two other men went to the windlass to heave up the anchor; deceased, remaining at the tiller. After heaving short, the forestay sail and outer jib were set. The captain was still aft, and it was blowing strong in heavy puffs, with constant rain. I and the two men manned the windlass to heave the anchor, and had scarcely got it tripped from the bottom, when a squall struck the schooner (the wind being then about south) on the broadside. The vessel heeled over to port, and the anchor chains 'fetched over' to the same side. The vessel then went right over, turning bottom up. There were no reefs in the sails previous to this occurrence. I saw nothing more of deceased after the squall which struck the vessel till I saw him swimming, as I thought, for the shore. Two of us, the two seamen and myself, got on the vessel's side, and the other on the bottom, where we remained till we were taken off by a boat belong to another vessel lying in the bay. It was about forty or fifty yards from the shore where the vessel capsized. The body of deceased was recovered in about half an hour after the occurrence. He was quite dead. We never went to sea with more ballast (12. tons) than we had this voyage. The deceased and all hands were sober at the time of the occurrence. Charles Blatt, seaman, of the Caledonia on her last voyage, corroborated the evidence of the previous witnesses. The jury returned a verdict of accidental drowning in consequence of the capsizing of the schooner Caledonia. CORONER'S COURT, THIS DAY. (1872, October 7). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114733985 

OCEAN BOAT RACE.

One of the most interesting aquatic events of the season was run on Saturday, over a course which took in some 40 miles of outside sailing. The contesting boats were the Carlotta, recently constructed by Donnelly for Mr. S. H. Hyam, and the Lottie, by the same builder, and owned by Mr. It. Moodie. The stakes consisted of £110, of which sum the Carlotta's backers contributed £60, The match arose in consequence of the Carlotta's defeat at the Anniversary Regatta by the Lottie. The partizans of the former boat believing that the Carlotta was not defeated on her merits, made the present match ; and, when the running of tho two events is compared, it certainly does look as if there was a screw loose in the Anniversary match, the weather on each occasion being ns nearly as possible the same, and yet the results so different. Newton, who sailed the Lottie in the Mayor's Cup match, was again retained, and his knowledge of outside work was considered an important event in the boat's favour, and she had a splendid crew of a dozen men, comprising several Broken Bay fishermen. A new man, Colebrook, took the Carlotta's helm, and he had with him the following crew, viz., Drennan, Kensey, Linnie, Leo, Wilton, Boyd, Goodridge, Nash, Davis, Donnelly, M'Guire, Sullivan, and Adams. 

The conditions were that the race should start at 9 a.m. at Fort Macquarie, sail round a boat off Barrenjuee, and back to the starting place. The great interest in the contest was manifest by the number of steamers, yachts, and other smaller fry that either went the course or met the boats on their return trip. Captain Broomfield officiated as starter, and sent the pair away on their course punctually at 9 a.m., the steamers Princess of Wales and Mystery following with spectators. It was a calm at the time, but as the tide was sweeping out at a good rate, the boats drifted rather than sailed away towards Port Denison beam and beam. Both boats carried topsails and squaresails, and passing Port Denison Lottie was leading by a length. The booms then gybed from starboard to port, and in the run with a faint north-west wind Carlotta gained four lengths in the passage to Bradley's, rounded in 33 minutes from the start. Both boats again gybed wide of the point, but as the wind was creeping more northerly, squaresails were lowered. 

The wind came in from north-east at last, and Lottie tacked at the Bottle and Glass. Carlotta held on to the tack a little longer, and was quietly drawing away. The next board brought them to the Old Man’s Head, and Carlotta still held the weather gauge of her rival. Newton unwisely stood too close in, and lost the wind. Beaching out to sea, Carlotta held the lead by a quarter of a mile. The boats made short boards along the coast, and those who were distrustful of Colebrook's seagoing navigation were mistaken, for he was proving quite equal to the emergency. 

Long Reef was passed by Carlotta, at 12.30 p.m., leading by two minutes, but her windward position made it equivalent to about six minutes. Here the wind was light from N.E. Carlotta's topsail would not set on the starboard tack, and had to be taken down, and once the Lottie decreased her rival's advantage, but the unruly topsail was got into commission again, and the Carlotta thrashed into the wind again in excellent style. The boat off Broken Bay was rounded by Carlotta, at 2.23 p.m., and by Lottie, at 2.30 p.m. Colebrook had so much confidence in the speed of his boat down the wind, that he set no squaresail, but run with mainsail, jib, and topsail. The moment the Lottie got off the wind her crew had her smothered in canvas, yet the running showed no improvement in her favour, and passing Long Reef on the way home about a mile and a half separated the boats. All the way up the harbour hundreds of sailing craft ran with the racing boats, and the clear bright sunshine upon the scene made up a pleasing picture that few ports in the world could equal. The Carlotta's crew were loudly cheered at various points of the harbour, and the race was won at 6.45 p.m. The Lottie finished five and three-quarters minutes later.

The stakes were handed over in the evening at Punch's Hotel, Mr. James Punch being the stakeholder. OCEAN BOAT RACE. (1878, March 9).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 34. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article70613115 

Although the above attests to fishermen knowing the seas they sail in, simple accidents, like this one during the construction of the Barrenjoey Lighthouse, also take lives:

BARRENJOEY.

Monday.

A fatal boat accident occurred this evening in the bay. Mrs. Phillips, her son John Phillips, Joseph Modini, a fisherman, and George Cobb, a foreman in the employ of Mr. Banks, lighthouse contractor here, were returning home in a small boat, when from some unexplained cause the boat filled. Modini and John Phillips succeeded in gaining the shore about a quarter of a mile off, but Mrs. Phillips and George Cobb were drowned. Mr. Black, of H. M. Customs, immediately upon receiving information, started with a party to attempt to recover the bodies. BARRENJOEY. (1881, April 16 - Saturday).The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 630. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161883628 


Barrenjoey headland, New South Wales, ca. 1885 by Charles Bayliss, Image nla.obj-140668620-1, courtesy National Library of Australia

The top of page article showing January 1862 excursionists commenced what was a decades long event for many that brought thousands of people here to fish into the next century and until steamers ferrying people here ceased, although those first January visitors were, in one sense, trespassing:

PITT WATER.

Yesterday, being Easter Monday, a pleasant steam excursion took place in connection with the St Benedict's Young Men's Society. The commodious steamer the Collaroy, under the command of Captain Mulhall, had been chartered for the occasion, and left the Australasian Steam Navigation Company's Wharf, Sussex-street North, with about 260 persons on board, at ten o' clock a.m. Part of the band of H. M. S. 12th Regiment were in attendance, their cheerful and untiring efforts contributing not a little towards making the day pass harmoniously and agreeably away. Working along through the everchanging scenery displayed on the shores of our harbour, the Collaroy at length rounded the Heads, and, taking a northerly course, rushed past that enormous barrier presented by the weather-worn cliffs which face the ocean between the Great North Head and the seaward aspect of Manly Beach. Following on the interesting coast line of Curl Curl, Deewy, Long Reef, and Narrabeen, &c, - varied succession of wooded eminences, long sandy reaches, towering precipices, and grassy park-like slopes, the pleasure-seekers were at length abreast of the singular headland of Barrenjoey, forming the extreme south-eastern limit of the estuary which serves as a common outlet for the River Hawkesbury and the Pitt Water. Shortly after passing the Custom House station the course of the Collaroy then took a southerly direction, and so brought the holiday folks into the lake-like solitudes of Pitt Water, until wooded hills seemed to be rising on every side of the vessel. The passengers were landed at a small, but commodious wharf, erected on the property of the Venerable J. J Therry, under whose especial patronage the excursion had been got up. 

Most of the visitors set off in quest of St. Michael's Cave, determined not to lose the opportunity of seeing so great a natural curiosity. The walk, it was found, lay through woods, a long flat, and a hilly scrub, until, facing to the east at the head of the inlet, the merry party, in a straggling Indian file, at length arrived in the vicinity of the cave, cautiously descending the rocks, and creeping carefully along a narrow path specially made for their convenience on the face of the cliffs, they were thus finally rewarded for their perseverance. Almost every body managed to scramble up into the cave, and not a few of the more adventurous explored its inmost recesses by candle-light. The effect of the gloomy inner arch looked down upon from the top of the second angle of the cave, was much admired; and so also was the wider arch at the entrance, as contemplated from the spot where the bright daylight again began to stream down upon the faces of the returning explorers. There was, for some time, a pleasant buzz of conversation and a discussion of food at the mouth of St Michael's Cave, and then the party set out on their way back to the steamer, where dinner had been prepared. Some with sharpened appetites posted thither at once, but many remained with the band near the house on the flat, and amused themselves with dancing, playing cricket, and so on. There was some dancing also at the steamer after dinner was over. The Kembla steamer visited the wharf at an early hour, landed some passengers, and afterwards returned for them. The Collaroy left the wharf for Sydney at about five o'clock, and arrived safe at Sydney soon after eight. The Right Worshipful the Mayor of Sydney, the Mayoress, and other members of the family were on board. We also observed the Rev. Fathers Corish, Curtis, Hanson, and Powell, besides the Venerable J. J. Therry. The trip appeared to give general satisfaction, although a slight shower, soon after the arrival of the Collaroy at Pitt Water, interfered with some of the arrangements. PITT WATER. (1862, April 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13227471 


Fishermen venturing here to join in catching the bounty alongside resident fishermen became the practice of clubs:

Fishing.
The first outing of the season of the members of the Nimrod Club took place yesterday. The favourite steamer Commodore started from Circular Quay at 8 a.m. yesterday with about 40 members on board for Broken Bay, where operations were commenced. The long southerly roll sadly interfered with the pleasure of the party, a large number of whom succumbed to the ocean's swell, and were glad to coil themselves up in obscure parts of the steamer. A few of the more seasoned fishermen, however, stuck to their work manfully under the trying circumstances, and were rewarded tor their perseverance by catching a few fish. The result of the day's warfare against the finny tribe was 209 fish-a very poor return considering the fine bait and splendid equipment of those on board. Several well-known grounds were tried without success, and all were pleased when the captain of the club gave the signal for "up lines” and home about 5 o’clock.
FISHING. (1883, October 12). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28371257

A Sudden Death.
A BARRENJOEY FISHERMAN.
A colored fisherman named Samuel Goldsborough, residing at Botany, died suddenly on Saturday night at Barranjoey. In the afternoon deceased, with two companions named Railings and 'Scottie,' was fishing in a boat off Barranjoey pier. About 9 p.m. he came ashore, and shortly afterwards Rallings, upon going ashore in response to frequent calls from deceased, found him lying face downward on the sand. Goldsborough remarked to his companion that he felt very ill, and was afraid that he was a 'goner.' Soon afterward he was seized with a fit and became unconscious. He was carried to a boatshed but not recovering consciousness, Sailings remained to watch him. Towards morning, however, Rallings's vigil proved too much for him, and he went to sleep, to find on awakening that Goldsborough had in the interval expired. The matter has been reported to the coroner and an inquest will be held. A Sudden Death. (1895, January 21).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108068546 

FATALITIES; SUDDEN DEATHS.
A fisherman named Samuel Goldsborough, a married man, who resided with his wife at Botany, died suddenly at Barranjoey on Saturday night. Goldsborough had gone to the Hawkesbury to fish, when he was taken ill and died. The police of the No. 4 division were communicated with, and a report. was sent to the Coroner, he has ordered the removal of the body to the North Sydney Morgue, and an inquiry will be held. FATALITIES. (1895, January 21). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1923), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236006903 

Barranjoey is always a good ground for those who like to go so far afield. A party from Sydney, consisting of Messrs. F. H. Gray and W. Smith, had a haul of 51 mixed fish near Barranjoey, one of the right kind being an 11lb. schnapper. FISHING. (1897, November 20). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1095. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163796877 

How's this for a 'fish tale'?:


FISHERMAN HOOKS A WHALE. (1908, October 24). Northern Star (Lismore, NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article72176322 

Professional fishermen were bound to commence a practice that has now been changed to a large extent to ensure there's something left out there to catch. For a place renowned for its once abundant fish supplies the testing of an 'advance' in these waters would have seemed the best place to begin:

The Trawling Experiments.
The success which has attended the first trawling trip of the Thetis has given general satisfaction. There was much chaff when the Government steamer approached the wharf on her return, but it was speedily silenced when the baskets full of fish were seen. Specimens of the different fish caught were afterwards placed in the window of the Fresh Food and Ice Company's shop, where they were surrounded by curious crowds during the days they remained. A quantity of the fish were sent to the fish markets for sale, and their treatment and fate there have convinced Mr. Farnell that a radical reform is required in our methods of distributing and selling fish. We publish this week photographs and a sketch plan which make plain the course of the Thetis and the nature of the experiments. We append the detailed account of  the experiments furnished by the special commissioner of the 'Herald' and 'Mail' who was on board the Thetis :— ! 

RESULTS OF THE TRAWLING. 
(By our Special Commissioner.) 
February 23. 
The steamer Thetis returned to port yesterday morning at 9 o'clock after four days absence along the coast between North Head and Bird Island. The steamer with Captain August Nielsen and his three North Sea trawlers left the old Manly wharf at Circular Quay on Friday, February 18, at 4.5 p.m. Accompanying the party were Mr. Frank Farnell, M.L.A., Captain Hynes, B.N., Mr. Edgar R. Waite, F.L.S., of the Government Museum, in addition to your special representative. 

Barranjoey was rounded at 6.45 p.m., the second  mate seizing the opportunity of having a bath when the vessel anchored by falling overboard. He was promptly hauled aboard none the worse for his immersion. An early start was made on February 19, and at 6.30 a.m. soundings three miles east of Barranjoey showed 23 fathoms. The Thetis hove to, but before the trawl could be got in she had drifted into 20 fathoms. The cod was hove in first, followed quickly by the bow otter board. A pause to allow the wire towing warp to be passed along to the stern otter board occupied a minute or I two. Then all was clear and the boards could be seen disappearing through the water on the windward side. The Thetis headed nor'east by east, and a rate of 2 ½ knots was maintained. This rate was pretty well the same during all the subsequent trawls, the highest surface speed at any time being only 3 knots on one occasion. The net was allowed to remain out for 2 ½ hours, and then in 32 fathoms of water, soundings showing a fine sandy bottom,  was hauled in. Owing to want of practice, which was subsequently overcome in the other hauls, about 200 fish escaped. These were principally whiting and gurnard. 

The result of the haul when tipped on deck was a total of 763 fish. They were as follows : — Stingrays, 490 ; gurnard, 136 leatherjackets, 40 ; flat head, 37 ; small schnapper, 26; boxfish, 13; swimming crabs, 5 ; shovel-nosed rays, 3 ; fiddlers, 3 ; teraglin, 2 ; small sharks, 2 ; red mullet, 2 ; whiting, 1 ; flounder, 1 ; small swordfish, 1 ; batoid ray, 1. 

The majority of fish in this haul, it will be seen, consist of what fishermen call rubbish. The wind blew gently from the south-east and there was a smooth sea. 

The second trawl was begun at 11.20 a.m., a rate of two knots being maintained till 1 p-m , when a crash showed something amiss. The trawl had met with an obstruction, which proved to be a wreck in longitude 151-33 ½ , latitude 33-33. The soundings gave a depth of 40 fathoms, and it was immediately thought that a reef had been met with. Examination of the trawl showed one of the otter-board chains broken and several tears in the net, the cod only being saved by the belly line. There had been a large number of fish enclosed, but as the trawl travelled up these could be seen escaping. Hundreds floated on to the top of the water, and formed a meal for the sea birds who quickly congregated. The fish remaining in the net were as follows : — Whiting, 24 ; schnapper, one about 2lb. ; John dory, 1 large ; bellows fish, 3 small. 

Marks of rust and a piece of broken wood showed the nature of the impediment below, and as the locality was the scene of the foundering of the Minora and the Gem, probably it was the mast of one of these vessels which tore the cod so badly. On the extent of the damage being ascertained it was decided to go ashore and repair at once. 

Sunday, the 20th, was occupied with repairs to the net, the Thetis having anchored in Kareel Bay for the purpose. The scientist, Mr. Waite, seized the opportunity to secure some specimens on shore. On the 21st an early daylight start was made out east of Barranjoey to 31 fathoms, care being taken to keep south of the wreck. The lead showed white sand and shell bottom. There was no wind, and the trawl drifted under the vessel, but neither then nor at any time did the trawl or the ropes foul the propeller. Captain Hildebrand always acted with sailor-like promptitude in carrying out the wishes of Captain Nielsen, and Mr. Farnell beyond indicating the direction in which he wished to go, exercised no authority in teaching men he speedily saw knew exactly how to do their business. 

The drop this time was nevertheless mulled by the head line fouling the ground line, and thus closing the mouth of the trawl. The net went along the bottom without meeting with any impediments, but failed to catch any fish on account of the mouth of the trawl being closed. After two hours' trawling it was hauled m in 55 fathoms. The lead showed a bottom of shell and mud. 

The fourth trial was more successful : indeed, from the fourth to the twelfth, with the exception of the sixth, improvement was regular. At 9.30 a.m. on the 21st the trawl was dropped in 55 fathoms, and a circular course into 30 fathoms and out to 83 fathoms was made for two hours. At this depth, which was unexpected, the patent sounding gear was hove, and gave a mean depth of 83 fathoms. The chart showed 50 fathoms, and the presence of a deep hole was therefore indicated. The temperature at the surface was 72', and at the bottom 60’. 

The cod proved to contain the following fish : — Whiting, 40 ; gurnard, 26 ; flounders, 20 ; flathead, 17 ; john dory, 14 ; leatherjacket, 14; percis (hardiheads), 5 ; Australian skate (edible), 2 ; saw fish, 1 : box, 1 : stingray, 1. 

The fifth trial was made from the hale showing 83 fathoms east to eist by south from 12.45 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. After one hour soundings were taken showing 64 fathoms, and at 67 fathoms the net was hauled aboard. The temperature here was 73-5 surface. 60-2 bottom. The fish were few, but their quality and size were satisfactory. The following are the numbers :— Flounders. 20 ; percis, 10 ;boar fish, S : gurnard, 5 ; flathead, 6 : leatherjackets, 3; angel sharks, 3 ; john dory, 2 ; Australian skate, 1. 

The sixth trawl for some unaccountable reason was a barren haul, although the net went along the bottom. The next trial was made at night from 7 p.m. till 10.40 p.m., about 20 miles off the coast, between Barranjoey and the North Head of Port Jackson. The net was dropped in 80 fathoms and the vessel was headed west by south till the Sydney lighthouse showed almost abeam. The bottom was coarse sand and fine sand. At 62 fathoms the trawl was hauled in, and disclosed some fresh varieties of edible fish. The catch was as fellows : — Naunegai, 132 ; n ck perch, 37 ; stingrays, 26 ; leatherjackets, 1\ : flathead, IG : gurnard (two kinds), 15 ; dog fish, 8 ; crawfi-h, S ; carp, 4 ; sergeant baker, 2 ; Australian skate, 2 : John dory, 1 ; angel shark, I. On the 22nd instant the eighth trial was begun abreast Cape Three Points, about three miles wide in 25 fathoms. The trawl was dropped at 6.15 a ml on a mud bottom, and a semi-circular course was made, gradually working northward. At 9 a.m., in a depth of 28 fathoms on a bottom of coarse sand and gravel, the trawl was hauled aboard, and proved a veritable surprise. 

The following records speak for themselves. As the bulged out cod showed itself first to those on the bridge there was a general cry of ' big haul,' and the line was quickly passed round the cod and hauled in by the winch. The haul was as follows : -Whiting, 315 ; gurnard, 180 ; leather jackets, 160 ; squid, 49 ; schnapper, 36 (small); flathead, 31: stingray, II : blue swimming crabs, 10 : stonelifters, 3 ; John Dory. 2 ; box fish, 2. The bottom temperature was 64-2. Large numbers of small whiting escaped as the net was being lifted in. 

The ninth trial was made quickly, beginning from the same ground where the net had been hauled in last. The depth was 28 fathoms ; the locality three miles eastward of Cape Three Points, and the lead gave the bottom as brown sand. The trawl was lowered at 9.45 a.m., and at, 12 noon was hauled in over brown sand. The wind blew gently from the nor'-east. 

The haul was again excellent, though not so large numerically as the last. The numbers were as follows : — Gurnards, 350 : leather- jackets, 60 : squid, 50 ; flathead, 47; whiting, 28; flounders, 17; stingray. 6 ; stonelifters, 5 ; box fish, 5 ; swimming crabs, b ; John Dory, 5 ; Australian skate, 3. The tenth trial was made for a longer time, Captain Nielsen being jf the opinion that the full hauling time might soon be engaged in now that the bottoms were proving trawlable. Up to the present there was always the fear of an outlier of rock upsetting a long haul, but the smooth-going was reassuring, and the principals determined to make 1 anger hauls in the future. At 1.30 p.m. the trawl was lowered in 28 fathoms a little to the north of Cape Three Points, and a northerly course was steered until a point five miles east-south-east of Tuggerah Lakes entrance was reached. At 5.15 p.m. the lead gave 28 fathoms on fine sand, and the net was hauled aboard. The figures are as follows : — Stingrays, 210 ; gurnard, 200 ; flathead, 160 ; leather-Jackets, 101: flounders, 18; box fish, 6 : Australian skate, 6 ; stonelifters, 3 ; dogfish, 2 ; Port Jackson shark, 2 ; shovel-nosed ray, 2 ; John Dory, 1 ; batoid ray, 1 ; sole, 1 ; crab, 1 ; sawfish, 1: and two buckets full of large squid. This was the first appearance of a sole in any of the hauls. 

The eleventh and twelfth hauls were made at night. At 6.5 p in. in 28 fathoms off Tuggerah Lakes the trawl was dropped, and the vessel went northerly to between Bungaree Norah aud Bird Island, at a distance of three miles from shore. Then the vessel was carefully turned eastward and southward, and the deeper water was swept over right bask to 3 ½ miles off Barranjoey. At 11 p.m. the net was raised in 34 fathoms, the lead showing a sandy bottom. An extra heavy weight was noticed, and it was soon seen that the trawl was bringing in a large log about 20ft. long and 3ft. girth with a fork, altogether weighing perhaps half a ton. The cod was also bulged out by an enormous lot of fish, and these were soon on deck. The haul was the best so far, probably because the time the trawl had been down was longer. 

The fish were as follows : — Stingray, 500 ; flathead, 480 ; squid, 100 ; leatherjackets, 80 ; gurnard, 67 ; nannegai. 55 ; flounders, 50 ; Australian skate, 30 : shovel-nosed ray, 6 ; crabs, 4 ; boxfish, 4 ; John Dory, 3 : dogfish, 3 ; teraglin, 1. It should be mentioned that the Australian, skate are an excellent variety of edible fish. 

The twelfth trial was made in 34 fathoms over a sandy bottom at 12.30 a.m., and the vessel steamed southward till 5.30 a.m., where the trawl was raised in 23 fathoms. The distance from the coast was then about three miles south-east of Barranjoey. It proved to be the best haul of the lot, as the following will show. The cod belched out when opened the enormous number of 1S84 fish, the varieties being — Nannegai, 550 ; stingray, 410 ; flathead, 340 ; gurnard, 3(-0 ; flounders, 130 ; squid, 100 ; leatherjackets, 87 ; red mullet, 23 ; schuapper. 20 ; boxfish, 12 ; John Dory, 3 ; carp, 3 : Australian skate, 2 ; dogfish, 2 ; Sergeant Baker, 1 ; teraglin, 1. On this occasion some fine schnapper weighing about 121b. to 14lb. were hauled in, six out of the 20 being over 81b. each. The red mullet were an exceptionally fine lot. We exploited a zigzag course from a little south of Barranjoey to 40 miles north, and over depths ranging from 20 to 80 fathoms. An analysis of the hauls shows the following records of edible fish caught in the three days1 trawling: — Flathead, 1131; flounders, 256; edible skates, 46 ; whiting, 408 : nannegai, 79' ?' crabs, 21 : scbnapper, 83 ; teraglin, 4 ; gunard, 1279 ; John Dory, 32 ; red mullet, 25 ; rock perch, 37 ; Sergeant Baker, 3 ; boar fish, 8 ; sole, 1 ; carp, 7 ; crayfish, 8. And the following of fish little valued, although i may be mentioned that the leather-jackets, hardiheads, rays, and fiddlers are regarded as edible fish in many quarters : — Stingrays, 1684 ; leather-jackets, 597 ; shovelnosed rays, 11 ; sharks and dogfish, 23 ; boxfish and stonelifters, 54 ; batrays, 2 ; fidiers, 3 ; bellow fish, 3 ; hardiheads, 16.


CHART OF THE PARTS OF COAST TRAWLED


THE STEAMER THETIS LEAVING CIRCULAR QUAY ON THE SECOND TRAWLING EXPEDITION.  
The Trawling Experiments. (1898, March 5). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 496. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163805715 

In 1900:
THE PROPERTY MARKET.
As a rule in commercial circles a public holiday tends to make a broken week and restrict the usual volume of business. Last week's transactions in the estate market were no exception, few sales being noted either by auction or private contract. During the next few weeks several important sales of city properties and well-known suburban estates (in subdivision) will come under the hammer.

Messrs. Batt, Rodd, and Purves, Limited, at their rooms on Tuesday, offered, under instructions from the surviving trustee of the Bassett-Darley Estate and the administratrix of the late Benjamin Wentworth Darley, a marine site, comprising 400 acres of land at Pittwater, on the main road and close to the lighthouse at Barranjoey. This estate embraces on the ocean side the well-known Cabbage Tree Boat Harbor, and in Pittwater the much valued camping ground in Careel Bay. The property was offered, in subdivisions, the lots ranging from one acre to 74 acres, the first buyer having the option of picking his lots. Bidding was started by Mr. C. Forssberg at £5 per acre. Then bids, after considerable animation, rose quickly to £12 per acre, at which figure Mr. Forsberg took 13 lots, altogether about 30 acres. This land was described as having a sandy frontage to Pittwater and Careel Bay. The first lot on entering the estate from Manly, 4 acres 3 roods 16 perches through from the ocean side to Careel Bay, went to Mr. Trevor Jones at £10 per acre, and the end lot on the beach, a block of a little over 4 acres, at £9 10s per acre.

On the Pittwater Estate a block of land, 21 ¼  acres, near the Hole in the Wall and Bilgola Head, with large frontage- to the main road, was passed in at £1 17s 6d per. acre.  
THE PROPERTY MARKET. (1900, January 31). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117039706 

As can be seen from just a few of the archival reports available, it is visiting fishers that most frequently encountered problems in unfamiliar waters or through inexperience with sailing or motorboats. The resident year round families of fishers were frequently those who were asked to find people long before Water Police and Marine Rescue were based on the Pittwater estuary permanently.

BROKEN BAY. - And Week-end Fishermen.
(BY U. R. ELLIS.)
In Broken Bay in the still twilight of a summer's evening the dusk gathers from Ocean Beach about dim majestic headlands. The feet of these are bathed by billowy foam rising softly white, while the surf booms its monotone of mystery-laden music. The veil  of mist and spume and spray, thickening, adds a new softness to the rugged distant outlines. Crouching on guard, more like a sphinx of mystery than a stone-hewn king of beasts, is Lion Island, gazing eternally eastwards to-wards the ocean through the heads. The guardian of the bay saw Cook go by in the Endeavour, and watched the white sails of Governor Phillip's little boats even as no wit stares through at the little pleasure boats that come and go in Pittwater.

Above Lion Island, as the night creeps on, appears the rich red orb of Barrenjoey Light-house, an unwinking eye surveying from its eminence a neighbourhood without a peer for beauty in the Southern Hemisphere. It stares and stares through the gloom of the night like a red star perched in space.

The intricate winding of the gorges through which the Hawkesbury flows to the sea provide a vast playground for a great city. It is the Mecca of bathers and fishermen, this Broken Bay and the streams which flow into it. At night the shores of Ettalong and Ocean Beach are studded with a chain of yellow dots of lights from lanterns that flicker and flare on the sands beside fishers, who cast their lines from dark, sometimes till dawn. Whiting and parrot-fish, flathead, blackfish, and bream are waiting to be caught from shore and boat. Each night a fleet of boats cruises out up-river on the velvet waters, and there are few boats with nothing to show for the night's work.

Meet the Woy Woy train on a Friday night at Woy Woy station. The scene reminds one of a scene at some great factory, as scores of men in working clothes file through the rail-way gates and board the dozen buses waiting there to whirl them away to their special fishing haunts. On Sunday night they go back with sugarbags on their shoulders, and the traces of worry replaced on their faces by a new, healthy coat of sun-tan.

Woy Woy is an intriguing chain of river villages, with backyards ending abruptly in water; each house with its boathouse, or pier, or bathing enclosure; nothing but bathing costumes on the clothes-line. Here and there, glimpsed through a sylvan frame of trees, is a quiet little scene of white sand and azure water and quaint buildings painted gold inthe sunlight, with mountains rising sheer behind, looking like the corner of a scene from the lakes of Switzerland. Backyard pumps provide unexpected novelty. Waterflows through spear-head pipes at a depth of 8ft-clear, crystal water, well filtered by thes and in which it flows. It is permanent water, good for drinking, though hard for washing. The tank is not extinct on the shores of Broken Bay.
Mount Ettalong, a rugged, rocky headland which is the end of a long mountain range, separates Ocean Beach, one of the safest surf beaches on the coast, from Pearl Beach one of the most dangerous. Ocean Beach is protected by a bar of sandbanks stretching parallel with the beach half a mile from the shore. Pearl Bench has no such protection, and the sand shelves steeply, converting the receding surf into a surging torrent.
Though Governor Phillip went in search of arable land and found none, local residents are finding that the sandy soil is ideal for some classes of cultivation. Enormous passion-fruit are being grown in virgin sandy soil,  and tomatoes, pumpkins, chokoes, and flowers are thriving.   BROKEN BAY. (1928, March 3). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16446624


One 1880's article remarks by a visitor on his way to the Central Coast states they were ferried there by a fisherman who lived, along with his family, under the lighthouse on Barrenjoey. The family associated longest as being fishermen from Barrenjoey is named Arblaster: 

FISHERMAN FINDS WRECKAGE
The wreckage of a launch was found yesterday morning at Big Box Head, the entrance to Woy Woy, by a fisherman.
According to a message received by Mr. Faulks, the Secretary of the State Navigation Department, from the head keeper at Barrenjoey Lighthouse, afisherman named Arblaster, residing at Barrenjoey, reported that he had discovered half the side of a launch at Big Box Head, the entrance to Woy Woy. The launch, which was painted white, was about 25ft in length, and was constructed of kauri planking of ½in or ¾in thickness. It also contained maple fittings. FISHERMAN FINDS WRECKAGE. (1925, September 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16240552 

50 ON BOARD
LAUNCH IN PERIL ENGINE FAILS PALM BEACH RESCUE
Developing engine trouble on the trip from Hawkesbury to Newport yesterday afternoon, the tourist launch Gloria, with 50 passengers on board, dropped anchor between Lion Island and West Head, and was badly buffeted by a north -east swell. The lighthousekeeper at Barren-Joey, Mr. Robt. W. Russell, fearing that the wind would force the vessel on to the rocks, sent out an alarm, and Joseph Arblaster left in his launch to tow in the Gloria. The Job took, about an hour and a half. The passengers, many of them seasick, were safely landed at Palm Beach.
50 ON BOARD (1928, January 20). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 11 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224228459 

FISHERMEN RESCUED IN HEAVY GALE. ABOVE: Two elderly fishermen, who refused to give their names, photographed in their launch last night, after it had been towed into the shelter of Pittwater from four miles off Palm Beach, where the craft had been caught in a 50-miles-an hour gale. AT RIGHT: Two of the three rescuers, Messrs. Arthur Goddard (left) and Charles Pritchard. FISHERMEN RESCUED IN HEAVY GALE. (1946, July 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17985621 Photo courtesy Peter Verrills.


The Arblaster, Aldritt, Gonsalves, Gow, and Goddard families warrant a page unto themselves - as do the fisher families of Careel Bay - the Robinson, Hastie, Turner and Wilson familiesThere are many more - all interconnected across both sides of the estuary:

One of the oldest residents of the Hawkesbury River, Peter Smith, died at Brooklyn recently, at the age of 86 years.  The late Mr. Smith was a native of Schleswig Holstein, Denmark, and came to Australia in 1854. He settled down at Watson's Bay as a fisherman and there built the first stone house to be erected in that locality. A few years later he was carrying on his calling as a fisherman at Pittwater and on the Hawkesbury River.  In the early days he was accustomed to take his fish to Sydney in a 16ft. boat, and had some exciting trips in the open sea. Some years later Mr. Smith married and went to Flat Rock, Brooklyn, to live, where he and his wife and children were the solitary inhabitants. After twelve years' residence there he bought some land, where he built a comfortable cottage, and resided there till a few years ago, when he sold out and built a cottage close by, where he lived the remainder of his long life. Mr. Smith rendered over twenty years faithful service to the Fisheries Department, and although his position forced him into conflict with some people with whom he had to have unpleasant duties, he was generally spoken of as one of 'the good old sort.' The wife of deceased passed away some two years ago. Of a family of six sons and three daughters, all are married except the youngest son. One of the sons passed away four weeks prior to his father's death, leaving a wife and two children. The funeral was largely attended, over 120 people paying their last respects to the departed, the remains being laid to rest in the Church of England portion of Brooklyn cemetery.
PERSONAL. (1921, September 9). Windsor and Richmond Gazette (NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article85876841 



A few of their catches underline the abundance and huge size of seafood once available here - and this was a regular occurrence - once upon a time:

HAUL OF SALMON AT PALM BEACH.


A fisherman with a recent early morning catch on the ocean front at Palm Beach.
HAUL OF SALMON AT PALM BEACH. (1932, May 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16909771 

Fish in boat is mullet – taken at South Palm Beach; left to right: Bob Robinson Snr., Clarrie Witchard (brother in law) Jack Robinson, Henry Robinson (brothers) and Bob Robinson (Henry and Jack’s dad – Peter’s grandfather). Clarrie married Eunice ‘Tippy’ Robinson, Henry’s sister.

¼ lb. prawns in big catch

For the first time, prawns were netted by the ton in deep water off Newcastle at the weekend, secretary of the United Fishermen's League (Mr. J. "Facey) said today. The prawns weighed up to ¼ lb each, and averaged 30 to a pound. Mr. Facey said that five boats caught two tons on Saturday and seven boats one and a half tons yesterday. Mr. Joe Arblaster (Palm Beach fisherrman) discovered the new ground¼lb. prawns in big catch (1948, February 16). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 6 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229034067 


What also shows through in the growth of fishing and generations at this end of the Pittwater is a 'one family' ethos. Fishing is a hard way to make a living - a little bit of love goes a long way:

ROMANCE
Lighthouse Girl To Marry
AFTER having lived all her life in lighthouses on the coast of N.S. W, above' the rollers of the Pacific Ocean, Miss Cecelia Amelia Berryman, 23, is to take the plunge into the seas of matrimony. Miss Berryman found that life on a lighthouse gave her all she wanted. She never smoked, she never drank, she never "did up" her face, she made, all her own clothes — But life changed when she met a young man at Palm Beach, not far from the Barrenjoey Lighthouse, in which she lived. She suddenly found that the lighthouse was lonely. So the banns are out. 

"A Great Kid" 
"Yes," she said to-day, "I'm going to miss the lighthouse and the sea, and I suppose it will be strange living in a cottage. "But I'll be near the sea, as we are going to live at Palm Beach for a while. And her father, sun-tanned John G. Berryman, more than 60 years of age, is losing his only child. "She was great, this kid," he said. Miss Berryman is marrying William John Arblaster, fourth son of Mr. George Arblaster, of Balmain and Palm Beach. The wedding will take place at the Church of England, Stockton, on March 4 at 6.30 p.m.

Miss Berryman. 
ROMANCE (1933, February 22). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9 (LAST RACE EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228900034 

LAUNCH SAFE. The 38ft. Launch Christina, which reached Newcastle yesterday afternoon after having been missing for two days, was close to disaster off Norah Head. One anchor failed to hold and she drifted towards the rocks. The launch was running before a strong southerly and the crew ran her under the headland and dropped anchor. The anchor dragged till the launch was within 800yards of the rocks. "It was an anxious time for both of-us," said William Jenkins, of Palm Beach, owner of Christina.
BARRY HEWLETT.
"One anchor had been lost and we were preparing to drop the large main anchor when the hook caught." Christina was running under jury rig towards Newcastle yesterday morning when Mr. F. Gonsalves, fisherman, of Palm Beach, took her in tow. She reached port yesterday afternoon. The launch left Palm Beach for Newcastle at 7 a.m. on Monday. Jenkins's companion was Barry Hewlett, also of Palm Beach. Jenkins said the timing chain of the magneto broke at 1.30 a.m on Monday, when the launch was off Tuggerah. A spare chain fitted was too large to be of any use.
WILLIAM JENKINS.
There was nothing to do then but rig a jury sail and run before a strong north-easterly back to Palm Beach. The wind held till the launch reached Cape Three Points. a few miles north of Palm Beach. 1tdropped suddenly and was replaced by a southerly which drove the launch north again. Jenkins said. he and Hewlett flashed signals night and day. A ship sent back an answering flash but nobody went to their assistance. A plane passed them on Monday night and they flashed Morse signals. The plane dropped low with its landing lights on, but kept on its way. Hewlett returned to Sydney by train yesterday afternoon. He said he would return in a few days to take up prawning off Stockton. LAUNCH SAFE, BUT WAS NEAR ROCKS. (1950, July 13).Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) , p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article135295009

Adelaide Answers Broken Bay SOS. A man whose 22ftlaunch was drifting help-less on to a reef in Broken Bay near PalmBeach last night received aid when his radio SOS was picked up in Adelaide. Mr. John Condie, 44, of Station Street, Beverley Park, was returning to Kogarah Bay, where he keeps the launch Pudaloo, when it broke down. Mr. Condie said last night: "My launch broke down about 5.30 p.m., close inshore, opposite the Barranjoey Lighthouse. 
"I was drifting towards a reef where the Maitland was wrecked. The sea was rough and was breaking on the reef.
"Another 100 yards and my launch would have been wrecked," Mr. Condie continued. ' ' !
"Luckily I have a two-way wireless. I tried to contact Sydney radio. While trying to do so I managed to pick up Adelaide radio. '
"Adelaide took the details and contacted Sydney for me." 
Sydney water police communicated with a boatshed at Palm Beach, owned by Mr. C. B. Gow, who sent out a 35ft fishing trawler to rescue the launch. The trawler towed the 'launch into Pittwater, Palm Beach, at 8.20 p.m. The paddle steamer Maitland ran on the reef on the night of May 5, 1898, and 115 passengers and 11 of the crew were drowned. Adelaide Answers Broken Bay S O S. (1953, September 14).The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18378339

The Barrenjoey-Palm Beach fishermen weren't above fighting against those who would like to push them around - Carl Gow even giving fish away for nothing at one stage, during the 1930's, The Depression, to people in town, because it would not fetch enough and they would get more benefit from it. They also used their fishing for good causes:

Six in Quest choice!
"Miss Parramatta"— selected from six local girls — will be announced at a ball at Parramatta Town Hall tonight. With the second place-getter, she will be sponsored in the NSW section of the Miss Australia Quest by the Parramatta District Committee. During the presentation the committee chairman (Mr. R. T. Vinnicombe) will hand to the NSW Quest director a cheque for £500 to enable the two girls to qualify for State judging. "Miss Parramatta," who will be presented by the Mayoress (Mrs. H. M. Symonds), will be chosen from: Dorothy Morris (Macarthur Press), Vivienne Taylor (Staff Bulletins), Beryl Docker and Betty Fryer (Parramatta RSL), Jean Clark (Parramatta City Council) and Nea Gwynne (Memorial Hall Appeal).
The ball will be compered by radio personality Clark McKay. Tickets are 10/6 each, and reservations may be made at UW7466. To help North Sydney candidates a "bargain" day for children will be held at Luna Park tomorrow afternoon.Children Children will be able to buy six tickets for 1/- and adults four tickets for 1/- to cover all amusements. Joan Marvel, Speedway Royale candidate, invites children under 14 years of age to be guests of the management at the Showground tomorrow night. A deep-sea fishing trip and picnic from Gow's Wharf, Palm Beach, will be held on Sunday to help the candidature of Sister Grace Maher and Palm Beach RSL. Six in Quest choice! (1948, November 19).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 7 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228685864 

In Quest

Dan Daly, shows Sister Grace Maher (left) and Mr. H. Swanbury (centre) president of Homebush RSL, supporting Sister Maher in the Miss Australia Quest, how to use big game tackle in the fishing "carnival" at Palm Beach on Saturday. In quest (1948, October 6). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 7 (LAST RACE ALL DETAILS). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231143477


Photo courtesy Tom Gilbert (in middle) atop Carl Gow's/Gonsalves Boatshed, 1949. Annual fundraisers were held in the park near the ferry wharf to raise funds to support the Randwick Hospital with the Carl Gow/Gonsalves Boatshed put into use. 

This became an annual event: HOSPITAL BENEFIT AT PALM BEACH. The Randwick Auxiliary Hospital will benefit from a deep sea fishing and sporting day at Palm Beach tomorrow. Professional fishermen operating from Palm Beach and private owners are providing the trawlers. HOSPITAL BENEFIT AT PALM BEACH. (1950, March 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27575067

Fisherman Wins Appeal Against Crown. The Court of Criminal Appeal decided yesterday that it, is not an offence for a professional fisherman to have in his possession fish irrespective of whether he proposed to sell it in the established market or not. The decision arose out of an appeal by Carl Beeston Gow. Gow was convicted by a magistrate under the Fisheries and Oyster Farms Act of having fish for sale which had not been brought to and sold in the district market. The fish was seized and forfeited to the Crown. Gow appealed unsuccessfully to Quarter Sessions. Government inspectors saw Gow's truck in front of a fish shop at Narrabeen. There was a large quantity of fish in the truck, a set of scales, and newspapers.

MEANING OF DECISION. 

A legal authority said yesterday that the practical effect for fishermen of the Court's decision is that a Fisheries inspector will have to detect a fisherman in the act of disposing of his catch outside the legal market before he can be convicted of an offence. The Chief Justice, in a reserved judgment, said it clearly would be nonsense to suggest that in all cases the mere possession of fish intended to be sold before they had been sold in a market would constitute an offence. Every licensed fisherman obviously intended to earn a livelihood by disposing of his catch by selling it. But as soon as he took the fish into his boat or otherwise reduced it into possession then he had it in his possession for sale, not immediately, perhaps, but at some subsequent time. He must then send the fish to the market in order that it might be sold in compliance with the requirements of the Act, and to suggest that the section of the Act was to receive a construction which would make that an offence was clearly absurd. It was clear that no offence was proved against Gow, his Honor said, because, although he announced his intention of selling some of the fish no sale in fact took place. The Chief Justice added: "It may possibly be that there is a gap in the Act, but that must be attributed to the language which the Legislature has used, and the Court cannot remould it." UPHELD The appeal was upheld with costs. Mr. Justice Owen and Mr.Justice Herron, in separate judgments, concurred. [Mr. J. W. Smyth, Q.C.. Mr.G. Carmichael and Mr. A. V. Maxwell (by Bartier, Perry and Purcell) for appellant; Mr. H.A. Henry (by the Crown Solicitor) for the Crown.] Fisherman Wins Appeal Against Crown. (1952, May 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18263362

As can be seen in Narrabeen Prawning Times - A Seasonal Tide of Returnings Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings and Pearl Kings and When Not to Harvest Oysters,  Yabbying In Warriewood Creeks and  Eeling in Warriewood's Creeks and below, a Fisheries Act was required as within a century of European settlement here stocks of all kinds of seafood were being diminished at a rate that would see an end to fishing. In 1945 the idea of co-operatives became a reality - with Palm Beach among this development:

How Fishermen's Co-operatives Have Developed In N.S.W.

By A STAFF CORRESPONDENT 

Today 17 Government sponsored fishermen's co-operatives scattered along the 700 miles of N.S.W. coastline are handling nearly 20 million pounds of fish annually. Co-operatives as a means of rationalising the existing marketing system, improving distribution and ensuring that the public received a fresh, wholesome fish, were recommended by a fact-finding committee to the Chief Secretary, Mr. J. M. Baddeley, early in 1945.

A MEMBER of the committee said recently that before co-operatives were established, fisher-men packed many varieties of fish in one box and they did not properly ice the fish before it was sent to Sydney.

"The worst feature of individual packing was that fish often arrived at Sydney in a fly-blown condition," he said. "Agents, avoiding normal health inspectors, would hose maggots off the infested fish and then sell the fish. By doing this, they thought they could hold the fisherman's business.

"To improve this system we con-sidered depots at the various fishing ports, which would receive fish from the fishermen, and then grade, ice' and consign them to Sydney under hygienic condition«.

"Fishermen favoured co-operatively controlled depots" rather than Government establishments, hence our recommendation to the Minister," the committeeman said.

Acting on the recommendation, Mr. Baddeley sent officers to tour the coast to "sell" the idea of co-operatives to fishermen. Their task was not easy, because fishermen are individualists. Father and son, they had caught, packed, and sold their fish just how they pleased.

"Then there was "the question of finance. The Government said: "If you can get together, form a co-operative, we will guarantee a bank overdraft to the .extent of the nominal share capital of the co-operative."

Fishermen did not have to pay for the shares fully. They took out shares, but paid only 10 per cent, of the face value, leaving the balance on call. It was a slow business, and for a time it seemed as though fishermen's co-operatives would not get anywhere.

Late in 1945, however, Mr. Baddeley gave Mr. R. A. Frith, a quietly-spoken but persistent Public servant, carte blanche to, "get co-operatives functioning."

On the North Coast, where the seeds of co-operation evidently fell on fruitful ground, they were carefully cultivated by Mr. Frith. But it was not until September 23, 1946, that the first consignment of fish was sent to Sydney from Grafton by the Clarence River Co-operative Ltd. The turnover of this undertaking is now about £ 150,000 a year.

Then followed Laurieton and the Hastings River Co-operative at Port Macquarie.

Now there are co-operatives at Byron Bay, Richmond River, Evans Head, Grafton, Nambucca-Coffs Harbour, Macleay District, Hastings . River, Laurieton, Wallis Lakes (Tuncurry), Newcastle District, Tuggerah District, Palm Beach, Newport, Nowra District, Central South Coast (Batcman's Bay), Bermagui, and Eden.

2,000 Members

There are 3,000 registered fishermen in N.S.W., of which more than two-thirds are members of various co-operatives. Between them they caught 33,000,000 pounds of fish for the 12 months ended June, 1948.

The fishermen who are not members of co-operatives are mostly located on the South Coast and about Sydney. The Sydney fisher-men can deliver their catches to the market without difficulty.

There are also about 300 to 400 European fishermen, mostly Italians, who will not entertain the idea of co-operation.

What do fishermen think of co-operatives?

Mr. T. Poole, a deep-sea fisher-man and director of the Laurieton Co-operative, says: "Co-operatives are the fishermen's dream. We are at least 33 per cent, better off acting as a group rather than as individuals.

"Nowadays, instead of coming in from fishing at 11a.m. and having to pack our fish, which generally took until 5 p.m., we just pull in at the co-op, wharf and unload. Then we have more time for our gear or rest. Or we can stop out on the ground longer if we wish.

"Joint effort is a good thing. We have nearly completed a new packing shed and have finished a new wharf. The wharf didn't cost us much because we got together and, with donated timber, built it ourselves."

Mr. J. B. Elliott, a lake fisherman at Tuncurry, says: "Co-operatives will do me. We get a guaranteed price of 5d a pound for mullet, and we get paid for every pound of fish sent away."

At Tuncurry only 55 of the 100 fishermen working the Wallis Lakes arc members of the co-operative. One of the non-members, Mr. Leo Amato, said recently: "For all my life t have been fishing for my-self. To join the co-operative it would seem that I'm fishing for someone else. But I have been thinking about it a lot lately, and I will join the co-op. in the next week or two. I do not get any benefit by stopping out of the co-operative."

Mr, Amato is a successful fisher-man. He is typical of the many hundreds of fishermen in the State who want to see co-operatives functioning as successful concerns before they throw in their lot.

Saves Grading

Have the co-operatives simplified the marketing of fish?

Mr. H. Harris, manager of the Sydney Fish Market, says: "Fish do not have to be graded and repacked at Sydney market."

On the other hand, the condemnation rate of fish at first increased steeply. For instance, for the 12 months ending June 30, 1948, 309,1411b, or .94 per cent, of the total catch, was condemned by health inspectors. To the previous 12 months nearly 305,0001b were condemned. Figures over the past six months show there has been a substantial improvement on the previous high condemnation.

Mr. T. O. Roughley, Superintendent of Fisheries, blames inadequate rail transport facilities from the North Coast for a big part of the condemnations. He is urging the Commissioner for Railways to build refrigerated rail cars to carry fish in.

Besides packing and consigning fish for fishcrmcn, co-operatives also sell fish direct to the public and to retail stores. Some doubt exists as to the legality of this aspect of co-operative activity. According to the Fisheries and Oyster Farms Act of 1942, all fish must be sold through a Government market.

On that ground Mr. .R. Foster Powell, secretary of the Master Fish Merchants' Association, successfully prosecuted the Newcastle District Fishermen's Co-operative Ltd.

To overcome the legal difficulty in Newcastle, the Chief Secretary, Mr. J. M. Baddeley, established a Government market there. Now the co-operative sells all its fish through the Government market, buys back a portion, and then sells the repurchased fish direct lo the public at rates slightly above whole-sale prices.

Fishermen are confident the Government will bring down amending legislation to make legal the sale of fish by co-operatives, and thus safeguard an important profit making phase of co-operative activity.

What of the future of co-opcratives? At present they are sailing in untroubled waters. Fish prices are fixed, there is no competition between co-operatives, and there appears to be a guaranteed market for all fish caught by the 3,000 fishermen of this State.

Port Of Scheme

Mr. R. A. Frith, the Government Marketing Officer, takes an overall view of the subject. 

"The co-operatives," he says, "are an integral part, of the marketing scheme of this State. Eventually, we hope, there will be a legally constituted authority that will co-ordinate the activities of co-operatives so that gluts and periods of short sup-ply of fish will become a thing of the past.

"This can only be done if there is a new Sydney fish market with adequate built-in cold storage chambers, in which fish brought to the market in a glut can be stored for the time of shortage."

Mr. Frith admits that co-operatives, as such, will not directly in-crease production or reduce prices.

"But we must look to the future when, with the aid of Government finance, the co-operatives could sponsor pelagic fishing (sardines, herrings, pilchards, tuna, etc.), a development that could mean mil-lions of pounds to N.S.W.," said Mr. Frith. How Fishermen's Co-operatives Have Developed In N.S.W. (1949, April 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18109706 

All the shifts and changes could not keep pace with population growth, our love of recreational fishing and successive governments at state and federal level failing to refuse permission to international fishers who use that old form of trawl netting that destroys fisheries (and their futures), or the reforms really needed in putting in Marine Sanctuaries of a permanent kind.

This is just another in a long line of measures that is not saving our fish, our professional fishermen and women or the aquatic environments required to return the abundance known just over 200 years ago. Expanding Marine Reserves, restocking places, such as the prawns released into Narrabeen Lagoon a few years ago, coupled with a range of NSW Government Professional Fishermen reforms,  are the most current::

FISHERIES AND OYSTER FARMS ACT, 1935
Section 18 Notification—Fishing Closure

PURSUANT to section 18 of the Fisheries and Oyster Farms Act, 1935,i, Jack Rowland Hallam, Minister for Agriculture and Fisheries, do, by this my notification, prohibit the taking of fish by the methods of fishing described in Column 1 of the Schedule to this notification, from the waters described in Column 2 of that Schedule, for the period specified in Column 3 of that Schedule.

J. R. HALLAM, M.L.C.,
Minister for Agriculture and Fisheries.

Schedule
Column 1 Methods: By means of meshing nets.

Column 2 Waters: County of Cumberland.—The whole of the waters of that portion of Pittwater between a line drawn westerly from the westernmost extremity of Barrenjoey Head to the easternmost extremity of West Head, and a line drawn north north-westerly from the westernmost extremity of Taylor's Point to the southern most extremity of Longnose Point, together with all the inlets, bays, creeks and tributaries within such portion, I (84/93)

Column 3 Period 1st January, to 30th June, in each of the years 1985 to 2004, inclusive.
FISHERIES AND OYSTER FARMS ACT, 1935 (1984, December 14). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 6189. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231375534

References And Extras

1. Chapter IX. February 1788 to March 1788 - The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay with an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island; compiled from Authentic Papers, which have been obtained from the several Departments to which are added the Journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall with an Account of their New Discoveries, embellished with fifty five Copper Plates, the Maps and Charts taken from Actual Surveys, and the plans and views drawn on the spot, by Capt. Hunter, Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Dawes, Bradley, Capt. Marshall, etc.. London. Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly, 1789. 

2. PROFILES OF THE PIONEERS IN MANLY, WARRINGAH AND PITTWATERBy Shelagh Champion, OAM, B.A.(Lib.Sc.) and George Champion, OAM, Dip.Ed.Admin. Revised 2013.



2 March 1788
On the 2d of March Governor Phillip went with a long boat and cutter to examine the broken land, mentioned by Captain Cook, about eight miles to the northward of Port Jackson, and by him named Broken Bay. This bay proved to be very extensive. The first night they slept in the boats, within a rocky point in the north-west part of the bay, as the natives, though friendly, appeared to be numerous; and the next day, after passing a bar that had only water for small vessels, they entered a very extensive branch, from which the ebb tide came out so strong that the boats could not row against it in the stream; and here was deep water. This opening appeared to end in several small branches, and in a large lagoon which could not then be examined, as there was not time to seek a channel for the boats among the banks of sand and mud. Most of the land in the upper part of this branch was low and full of swamps. Pelicans and various other birds were here seen in great numbers. Among the rest an uncommon kind, called then the Hooded Gull, and supposed to be a non descript; but it appears from a drawing sent to England, a plate from which is here inserted, to be of that species called by Mr. Latham the Caspian Tern, and is described by him as the second variety of that species.*

[* Latham's Synopsis of Birds, vol. vi. p. 351.]

Caspian Tern

Leaving this north-west branch they proceeded across the bay, and went into the south-west branch. This is also very extensive; and from it runs a second opening to the westward, affording shelter for almost any number of ships. In this part, as far as could then be examined, there is water for vessels of the greatest burthen, the soundings being at the entrance seven fathoms, and in going up still more. Continual rains prevented them from taking a survey. The land here was found much higher than at Port Jackson, more rocky, and equally covered with timber. Large trees were seen growing even on the summits of the mountains, which appeared accessible only to birds. Immediately round the headland that forms the southern entrance into the bay, there is a third branch, which Governor Phillip thought the finest piece of water he had ever seen; and which therefore he thought worthy to be honoured with the name of Pitt Water. This, as well as the south-west branch, is of sufficient extent to contain all the navy of Great Britain. But on a narrow bar which runs across the entrance it has only eighteen feet depth at low water. Within the bar there are from seven to fifteen fathoms. The land is not so high in this part as in the south-west branch, and there are some good situations where the land might be cultivated. Small springs of water were seen in most of the coves, and three cascades falling from heights, which the rains at that time rendered inaccessible.

In this excursion some interviews with the natives took place. When the party first landed in Broken Bay several women came down to the beach with the men. One of these, a young woman, was very talkative and remarkably cheerful. This was a singular instance, for in general they are observed on this coast to be much less cheerful than the men, and apparently under great awe and subjection. They certainly are not treated with much tenderness, and it is thought that they are employed chiefly in the canoes, in which women have frequently been seen with very young children at the breast. The lively young lady, when she joined the party the second day in her canoe, stood up and gave a song which was far from unpleasing. The men very readily gave their assistance to the English in making a fire, and behaved in the most friendly manner. In a bay where Governor Phillip and his company landed to draw the seine, a number of the natives again came to them. It was now first observed by the Governor that the women in general had lost two joints from the little finger of the left hand. As these appeared to be all married women, he at first conjectured this privation to be a part of the marriage ceremony; but going afterwards into a hut where were several women and children, he saw a girl of five or six years of age whose left hand was thus mutilated; and at the same time an old woman, and another who appeared to have had children, on both of whom all the fingers were perfect. Several instances were afterwards observed of women with child, and of others that were evidently wives, who had not lost the two joints, and of children from whom they had been cut.Whatever be the occasion of this mutilation, it is performed on females only; and considering the imperfection of their instruments, must be a very painful operation. Nothing has been seen in the possession of these people that is at all calculated for performing such an amputation, except a shell fixed to a short stick, and used generally for pointing their spears, or for separating the oysters from the rocks. More fingers than one are never cut; and in every instance it is the same finger that has suffered.*

[* In Patterson's Travels in Africa, lately published, we are told, that he met with a tribe of Hottentots near Orange River, all of whom had lost the first joint of the little finger: the reason they gave for cutting it off was, that it was a cure for a particular sickness to which they were subject when young. Fourth Journey, p. 117. It would be a curious coincidence of customs should it be discovered that the natives of New Holland do it for any similar reason.]

The men are distinguished in a different manner: their fingers are not mutilated, but most of them, as other voyagers have observed, want the right front tooth in the upper jaw. Governor Phillip having remarked this, pointed out to them that he had himself lost one of his front teeth, which occasioned a general clamour; and it was thought he derived some merit in their opinion from this circumstance. The perforation of the cartilage that divides the nostrils, and the strange disfiguring ornament of a long bone or stick thrust through it, was now observed, as described by Captain Cook; and the same appellation of sprit-sail yard, was ludicrously applied to it by the sailors. But several very old men were seen in this excursion who had not lost the tooth, nor had their noses prepared to receive that grotesque appendage: probably, therefore, these are marks of distinction: ambition must have its badges, and where cloaths are not worn, the body itself must be compelled to bear them.

Whether the scars raised upon the skin were of this kind, or as Captain Cook understood by their signs, marks of sorrow for deceased friends, could not now be learnt. They are of a very singular nature: sometimes the skin is raised from the flesh for several inches, appearing as if it were filled with wind, and forming a round surface of more than a quarter of an inch diameter. Their bodies are scarred in various parts, particularly about the breast and arms, and frequently on the instep. Nor does the head always escape; one man in particular, putting aside the hair on the forepart of his head, showed a scar, and then pointing to one on the foot, and to others on different parts of the body, seemed to intimate that he thought himself much honoured by having these marks upon him from head to foot. The women did not appear equally forward to produce the mutilated finger; nor was it always possible to ascertain whether they had lost the joints or not. For though they made no attempt to secrete themselves, nor seemed impressed with any idea that one part of the body more requires concealment than another, yet there was a shyness and timidity among them which frequently kept them at a distance. They never would approach so readily as the men, and sometimes would not even land from their canoes, but made signs that what was offered should be given to the men. We are not yet enough acquainted with the manners of the people to decide whether this reserve proceeds from the fears of the women, or from the jealousy of their husbands, by whom they are evidently kept in great subordination.

One of their modes of fishing was now observed: their hooks are made of the inside of a shell resembling mother of pearl. When a fish which has taken the bait is supposed to be too strong to be landed with the line, the canoe is paddled to shore, and while one man gently draws the fish along, another stands prepared to strike it with a spear: in this attempt they seldom fail. In the plate which represents this action, the engraver has inadvertently left the bodies of the figures rather too white; in other respects it is very accurate.



Natives of Botany Bay

When the southern branch of Broken Bay was first visited, the getting round the headland that separates the branches, was attended with some difficulty, on account of very heavy squalls of wind, accompanied with rain. An attempt was made to land, where there proved not to be sufficient water for the boat. During this transaction, an old man and a youth were standing on the rocks where the boat was trying to approach. Having seen how much our men had laboured to get under land, they were very solicitous to point out the deepest water. Afterwards they brought fire, and seemed willing to render any service in their power. Two of the officers suffered themselves to be conducted by the old man to a cave at some distance, but declined going in, though he invited them by all the signs he could invent. This was rather unfortunate, as the rain was falling very violently, and the cave was found next day sufficiently large to have sheltered the whole party. The old man certainly took great pains to make this understood, but the motive of his earnestness unluckily was mistaken, and his visitors suffered for their suspicions. He afterwards assisted in clearing away the bushes, and making preparations for the party to sleep on shore, and next morning was rewarded with presents for his very friendly behaviour. Two days afterwards, when Governor Phillip returned to the same spot, the old man met him with a dance and a song of joy. His son was with him, and several of the natives; a hatchet was given them and other presents; and as the Governor was to return next day to Port Jackson, it was hoped that the friendship thus begun, and so studiously cultivated, would have continued firm. But as soon as it was dark, the old man stole a spade, and was caught with it in his hand. Governor Phillip thought it necessary, on this occasion, to shew some tokens of displeasure, and therefore when the delinquent approached, he gave him two or three slight slaps on the shoulder, and then pushed him away, at the same time pointing to the spade. This gentle chastisement at once destroyed their friendship. The old man immediately seized a spear, and coming close up to the Governor, poized it, and seemed determined to strike. But seeing that his threats were disregarded, (for his antagonist chose rather to risk the effects of his anger than to fire upon him) or perhaps dissuaded by something the other natives said, in a few moments he dropped the spear and went away. It was impossible not to be struck with the courage displayed by him on this occasion, for Governor Phillip at the time was not alone, but had several officers and men about him. From this and other similar events, personal bravery appears to be a quality in which the natives of New South Wales are not by any means deficient. The old man returned the next morning with many other natives, but, in order to convince him of his fault, he was less noticed than his companions, who were presented with hatchets and various other articles.

9 March 1788
It was now the 9th of March, and Governor Phillip returned to Port Jackson: having gained some useful knowledge of the country, and maintained an intercourse with the natives without departing from his favourite plan of treating them with the utmost kindness. He had endeavoured at the same time to gain their confidence, if possible, and secure their friendship. If these humane endeavours were afterwards rendered fruitless by the wanton profligacy of some depraved individuals, however he might regret it, he could have no reason to reproach himself.

The rain, which was almost constant, prevented the Governor from returning by land, which otherwise he meant to have done, for the sake of exploring a part of the country which appeared to be good and free from timber. 
from Chapter IX. February 1788 to March 1788 - The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay with an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island; compiled from Authentic Papers, which have been obtained from the several Departments to which are added the Journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall with an Account of their New Discoveries, embellished with fifty five Copper Plates, the Maps and Charts taken from Actual Surveys, and the plans and views drawn on the spot, by Capt. Hunter, Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Dawes, Bradley, Capt. Marshall, etc.. London. Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly, 1789. 

9 July 1788
On the ninth of July, an effort was made by a party of natives, which seems to indicate that they were still distressed for provisions, or that they very highly resent the incroachments made upon their fishing places. A general order had been issued to those sent out on fishing parties, to give a part of what was caught to the natives if they approached, however small the quantity taken might be; and by these means they had always been sent away apparently satisfied. But on this day, about twenty of them, armed with spears, came down to the spot where our men were fishing, and without any previous attempt to obtain their purpose by fair means, violently seized the greatest part of the fish which was in the seine. While this detachment performed this act of depredation, a much greater number stood at a small distance with their spears poized, ready to have thrown them if any resistance had been made. But the cockswain who commanded the fishing party, very prudently suffered them to take away what they chose, and they parted on good terms. This is the only instance in which these people have attempted any unprovoked act of violence, and to this they probably were driven by necessity. Since this transaction, an officer has always been sent down the harbour with the boat.

Governor Phillip went out about this time with a small party, to examine the land between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. Here were found many hundred acres of land, free from timber, and very fit for cultivation. He proceeded as far as Pitt Water, and saw several of the natives, but none of them chose to approach. When the party returned to the boats near the mouth of the harbour, about sixty of these people, men, women, and children, were assembled there. Some hours were passed with them in a peaceful and very friendly manner, but though in all this time they discovered no uneasiness, they seemed best pleased when their visitors were preparing to depart. This has always been the case, since it has been known among them that our people intend to remain on the coast. Many of the women were employed at this time in fishing, a service which is not uncommonly performed by them, the men being chiefly occupied in making canoes, spears, fish-gigs, and the other articles that constitute their small stock of necessary implements. Two women were here observed to be scarred on the shoulders like the men; this was the first instance in which they had been seen so marked.

The sailors who waited on the beach to take care of the boat saw about two hundred men assembled in two parties, who after some time drew themselves up on opposite sides, and from each party men advanced singly and threw their spears, guarding themselves at the same time with their shields. This seemed at first to be merely a kind of exercise, for the women belonging to both parties remained together on the beach; afterwards it had a more serious aspect, and the women are said to have run up and down in great agitation uttering violent shrieks. But it was not perceived that any men were killed.

As it had been supposed that many of the natives had left this part of the coast, on account of the great scarcity of fish, the different coves of the harbour were examined in one day. At this time, not more than sixty-seven canoes were counted, and about one hundred and thirty of the people were seen. But it was the season in which they make their new canoes, and large parties were known to be in the woods for that purpose.

A few days after this examination, Governor Phillip himself went again to explore the coast between Port Jackson and Botany Bay. In this journey few of the natives were seen, but new proofs were observed of their having been distressed for food. In the preceding summer they would not eat either the shark or the sting-ray, but now even coarser meat was acceptable, and indeed any thing that could afford the smallest nourishment. A young whale had just been driven upon the coast, which they were busily employed in carrying away. All that were seen at this time had large pieces of it, which appeared to have been laid upon the fire only long enough to scorch the outside. In this state they always eat their fish, never broiling it for more than a few minutes; they broil also the fern root, and another root, of which the plant is not yet known; and they usually eat together in families. Among the fruits used by them is a kind of wild fig; and they eat also the kernels of that fruit which resembles a pine-apple. The latter, when eaten by some of the French seamen, occasioned violent retchings; possibly the natives may remove the noxious qualities, by some process like those employed upon the cassada. The winter months, in which fish is very scarce upon the coast, are June, July, August, and part of September. From the beaten paths that are seen between Port Jackson and Broken Bay, and in other parts, it is thought that the natives frequently change their situation, but it has not been perceived that they make any regular migrations to the northward in the winter months, or to the south in summer. 
from Chapter XIV. July 1788 to October 1788 - The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay with an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island; compiled from Authentic Papers, which have been obtained from the several Departments to which are added the Journals of Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall with an Account of their New Discoveries, embellished with fifty five Copper Plates, the Maps and Charts taken from Actual Surveys, and the plans and views drawn on the spot, by Capt. Hunter, Lieuts. Shortland, Watts, Dawes, Bradley, Capt. Marshall, etc.. London. Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly, 1789. 

Fish, which our sanguine hopes led us to expect in great quantities, do not abound. In summer they are tolerably plentiful, but for some months past very few have been taken. Botany Bay in this respect exceeds Port Jackson. The French once caught near two thousand fish in one day, of a species of grouper, to which, from the form of a bone in the head resembling a helmet, we have given the name of light horseman. To this may be added bass, mullets, skait, soles, leather-jackets, and many other species, all so good in their kind, as to double our regret at their not being more numerous. Sharks of an enormous size are found here. One of these was caught by the people on board the Sirius, which measured at the shoulders six feet and a half in circumference. His liver yielded twenty-four gallons of oil; and in his stomach was found the head of a shark, which had been thrown overboard from the same ship. The Indians, probably from having felt the effects of their voracious fury, testify the utmost horror on seeing these terrible fish. - CHAPTER XV., The Face of the Country; its Productions, Climate, &c., A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay by Watkin Tench, Watkin Tench, Capt. of the Marines. Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, New South Wales, 10 July, 1788, published 1789.

The canoes in which they fish are as despicable as their huts, being nothing more than a large piece of bark tied up at both ends with vines. Their dexterous management of them, added to the swiftness with which they paddle, and the boldness that leads them several miles in the open sea, are, nevertheless, highly deserving of admiration. A canoe is seldom seen without a fire in it, to dress the fish by, as soon as caught: fire they procure by attrition.

There is no part of the behaviour of these people, that has puzzled us more, than that which relates to their women. Comparatively speaking we have seen but few of them, and those have been sometimes kept back with every symptom of jealous sensibility; and sometimes offered with every appearance of courteous familiarity. Cautious, however, of alarming the feelings of the men on so tender a point, we have constantly made a rule of treating the females with that distance and reserve, which we judged most likely to remove any impression they might have received of our intending aught, which could give offence on so delicate a subject. And so successful have our endeavours been, that a quarrel on this head has in no instance, that I know of, happened. The tone of voice of the women, which is pleasingly soft and feminine, forms a striking contrast to the rough guttural pronunciation of the men. Of the other charms of the ladies I shall be silent, though justice obliges me to mention, that, in the opinion of some amongst us, they shew a degree of timidity and bashfulness, which are, perhaps, inseparable from the female character in its rudest state. It is not a little singular, that the custom of cutting off the two lower joints of the little finger of the left hand, observed in the Society Islands, is found here among the women, who have for the most part undergone this amputation. Hitherto we have not been able to trace out the cause of this usage. At first we supposed it to be peculiar to the married women, or those who had borne children; but this conclusion must have been erroneous, as we have no right to believe that celibacy prevails in any instance, and some of the oldest of the women are without this distinction; and girls of a very tender age are marked by it.

CHAPTER XI. A Description of the Natives of New South Wales, and our Transactions with them. A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay by Watkin Tench, Watkin Tench, Capt. of the Marines. Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, New South Wales, 10 July, 1788, published 1789.

Pursuant to his resolution, the governor on the 31st of December sent two boats, under the command of Lieutenant Ball of the 'Supply', and Lieutenant George Johnston of the marines, down the harbour, with directions to those officers to seize and carry off some of the natives. The boats proceeded to Manly Cove, where several Indians were seen standing on the beach, who were enticed by courteous behaviour and a few presents to enter into conversation. A proper opportunity being presented, our people rushed in among them, and seized two men: the rest fled; but the cries of the captives soon brought them back, with many others, to their rescue: and so desperate were their struggles, that, in spite of every effort on our side, only one of them was secured; the other effected his escape. The boats put off without delay; and an attack from the shore instantly commenced: they threw spears, stones, firebrands, and whatever else presented itself, at the boats; nor did they retreat, agreeable to their former custom, until many musquets were fired over them.

The prisoner was now fastened by ropes to the thwarts of the boat; and when he saw himself irretrievably disparted from his countrymen, set up the most piercing and lamentable cries of distress. His grief, however, soon diminished: he accepted and ate of some broiled fish which was given to him, and sullenly submitted to his destiny.

Many unsuccessful attempts were made to learn his name; the governor therefore called him Manly, from the cove in which he was captured: this cove had received its name from the manly undaunted behaviour of a party of natives seen there, on our taking possession of the country.

To prevent his escape, a handcuff with a rope attached to it, was fastened around his left wrist, which at first highly delighted him; he called it 'bengadee' (or ornament), but his delight changed to rage and hatred when he discovered its use. His supper he cooked himself: some fish were given to him for this purpose, which, without any previous preparation whatever, he threw carelessly on the fire, and when they became warm took them up, and first rubbed off the scales, peeled the outside with his teeth, and ate it; afterwards he gutted them, and laying them again on the fire, completed the dressing, and ate them.

A convict was selected to sleep with him, and to attend him wherever he might go. When he went with his keeper into his apartment he appeared very restless and uneasy while a light was kept in; but on its extinction, he immediately lay down and composed himself.

Sullenness and dejection strongly marked his countenance on the following morning; to amuse him, he was taken around the camp, and to the observatory: casting his eyes to the opposite shore from the point where he stood, and seeing the smoke of fire lighted by his countrymen, he looked earnestly at it, and sighing deeply two or three times, uttered the word 'gweeun' (fire).

His loss of spirits had not, however, the effect of impairing his appetite; eight fish, each weighing about a pound, constituted his breakfast, which he dressed as before. When he had finished his repast, he turned his back to the fire in a musing posture, and crept so close to it, that his shirt was caught by the flame; luckily his keeper soon extinguished it; but he was so terrified at the accident, that he was with difficulty persuaded to put on a second.

1st. January, 1789. To-day being new-year's-day, most of the officers were invited to the governor's table: Manly dined heartily on fish and roasted pork; he was seated on a chest near a window, out of which, when he had done eating, he would have thrown his plate, had he not been prevented: during dinner-time a band of music played in an adjoining apartment; and after the cloth was removed, one of the company sang in a very soft and superior style; but the powers of melody were lost on Manly, which disappointed our expectations, as he had before shown pleasure and readiness in imitating our tunes. Stretched out on his chest, and putting his hat under his head, he fell asleep.

To convince his countrymen that he had received no injury from us, the governor took him in a boat down the harbour, that they might see and converse with him: when the boat arrived, and lay at a little distance from the beach, several Indians who had retired at her approach, on seeing Manly, returned: he was greatly affected, and shed tears. At length they began to converse. Our ignorance of the language prevented us from knowing much of what passed; it was, however, easily understood that his friends asked him why he did not jump overboard, and rejoin them. He only sighed, and pointed to the fetter on his leg, by which he was bound.

In going down the harbour he had described the names by which they distinguish its numerous creeks and headlands: he was now often heard to repeat that of 'Weerong' (Sydney Cove), which was doubtless to inform his countrymen of the place of his captivity; and perhaps invite them to rescue him. By this time his gloom was chased away, and he parted from his friends without testifying reluctance. His vivacity and good humour continued all the evening, and produced so good an effect on his appetite, that he ate for supper two kangaroo rats, each of the size of a moderate rabbit, and in addition not less than three pounds of fish.

February, 1789. His reserve, from want of confidence in us, continued gradually to wear away: he told us his name, and Manly gave place to Arabanoo. Bread he began to relish; and tea he drank with avidity: strong liquors he would never taste, turning from them with disgust and abhorrence. Our dogs and cats had ceased to be objects of fear, and were become his greatest pets, and constant companions at table. One of our chief amusements, after the cloth was removed, was to make him repeat the names of things in his language, which he never hesitated to do with the utmost alacrity, correcting our pronunciation when erroneous. Much information relating to the customs and manners of his country was also gained from him: but as this subject will be separately and amply treated, I shall not anticipate myself by partially touching on it here.
from CHAPTER III. Transactions of the Colony, from the Commencement of the Year 1789, until the End of March. A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson by Watkin Tench, 1793

An extraordinary calamity was now observed among the natives. Repeated accounts brought by our boats of finding bodies of the Indians in all the coves and inlets of the harbour, caused the gentlemen of our hospital to procure some of them for the purposes of examination and anatomy. On inspection, it appeared that all the parties had died a natural death: pustules, similar to those occasioned by the small pox, were thickly spread on the bodies; but how a disease, to which our former observations had led us to suppose them strangers, could at once have introduced itself, and have spread so widely, seemed inexplicable.* Whatever might be the cause, the existence of the malady could no longer be doubted. Intelligence was brought that an Indian family lay sick in a neighbouring cove: the governor, attended by Arabanoo, and a surgeon, went in a boat immediately to the spot. Here they found an old man stretched before a few lighted sticks, and a boy of nine or ten years old pouring water on his head, from a shell which he held in his hand: near them lay a female child dead, and a little farther off, its unfortunate mother: the body of the woman shewed that famine, superadded to disease, had occasioned her death: eruptions covered the poor boy from head to foot; and the old man was so reduced, that he was with difficulty got into the boat. Their situation rendered them incapable of escape, and they quietly submitted to be led away. Arabanoo, contrary to his usual character, seemed at first unwilling to render them any assistance; but his shyness soon wore off, and he treated them with the kindest attention. Nor would he leave the place until he had buried the corpse of the child: that of the woman he did not see from its situation; and as his countrymen did not point it out, the governor ordered that it should not be shown to him. He scooped a grave in the sand with his hands, of no peculiarity of shape, which he lined completely with grass, and put the body into it, covering it also with grass; and then he filled up the hole, and raised over it a small mound with the earth which had been removed. Here the ceremony ended, unaccompanied by any invocation to a superior being, or any attendant circumstance whence an inference of their religious opinions could be deduced.

[*No solution of this difficulty had been given when I left the country, in December, 1791. I can, therefore, only propose queries for the ingenuity of others to exercise itself upon: is it a disease indigenous to the country? Did the French ships under Monsieur de Peyrouse introduce it? Let it be remembered that they had now been departed more than a year; and we had never heard of its existence on board of them. Had it travelled across the continent from its western shore, where Dampier and other European voyagers had formerly landed? Was it introduced by Mr. Cook? Did we give it birth here? No person among us had been afflicted with the disorder since we had quitted the Cape of Good Hope, seventeen months before. It is true, that our surgeons had brought out variolous matter in bottles; but to infer that it was produced from this cause were a supposition so wild as to be unworthy of consideration.] 

I feel assured, that I have no reader who will not join in regretting the premature loss of Arabanoo, who died of the smallpox on the 18th instant, after languishing in it six days. From some imperfect marks and indents on his face, we were inclined to believe that he had passed this dreaded disorder. Even when the first symptoms of sickness seized him, we continued willing to hope that they proceeded from a different cause. But at length the disease burst forth with irresistible fury. It were superfluous to say, that nothing which medical skill and unremitting attention could perform, were left unexerted to mitigate his sufferings, and prolong a life, which humanity and affectionate concern towards his sick compatriots, unfortunately shortened.

During his sickness he reposed entire confidence in us. Although a stranger to medicine, and nauseating the taste of it, he swallowed with patient submission innumerable drugs,* which the hope of relief induced us to administer to him. The governor, who particularly regarded him**, caused him to be buried in his own garden, and attended the funeral in person.

[*Very different had been his conduct on a former occasion of a similar kind. Soon after he was brought among us he was seized with a diarrhoea, for which he could by no persuasion be induced to swallow any of our prescriptions. After many ineffectual trials to deceive, or overcome him, it was at length determined to let him pursue his own course, and to watch if he should apply for relief to any of the productions of the country. He was in consequence observed to dig fern-root, and to chew it. Whether the disorder had passed its crisis, or whether the fern-root effected a cure, I know not; but it is certain that he became speedily well.]

[**The regard was reciprocal. His excellency had been ill but a short time before, when Arabanoo had testified the utmost solicitude for his case and recovery. It is probable that he acquired, on this occasion, just notions of the benefit to be derived from medical assistance. A doctor is, among them, a person of consequence. It is certain that he latterly estimated our professional gentlemen very highly.]

The character of Arabanoo, as far as we had developed it, was distinguished by a portion of gravity and steadiness, which our subsequent acquaintance with his countrymen by no means led us to conclude a national characteristic. In that daring, enterprising frame of mind, which, when combined with genius, constitutes the leader of a horde of savages, or the ruler of a people, boasting the power of discrimination and the resistance of ambition, he was certainly surpassed by some of his successors, who afterwards lived among us. His countenance was thoughtful, but not animated: his fidelity and gratitude, particularly to his friend the governor, were constant and undeviating, and deserve to be recorded. Although of a gentle and placable temper, we early discovered that he was impatient of indignity, and allowed of no superiority on our part. He knew that he was in our power; but the independence of his mind never forsook him. If the slightest insult were offered to him, he would return it with interest. At retaliation of merriment he was often happy; and frequently turned the laugh against his antagonist. He did not want docility; but either from the difficulty of acquiring our language, from the unskillfulness of his teachers, or from some natural defect, his progress in learning it was not equal to what we had expected. For the last three or four weeks of his life, hardly any restraint was laid upon his inclinations: so that had he meditated escape, he might easily have effected it. He was, perhaps, the only native who was ever attached to us from choice; and who did not prefer a precarious subsistence among wilds and precipices, to the comforts of a civilized system.

By his death, the scheme which had invited his capture was utterly defeated. Of five natives who had been brought among us, three had perished from a cause which, though unavoidable, it was impossible to explain to a people, who would condescend to enter into no intercourse with us. The same suspicious dread of our approach, and the same scenes of vengeance acted on unfortunate stragglers, continued to prevail.
from CHAPTER IV. Transactions of the Colony in April and May, 1789. A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson by Watkin Tench,1793

Broken Bay, which was supposed to be completely explored, became again an object of research. On the sixth instant, the governor, accompanied by a large party in two boats, proceeded thither. Here they again wandered over piles of mis-shapen desolation, contemplating scenes of wild solitude, whose unvarying appearance renders them incapable of affording either novelty or gratification. But when they had given over the hope of farther discovery, by pursuing the windings of an inlet, which, from its appearance, was supposed to be a short creek, they suddenly found themselves at the entrance of a fresh water river, up which they proceeded twenty milesin a westerly direction; and would have farther prosecuted their research, had not a failure of provisions obliged them to return. This river they described to be of considerable breadth, and of great depth; but its banks had hitherto presented nothing better than a counterpart of the rocks and precipices which surround Broken Bay.

June, 1789. A second expedition, to ascertain its course, was undertaken by his excellency, who now penetrated (measuring by the bed of the river) between 60 and 70 miles, when the farther progress of the boats was stopped by a fall. The water in every part was found to be fresh and good. Of the adjoining country, the opinions of those who had inspected it (of which number I was not) were so various, that I shall decline to record them. Some saw a rich and beautiful country; and others were so unfortunate as to discover little else than large tracts of low land, covered with reeds, and rank with the inundations of the stream, by which they had been recently covered. All parties, however, agreed, that the rocky, impenetrable country, seen on the first excursion, had ended nearly about the place whence the boats had then turned back. Close to the fall stands a very beautiful hill, which our adventurers mounted, and enjoyed from it an extensive prospect. Potatoes, maize, and garden seeds of various kinds were put into the earth, by the governor's order, on different parts of Richmond-hill, which was announced to be its name. The latitude of Richmond-hill, as observed by captain Hunter, was settled at 33 degrees 36 minutes south.

Here also the river received the name of Hawkesbury, in honour of the noble lord who bears that title.

Natives were found on the banks in several parts, many of whom were labouring under the smallpox. They did not attempt to commit hostilities against the boats; but on the contrary shewed every sign of welcome and friendship to the strangers.

At this period, I was unluckily invested with the command of the outpost at Rose Hill, which prevented me from being in the list of discoverers of the Hawkesbury. Stimulated, however, by a desire of acquiring a further knowledge of the country, on the 26th instant, accompanied by Mr. Arndell, assistant surgeon of the settlement, Mr. Lowes, surgeon's mate of the 'Sirius', two marines, and a convict, I left the redoubt at day-break, pointing our march to a hill, distant five miles, in a westerly or inland direction, which commands a view of the great chain of mountains, called Carmarthen hills, extending from north to south farther than the eye can reach. Here we paused, surveying "the wild abyss; pondering our voyage." Before us lay the trackless immeasurable desert, in awful silence. At length, after consultation, we determined to steer west and by north, by compass, the make of the land in that quarter indicating the existence of a river. We continued to march all day through a country untrodden before by an European foot. Save that a melancholy crow now and then flew croaking over head, or a kangaroo was seen to bound at a distance, the picture of solitude was complete and undisturbed. At four o'clock in the afternoon we halted near a small pond of water, where we took up our residence for the night, lighted a fire, and prepared to cook our supper: that was, to broil over a couple of ramrods a few slices of salt pork, and a crow which we had shot.

At daylight we renewed our peregrination; and in an hour after we found ourselves on the banks of a river, nearly as broad as the Thames at Putney, and apparently of great depth, the current running very slowly in a northerly direction. Vast flocks of wild ducks were swimming in the stream; but after being once fired at, they grew so shy that we could not get near them a second time. Nothing is more certain than that the sound of a gun had never before been heard within many miles of this spot.

We proceeded upwards, by a slow pace, through reeds, thickets, and a thousand other obstacles, which impeded our progress, over coarse sandy ground, which had been recently inundated, though full forty feet above the present level of the river. Traces of the natives appeared at every step, sometimes in their hunting-huts, which consist of nothing more than a large piece of bark, bent in the middle, and open at both ends, exactly resembling two cards, set up to form an acute angle; sometimes in marks on trees which they had climbed; or in squirrel-traps*; or, which surprised us more, from being new, in decoys for the purpose of ensnaring birds. These are formed of underwood and reeds, long and narrow, shaped like a mound raised over a grave; with a small aperture at one end for admission of the prey; and a grate made of sticks at the other: the bird enters at the aperture, seeing before him the light of the grate, between the bars of which, he vainly endeavours to thrust himself, until taken. Most of these decoys were full of feathers, chiefly those of quails, which shewed their utility. We also met with two old damaged canoes hauled up on the beach, which differed in no wise from those found on the sea coast.

[*A squirrel-trap is a cavity of considerable depth, formed by art, in the body of a tree. When the Indians in their hunting parties set fire to the surrounding country (which is a very common custom) the squirrels, opossums, and other animals, who live in trees, flee for refuge into these holes, whence they are easily dislodged and taken. The natives always pitch on a part of a tree for this purpose, which has been perforated by a worm, which indicates that the wood is in an unsound state, and will readily yield to their efforts. If the rudeness and imperfection of the tools with which they work be considered, it must be confessed to be an operation of great toil and difficulty.]

Having remained out three days, we returned to our quarters at Rose-hill, with the pleasing intelligence of our discovery. The country we had passed through we found tolerably plain, and little encumbered with underwood, except near the river side. It is entirely covered with the same sorts of trees as grow near Sydney; and in some places grass springs up luxuriantly; other places are quite bare of it. The soil is various: in many parts a stiff and clay, covered with small pebbles; in other places, of a soft loamy nature: but invariably, in every part near the river, it is a coarse sterile sand. Our observations on it (particularly mine, from carrying the compass by which we steered) were not so numerous as might have been wished. But, certainly, if the qualities of it be such as to deserve future cultivation, no impediment of surface, but that of cutting down and burning the trees, exists, to prevent its being tilled.

To this river the governor gave the name of Nepean. The distance of the part of the river which we first hit upon from the sea coast, is about 39 miles, in a direct line almost due west. from CHAPTER V. Transactions of the Colony until the Close of the Year 1789.  A Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson by Watkin Tench, 1793

James Napper (1787 circa to 1827) travelled to Sydney NSW as ships surgeon on board the Kangaroo, arriving in January 1814. During the voyage out he married a passenger Emma Luttrell in Rio. Emma was the daughter of Dr Edward Luttrell who had travelled to NSW [Free Settler "Experiment" 1804]  with his family. Kangaroo was an armed naval brig, which in March 1814 completed the evacuation to Sydney of the first settlement at Norfolk Island. He became ill in 1815 and on recovery was transferred to the Emu.

James Napper was granted 400 acres in 1816 between Whale Beach and Palm Beach which he call Larkfield. Larkfield may be a name associated with his family. He left Sydney on January 28th, 1816 as surgeon on board the Emu, along with his wife Emma and infant son Richard. The couple also had a daughter, Marie Ann, born circa 1814-1815, while in Australia.

Notices in the Government Gazette for him to collect cattle assigned to him continued to appear until later that year, commencing in June 1816. These were to be collected from Seven Hills.

A CARD.- Dr. PARMETER respectfully acquaints the Ladies and Gentlemen of Sydney, that he will remove to No. 10, O'Connell-street, on the 22d Inst, the late residence of Mr. Napper. -The Public may depend upon Dr. P's medical assiduity, whether as a Physician or a Surgeon. Classified Advertising (1816, March 16). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2176584

The Nappers returned to England in 1817 and lived in Paris for a number of years before he returned to sea in 1826. Keppel H. Sailor's life under four sovereigns. [lists James Napper surgeon aged 40 years among deaths from African fever on HMS "Tweed" after leaving St. Jago October 1827] . His date of death is recorded as November 4th, 1827, place; Simon's Bay, England.

Captain Richard Henry Alexander Napper: three sons (only one survives to old age, Percy, born in Hobart in 1865, who takes up work as constable to Straits Islands settlement until passes in 1937 - Capt. R H A Napper's first son first dies aged 3 weeks, second drowns aged 16, the couple also had two daughters. Percy's son dies aged 1 year and 6 weeks.
Captain Napper, brig Alfred (1845; Sydney)
ARRIVALS. .
August 25th-Cosmopolite, brig, 144, Napper, Twofold Bay. Cabin-Mrs. Napper and child, Master Napper. SHIPPING NEWS. (1854, August 25). The Courier (Hobart, Tas. : 1840 - 1859), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2244632

NAPPER.—On the 19th inst., at his residence, on Goose Island, Captain R. H. A. Napper, eldest son of Dr. James Napper, R. N. Family Notices (1877, October 31). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article5943190

NAPPER. - On October 19, at Goose Island, Banks' Straits, Captain R. H. N. Napper, in the 61st year of his age.
Family Notices (1877, November 26). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 3 (The Mercury Summary For Europe). Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8957559

NAPPER.—On February 22, at her residence, Launceston Emma Martha, relict of the late Captain Napper, late Superintendent of the Goose Island Lighthouse, and fourth daughter of the late Edgar Luttrell, of Her Majesty's Customs, Hobart Town, age 45. Beloved by all who knew her. Family Notices (1878, February 23). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8960372

Deaths.
NAPPER.-On Saturday, April 29, at his parents' residence, Macquarie-street, Percy William Wallace, only beloved son of Percy and Laura M. Napper, aged 1 year and 6 weeks. Family Notices (1893, May 1). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13273864

Resumption of Land.-Certain land situate at...certain land forming part of the Bassett-Darley Estate; James Napper's 400 acres, situate at Barrenjoey, parish of Narrabeen, county of Cumberland, containing by admeasurement 2 acres more or less ; ... GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. (1885, December 9).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13606027

NOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT.
APPLICATIONS having been made to bring the lands hereunder described under the provisions of the Real Property Act, Certificates of Indefeasible Title will issue, unless Caveats be lodged in accordance with the Third Schedule to the said Act on oe BE FORE THE 21ST AUGUST, 1912.
No. 17,737. APPLICANT:—The Barrenjoey Company, Limited. LAND:—County Cumberland, parish Narrabeen, Shire Warringah, 437 acres 2 roods, on Careel Bay, Pittwater, and on South Pacific Ocean, and on road from Manly to Barrenjoey,—lots 1 to 18. subdivision of Bassett-Darley Estate, and part 400 acres (portion 18 of parish), granted to James Napper;—exclusive of road 1 chain wide from Manly to Barrenjoey, the area of which is deducted from the total area; adjoining properties of C. Forssberg and M. M. Jones and Crown Land.

Diagrams delineating these lands may be inspected at the Land Titles Office, Elizabeth-street, Sydney.

W. G. H-WILLIAMS,
Registrar-General.
17th July, 1912.
NOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT. (1912, July 17). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4485. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221604355

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC NOTICE.
SECRETARY'S OFFICE, SYDNEY,
Saturday, 23d April, 1814.
THOSE FREE SETTLERS who have lately arrived from England, and those Persons residing within the Colony of New South Wales, who have recently obtained Promises of GRANTS of LAND, are to Take Notice, that the Surveyor General, and the Deputy Survey-or General are to proceed to the several undermentioned Stations, at the Periods respectively affixed to them, and there to lay out and Measure the Lands to be assigned to the above Descriptions of Persons, who on their part are required to attend on the Surveyor General at the Times mentioned, in Order to their obtaining the Lands so promised them.

1 At Broken Bay, on Monday the 2d of May next, and the following Days.

As a previous Arrangement should take Place in Regard to the Districts wherein the respective Farms are to be measured out, the Free Settlers and Others who have Claims for Land at this Time, and wish to get them located, are re-quested to wait on Mr. Oxley, the Surveyor General, at his House in Sydney, on or before the 30th of the present Month, in Order to arrange with him as to the particular District in which they wish to have their Lands respectively located.

It being ascertained that several of those Persons who in the Years 1809, 1810, and 1811, obtained Locations of Land, with a Promise that Grants should be made to them of such Lands, under the express Stipulation that they would proceed to clear and cultivate them, have neglected to comply willi those Stipulations, whereby the Improvement of the Country, which was one of the principal Objects for which those Locations were made, has been altogether defeated ; Notice is hereby given, that such Lands, having by this Neglect reverted to the Crown, are to be located by the Surveyor General to other Persons having Claims for Lands at the present Time ; and the Persons to whom they were formerly assigned will have no other Claim on that Account, than for the Expence they may have incurred in felling some small Portions of Timber thereon ; for which the new Possessors will be required to pay them at the usual Rates, in the res-pective Districts in which they arc situated.

By Command of His Excellency
The Governor,
J. T. Campbell, Secretary. 

GOVERNMENT PUBLIC NOTICE.
Secretary's Office, Sydney,

Saturday, 23d April, 1814 
SEVERAL Persons in the Town of Sydney having been recently detected in purchasing Necessaries from the Soldiers, which being contrast to Law, and in direct Violation of the Mutiny Act, and also repugnant .to the Standing Orders of this Government, Notice is hereby given, that any Person who shall be detected in purchasing or receiving, under any Pretext whatever, the Necessaries, or any-Part there of, whether Cloathing, Arms, Accoutrements, or Ammunition belonging to a Soldier, or anyArticles issued at His Expence of the Crown to Convicts, will be prosecuted with the utmost Rigour, according to the Mutiny Act, and the existing Orders and Regulations of this Government.


By Command of His Excellency
The Governor,
J. T. Campbell, Secretary. Classified Advertising (1814, April 23). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article628900

Fugitives.
On Tuesday, the 15th ultimo, Fifteen Labouring Men fled from the Agricultural Settlement at Castle Hill, after having committed many acts of violence and atrocity. They at first forcibly entered the dwelling-house of M. DECLAMB, which they ransacked, and stripped of many articles of plate, wearing apparel, some fire and side-arms, provisions, spirituous and vinous liquors, a quantity of which they drank or wasted in the house. They next proceeded to the farm houses of Bradley and Bean, at Balkham Hills. Mrs. Bradley's servant man they wantonly and inhumanly discharged a pistol at, the contents of which have so shattered his face as to render him a ghastly spectacle, in all probability, during the remainder of his life. In Mrs. Bean's house they gave a-loose to sensuality, equally brutal and unmanly. Resistance was of no avail, for their rapacity was unbridled. Numerous other delinquencies were perpetrated by this licentious banditti, whose ravages, however, could not long escape the certain tread of Justice.

Two of the depredators were taken into custody upon the second day after their flight near the Hawkesbury road, by Mr. JAMIESON, junior, assisted byA. ThomsonChief Constable at Hawesbury, and a party of the Military, who had been dispatched in pursuit of them. Upon these men were found seve-ral articles of property that had been taken from the dwelling-house of Mr. Declamb ; as were also two muskets. On the day following they underwent an Examination before a Magistrate, by whom they were fully committed, and sent to Sydney under an escort.

On the 23d ultimo, Eleven more of the desperadoes were secured, by a party of the Military and Constables, between Hawkesbury and the Mountains. Information had been given of their haunt by a body of natives, shortly after they had broke into the house of a settler, where they had stopped to grind a quantity of wheat at a steel mill, having previously secured the family, and afterwards stripped the house of all such provision as they could conveniently carry off, together with two stands of arms. They were also taken before a Magistrate, fully committed, and brought to Sydney under a sufficient guard.

Justice to the Prisoners at large in the Colony requires that we should here observe, that this banditti is entirely composed of Irish prisoners, brought by the Hercules and Atlas. Fugitives. (1803, March 5). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625437

About ten days ago, the Sophia Maria, Hawkesbury boat, between Sydney and Hawkesbuy, had taken a small boat in tow, belonging to J. Elliott, who was then fishing ; the violence of the weather was such as to have rendered him hopeless, had not the Sophia Maria luckily offered him assistance. He remained in his little boat astern---the weather grew more tempestuous, and at length by the violence of the storm, his tow-line snapped. All attempts to render him further assistance proved ineffectual,--he was given up for lost,---but we since learn, that he arrived safe at Hawkesbury, under the protection of an unseen Power !A ROCK (1803, March 12). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625453

On Wednesday the 27th ultimo a Hawkesbury Boat belonging to Mr. Andrew Thompson, was totally lost near Broken Bay, on her passage to Sydney, with a full freightage of Maize, Potatoes, and Melons ; but two men on board her fortunately saved their lives, though not without extreme difficulty. The loss of the boat, we understand, may in some measure be attributed to a want of skill in one of the above persons, who had inconsiderately taken her in charge, and professed him self capable of piloting her to the WORLD'S END. The boat filled when at a considerable distance from the shore ; and, as the mas-ter observed the water flowing in upon her, had only sufficient presence of mind to ob-serve, that in less than ten minutes they should be both as dead as an anchor lock to which apostrophe his distressed companion could only return a pious ejaculation. The prophesy, however, was not fulfilled ; the boat was driven on shore, and dashed to pieces by the violence of the surf, and the proprietor, we are sorry to add, sustains a heavy loss. SYDNEY. (1803, May 8). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article625557

GENERAL ORDERS.
The NATIVES, after giving up the Principal in the late Outrages, having generally expressed a Desire to COME IN and many being on the Road from Hawkesbury and other Quarters to meet the Governor at Parramatta, NO MOLESTATION whatever is to be offered them in ANY Part of the Colony— unless any of them should renew their late Acts, which is not probable, as a RECONCILIATION will take place with the Natives generally.

By Command of His Excellency,
G. BLAXCELL, 
Acting Sec. 
Government House, 
Sydney, July 7, 1805.

SHIP NEWS.— The Ferret South Whaler, to sail for England on or about the 12th instant, will touch at St. Helena, to await convoy.

CRAFT.— On Friday morning came in from Hawkesbury after a tedious passage, and being long wind-bound in Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury. Improvement, Venus, Hope, Charlotte, and Argument.— sailed on Friday, the Fly for King's Town, and Edwin for Hawkesbury.

The Argument, Peat, took two persons on board at Mullet Island, who had absconded from the Settlement at Newcastle nearly six weeks before, and whose hardships during that horrible interval exceed human credibility. The extreme badness of weather that immediately succeeded their departure augmented their sufferings ; and being totally lost in the woods, they providentially regained the sea coast, but unable to proceed further, took refuge in the cavity of a rock, where, when on the very point of dissolution from fa-mine and fatigue, the Great and Merciful Arbitrator of the works of Chance sent to their relief a courteous Native, whose timely bounty snatched the unwary wanderers from the very brink of fate. They were taken on board the Argument on Thursday ; and when received into the Hospital were in too reduced a state to hope recovery, which may furnish as much matter of surprise as their existing for such a length of time in so unhappy and so totally destitute a condition.
GENERAL ORDERS. (1805, July 7). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article626844

A letter from a Medical Gentleman of Bunbury Curran, gives an interesting account of the mortal efficacy of the late influenza that raged throughout the Colony for many weeks with increased violence, and particularly among the scattered tribes of natives. After giving the account of his own confinement by a severe visitation of the malady, and his lady being on the verge of suffering under the like disaster, the letter proceeds to state that the natives of the interior had suffered excessively from the same cause, which had produced a great mortality ; and that many young stout and robust people among them had become its victims, during the winter. In one severe instance a   father, a very stout man, not exceeding forty years of age, with the mother and two daughters, and the infant of one of them, had all been carried off within the space of a month, leaving but one alive, a male about three year old, very distressed, until taken into protection by a European inhabitant of the settlement. Some cases, this Gentleman observes, appeared to him to have terminated in inflammation of the lungs ; and that they had for the most part quitted the thinly wooded and more open tracts of the interior, and be-taken themselves to the sea-coast, and brushy and broken country, where were quantities of honey, and where they would undoubtedly remain until the re-turn of summer. That these poor people should suffer intensely under every such contagion is not to be wondered at, when their state of privation from all comforts of life is considered ; and that when prevented by bodily ailment from seeking their precarious means of sustenance, they are likely to become victims to famine, as unhappily from distemper. Thirty years ago a prodigious mortality was spread among them by a contaigious distemper resembling the small poxof which the indented marks remained on many till very lately ; and which, had it continued to rage any longer, would probably have left but few alive in our vicinity.

The natives of Broken Bay, and other tribes, not very distant from Sydney, reported that the calamity had proved fatal to many of them; and one, who was considerably intelligent, being enquired of the cause, gave it as his firm and unalterable opinion, that it was owing to the putrescence of a whale that had gone on shore to expire on a neighbouring part of the coastwhich, as is reported of the Upas in the island of Java, had communicated its direful effluvia to a great distance, and if imbibed among living subjects, would there as well as here spread a contagion, only that the Upas killed so suddenly, that those who were affected never lived to join in the community they had left ; and, however indescribable, however undiscernable the causes that had operated with us, yet the opinion of this native would appear to have been somewhat held out by the knowledge that some months ago a whale was fastened on by a boat, headed by Mr. Murray, of South Head, and escaped although so severely wounded as to deny the supposition of its long sur-viving. Its spreading throughout whole and many families would appear to denote that it was communicative from person to person, and that if contracted by any one, the whole in the same close connexion were liable to receive the contagion. Many have witnessed the effects, but we have not heard that its causes have been as yet defined.
Sydney. (1820, December 16). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved  fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2179946

PUBLIC NOTICE.
THE undermentioned Persons have obtained Certificates, or Tickets of Leave, during the last Week :-
TICKETS OF LEAVE.
Surry (1)......... Henry Woodworth, Broken Bay
Classified Advertising (1823, July 3). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2181998

Colonial Secretary's Office Sydney, 16th October, 1832.
YEARLY LEASES OF LAND.

IN conformity with the 24th and following paragraphs of the Government Order of 1st August, 1831, No. 22, the Collector of Internal Revenue will put up to AUCTION, at the Police Office, Sydney, at Twelve o'Clock of Friday, the 16th day of November next, the LEASE of the undermentioned LOTS of LAND, for one Year commencing 1st January, 1832.

The Lease of each Lot will be put up at the rate of twenty shillings per Section of six hundred and forty Acres, for the year; and the highest bidder of that sum, or more, if free, will be accepted as the Tenant.

It is to be distinctly understood, that the Lands so let (with the exception of the Reserves) will continue open for purchase; and, in the event of their being sold, they must be surrendered by the Lessee, upon one month's notice.

Further particulars respecting the Land may be obtained from the Surveyor-General, and respecting the conditions from the Collector of Internal Revenue.

6. Cumberland—Parish of Narrabeen— 280, Two hundred and eighty Acres; a Go-vernment Reserve; bounded on the North by Napper's 400 Acres; on the East by the Sea ; and on the West by Pitt Water and Careel Creek. Applied for by John Joseph Therry.

By Command of His Excellency the Governor.
ALEXANDER McLEAY.
YEARLY LEASES OF LAND. (1832, October 17). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 343. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230389190

CUMBERLAND.
18. John Joseph Therry, 280, Two hundred and eighty acres, parish of Narrabeen ; bounded on the north-west by the south-eastern boundary of J. Napper's 400 acres bearing east 20 degrees north 28 chains from Careel Bay to the sea coast; on the north-east by the sea coast to the northern
boundary of J. J. Therry's 1200acres; on the south by the last named boundary bearing west 25 chains to Careel Creek ; and on the south-west by
Careel Creek and Bay to the south-eastern boundary of J. Napper's 400 acres.
Promised by Sir Richard Bourke on 3rd July, 1835.
Quit-rent one peppercorn, being given in exchange for a building allotment in Parramatta, required for a Roman Catholic Chapel. 
GRANTS OF LAND. (1836, March 30). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 274. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230672037

Colonial Statistics. 
BROKEN BAY AND BRISBANE WATER. 
THERE is no part the colony within a hundred miles of Sydney, which has either been so long settled, or so little frequented by travellers from our colonial capital, as the country intervening between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. It is a broken, sterile, and uninteresting country for the most part ; but there are particular spots in it of a much superior character, and the scenery in certain localities, especially along the coast, on the Narrabeen Lagoon and the inlet called Pitt Water is exceedingly fine. 

We happened to make a pedestrian tour from Manly Cove, on the north side of the harbour near the Heads, to Broken Bay a few weeks ago; and, although we cannot say much either for the country or the road, there is nevertheless sufficient to be gleaned by a careful observer ever in such a tour as to prevent us from saying, " it is all barren." In fact, as the finest flowers and shrubbery are generally found on the most barren land, it is not always the best land that will furnish the best subject for a good literary article. An extensive bottom, as the farmers would call it, of the richest alluvial soil may be exhibiting to the delighted eye of the settler a splendid crop of maize; or a series of "flats," with not a tree upon them in their natural state, may present the finest wheat land in the world ; but we confess there is very little bottom for a good article in either case, and even a good writer soon becomes flat enough unless he takes a kangaroo leap to some subject of a more interesting or spirit-stirring character. To be threading one's way, how-ever, through a tangled wood while the loud roar of the vast Pacific's big ocean waves breaking ever and anon on the ironbound coast of this vast terra incognita, is sounding in one's ear like distant thunder, or like the roar of artillery — to mount one of those barren hills that stretch along the coast to catch a glimpse of the wild, but romantic scenery around from its rocky summit — to be walking by moonlight along one of the sandy beaches that line the shores of Pitt Water, the exact counterpart of one of our finest Scotch Highland lochs—to be arriving late in the evening at some small settler's farm, who has just been six months on his land, to be regaled with tea without sugar out of a common water-jug, and a piece of a damper—to sleep, or rather to attempt to sleep with a host of active little combatants as numerous and as formidable as a Roman legion— and finally to lose one's way for five or six hours in the bush, and to arrive at the North Shore with one's clothes so torn with the prickly shrubbery of that locality as to render it necessary to bivouac for a time till the sun has gone down on the town of Sydney, and darkness covers the land—these are the subjects which one can either write upon, or read about without getting tired or complaining of flatness. 

There is a respectable family of the humbler walks of life settled at Manly Cove whose establishment exhibits in a very strong light, the immense benefits which this colony will eventually derive from the introduction of reputable and industrious families of a similar class in society into its extensive territory, under the admirable system introduced by the Whig ministry, in appropriating for that most important purpose the proceeds of all Crown land sold in the colony. The family we allude to is of the name of Parker. It consists of a husband and wife, rather past the middle age, and two stout young men, their sons. The father is a gardener, who emigrated with his family from England to the Cape of Good Hope a good many years ago, but preferring this colony, from all he had heard and read of it both in England and at the Cape, came on to New South Wales, leaving his third son in business at Cape Town. One of Mr. Parker's other two sons is a stonemason, and the other a carpenter and cabinetmaker, each of whom appears to be as much an adept in his own business as his father, who is a remarkably intelligent, shrewd, and well-principled old man, evidently is in his. Mr. Parker has purchased twenty acres of land and rocks on the eastern side of the cove, part of which he has laid out very tastefully, his two sons having been occupied in the mean time in erecting a neat stone walled cottage with suitable outhouses, part of the walls of both being the solid rock, which has been hewn away in certain places, and allowed to remain in others to suit the taste or convenience of the proprietor. In short the combination of mechanical force which Mr. P.'s virtuous and respectable family have been able to bring to bear on their little property is one of the happiest we have witnessed in the colony, and the result, we are confident, within a very few years hence will be the transformation of their twenty acres of rocks and land, hitherto deemed good for nothing, into one of the best cultivated, most romantic, and most valuable properties of its size within a day's journey of the capital. Mr. P.'s object has been to establish himself as a gardener and nurseryman, to supply the Sydney market with vegetables, fruit, fruit-trees, and shrubs. 

As soon as a few small steam boats, such as ply on the river Mersey between Liverpool and the numerous little thriving villages along the Cheshire shore, are procured and set to work in our harbour of Port Jackson to ply between Sydney and the more important localities on the opposite shore, every acre of available land within a reasonable distance of the North Shore, will be increased in value several hundred per. cent. We are happy to find that an experiment of this kind is about to be tried by the establishment of a Steam Ferry Boat between Dawes' Battery and Billy Blue's Point. The establishment of such a boat will not only lead to the formation of several thriving villages on the North Shore, but will set an example which some people will soon follow by placing boats of a similar kind on other short courses within the harbour. 

Within a few miles of Manly Cove, from which there is a tolerable road for a considerable distance towards Broken Bay, there is more available land than we anticipated finding, and there is already something doing also in the way of improvement ; the important operations of felling, fencing, and cultivating, being pursued by certain proprietors in that neighbourhood with some vigour. A very large portion of the land, however, is irreclaimably and hopelessly sterile. On the banks of the Narrabeen Lagoon, a pretty extensive and romantic sheet of water situated about nine miles from Manly Cove, and communicating with the ocean in high floods there is a small extent of superior land for cultivation with a considerable tract of very fair pasture land belonging to the family of the late Mr. Jenkins, of Sydney ; and about three miles farther on, towards the head of Pitt Water, there is a very fair cultivation farm leased to a small settler of the name of Foley. But the patches of arable land all along from Port Jackson to Broken Bay, are generally of such limited extent and the pasture land of such inferior quality to the forest land of the interior, that there must always be a very limited and widely scattered population in that part of the territory. 

The South Head of Broken Bay is called by its native name, Barranjoey. It is a bold, rocky headland, situated at the extremity of a long nar-row strip of land separating the main ocean from Pitt Water, and has evidently been an island at some former period, with a spit of sand running out from it towards the south. This sand-spit would be gradually extended by every gale till the island was at length married indissolubly to the main, the ceremony of joining hands having been performed by Father Neptune himself. There is a small patch of alluvial land of the first-rate quality near Barranjoey Head, on which a very industrious small settler of the name of Sullivan has set down, within the last few months, on a lease from Mr. Wentworth, the proprietor. The extent of land he has managed to clear and put into crop in so short a time, is as creditable to the settler as the splendid crop of maize and tobacco it bears is to the land. The neighbourhood of Pitt Water and Brisbane Water is considered particularly favourable for the growth of onions, and the raising of that useful article of horticultural produce for the Sydney market, is the main dependence of the small settlers in these districts. The past season has been considered rather unfavourable, however, for this crop, the late rains, which have come in such good time for the maize, having been too late for the onions; but we found a very tolerable crop notwithstanding on various farms in both districts. The scenery near Barranjoey is romantic and interesting in a very high degree, the land and water being finely disposed for a picture, and the forest trees on the low ground along Pitt Water being remarkably umbrageous and beautiful, while the view from the Head itself — including the vast Pacific ; Pitt Water separated from it by the narrow strip of land above-mentioned, and running up for the remaining part of its extent between two ranges of considerable elevation, and losing itself at length in the distance; Broken Bay, with the lofty, precipitous rocky island, called Mount Ellis, guarding the entrance of the Hawkesbury, and standing off, like a sentinel on duty, from its opposite shore, while the lower reaches of that noble river are seen stretching far inland between the lofty and barren ranges that line the whole extent of its course from the Blue Mountains to the ocean — all this is uncommonly fine. Second or third-rate writers of literary articles of this kind regularly wish for the pencil of a Claude, or a Salvator Rosa, when they find themselves in such situations as we found our-selves in, to our no small gratification and delight, when we stood perched for a time on Barranjoey Head ; but as such idle wishes would not save any of our readers who might be desirous of experiencing the same pleasurable emotions, the trouble and fatigue of a long pedestrian tour through the bush, we shall not put ourselves to the trouble of uttering them. 

If any of our readers should be desirous of visiting the district of Brisbane Water, which we can assure them is well worth visiting, we would by all means advise them to postpone their visit till some of our enterprising colonial speculators shall have put a steam-boat on the course between Sydney and Brisbane Water. For our own part we crossed Broken Bay in Sullivan, the small settler's small boat; and as there is a large extent of shallow water on the north side of the Bay, on which the sea breaks violently (whence its appropriate name, Broken Bay) whenever there is the least wind from certain quarters, we confess that sailing in such a vessel is somewhat dangerous. Rollers rise instantaneously, even in the mildest weather, in the Bay, and when one of these breaks on a small boat she is almost sure to be swamped, and all on board drowned. 

Brisbane Water is an inlet from Broken Bay, opening into the land at its north-eastern extremity. There is a reef of rocks extending for a considerable distance across the entrance from south to north, but the channel is sufficiently wide for those who are at all acquainted with the locality. The inlet, for a considerable distance up, is exactly like the embouchure of a large river, and as there are several other inlets of a similar kind opening into the main one, as Broad Water, Kingcumber or Cockle Creek, the district is a complete alternation of land and water, affording excellent means of communication for the settlers and most delightful scenery. Both along the banks of the main inlet and the other two just mentioned, there are settlers' houses for the most part picturesquely situated with a greater or smaller extent of land in cultivation around them according to circumstances. There is much alluvial land of the first quality in the district, and the crop of maize, wherever we had an opportunity of ob-serving it, was quite magnificent. Maize, onions, shingles, and sawed timber are the principle productions and exports of the district, and from the large quantity of these articles that have been exported to Sydney during the last few years, the settlers generally, we were happy to find, are in a thriving condition. Indeed, the district of Brisbane Water has sufficient resources for the sustentation and employment of a large population, and its vicinity to the capital will certainly attract numerous and reputable families and individuals as permanent residents in it whenever it is thrown open to the public by the establishment of a steam communication with the capital. From the want of such a communication at present Brisbane Water, although within four or five hours sail of Sydney, is virtually as distant from it as Port Macquarie, and till such a mode of communication with it is established, its re-sources will never be developed nor its rapid advancement both in population and in importance generally secured. 

It is a matter of astonishment, therefore, to us, that while there is such a rage exhibited in the colony, on the part of certain of our colonial speculators, for the extension of steam communication with Hunter's River, the capabilities of a district, so much less extensive it is true, but so much nearer hand, should hitherto have been so totally neglected. There are at present three steam boats running between Sydney and Hunter's river, and a fourth is expected to commence plying immediately. Now, whether this is over-doing the thing or not we have no means of determining ; but as the smallest and tardiest of these vessels will in all likelihood stand but an indifferent chance of success in competing with the others, we would by all means advise the proprietor to try the experiment of changing her course by causing her to ply alternately between Sydney and Brisbane Water, and Sydney and Illawarra. Neither of these districts is sup- posed to be at present sufficiently advanced to afford constant employment to a steam vessel of the size of the Maitland, but knowing both of them, as we happen to do, we are confident they would afford such employment to any vessel that would make a voyage from the capital to each alternately. The machinery of the Maitland is scarcely powerful enough for her size, and although a good sea boat she is unable to make much progress against a head sea. She will therefore run the risk of being driven off the course when a third powerful vessel, to ply twice a week, is placed on the Hunter's river line. But her slower rate of sailing than that of the other Hunters' river vessels would be no objection either at Illawarra or at Brisbane Water ; and although the proprietor might not realize his expectations by placing her on that course at the very first, we are confident that the rapid advancement of both of these districts, beyond all former precedent would not only be the certain result, but would amply and speedily repay him for all his original outlay. Verbum sat sapienti. 

The Rev. Mr. Rodgers of the Church of England, and the Rev. Malcolm Colquhoun, of the Church of Scotland, have both recently gone to settle as ministers of the gospel at Brisbane Water. We most heartily wish them both all success. 
Colonial Statistics. (1838, February 28). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31720524

A True Sailor. — We have to record the demise of one of the patriarchs of the Hawkesbury River, well known by the name of Captain Taylor.The old gentleman was of the most eccentric habits and character, and his being originally brought up to the naval service most probably induced his per- severing in his love of a seafaring life, for such his was, having had a large boat built in which it was his custom to travel about the river, seldom, if ever, sleeping a night out of it. Having been an invalid for some months past, he was obliged, however much against his will, to reside on shore, which, it is presumed, in some measure accelerated his death. The old gentleman was upwards of eighty, with remarkable faculties for his years, and of most retentive memory. His last will was expressed in his usual quaint manner, "to be taken to the summit of Barrenjoey" (one of the headlands of Broken Bay), " and pitched into the sea, the only grave for a sailor." Domestic Intelligence. (1844, March 9).The Weekly Register of Politics, Facts and General Literature (Sydney, NSW : 1843 - 1845), p. 468. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228134656 

Provincial.
BARRENJOEY. Saturday.
James Madden, an old resident of this neighbourhood, and lately employed in the cutter Marion, trading between Sydney and Broken Bay, fell overboard this morning when the vessel was rounding the North Head of Sydney. He was afterwards seen only for one or two minutes by Jackson, the master of the cutter, who, being alone, was unable, owing to the fresh southerly breeze and wash, to work his vessel back to the spot. Provincial. (1880, November 27). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1038. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161912995

Gosford.
January 18.
On Sunday night last, the 16th instant, at about half past nine, those who chanced to be looking over the Broad water of Gosford might have observed a bright light threading its way between Mangrove Island and the mainland at such a quick pace, that it soon became evident that it was a steamer's light. The rather unusual sight, (especially at such a late hour), attracted a large number of the inhabitants to the wharf ; some suggested that it was the Pelican (that vessel not having come up on her usual trip on Saturday last), others said that it was Rock Davis' s steamer Onward ; however, a few minutes more served to let us know what she was, and what was her business. She turned out to be the Princess steamer, with the telegraph cable on board, which is intended to connect Gosford with Sydney direct, the present route being via Newcastle, Wiseman's Ferry, and so on to Sydney. On board I observed Mr. Cracknell, Mr. Black, Mr. Want, and some other gentlemen, all of whom speedily wended their way up to the town, to seek repose. About 7 o'clock on Monday morning the steamer sounded her whistle to remind the voyagers that it was time to be up and doing, and shortly after the party went on board, the vessel then steamed down to ' Point Frederick,' commonly called ' Long Nose,' from which point the submarine cable starts, then to Woy Woy, across the Broadwater, and from thence across about 3 miles of land to Broken Bay, and from this point across Broken Bay to Barrenjoey, in order to connect the line with Barrenjoey and Sydney direct. Before the steamer left the Broadwater the voyagers were rather mortified to find that the cable laid in that water was about 150 yards too short, so that the end had to boyed up until what was deficient was procured. I have not since heard whether the party have successfully submerged the cable across Broken Bay or not. This connection is sure to increase the work considerably at the Gosford Post and Telegraph Office, where extra hands are almost sure to be required. Gosford. (1881, January 29). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 195. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161885563

REAL PROPERTY ACT.
Notice of intended issue of Provisional Ceown Grant, Vol. 631, Folio 214.
Proprietor: "William James Gracey. Land: 10 acres, portion 31, in the parish of Broken Bay and county of Cumberland.

THE proof of loss of the abovenamed original and other particulars required by section 98 of the abovenamed Act (26th Vic. No. 9) before issue of Provisional Crown Grant having been supplied,—I hereby, with the consent of the Land Titles Commissioners, and in further pursuance of the requirements of this section, notify my intention to issue such Provisional Crown Grant accordingly, at the expiration of twenty-one days from the date hereof.

E. G. WARD,
Registrar General.
Sydney, 13th September, 1888. 
REAL PROPERTY ACT. (1888, September 14). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 6516. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219881812

TORPEDO NEARLY KILLS LAUNCH MEN.
LANDS ON BEACH AT PITTWATER. WIND SAVED THEM. .
SYDNEY, Monday.
Their craft nearly drilled through by a torpedo from H.M.A.S. Swordsman; three Pittwater fishermen narrowly escaped death.
THE three men are Harold. Holloway, Charles Mace, and Bill Williams, all fishermen of Palm Beach. Their launch .was moored to a buoy, a few yards from the shore of Inner Palm Beach, just before noon, and they were over-hauling the engine, when they went through the nerve-'wracking experience. Holloway tells a .thrilling story: . 'I was bending over the engine, then l heard a hissing noise. -
"I DUCKED." 
"I ducked — dunno why— and I 'saw a long grey thing whizz past and go plop into the sand. "It was an 18ft. 'Whitehead torpedo! .. . "If a south-easterly breeze had , not sprung up a minute or so -earIier, and swung our launch around, we would have all been smashed to pieces," said- Mace. 
The two propellors of the Whitehead torpedo, which had a dummy head, kept spinning for at least 10 minutes after landing on the sand.
A LONG TRIP! 
The missile was fired from the destroyer, H.M.A.S. Swordsman, from under Scotland Island, at Pittwater, during torpedo practice, and had travelled over two miles before coming to a stop. Shortly afterwards, a second torpedo arose from the water within 60 feet of the launch, according to the fishermen. Later, a party of 15 men from the destroyer arrived in a cutter and after great difficulty, managed to drag the first topedo back into the water, and then towed It back to its ship. Pittwater is the usual ground for torpedo practice. TORPEDO NEARLY KILLS LAUNCH MEN. (1929, September 24). The Evening News (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1924 - 1941), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article201230356

Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 30th June, 1881.
HIS Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, has been pleased, in accordance with section 9 of the " Fisheries Act, 1881," to make the following Regulations for giving effect to the provisions of that Act.
HENRY PARKES.
Conduct of Business—Duties of Officers.
1. The Commissioners will meet for the transaction of business at their office on every Monday and Thursday at 2 o'clock. If either of these days be a public holiday, the meeting -will be held on the day following.
2. The President may by circular to be addressed by the Secretary to the residence or office of each Commissioner* convene a special meeting of the Commission on any day and hour mentioned in such circular.
3. The common seal of the Commissioners shall not be affixed to any document, paper, or writing except by direction of the President, or in his absence, of the Chairman, and in the presence of some Commissioner.
4. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to prepare the business paper for each meeting of the Commission, to take and record the minutes of proceedings at the same; to conduct all correspondence, and keep all such books of account, vouchers, reports, documents, plans and charts as the Commissioners may direct or require j to keep the common seal of the Commissioners, and to affix the same to any document or paper if so directed by the President or Chairman j to give such instructions to Inspectors, Assistant Inspectors, and other officers and persons appointed under the Fisheries Act as the Commissioners shall direct, or as the regulations may prescribe and generally to fulfil zealously and to the best of his ability all duties and obey all directions imposed on or given to him by the Commissioners.
5. Every Inspector of a Division must report in detail to the Commissioners once in every month or oftener if practicable, as to the state of the Fisheries included within his Division so far as he has been able by personal inspection, or from trustworthy information to ascertain the same. He will be required to report especially as to the condition of the natural oyster beds and deposits of oysters in all waters within his Division j whether the oysters are in marketable condition or otherwise, and what number of bags of oysters have been dredged from such beds during the preceding month, together with the amount of the royalty paid or required to be paid thereon j to receive and transmit to the Commissioners all applications for leases which may be sent to him; to fill up, to the best of his knowledge and judgment, and to transmit without delay to the Secretary, all forms of returns issued to him; to inform the Secretary of all breaches of the Act or the Regulations, whether by acts of commission or default, and to await the instructions of the Commissioners before laying an information against offenders or defaulters; to take particular notice of the movements, and habits of the various kinds of useful fish, whether included in the .Schedules of the Act or not; to report to the Secretary the existence of any source of pollution to the waters under his inspection, or of any mortality, disease, or ill-condition of fish, oysters, lobsters, crabs, or prawns5 to insure cleanliness and good order in his boat and crew (if any) ; to keep true and particular accounts of all expenses incurred by him when absent from his post on inspection or other service, and to enter the same in his journal; to keep a diary or journal in which he shall enter every day's work, and any other matter affecting the state of the fisheries in his Division ; to visit and report upon all stations within his Division at least once in each
quarter, unless otherwise directed by the Commissioners $ to report Himself at the office of the Commissioners whenever in Sydney on duty; to promote, by every means in his power, good feeling and concert of action in his relations with all Inspectors, Assistant Inspectors, and other persons concerned with the administration of the Act within his Division, and generally to devote his best energies to the administration of the Act and Regulations,-and to the performance of all duties delegated to him by the Commissioners.
6. The duties of ail Assistant Inspector shall be the same (mutatis mutandis) sb those of an Inspector of a Division, except that his reports shall be in duplicate, one to be transmitted to the Inspector of the Division, the other to the Secretary of the Commissioners, and that he will not, unless required by the Commissioners, visit or inspect any fisheries except those included within his district.
7. The duties of an Acting Assistant Inspector shall be to assist the Inspectors so far as may be in his power; to inform them of any breach of, or non-compliance -with, the Fisheries Act or the Regulations, and, in the absence of an Inspector, to report any such breach or non-compliance to the Secretary, and receive the instructions of the Commissioners thereupon j to take all legal and other proceedings which he may be instructed to take $ to protect the Revenue by all means in his power from being defrauded by non-payment of royalties or otherwise j to report all cases of oysters being found in a vessel in unbranded bags or otherwise in contravention of the Act or Regulations; to inform Inspectors of all matters relating to the fisheries at or near his station which come to his knowledge; and to carry out all instructions received from the Commissioners to the best of his ability. 
Marking of Licensed Fishing Boats.
8. The owner or person in charge of a Fishing Boat licensed under section 19 shall paint and keep painted on the inside of the tuck or transom of such boat the christian and surname of such owner, and the words "Licensed Fishing Boat" in legible Roman letters, not less than 3 inches in length.
Fishing Boat Licenses.
9. Fishing Boat Licenses under section 19 shall be in form A hereto. The fee of £1 for such license shall be paid either to the proper officer at the Treasury, Sydney, or to the Police Magistrate, or Clerk of Petty Sessions of the Bench nearest to the fishery wherein such license is intended to be exercised. Owners of boats fishing within the limits of the Home Fisheries {i.e. between Port Stephens and St. George’s Basin south of Jervis Bay), should, wherever practicable, take out licenses and pay license fees at the Treasury, at Sydney. In the other Divisions the licenses must be taken out and the fees paid at the, nearest Court of Petty Sessions. The license must be renewed in like manner annually at the like fee of £1. After the 30th June in any year the fee for the broken portion of the
year will be 10s.
Fishermen’s' Licenses.*
10. Fishermen's Licenses tinder section 20 shall be in form B hereto. The fee of 10s. for such license shall be paid at the like places, and to the like persons, as Fishing Boat License fees. The license must be renewed annually in like manner. After the 30th June in any year the fee for the broken portion of the year will be 5s.
Oyster-dredging licenses.
11. Oyster-dredging licenses under section 36 shall be in the form C hereto. They may be taken out either for the whole year or for any quarter of a year. The fee for the yearly license is £10, for the quarterly £3, to be taken out and paid in each case at the Court of Petty' Sessions nearest to the place whore the license is to be exercised or (at the applicant's choice) at the Treasury in Sydney. The Police Magistrate or Clerk of Petty Sessions is the proper officer (out of Sydney) to whom application for licenses should be made.
Oyster dealer's licenses.
12. Oyster dealers* licenses under section 42 shall be in the form D hereto, and applications for such licenses must be made either to the Secretary of the Commissioners, or to the Police Magistrate of the nearest Bench. The license fee of £5, or £2 10s. for the broken portion of the year, if the application be made after the 30th June in any year, must be paid to the proper officer at the Treasury in Sydney. The license must be renewed annually by application made in like manner.
As to transmitting and accounting for moneys.
13. The General Instructions to Public Officers issued by the Treasury shall govern all Police Magistrates, Clerks of Petty Sessions, and all other officers collecting or receiving license fees or other moneys under the Act or the Regulations.
Testing length and mesh of nets.
14. Every net for the purpose of testing the length thereof, shall be measured along the cork line, or line on which such net is hung. The size of mesh in every case shall be ascertained by measuring the length on the diagonal, or between knot and knot of opposite corners, the net being first wetted and being tanned, barked, or otherwise prepared for use. In case of dispute or doubt, a half pound weight shall be slung or attached to one knot of a mesh, in order to produce a fair strain or extension, and the space between the knots shall be measured forthwith while the mesh remains extended. If the net to be measured is dry, the part to be measured shall be soaked either in fresh or salt water for not less than ten minutes, and the mesh so soaked shall then be measured.
Marketable prawns.
15. Marketable prawns are prawns not caught during the close season prescribed by section 16 for certain fisheries, and being not less than one inch and a half in length, measured from a point between the eyes to the end of the tail; and all smaller prawns shall be deemed to be unmarketable, as well as all prawns (whatever the size) caught during such close season as aforesaid : Provided that if in any basket of prawns, or other vessel or receptacle in or upon which prawns shall be exhibited for sale, a number of unmarketable prawns not being on the whole more than one-tenth part of the contents of such basket, vessel, or receptacle shall be found so exhibited, no liability under the Act or Regulations shall be incurred by any person in respect of the exhibition of such prawns.
Priority among netters.
16. The right of first shooting and hauling a net on any fishing ground shall belong to the .licensed fisherman who first arrived on the ground with his boat and net ready for shooting; and the next turn shall belong to the licensed fisherman who arrived next after such first-mentioned person, and so on in order of arrival. . An unlicensed fisherman shall not be entitled to shoot
a net on any fishing ground until every licensed fisherman then being on the ground with boat and gear ready for shooting shall have had his turn. This regulation shall not apply to prawn fishermen. Two or more turns may be taken at the same time if the water to be fished permits of double-banking, but no net shall be' shot round an inner net within a boat's length of the cork line of such net.
Turns in oyster dredging.
17. Every licensed oyster-dredger shall take his turn and place on the bed according to the time of bespeaking such turn, unless the Inspector chooses to permit several boats to work at the same time on the same bed, in which case the dredgers shall work in obedience to the Inspector's directions. All turns must be bespoken from the Inspector at least twenty-four hours in advance. Every dredger bespeaking a turn shall lose it if he is not on the ground with boat and gear ready punctually at the time appointed by the Inspector.
Inspection of artificial oyster beds and layings.
18. Artificial oyster-beds and layings of any lessee (not being private fisheries, under Fart III) may be inspected by any Inspector once in every month, or oftener if directed by the Commissioners, upon such Inspector giving twenty-four hours notice either to the lessee or his manager or agent in charge of the beds of the intention to inspect the same. In the course and for the purposes of such inspection the lessee, his manager, agent and servants shall, at the request of the Inspector, test the state of any bed or laying required by the Inspector to be tested, by dredging or gathering by tongs, hand, or otherwise (according to the nature of the bed) oysters from such bed, under a penalty upon every such person refusing or neglecting so to do of £5.
Dredging on natural oyster-beds.
19. Natural oyster beds shall not be dredged, nor shall any oysters be taken from such beds (except by an Inspector in the performance of his duties) unless the same shall have been notified in the Gazette to be open for dredging or otherwise than in accordance with the directions of the Inspector of the fishery within which such oyster-beds are situated.
Cleaning, &c., of natural beds.
20. The Inspector may, notwithstanding any such notification as aforesaid, close any natural oyster-bed, or portion thereof, for the purpose of cleaning, levelling, or otherwise improving the same, in any case where and for such time as in his opinion such closing shall be necessary; but such closing shall be subject to revocation and modification by the Commissioners. No dredging shall take place on a bed or portion so closed until the same shall be declared by the Inspector or the Commissioners to be again open to dredging.
Inspector may in certain cases stop dredging.
21. Whenever the Inspector shall be of opinion that the further dredging of any bed would be injurious, or that the oysters therein are out of season, and not fit for food, whether by reason of spatting, freshets, or any other cause, he may prohibit the dredging or taking of oysters from such bed for such period, subject to the directions of the Commissioners, as he shall think necessary, and during such period no person shall dredge for or take oysters from any such bed under a penalty not exceeding £20.
None but licensed dredgers to dredge.
22. No person shall be allowed to dredge for or take oysters from any natural oyster-bed who shall not, on demand of the Inspector, produce his oyster-dredging license for inspection.
No turn allowed unless to licensed oyster dredgers.
23. Every person bespeaking a turn for dredging on any such bed must produce his license (if required by the Inspector) before such turn shall be allowed.
Scale of royalties on oysters dredged from natural oyster beds.
24. The sums payable by way of royalty on oysters dredged from natural oyster beds shall for every bag containing or reputed to contain three bushels be payable according to the following scale:—
River, bay, inlet, or other locality where or near to which the natural beds are situated.
The Tweed
The Richmond , , The Bellinger The Nambuccra The Brunswick Port Macquarie The Manning The Hunter Port Hacking Jervis Bay Twofold Bay
Any place other than those above specified...
Amount of royalty per bag.
8. d. 2 0 3 0 3 0 2 0 2 0 2 6 2 6 4 0 3 0 2 6 3 0 2 6
The above scale of royalties shall be in force until the Commissioners otherwise appoint, but shall not apply to any rivers or other oyster-bearing waters mentioned in the Third Schedule to the Act until the proclamation dosing the same shall be rescinded by a proclamation published in the Gazette, or the term of closure limited by such Proclamation shall have expired.
Royalty, how payable.
25. Royalties according to the prescribed scale for the time being shall be paid to the Inspector or, in his absence, to the Assistant Inspector, on the dredging or taking of oysters from the bed, and before the same are removed or shipped on board any vessel; but in all cases where such oysters are consigned to dealers or persons resident at any port or place within the Colony, such Inspector may give the consignor a shipping permit in the prescribed form, and issue a duplicate thereof for the master of the vessel in which the oysters are intended to be shipped. Such permit shall state the number of bags shipped, the royalty payable thereon, the brands and marks of the bags containing the oysters shipped, and the names of the consignor and consignee. On the vessel's arrival at the port of destination, the master shall deliver the said permit to the proper officer of Customs, and the consignee shall on payment to such, officer at the Custom-house or to the proper officer of Custom^ of the amount stated in the permit to be due as royalty on such oysters, be entitled to take delivery thereof. If the royalty be not paid within twenty-four hours after the vessel is reported to the Customs, the proper Officer of Customs shall take possession of the oysters, and either warehouse the same or cause them to be sold as the Commissioners shall direct.
In case of sale the whole proceeds of sale shall be paid into the Treasury, and after the amount due as royalty shall have been deducted therefrom, the balance shall be paid to the consignee or to his authorized agent.
Disposal of cultoli, &c.
26. All dead shells and cultch, whether with or without young oysters attached thereto, dredged up by any person dredging for oysters on natural oyster beds, shall be thrown back by such person in such places as the Inspector shall appoint; and all oysters below marketable size so dredged up shall be returned to the beds by the person who dredged them up, at such places and at such time as the Inspector shall direct.
Marketable oysters.
27. No oysters which can be passed through a metal ring having a clear inside diameter of one inch and three quarters shall be deemed to be marketable oysters; and it shall be unlawful to dredge for, take, consign, or expose for sale any such under-sized oysters, but they may be taken for the purpose of being laid down on another bed or in different water. This regulation shall apply to all lessees of Grown Lands for oyster culture, and to all grantees of Private Fisheries.
If any person exposes for sale in any shop, boat, vehicle, stand, or place, any oysters not marketable within the meaning of this regulation, he shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £10 but this regulation shall not apply to persons selling oyster-spat or brood to lessees and owners of private fisheries, otherwise than for consumption as food, or to oysters imported into this Colony from another Colony.
Permit to lessees and others to procure spat from Crown Lands.
28. A lessee or an owner of a private fishery desirous of obtaining a supply of spat or young oysters for the purpose of stocking his leased land or private fishery, must apply to the Commissioners for a permit, which will be granted on the terms and conditions therein specified, if the Commissioners are of opinion, after receiving the report of the Inspector, that there is sufficient young oyster stock on the foreshores of the tidal waters, on or near to which is situated the lease or private
fishery for which the supply is required, to allow of its distribution among lessees and owners of private fisheries. Such permit shall describe the area within which, and the time during which, the permission may be exercised. The fee payable for such permit shall be £1, and shall be paid to the Colonial Treasurer or officer authorized by him to receive fees under the Act.
Disposal of seized oysters.
29. Oysters seized under the authority of the Act shall be taken charge of by the seizing officer and delivered to the Inspector or person authorized by the Inspector to take delivery of such oysters. If the Inspector shall be of opinion that the oysters so seized will die or become unmarketable before adjudication, he shall cause them to be sold to the best advantage, either by private contract or by public auction at his discretion. And the proceeds of sale shall be paid into the Treasury to the credit of a special Suspense Account. If the oysters seized shall afterwards be adjudged to be forfeited, such proceeds shall be paid into the General Revenue j if not, they shall be paid to the person entitled to the oysters. But if the person in possession of the oysters at the time of seizure wishes them to be detained in the custody of the seizing officer or Inspector, such officer shall so retain them, but at the risk of such person as aforesaid, until the case has been disposed of, either by adjudication of the Justices, or by order of the Commissioners directing the Inspector to abstain from any or to stay further proceedings. Notwithstanding anything contained in this regulation, the Commissioners may direct the seizing officer or Inspector to dispose of any oysters so seized as aforesaid in such way, and subject to such terms and conditions as they may by Writing addressed to such officer appoint.
Branding of oyster-bags, &c.
30. Oysters shipped on board any vessel shall be placed in bags branded with the christian and surname of the consignor and consignee, and with the name of the river or place where such oysters have been dredged or taken. For example :—Oysters dredged by John Smith at the Clarence, and shipped there for Sydney, must be placed in bags branded JOHN* SMITH, CLARENCE RIVER (the name and address of the consignor), and ROBERT BROWN, SYDNEY (the name and address of the consignee). All such brands shall be in Roman capital letters not less than three inches in length, and shall be placed on the outside of the bag, at or near the middle thereof.
31. No brand of a consignor's name and address shall be affixed to any bag containing oysters so shipped unless the same has been registered either by the Inspector at the place where such oysters were dredged or taken, or with the Inspector of the Division within which the same were dredged or taken, or at the Office of the Commissioners of Fisheries in Sydney, and unless a certificate of registration under the hand of such Inspector, or a like certificate under the hand of the Secretary to the said Commissioners, shall have been given to the person desiring to register such brand.
32. The fee on the registration of an oyster-bag brand shall be two shillings and sixpence, which, must be paid before the issue of the certificate to the registering officer.
Rewards on destruction of cormorants or shags.
33. On the production to an Inspector of any number of heads of cormorants or 'shags not being less than half a score, such Inspector shall give the person producing the same a receipt therefor, and on production of such receipt at the Treasury in Sydney, the person producing the same shall be entitled to receive a sum equal to sixpence for each head (not being in the whole less than ten) of the larger cormorant or black shag, and equal" to fourpence for each head (not being Jess than as aforesaid) of the smaller cormorant or white bellied shag.
84. The Inspector receiving such heads shall forthwith after recording the same, destroy them by fire in the presence of some Justice of the Peace, Officer of Customs, or of the Department of the Marine Board or Constable, who shall certify the fact of such destruction under his hand on the butt of the
receipt book of the Inspector.
As to public oyster reserves.
35. Portions of Crown Lands declared exempt from lease under the 33rd section, and notified in the Gazette as Public Oyster Reserves, shall be divided into two classes :—(I.) Public Oyster Reserves for recreation. (2.) Public Oyster Reserves for oyster breeding purposes.
Reserves to be under control of Inspectors.
36. All public oyster reserves shall, subject to the directions of the Commissioners, be under the control and supervision of the Inspector of the tidal waters wherein such reserves are situated. And such Inspector, or any officer of police or constable, may apprehend and lodge in custody any person found removing oysters from any Recreation Reserve in a bag or other vessel or receptacle other than a bottle, and for his own consumption, or found wantonly destroying any oysters on such reserve, or conducting himself thereon in a disorderly manner, using profane, obscene, or disgusting language, drowning or destroying dogs, goats, cats, or any animal whatsoever, or depositing any dead carcase on, or within one hundred yards of, such reserve j or exposing his person, or annoying the residents or passers by. And any person charged with the commission of any such act as aforesaid shall, on conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a sum not exceeding £10.
Licenses to gather oysters and spat for sale or culture from Breeding Reserves.
37. Annual licenses may be granted on application to the Commissioners or to the Police Magistrate or Clerk of Petty Sessions of the Bench nearest to a public oyster reserve for oyster breeding purposes, to any persons to gather oysters and spat therefrom for sale or culture, whether for laying down on the layings of the applicants or on those of other persons. The fee for every such license shall be five shillings; but each license shall authorize only the person named therein to gather such oyster or spat. If no particular portion of the reserve is specified in the license the licensee can gather throughout the entire reserve; but if a particular portion be specified, the licensee will be restricted to that portion. Notwithstanding the grant of licenses, a public oyster reserve for breeding purposes, or any portion thereof, may, if the Commissioners think fit, be withdrawn from use as a gathering ground for such time as they may appoint. And all licenses shall be deemed to be granted subject to the condition of such withdrawal.
Marketage of public oyster reserves.
38. All public oyster reserves, and all portions of Crown Lands exempted from lease under section 33 of the Act, will be marked or defined by stakes, buoys, or such other mode as the Commissioners shall direct ; but such marking or definition shall not be deemed to be mandatory in any case "where the boundaries of any such reserve have been defined in the Gazette notifying such reserve.
As to recognizances under section 62.
39. The gaoler or person in charge of any gaol, lock-up, or police station, may liberate any person lodged in his custody under the 62nd section of the Act, on such person entering into a recognizance, with or without sureties, as such gaoler or person in charge as aforesaid shall think fit, conditioned that he will appear for examination before a Justice of the Peace at a place and time to be therein specified. And such recognizance shall be of equal obligation on the parties entering into the same, and be liable to the same proceedings for estreatment as if the same had been taken before a Justice of the Peace.
And such gaoler or person in charge as aforesaid shall make the like entries and take the same proceedings (as shall also the Justice before whom the same are tried, ijnd the Clerk of the Peace and all other persons) in respect thereto, as are required or directed by the Towns Police Act, 2 Vic. No. 2, in respect of persons charged with any petty misdemeanour thereunder.
Regulations for the hauling and landing of garfish and prawn nets.
40. Every bond-fide garfish net within the meaning of section 11 of the Act, and every net having a mesh in the centre less than 2 inches, and in the wings less than 3 inches, shall be emptied in the water, and shall not be hauled ashore
to a beach or strand.
41. Whenever a net used for catching prawns shall be hauled ashore to a beach, one end of such net shall be opened so as to allow all under-sized fish to escape, and only the Hue or centre of the net shall be brought ashore.
Marking oyster-beds and leased areas.
42. The position of natural oyster-beds shall be marked by piles or stakes driven into the bottom at such places and in such manner as to define with reasonable accuracy the length, width, and shape of the beds. Such piles or stakes shall show above the line of high-water-mark at least 6 feet, and shall be painted red, with the words " Oyster-bed, No. " [stating the number of the bed on the particular river or tidal water painted in white Roman letters at least 5 inches in length, on a block cross bar or batten, near the head of the pile, or stake. Piles must be not less in average diameter than 6 inches. Buoys of iron or wood may be substituted for piles or stakes, if the water be too deep for piles or stakes, or in cases of necessity, or temporarily, at the discretion of the Inspector.
43. All areas leased under section 28 or 32 shall be marked at each corner by white piles of the same dimensions, and showing out of water to the same height as in the case of natural oyster-beds, or by iron or wooden buoys, in each case painted white, at the option of the lessee, if the bottom at any such corner shall be rock, or otherwise incapable of holding a pile, or if the water be deeper than 2 fathoms at low-water. In all cases the words "Oyster lease, No. " (inserting the registered number) shall be painted in black Roman letters at least 3 inches in length, on a white cross-bar or batten near the head of the pile or stake, or across the face of the buoy.
44. "Wherever practicable the piles, stakes, or buoys shall be so placed, both on natural- oyster-beds and on leased areas, that imaginary lines connecting the boundaries across the river, creek, or inlet shall be at right-angles to the direction of the tide.
45. If two or more contiguous portions leased under section 28 or 32, or both, be held by the same lessee, the outer limits only of the block need to be marked by piles, stakes, or buoys, as directed by these Regulations, unless the Inspector satisfies
the Commissioners that all the corners or limits of each such portion ought to be marked.
46. Every lessee who shall neglect to mark and keep marked the limits of his leased area as required by these Regulations shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £10.
47. Any person who destroys, removes, or injures any pile, stake, or buoy, marking out the position of a natural oyster-bed, or of any leased area, or who defaces or obliterates any letters on any such pile, stake, or buoy, shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding £20 for every such offence.
48. No person engaged in dredging oysters on a natural oysterbed shall make fast his warp to any pile, stake, or buoy defining such bed under a penalty for each offence not exceeding £2.
Disposal of forfeited Fish.
49. Fish ordered to be forfeited to Her Majesty, pursuant to the provisions of section 14 or 18, may, at the discretion of the Justice or Justices as the case may be, be handed over to the authorities of the Benevolent Asylum, or of any Hospital or Charitable Institution nearest to the place where such forfeited fish are j but, if such fish are unfit for food, such Justice or Justices shall order them to be destroyed.
Disposal of forfeited Oysters.
50. Oysters forfeited to the use of Her Majesty, pursuant to the provisions of section 39 or 46, must be destroyed if unfit for food, but otherwise shall be sold by auction, unless the Commissioners direct that they shall be laid down on a natural oyster bed or in some tidal water. If sold, the proceeds of sale shall be paid into the General Revenue.
Disposal of forfeited Nets.
51. Fishing nets forfeited to the use of Her Majesty pursuant to the provisions of section 18 shall be sold by auction, and the proceeds of sale shall be paid into the General revenue but such sale shall not take place until the expiration of sixty days from the date of the conviction under the said section. The Commissioners however may in any case, if they shall be of opinion that the offence or default leading to the forfeiture was committed or arose through inadvertence or mistake, recommend the Governor to restore any forfeited net to its owner.
Penalties on breach of Regulations.
52. Any person who shall commit any act in breach of, or be guilty of any default or non-compliance with the requirements or prohibitions of any of the foregoing regulations, shall in every case where no penalty or forfeiture has been in such case provided be liable to a penalty not exceeding £10.

Fishing Boat License. Registered No. s— Place of Issue:— Date of Issue :—
*!Name (if any) and description of Boat:—
Name of Owner:— Address of Owner:—
Date of expiration of Lease:—
81st December, 188 [Common Seal.]
* Here state name (if any, of boat) also description, and whether intended tow used for net or line fishing, or both. 
Form A.
New South Wales. Registered No.
FISHING BOAT LICENSE.
[Under sec. 19 of "The Fisheries Act, 1881."] (Place of issue) (Date of issue)
Issued to of the Owner of the Licensed Fishing Boat*
[Common Seal.]
This License will remain in force until the 31st day of December, 188 , and no
longer. 1
* Here state name (if any. of boat), also description, and whether intended to be used for net or line fishing, or both.
Fisherman's License. Registered No.
Place of Issue : — Date of Issue
Name of License— Address of Licensee t—
Date of Expiration of License—
[Common Seal.]
Form 33.
New South Wales. Registered No.
FISHERMAN'S LICENSE.
[Under see. 20 of "The Fisheries Act, X891."] (Place of issue) (Date of issue) Issued to of
under the provisions of "Tlio Fisheries Act, 1891."
[Common Soul . J
Oyster Dredging License. Registered Number »—
Date of Issue t— Date of Issue j— Name of Licensee
Address of Licensee
Date of Expiration of License !-~
[Common Seal.]
Form 0.
New South Wales.
Registered No.
OYSTER DREDGING LICENSE.
[Under sec. 30 of ft The Fisheries Act, 1881."] (Place of Issue) (Date of Issue)
Issued to of
under the provisions of " The Fisheries Act," 1881."
[Common Seal.]
Oyster Dealer's License
Registered Number:—
Place of Issue — Date of Issue — Name of Licensee
Place of Business of License :—
Date of Expiration of License
[Common Seal.]
Form D.
New South Wales.
Registered No.
OYSTER DEALER'S LICENSE.
[Under sec. 42 of <(The Fisheries Act, 1881."] (Place of Issue) (Date of Issue) Issued to of under the provisions of" The Fisheries Act, 1881."
[Common Seal.]
Government Gazette Notices (1881, June 30). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 3443. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article221682847 

BARRENJOEY VANDALISM
Sir,-Last Sunday when proceeding from Palm Beach to Barrenjoey head-land, I was shocked to see scores of the largest and most beautiful banksia trees on our coast slaughtered and hacked down apparently only during the last few days.
Many of these trees are of great age and most of them are between 2ft and 4ft in diameter They were not only very decorative but they gave shade to picnickers.

On walking to the top of the headland at Barrenjoey, I was ashamed to notice that the very fine old lighthouse stone buildings are being rapidly destroyed All the glass windows are smashed and all fittings, or any particle of the building of any value not smashed up, have been taken away I understand that although, the buildings were put up in 1882 this vandalism has only occurred since the end of the war when the guard was removed
H. RUSKIN-ROWE.
Sydney. 
BARRENJOEY VANDALISM (1947, May 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18026839  - Visit Barrenjoey Headland - The Lessee 

ROUND AND ABOUT GOSFORD.
OUR SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT IN THE KENDALL COUNTRY.
INTRODUCTORY.
ACCORDING to a superficial criticism, 'Australian poetry smacks too much of the whisky bottle.' Now, although admitting that both Gordon, Kendall, and others knew how to appreciate 'a gill of good honest rum,' as Kendall expresses it, this remark of Mr. David Christie Murray savours of exaggeration.
In a letter, published for the first time, Kendall writes to an old Gosford friend :
I am sorry that we are going to lose old Pad. Give him my kindest regards, and tell him that nothing would give me greater pleasure than putting him now outside a gill of good honest rum. Pad and I were great chums. Many a surreptitious glass have we had together in a land where corks were to be seen, and where the shepherd was, as old Jemmy would say, non est inventus. I "looks towards" Browning. Good- night, JOKOKI.

Jemmy, it should be explained, was an aboriginal, while the signature is a native expression of conviviality. He heads another letter with a humourous pen and ink sketch of himself, with his nightcap on, sitting at a table on which stands a bottle of whisky or rum.

The frailties of a man of genius do not, however, here concern us, and it was with quite other thoughts that I set out to explore the haunts with which his poems have familiarised every Australian.

Gosford may be reached by steamer or by rail. A boat leaves Sydney twice weekly, taking a little over three hours for the trip. The journey by rail is, however, usually preferred. After crossing the Hawkesbury the scenery is of an enchanting character. Skirting Mullet Creek, a long tunnel is entered, and on emerging into daylight there is a good view of Woy Woy Basin and Brisbane Water. Soon after leaving Woy Woy station Gosford is seen nestling between two hills, at the head of Brisbane Water. The place itself is the realisation of a modern Sleepy Hollow. The inhabitants appear to lead a pleasant, dreamy existence, while even the dogs are too lazy to stir when a stranger

passes. They are a not unimportant part of the community, and a visitor learns, before half a day is over, their various performances and pedigrees.
Next to the public-houses the most flourishing institution in Gosford is the School of Arts, in which Sir Henry Parkes has shown a lively interest. It cost about £1000, collected mainly from the proceeds of the local wild flower shows, wild flowers growing in pro- fusion in the neighbourhood, so that the exhibitions attract numerous visitors from Sydney. The building was opened by Sir Henry Parkes, at Easter, 1889, who presented, at the same time, a number of books to the library. As a guide to those who are inclined to make a similar donation, it may be of interest to mention that his gift included his own Poems and Speeches, Longfellow's and Whittier's Poems, Lives of Luther, General Grant, and Goldsmith, Favenc's History of Australian Explorations, and a collection of volumes on Free Trade and Political Economy.

The Agricultural Society, which holds its annual shows in the old hall, has done much useful work since its foundation last year. It has dealt with the pests which play such havoc in many country districts, and was the first agricultural society in the colony to receive a grant from the Government for the destruction of flying foxes. This seems highly desirable judging the extent of the injury they have inflicted. As showing their numbers it is worth mentioning that on a recent occasion a party of twelve persons shot no less than a thousand in a few hours at Matcham's Grant, Erina, six miles from Gosford.


The late Henry Kendall,
The Celebrated Australian Poet.


On my last visit I observed with pleasure that an energetic element has sprung up which will probably in a few years revolutionise Gosford. It is due mainly to them that the Agricultural Society is in a flourishing condition, while a sailing club and lawn tennis club have a fair share of members. Some ambitious spirits talk of a large hotel to be built opposite Gosford, furnished with every convenience and luxury. The opening of the railway bridge over the Hawkesbury renders it a mere question of time for the many charms the locality possesses to become as well known to the tourist as Katoomba or Bowral.


A Quiet Anchorage, Erina Creek.

The history of Gosford is inseparably connected with the most romantic period of what is popularly described as 'the early days.' It is said to be the third oldest place of settlement in Australia. The question as to who was the original settler is doubtful. According to one authority an escaped convict from the Hunter district was the first to take up his abode in the neighbourhood ; others maintain that this distinction should be given to a man named Webb, after whom Webb's Reef, at Blackwall, is called. They add that he was afterwards followed by Hutchings, of Kincumber, and Scott, the sugar planter. In those days the blacks were numerous. They were chiefly members of the Broken Bay tribe, who came to fish and search for shells. The shell heaps on the banks of Narara Creek and Brisbane Water are proofs of their presence. Persons still living recollect their corroborees and skill at tree-climbing and boomerang-throwing. One old dame related how her father used for many years to carry arms, and she vividly described an attack made on their house by the blacks, when he and his men barricaded the door, and fired out through cracks, killing and wounding several of the enemy. Now, except for the shell heaps and some rock carvings, not a trace of them remains. The last of the blacks —Billy Falkner— died about sixteen years ago, a victim to his fondness for liquor. He was drowned in crossing Lake Tuggerah in a bark canoe, after a heavy drinking carouse. He was one of the few aboriginals who never indulged in the fragrant weed. The neighbourhood contains several native carvings, mostly of a rude and grotesque character.
It is to be regretted that no authentic record has been compiled of these interesting relics of the past.

In the early days the chief source of wealth was the timber industry. Many of the trees were six or seven feet in diameter. Until lately no steps have been taken to replace them, but it is under-stood that much useful work is being done in this direction at the State Forest Nursery near Gosford. The prices fetched by cedar in the Sydney market attracted the attention of various officials who, living at a time when large estates could be had for the asking, had little difficulty in obtaining valuable and extensive grants, or who bought 'blocks' at low prices. A party of surveyors was sent down to mark out the land, their visit being followed by the arrival of Dr. Mitchell, Sheriff McQuoid, Messrs. Manning, John Terry Hughes, Hely, the Superintendent of Convicts, and others. Hely's house still stands, and through the courtesy of the present owner, Mr. Hugh Campbell, J.P., I was able to inspect the building. It was originally much larger, but when the 'Royal' inn was built a portion of the farm buildings was pulled down and carefully re-erected in Gosford. It is reached by a pleasant two-mile drive. An outbuilding, which proves to be the stables, has the appearance of an English village church. The house is an admirable specimen of convict labour, each stone solidly and squarely set, and likely to stay in its place for centuries. In the garden is Hely's vault, enclosed in an iron railing. His eldest son, Hovendon Hely, accompanied Leichhardt on his famous expedition to Port Essington in 1844. Amongst the others were James Snowden Calvert, John Gilbert, John Roper, and William Phillips. He also went on the unsuccessful journey to the Swan River, which has been described by the only surviving member of the party, Mr. John F. Mann, in an interesting pamphlet entitled 'Eight Months with Dr. Leichhardt' (Sydney, 1888). Hely, in 1851, led a party in search of the explorer. His father died some years later. Hely, like his neighbours, had his land cleared and trees planted by convicts, who also built Gosford Park — with its queer vases and other 'adornments' — belonging to Mr. Manning, Erina, and Curumbene, the home of the Fagans of Kendall fame.

In addition to the timber industry the early settlers raised large quantities of fruit and agricultural produce, until the difficulties of transport put an end to their venture, and timber was again had recourse to as the chief trade, being sent by water. Vain attempts were made to have a road to Sydney constructed. It was formed as far as the Hawkesbury, a punt was placed on the river, and the road continued a few miles, when, for want of capital or enterprise, it suddenly stopped. It was not until May, 1889, that the completion of the Hawkesbury bridge provided the district with really adequate means of access and transport to the capital.

SOME FAVOURITE EXCURSIONS.
The best way of getting a general idea of Brisbane Water is to join the steamer at Gosford, and make a trip to the bar. The boat at present rarely runs, however, except on public holidays. The Broad-water, from end to end, is four miles long and two miles broad. Some ten or fifteen boats give employment to six fishermen. The best fishing grounds in Brisbane Water are the channels near the beacon. Flat-head, red bream, and schnapper are most abundant near Blackwall reef. There are good oyster beds, and one species, the hammer-headed oyster, is, I believe, found nowhere else in New South Wales, although met with in Queensland, the Philippine Islands, and other places. It is of great length, and sinks deep in the mud, the tip alone being visible. This becomes en-tangled in the fishermen's nets, and thus the oyster is brought to the surface. On the hills emus are occasionally seen, while the sportsman has wallabies, black swan, ducks, flock pigeon, wonga wongas, bronzewings, with other game. The best shooting is at the Tuggerah Lakes. As already mentioned there is a large timber trade, but, thanks to the Agricultural Society, a considerable fruit industry is springing up. Oranges, apples, and all kinds of stone fruit do extremely well, especially on the higher ground.

The trip to the Bar should be put within the reach of tourists by frequent excursions on stated days. Steamers might run from Peat's Ferry to Gosford, where the train back to Sydney could be caught. Starting now, however, from Gosford wharf, we steam quickly by the entrance to Narara Creek, the 'stately Narara' endeared to us   by the poem in which Kendall sings of
The youth thrown away, and the faculties wasted.

* * * *
Whipped by inflexible devils I shiver
With a hollow 'too late' in my hearing for ever. 
But the face of the river — the torrented power
That smites at the rock while it fosters the flower —
Shall gleam in my dreams with the summer look splendid,
And the beauty of woodlands and waterfalls blended ;
And often I'll think of far-forested noises,
And the emphasis deep of grand sea-going voices, 
And turn to Narara the eyes of a lover,
When the sorrowful days of my singing are over.

Soon losing sight of 'Narara, grandson of the haughty hill torrent,' 'Narara of the waterfalls, the darling of the hills,' we stop for a moment at Point Clare, or Scott's Point, where the scenery is not unlike Friar's Crag, Derwentwater. On the opposite shore are Point Frederick and Green Point, with Erina Creek and bridge. Entering the channel the banks become dotted with settlers' houses, and we catch a glimpse of many a pleasant homestead nestling in the groves of bananas and surrounded by richly-coloured flowers, for we are in Kendall's 'Land of the Flowers.'

The line skirts the lake to Woy Woy Creek, which may be explored another day. Mount Pleasant is a curiously shaped head-land, jutting some distance out. Passing a couple of islands we reach Blackwall, with Rock Davis' shipbuilding yard on the right. Then, enjoying the magnificent scenery, we round Webb's Reef, and turning sharply to the right come to Mulhall's Point (Koorung-Goorung), a favourite picnic resort. Some low-lying rocks, known as Half Tide, pierce through the surf. The praises of Broken Bay and Lion Island have been sung by Trollope and other writers, who would have been equally enthusiastic if they had had a chance of gazing at the splendid prospect which bursts upon the view on rounding Mulhall's Point.


The Waterfall at Narara Creek.

The South Pacific roars as it bursts with a thud on the beach, and the wind is a bearer of words from the sea to scattered hamlets twenty and thirty miles distant. The steamer returns in good time for dinner and the evening train to Sydney.
Tourists with more than a day at their disposal will not be long before they explore the gullies of Narara Creek, which rival some of the choicest bits of the Illawarra scenery.
From the rainy hill-heads, where, in starts and
in spasms,
Leaps wild the white torrent from chasms to
chasms —
From the home of bold echoes, whose voices of
wonder
Fly out of blind caverns struck black by high
thunder —
Through gorges august, in whose nether recesses Is heard the far psalm of unseen wildernesses — Like a dominant spirit, a strong-handed sharer
Of spoil with the tempest, comes down the Narrara.

Care must be taken at the entrance of the creek to keep to the main channel, as the mud flats stretch out a long distance. A small landing stage and ferry, soon to be replaced by a bridge, mark the approach to the Fagan's farm, where Kendall lived. A zigzag road up what is known as the Devil's Pinch is projected, and this will place at the feet of tourists (within half an hour's drive from Gosford) the whole expanse of lake-like reaches and bold headlands lying between the Broadwater and Barrenjoey. As far as settlement is concerned it will give access to 20,000 acres of Crown lands, much of which is well adapted for the growth of oranges, olives, apples, pears, lemons, grapes, apricots, etc., and will conduct the tourist along a mountain plateau, to the east of which gleam, at numerous points, the blue waters of the Pacific, with to the west a wide expanse of wooded hills, and the Great Dividing Range on the sky line. Within eight miles of Gosford as many waterfalls may then be visited. It is from these localities (now a terra incognita to strangers) that the rich harvest of waratahs, native roses, and other floral treasures is drawn, which make the wild flower shows of Manly and Gosford so attractive.

Kendall always spoke in high terms of the kindness he met with from them. I have before me a letter from Mr. C. Fagan, dated June 29, 1875, written to Kendall while he was at Camden Haven, asking him to frame petitions for a road from Gosford to Narara Ferry, and for an annual grant for the repairs required on the Gosford to Possum Creek Road. The poet has endorsed the note as follows :

This is from Mr. Fagan, the magistrate with whom I lived at Gosford. He is a large landed proprietor there. The Joe and William he mentions are his brothers. They are all noble fellows. It was I who brought about the establishment, of a post office here (i.e., at Gosford). I also wrote the petitions which led to the deepening of Brisbane Water, and two annual grants for the roads. Before I left Gosford the inhabitants presented me with a watch, etc. I only mention these facts to show that I must have been behaving myself properly while I was in the specified district.
The foregoing extract has been given at length as it is eminently characteristic of the practical side of his nature.

Leave can readily be obtained to visit the rock near the farm, celebrated in the exquisite 'Names upon a Stone.' The spot has scarcely changed.

The leaves that screen 
The rock-pool of the past
Are yet as soft, and cool, and green
as when Kendall and his friends idly carved their names. The reader will re-member the lines :
There was a rock-pool in a glen
Beyond Narara's sands,
The mountains shut it in from men
In flowerful fairy lands ;
But once we found its dwelling place,
The lovely and the lone — And in a dream I stooped to trace
Our names upon a stone.

'That tender thing the moss' has covered but not concealed the initials. The ferns and overhanging palms, with the sunlight glittering through the leaves, are there still, and one easily realises the charm of such a spot.

Book in hand, said Mr. Fagan, he wandered for hours here and in the gullies. He was an unskilful rider, being, like Carlyle, too often absorbed in reveries, and preferred walking. He was not, as a biographer has stated, employed to carry the mails between Gosford and Kincumber. My brother had the mail contract, and sometimes, for the sake of the change, Kendall used to jump on a horse and ride to Kincumber, about nine miles away. The road is very pretty to Green Point, and thence across country to Broadwater Lagoon. He wrote his poems on any scrap of paper or old note-book, jotting down odd lines and words, to write the poem as a whole with scarcely an alteration. He always wrote with his left hand, owing to an accident in his youth, forming each letter separately.

To reach the source of the creek we have four miles to row. The State Forest Nursery is passed and the main road is seen some miles further. Here it is advisable to leave the boat and visit the waterfalls. (Many prefer the drive from Gosford through Carrington, with a twenty minutes' scramble up the gully.) The principal waterfall is eighty feet in height. There are some fine overhanging rocks to be visited, the fretwork on the roof reminding us of the Jenolan Caves. 
We leave with a sigh of regret
Narara of the waterfalls,
The darling of the hills,
Whose home is under mountain walls
By many luted rills ;
Her bright green nooks and channels cool
I never more may see.

My space, however, is limited, and I can but briefly indicate a few of the delightful trips to be made before quitting the 'soft, cool shades of flowerful forest arches,' and glorious views of hills, lakes, sea, and sky, which make the memory of Gosford long linger in one's mind. A simple jaunt is to the next village. East Gosford existed before the present Gosford, having been surveyed in 1840. A few years later it contained six public houses, a sure sign of prosperity, according to the gauge of the witty Frenchman who judged the amount of wealth in an English town by the number of public houses. On the way we may visit Frog Hollow, celebrated for botanical treasures. Near the site of a church a good view is had of Caroline Bay and Point Frederick, stretching south-ward, with a cemetery at the extremity, containing the tomb of Mr. T. Scott, who received a pension for having introduced the sugar industry. His family still reside close to Gosford. He came from the West Indies, and died seven years ago at the age of one hundred and five. Continuing by the main road we come to the 'Victoria' Inn, once a private residence, comfortably situated on the brow of the hill, well sheltered from gales. On the green sward in front of the house there is a good view of the lake, Point Frederick, Green Point, Woy Woy Basin, and the distant hills. Below is the entrance to Erina Creek. 'The Fox under the Hill' used to be close   by, an inn kept by Edward Hargreaves, who went to California when gold was discovered there, but returned two years later, and struck by the similarity of the geological formation at Bathurst with that in the States set all Australia ablaze by proclaiming the existence of gold at Lewis Ponds Creek.

An easy walk takes one to the top of President's Hill, a Government reserve, eighty acres in extent. The recreation grounds are a mile from Gosford, beautifully situated but much neglected. Another short trip is up the gully by Mr. R. White's farm, affording charming views of the Broadwater; with Broken Bay, Elliott Island, Barrenjoey lighthouse, and Pittwater in the distance, and nearer, the scattered hamlet of East Gosford. To the north are Maiden's Brush and Mutton Ridge, and away westward, Wyoming and the Mangrove Ranges, Berry's Head and Cooranbean, the haunt of 'Black Tom, that never a hangman could hang. Black Tom, a wolf in the shape of a man ! Wan as the sorrowful foam a gray mother waits by the sea ;' but, alas, her son returns not. Cooranbean is still haunted by his presence :—
The brand of black devil is there — an evil wind
moaneth around —
There is doom, there is death in the air — a curse
groweth up from the ground !
No noise of the axe or
the saw in that hollow
unholy is heard,
No fall of the hoof or
the paw, no whirr of the wing of the bird.
The admirer of Kendall will not omit to visit Mooni.
Now, by Mooni's fair hill heads,
Lo, the gold-green lights are glowing,
Where, because no wind is blowing,
Fancy hears the flowers growing
In the herby water-sheds.
Faint it is — the sound of thunder
From the torrents far thereunder,
Where the meeting mountains ponder
Now, by Mooni's fair hill heads.

Maiden's Brush, one mile and a-half distant, is a haunt of the lyre bird, the satin bird, the superb regent bird, rifleman, and flock pigeon, while rare orchids, mosses, myrtles, and palms are numerous. Two Italian emigrants, of the Marquis de Reé's company, have a small farm in this earthly paradise.

Lake Terrigal, Willy Willy, the Carrington Falls, Hogan's Brush, and Springfield are all worth a visit. Woy Woy Basin and Waterfall recall Scotland. To see Wyong Creek take the train to Wyong, procure a boat from a fisherman, and explore the creek without a guide. Kincumber, eight miles off, is a scattered village. In the cemetery is buried Edward Dunlop, assistant astronomer to Sir Thomas Brisbane.

Skirting the shores of the Broadwater we reach Beattie's shipbuilding yard, where a boat may be hired. Cockle Creek abounds in rare shells, mutton fish, sea eggs, and a thousand and one natural wonders. After an hour's row we come to Little Beach, with Barrenjoey in the near background and Sydney Heads seen dimly far away.

McMaster's Lake is a few miles to the north. Excellent shooting is to be had on its waters, especially swans, ducks, and divers. The Tuggerah Lakes are fourteen miles distant. A local writer, to whom I am indebted for his courteous assistance, has described them as 'undoubtedly the finest to be found on the western seaboard.' They consist of a chain of lakes opening one into the other. From Gosford the Erina Road is taken, then through Wamberal, and across the Wamberal Plains to Long's Hotel, a favourite place of rendezvous for sportsmen ; gillbirds, pigeons, lyre birds, duck, swan, and snipe are abundant in the lakes and on the hills. Thence on to Karagi and the entrance to the lakes.

The western shores have been taken up by Miss Alice Cornwell, with a view to the development of the mining and timber industries, so that before many years a large population will probably have settled there. 

To many the great charm of this district is due to its being still haunted by the magic presence of Kendall. The 'careworn writer for the press' in 'the bitter old Bohemian days,'
The father writing by the dead
To earn the undertaker's fee.
had a life history of such infinite pathos as no writer has yet dared to trace, and it is pleasant to think that the years spent at Gosford were among the happiest of his career. It is no place here to consider the position which he is destined to occupy as a poet ; it need merely be stated that there are no signs of his fame decreasing. Even now a new edition of his poems is passing through the press, and will be published in a few weeks. In England, as well as in Australia, he finds admirers. 


Kendall's Rock and Cascade.

George Augustus Sala has paid the following tribute to the earnestness which rings through many of his poems, in a characteristic letter, now published for the first time :—
I shall have the volumes (Kendall's Poems) suitably bound, (he writes) and they will occupy, when I return home, a distinguished place on my library shelves, close to Tennyson, Browning, and Edgar Allen Poe. I am myself wholly unimaginative and unpoetical, but I think that I can appreciate genuine poetry when, as it very rarely happens in these days, thoroughly original minstrelsy comes in my way, and in the verses which you have sent me I am glad to recognise the ring of the true poet, earnest and reliant in his mission, notwithstanding 'The life austere That waits upon the man of letters here.'

In spite of gloomy assertions to the contrary the times are gradually changing, and signs are, I think, not wanting that be-fore many years the man of letters will be honoured in Australia as he is in Europe. Had Kendall lived in a more auspicious era he might have been spared many temptations and hardships. His contemporaries are, perhaps, not altogether free from blame in having withheld help and sympathy, which might have added an element of greater strength to his character, and saved him from fits of passionate remorse. There were, of course, notable exceptions, and all honour is due, amongst others, to William Bede Dalley, and more especially to Sir Henry Parkes, 'always a warm and sincere friend of the poet,' who secured him the means of livelihood by appointing him Inspector of Forests, and who has, since his death, nobly assisted the family which has lost its bread-winner.
It is useless now, however, to lament the cruel fate of a man of genius, who passed the greater portion of his career in heavy trials and the bitterness of futile sorrow, since
Now all is over, 
The ancient fire is cold,
No ardent lights illume the brow
As in the days of old.
A. G. W.
ROUND AND ABOUT GOSFORD. (1890, October 25). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63611673 
Pittwater Fishermen - Barranjoey Days - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon 

Previous History Pages:  

Marie Byles Lucy Gullett Kookoomgiligai Frank Hurley Archpriest JJ Therry Sir Patrick Gordon Taylor Bowen Bungaree W. Bradley 1788 Journal  Midholme Loggan Rock Cabin La Corniche La Corniche II Lion Island Bungan Beach Botham Beach Scarred Trees  Castles in the Sand Dame Nellie Melba lunches at Bilgola Spring, 1914  First to Fly in Australia at North Narrabeen  Mona Vale Golf Club's Annual Balls  Governor Phillip camps on Resolute Beach  Ruth Bedford  Jean Curlewis  Mollie Horseman  Charlotte Boutin  May Moore  Neville W Cayley Leon Houreux  Frederick Wymark  Sir Adrian Curlewis  Bilgola Heron Cove  Mullet Creek  Shark Point  Woodley's Cottage  A Tent at The Basin  Collin's Retreat-Bay View House-Scott's Hotel  Bilgola Cottage and House  The First Pittwater Regatta  Women Cricketers Picnic Filmed In Pittwater  Governor Phillip's Barrenjoey Cairn  Waradiel Season The Church at Church Point  Gov.  Phillip'€™s  Exploration of Broken Bay, 2 €- 9 March 1788   Petroglyths: Aboriginal Rock Art on the Northern Beaches  Avalon Headland Landmarks  Steamers Part I Pittwater Aquatic Club Part I  Woody Point Yacht Club  Royal Motor Yacht Club Part I  Dorothea Mackellar Elaine Haxton  Neva Carr Glynn Margaret Mulvey Jean Mary Daly  Walter Oswald Watt Wilfrid Kingsford Smith John William Cherry  George Scotty Allan  McCarrs Creek Narrabeen Creek  Careel Creek  Currawong Beach Creek  Bushrangers at Pittwater  Smuggling at Broken Bay  An Illicit Still at McCarr's Creek  The Murder of David Foley  Mona Vale Outrages  Avalon Camping Ground  Bayview Koala Sanctuary  Ingleside Powder Works Palm Beach Golf Course  Avalon Sailing Club  Mona Vale Surf Life Saving Club  Palm Beach SLSC Part I - The Sheds  Warriewood SLSC Whale Beach SLSC Flagstaff Hill Mount Loftus Pill Hill Sheep Station Hill  S.S. Florrie  S.S. Phoenix and General Gordon Paddlewheeler  MV Reliance The Elvina  Florida House  Careel House   Ocean House and Billabong  Melrose-The Green Frog The Small Yacht Cruising Club of Pittwater  Canoe and I Go With The Mosquito Fleet - 1896  Pittwater Regattas Part I - Dates and Flagships to 1950 Shark Incidents In Pittwater  The Kalori  Church Point Wharf  Bayview Wharf  Newport Wharf Palm Beach Jetty - Gow's Wharf  Max Watt  Sir Francis Anderson Mark Foy  John Roche  Albert Verrills  Broken Bay Customs Station At Barrenjoey  Broken Bay Water Police  Broken Bay Marine Rescue - Volunteer Coastal Patrol  Pittwater Fire-Boats  Prospector Powder Hulk at Towler's Bay  Naval Visits to Pittwater 1788-1952  Pittwater's Torpedo Wharf and Range Naval Sea Cadets in Pittwater S.S. Charlotte Fenwick S.S. Erringhi  P.S. Namoi  S.Y. Ena I, II and III  Barrenjoey Headland - The Lessees  Barrenjoey Lighthouse - The Construction  Barrenjoey Broken Bay Shipwrecks Up To 1900  Barrenjoey Light Keepers  Douglas  Adrian Ross Newport SLSC 1909 - 1938 Part I Overview  North Narrabeen SLSC - The Formative Years  Bilgola SLSC - the First 10 years   North Palm Beach SLSC    A History of Pittwater Parts 1 and 4 Pittwater Regattas - 1907 and 1908  Pittwater Regattas - 1921 - The Year that Opened and Closed with a Regatta on Pittwater  Pittwater Regatta Banishes Depression - 1933 The 1937 Pittwater Regatta - A Fashionable Affair  Careel Bay Jetty-Wharf-Boatshed  Gow-Gonsalves Boatshed -Snapperman Beach  Camping at Narrabeen - A Trickle then a Flood Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek'  RMYC Broken Bay Boathouse and Boatshed Barrenjoey Boat House The Bona - Classic Wooden Racing Yacht Mona Vale Hospital Golden Jubilee - A Few Insights on 50 Years as a Community Hospital Far West Children's Health Scheme - the Formation Years  The First Scotland Island Cup, Trophy and Race and the Gentleman who loved Elvina Bay Royal Motor Yacht Club Broken Bay NSW - Cruiser Division History - A History of the oldest division in the Royal Motor Yacht Club   Royal Motor Yacht Club€“ Broken Bay€“ Early Motor Boats and Yachts, their Builders and Ocean Races to Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury and Pittwater  The Royal Easter Show Began As the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales   The Mail Route to Pittwater and Beyond  The Wild Coachmen of Pittwater - A Long and Sometimes Bumpy Ride on Tracks Instead of Roads  The Fearless Men of Palm Beach SLSC's Surf Boats First Crews - A Tale of Viking Ships, Butcher Boats and Robert Gow'€™s Tom Thumb 'Canoe'  Furlough House Narrabeen - Restful Sea Breezes For Children and Their Mothers  From Telegraphs to Telephones - For All Ships at Sea and Those On Land Mona Vale Training Grounds - From Lancers on Horses to Lasses on Transport Courses  Fred Verrills; Builder of Bridges and Roads within Australia during WWII, Builder of Palm Beach Afterwards   Communications with Pittwater  Ferries To Pittwater A History of Pittwater - Part 4: West Head Fortress  Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur  Early Pittwater Launches and Ferries Runs Avalon Beach SLSC - The First Clubhouse  Avalon Beach SLSC The Second and Third Clubhouses From Beneath the Floorboards at Hyde Park Barracks  Bungaree Was Flamboyant  Andrew Thompson - 'Long Harry'  Albert Thomas Black John Collins of Avalon Narrabeen Prawning Times - A Seasonal Tide of Returnings  Oystering in the Pittwater Estuary - Oyster Kings and Pearl Kings and When Not to Harvest Oysters Yabbying In Warriewood Creeks  Eeling in Warriewood's Creeks (Includes A Short History of community involvement in environmental issues/campaigns in and around Narrabeen Lagoon - 1974 to present by David James OAM) Eunice Minnie Stelzer - Pittwater Matriarchs  Maria Louisa Therry - Pittwater Matriarch  Katherine Mary Roche - Pittwater Matriarchs Sarah A. Biddy Lewis and Martha Catherine Bens Pittwater Matriarchs  Pittwater's New Cycle Track of 1901 Manly to Newport  The Rock Lily Hotel  Barrenjoey House The Pasadena Jonah's St Michael's Arch  The First Royal Visitor to Australia: the Incident at Clontarf March 12th, 1868  Pittwater: Lovely Arm of the Hawkesbury By NOEL GRIFFITHS - includes RMYC Wharf and Clareville Wharf of 1938 + An Insight into Public Relations in Australia George Mulhall First Champion of Australia in Rowing - First Light-Keeper  at Barranjuey Headland  Captain Francis Hixson - Superintendent of Pilots, Lights, and Harbours and Father of the Naval Brigade  The Marquise of Scotland Island   The First Boat Builders of Pittwater: the Short Life and Long Voyages of Scotland Island Schooner the Geordy  Boat Builders of Pittwater II: from cargo schooners and coasters to sailing skiffs and motorised launches  The Currawong: Classic Yacht  The Riddles of The Spit and Bayview/ Church Point: sailors, boat makers, road pavers winning rowers   VP Day Commemorative Service 2015 –  at Avalon Beach RSL Cenotaph: 70th Anniversary  Captain T. Watson and his Captain Cook Statues: A Tribute to Kindness   Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Hordern or Wiltshire Parks to McKay Reserve – From Beach to Estuary  Pittwater Reserves, The Green Ways: Clareville Wharf and Taylor's Point Jetty  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways Bilgola Beach - The Cabbage Tree Gardens and Camping Grounds - Includes Bilgola - The Story Of A Politician, A Pilot and An Epicure by Tony Dawson and Anne Spencer  Pittwater Reserves - The Green Ways: Mona Vale's Village Greens a Map of the Historic Crown Lands Ethos Realised in The Village, Kitchener and Beeby Parks  Pittwater Reserves: The Green Ways; Bungan Beach and Bungan Head Reserves:  A Headland Garden  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Green Family  Elanora - Some Early Notes and Pictures  The Stewart Towers On Barrenjoey Headland  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Williams Family  Early Cricket in Pittwater: A small Insight Into the Noble Game from 1880's On  The Pacific Club's 2016 Carnival in Rio Fundraiser for Palm Beach SLSC Marks the 79th Year of Support  Bert Payne Park, Newport: Named for A Man with Community Spirit   Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Fox Family  Surf Carnivals in February 1909, 1919, 1925, a Fancy Dress Rise of Venus and Saving Lives with Surfboards  Early Pittwater Paddlers, Oarsmen, Rowers and Scullers: The Paddon Family of Clareville  Mermaid Basin, Mona Vale Beach: Inspired 1906 Poem by Viva Brock  Early Pittwater Schools: The Barrenjoey School 1872 to 1894  The Royal Easter Show and 125th Celebration of the Hawkesbury Agricultural College: Farmers Feed Us!  The Newport School 1888 to 2016  Pittwater's Ocean Beach Rock Pools: Southern Corners of Bliss - A History The Royal Botanical Garden Sydney Celebrate 200 Years in 2016  The Porter Family of Newport: Five Brother Soldiers Serve in WWI Church Point and Bayview: A Pittwater Public School Set on the Estuary  The Basin, Pittwater: A Reprise: Historical Records and Pictures  Lighthouse Keepers Cottages You Can Rent in NSW - Designed or Inspired by Colonial Architect James Barnet: Includes Historic 'Lit' Days records   Bayview Days Ships Biscuits - the At Sea Necessity that Floated William Arnott’s Success  Mona Vale Public School 1906 to 2012   St Johns Camden: 176th And 167th Anniversaries In June 2016 - Places To Visit  Narrabeen Lagoon And Collaroy Beachfront: Storms And Flood Tides Of The Past  Avalon Beach Public School - A History   Muriel Knox Doherty Sir Herbert Henry Schlink  Shopping And Shops In Manly: Sales Times From 1856 To 1950 For A Fishing Village   Royal Prince Alfred Yacht Club's 150th Sailing Season Opening: A Few Notes Of Old  A Few Glimpses Into Narrabeen's Past Beauties  Dr. Isobel Ida Bennett AO   Taronga Zoo 100th Birthday Parade: 1000 Reasons To Celebrate  War Memorials: Manly, October 14, 1916  Avalon Beach Golf Links: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  War Memorials - Mona Vale, November 14, 1926  Annie Wyatt Reserve Palm Beach: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Tumbledown Dick Hill  Waratah Farm and Narrabeen Plums: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Mark Twain, J.F. Archibald And Henry Lawson - Did They Go Fishing At Narrabeen In The Spring Of 1895?: Probably!  Bayview Baths Centenary Celebration in November 2016 hosted by Bayview-Church Point Residents Association  Dr. Jenny Rosen's Historical Timeline  Palm Beach RSL - Club Palm Beach Celebrating 60 Years  Early Years At Narrabeen: The Plane Sailing Day Of 1944 The  Five Ways- Six ways Junction; Kamikaze Corner - Avalon Bilgola  RPAYC Season on Pittwater and coming of Jubilees in Summer of 1938 Local Explorers’ Modern Day Discovery - Governor Phillip’s First Landing site, Campsite and contact with Local Aborigines in Pittwater: The Case for West Head Beach    Rendezvous Tea Rooms Palm Beach: links with 1817 and 1917: Palm Beach Stores  and Fishermen  St Cloud's Jersey Stud: Elanora Heights: Pittwater Fields of Dreams II  Roderic Quinn's Poems And Prose For Manly, Beacon Hill, Dee Why And Narrabeen  A Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I – Of Places, Peoples And The Development Of Australian Art And Artists: The Estuary  Celebrating World Radio Day: The Bilgola Connection With The Beginnings Of Radio In Australia  Emile Theodore Argles - champion of all Australians without a Voice - a very funny Satirist, Manly Poet and Pittwater Prose Writer and Litterateur  Sydney Harbour Bridge Celebrates 85th Birthday: A Few Pittwater Connections  Victor James Daley: A Manly Bard And Poet who also came to Pittwater and the Hawkesbury  Let's Go Fly A Kite !: Palm Beach Whistling Kites Inspire sharing How to Make Standard, Box and Whistling Boy Kites - school holidays fun with a bit of Australian and Narrabeen history  Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space, and Of Many Captains   Historic Catalogue And Record Of Pittwater Art I: Coastal Landscapes and Seascapes  The Bayview Tea Gardens 1920 to 1923 When Run By Thomas Edward And Annie Newey (Nee Costello) An Australian and RPAYC Commodore Aboard an America's Cup Challenger of 1908 and 1914   Henry Lawson - A Manly Bard and Poet: on his 150th Birthday  Historic Catalogue and Record of Pittwater Art I: Artists and Artists Colonies  Opportunity To Visit Submarine War Grave Renews Memories Of 75 Years Ago  Early Bayview - insights courtesy Don Taylor and Margaret Tink   Retracing Governor Phillip's Footsteps Around Pittwater: The Mystery Of The Cove On The East Side   Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: John (Jack) Ralston and Nora McAuliffe  Patrick Edward Quinn: A Manly Prose writer who gave us A Run To Pittwater (1889) and Songs for the Federation of Australia  Avalon Beach North Headland Indian Face 'Falls': An Everchanging Coastline  Nautical Treasure In Suburbia    Narani, Captain Cook Celebrations At MVPS And Elvina Bay Memories - 1970s  Early Pittwater Surfers – Palm Beach I: Alrema Becke Queen of Palm Beach  The Beachcombers Surfboard Riding Club: Palm Beach, NSW - 1959 to 1961 Year Dated Beer Bottles Found at Taylors Point  Early Pittwater Surfers: Avalon Beach I  - 1956: The Carnival That Introduced The Malibu Surfboard and Being Able To Surf Across A Wave Face - Reg Wood Anecdotes   Mona Vale SLSC To Be Completely Renewed + A Few Insights from the Pages of the Past  The Firecracker That Closed Narrabeen Hotel By Ken Lloyd (Savalloyd) + Narrabeen Hotel Licence Transfer Trail  Traces Of WWII Coast Watchers Found On Bangalley Headland - 1942   Early Warriewood SLSC insights per Norman Godden + Extras    The Macphersons of Wharriewood and Narrabeen: the photo albums of William Joseph Macpherson  Angophora Reserve Avalon Dedication  Avalon Preservation Association History by Geoff Searl  Pittwater Summer Houses: 1916 Palm Beach Cottage and Palm Beach House  Pittwater YHA: Some History   WWI Historian Presents New Film On The Beersheba Charge At Avalon Beach Historical Society Meeting  Newport's Bushlink 'From The Crown To The Sea' Paths: Celebrating Over 20 Years Of Community Volunteer Bushcare Results  Pittwater Fishermen: The Sly Family Narrabeen Exploits and Manly Community Contributors: The First Surfboat at Manly Beach  Women In The Surf Life Saving Movement As Life Savers: From At Least 1910 Locally - Awarded Medals For Saving Lives From 1880 In NSW  Windsor Bridge: Planned Destruction Of Historic Link With A Pittwater Connection The Rise Of The Cruising Season: A Look At Some Early Australian sailers and Local Visitor Beauties