March 11 - 17, 2018: Issue 351

Butter Churns And Milk Separators: Where Taste Comes From + Early Pittwater Dairies

Rectangular butter churn, footed wooden box containing an X-shaped wooden interior rack, which is joined to an exterior metal hand crank with turned wood handle, through a hole in the box. Beneath the hand crank is a hole from the interior lined with metal. The lid has a carry handle affixed to the lid on two cross pieces attached to the lid by brass screws.
Manufacturer's name and location stencilled in black, exterior side of churn, "E. CHERRY/ MAKER/ GISBOURNE/ VICTORIA/ 2", at angle to main text, "IMPROVED/ PATENT"
A number of different sized butter churns were made by E. Cherry & Sons including the A, OO, O, 1, 2 and 3. The A size was for between 1 lb and 3lbs of butter and cost 20 shillings in 1911 as advertised in the Anthony Hordern's Catalogue, a Sydney department store.
Made by E. Cherry & Sons 1900-1930. Source: Museums Victoria. Copyright Museums Victoria / CC BY (Licensed as Attribution 4.0 International)
Decades ago my grandmother would turn fresh cream in a wooden milk churn in the farmhouse kitchen, later at night, when it was cooler, pausing to drain off the liquid. Then she would turn out the mass of butter and knead some salt into one portion and leave the other without before using butter pats to shape the butter into the size of quarter pound blocks.

Earlier in the day a Milk Separator had been used to divide the cream from the just brought in milk, and this too was watched, with curious eyes. While her hands worked stories of days past would be shared - seasons which brought in abundant crops of blackberries, apricots, gooseberries, peaches or greengages, that would be bottled or turned into jam.

In the morning that butter, now cooled in the pantry, would be spread on thick slabs of bread or toast and topped with those homemade jams or just eaten as is - and the taste - beyond anything you can buy as the fields those cows ate from were a deep verdant green from deep rich soil and that makes for very fine butter.

With the Sydney Royal Easter Show (23 March - 3 April 2018) offering you a chance to experience the Dairy Farmers Working Day, admittedly NOT with the waters of the Derwent River chugging past as background music, or with the lowing of a cow drifting in from the top paddock, we aim to arm you with some knowledge to tempt you to look into where all your food comes from and in doing so prove what I've said for decades by now - 'you can take the girl out of the country, but you can't take the country out of the girl'.

A milk separator is a centrifugal device that separates milk into cream and skimmed milk. Separation was commonly performed on farms in the past. Most farmers milked a few cows, usually by hand, and separated milk. Some of the skimmed milk was consumed while the rest was used to feed calves and pigs. Enough cream was saved to make butter, and the excess was sold.

Today these great old machines are still in use by smaller operators while others collect them simply because they like all things mechanical and they're attractive in a metallic sculptural way.

"Lister RS9" Cream Separator- found on Gumtree
In excellent Working condition comes complete with the original "Oil Can" Milk Sieve and The original Operating Manual

Before the advent of centrifugal separators, separation was performed by letting milk sit in a container until the cream floated to the top and could be skimmed off by hand. When spun, the heavier milk is pulled outward against the walls of the separator and the cream, which is lighter, collects in the middle. The cream and milk then flow out of separate spouts. 

The centrifugal separator was first manufactured by Swedish Engineer and Inventor Gustaf de Laval (9 May 1845 – 2 February 1913) , making it possible to separate cream from milk faster and more easily, without having to let the milk sit for a time, and risk it turning sour. Possibly because Gustaf de Laval manufactured the first cream separators, many people credit the invention to him despite many patents appearing before his, all of them labelled as 'improvements'.

There is no subject of greater interest to the dairyman than how to separate the cream from the milk. Upon this decision often depends the question of profit or loss in the dairy. In any system of creaming milk the first requisite is a thorough separation of the cream and milk, but at the same time to preserve the quality of the cream. The old system of shallow pans was neither uniform or complete, in its results, while the time required to make the separation always imperilled the quality of the cream and butter. These risks were to some extent removed, and the results improved upon by the introduction of the ice method of setting. Improvements having once begun it was evident that some better system must take the place of the costly and clumsy method, of setting milk in ice water. 

Mechanical genius has now, it is claimed, overcome the last obstacle to perfectly creaming the milk, greatly economising both time and space, removing all risks, and doing the work with a speed and precision such as the business of these days demands in every department. The DeLaval Cream Separator is a machine for effecting the rapid and complete separation of the cream from the milk by application of centrifugal power. The milk as it comes from the cow is placed in a milk can, and then delivered by means of an ordinary tapinto themachine, as shown in the engraving. The rotating vessel of the machine runs at a velocity of 7,000 revolutions per minute. As soon as the fresh milk enters the rotating vessel an instantaneous separation takes place, the skim milk being discharged out of the lower outlet tripe, and the cream is discharged out of the upper outlet pipe. The machine is adapted to either horse or steam power, and requires but the power of one horse to work it It is adapted either to the dairy of 20 cows or to that of 100. 

This separator has completely revolutionised the method of dairying on the Continent of Europe, and is adopted by the best butter-makers in America. We are informed that 3, 500 machines have been sold up to date. It is also coming largely into use in the adjoining colonies, whereas advantages over ordinary methods are much more apparent than in colder climates. 

In New South Wales twenty-five separators are now in use, and the farmer can by using this separator rely upon a better and uniform quality and a larger quantity. In the Sydney market, we are informed, the separator butter commands a higher figure per pound. We witnessed a trial of this separator some time since at the machinery warehouse of the agents, Messrs. Harrold Brothers, under the auspices of the Agricultural Society, when twenty-one gallons of fresh milk were put through the machine in the space of twenty minutes, with a result of twenty-two and a half pounds of excellent cream. The skim milk on being analysed was found to contain only quarter per cent, of fat, thus showing the complete action of the machine. Messrs. Harrold Brothers lnform us the price of the separator, with necessary intermediate gear, is £50, and they will be pleased to afford any further particulars on application to them.
THE DELAVAL CREAM SEPARATOR. (1885, May 30). South Australian Weekly Chronicle (Adelaide, SA : 1881 - 1889), p. 13. Retrieved from

A butter churn is a device used to convert cream into butter. This is done through a mechanical process, frequently via a pole inserted through the lid of the churn, or via a crank used to turn a rotating device inside the churn. Evidence for the use of butter dates back as early as 2000 BC, and there is mention of it in biblical works. The butter churn itself may have existed as early as the 6th century AD, as can be seen by what appears to be a churn lid dating from that era. 

In the European tradition, the butter churn was primarily a device used by women, and the churning of butter was an essential responsibility along with other household chores. In earlier traditions of butter making, nomadic cultures placed milk in skin bags and produced butter either by shaking the bag manually, or possibly by attaching the bag to a pack animal, and producing butter simply through the movement of the animal. Some theorists believe this is how the butter creation process was discovered. Some cultures still use a process similar to this, whereby a bag is filled with milk, tied to a stick, and vigorously shaken.

The word “butter” is believed to be derived from the Greek word bou-tyron, the approximate meaning of which is “cow cheese”. However, some believe the word came from the Scythian culture, as the ancient Greeks tended to herd sheep and goats, whose milk is not as good for butter making as that of cows, which the Scythians primarily herded.

The word "churn" is from the Old English ċyrin, to churn. This may be derived from the Old English cyrnel, "kernel," due to the appearance of butter grains after milk has been churned. 

The butter churn gave its name to the milk churn, early examples of which were based on butter churns. The milk churn is not, however, used for the act of churning, but rather to transport milk. These too are collected today, some are put to good use to make butter and cheese while others provide pleasing memories to those who want them or provide an interesting attractive addition to what is collected.

Some early Australian reports and examples;

The Bishop of Derry has invented an atmospheric churn. Instead of the present unscientific mode of making butter by churning, his Lordship accomplishes this measure by the simpler manner of forcing a full current of atmospheric air through the cream, by means of an exceeding well-devised forcing pump. The air passes through a glass tube connected with the air-pump, descending nearly to the bottom of the churn. The churn is of tin, and it fits into another tin cylinder provided with a funnel and stop-cock, so as to heat the cream to the necessary temperature. The pump is worked by means of a wind), which i3 not so laborious as the usual churn. Independently of the happy application of science to this important department of domestic economy, in a practical point of view it is extremely valuable. The milk is net moved by a dasher, as in the common churn ; but the oxygen of the atmosphere is brought into close contact with the cream, so as to effect a full combination of the butyraceous part, and to convert it all into butter. On one occasion the churning was carried on for the space of one hour and forty-five minutes, and eleven gallons of cream produced twenty pounds of butter. — Globe. AIR CHURN. (1846, May 30). The Cornwall Chronicle (Launceston, Tas. : 1835 - 1880), p. 409. Retrieved from 

Streamlet Churn.
This ingenious churn, of which we give an illustration this week, is a thoroughly practical advance in the art of butter manufacture. These churns are built to any size convenient for handling by steam or hand power. The one under consideration has a capacity of churning 100 gal of cream. The principle and construction of this admirable churn are as follows : Built of well-seasoned kauri pine. Dimensions, 4ft x 2ft 9in by 2ft deep. The body is divided into two compartments by a strong inch board. At each end of this board there is an opening of about 6in ; one opening may to shut by a slide perforated at tho bottom. The object of the division and openings is to cause the cream to flow round in a circle, every particle of it in its turn being operated upon by the " dash boards." The "dash hoards " are six in number, fitted alternately on a double wheel, so to speak. One set of these is perforated by |in augur holes ; the other set is composed of bar frames, both being strongly fitted in brackets. It will thus be seen that the cream in process of churning is kept in a constant state of extreme agitation, and that it is all equally churned.

The Streamlet Churn. (See letterpress on this page.)

 When tho butter begins to granulate, this sideboard, already referred to, is pushed down ; this causes the retention and accumulation of the butter in one corner ; removing the lid of this division the butter can be taken from the churn as work progresses, without any stoppage to machinery. This in itself may seem a small matter, hut it is in fact a great consideration, not only as a saving of time, but as regards the quantity of butter extracted from the cream. For instance, when the morning and evening's cream is placed in tho churn, as everybody knows, it is then not of equal ripeness, and consequently requires more or less caution to produce the butter. Thus, while in the old churns the butter must be removed as soon as it comes, leaving still a portion of the unchurned cream in the churn, every dairyman will at once see the immense advantage of this improvement. The buttermilk is allowed to run off through a large tap at one end of the churn. The principle of this churn is without doubt a splendid one, and should at once commend itself to the numerous butter factories and dairymen generally. The points of advantage claimed, simply stated, are as follow :

1. Simplicity of working ; any novice can use it.
2. No supervision required. The " grain" of the butter cannot be spoilt, churn as long as you will.  
3. The fact of the butter remaining collected in one corner of the churn immediately preserves the grain.
4. The percentage of butter extracted from the cream is of necessity greater than with other churns.
5. Creams of different ages can be churned together with an equally satisfactory production of butter.
6. Can be cleansed easily. Butter milk is run off by means of a large tap at one end of the churn. Dash boards are also easy of removal.

This churn has been patented in all the colonies, and has given intense satisfaction wherever used. The prices quoted are very reasonable. Testimonials and all particulars may be had at the South Coast and West Camden Co-operative Co., limited, Sussex and Liverpool streets, Sydney. Inspection will at once convince dairymen of the improved utility and saving of time with a churn of this kind. Streamlet Churn. (1890, May 31). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 22. Retrieved from

New Butter Churn.
A new butter churn, designed by Mr W. B. Walten, of Dunedin, on the pneumatic principle, was exhibited on 6th inst. at the premises of the Fresh Food and Frozen Storage Company. The application of air propulsion to churning is well-known, but the invention is the first in which the process is mainly carried out by the creation of a vacuum. The churn is a large cylinder shaped vessel of strong tin, and when fully charged with cream exhibits a email vacant [pace at the top which is connected with a steam pipe. Near the bottom of the churn there is a connection with a coil of piping which stands in a separate cistern about 1ft distant. By turning on the steam a vacuum is created in the upper part of the churn, and the air from the lower pipe is drawn upward, in this way agitating the cream or milk, and producing the full process of churning. The churn may also be worked by water or air power, but steam is tho most suitable, ns it enables the temperature of the air drawn through the spiral pipe to be accurately regulated by means of a thermometer. It is claimed that the passage of air through the cream purifies it to an extent which cannot be attained by any other method. An additional cistern is fixed to the churn to enable the washing of the butter to be expeditiously carried out by application of the same power which is used for the churning. — Melbourne Leader. 
New Butter Churn. (1891, February 21).The Colonist (Launceston, Tas. : 1888 - 1891), p. 11. Retrieved from 

Churn Butter Quickly.
A Kansas farmer is the inventor of the churn herewith shown. The body of the churn has a cover supporting a movable frame, to which the operating mechanism Is secured. The mechanism Consists of a gear wheel formed integral with an axle and shaft, which extend down into the body of the churn to within an Inch of the bottom. Mounted rigidly on the shaft are hori-. zontal crossbars, carrying the vertical paddles or dashers. Supported by the frame secured to the cover is a vertical gear wheel, which meshes with the horizontal gear wheel, the former being operated by a handle. After the creami has been placed In the churn the handle is moved from right to left, which imparts motion to the gear wheels, the latter rotating the paddles. By moving the handle back and forth through an arc comprising one-half of a circle a reciprocating motion is constantly Imparted to the paddles, this motion causing a greater agitation of the cream than would be caused if the paddles were given a continuous rotary motion.

butter churn.
Churns Butter Quickly. (1909, January 29).Nambucca News (NSW : 1909 - 1911), p. 3. Retrieved from 


An all-metal butter churn made in Australia attracted much interest at a dairy factory exhibition on the Sydney Showground.
AUSTRALIAN-MADE BUTTER CHURN (1937, June 17). The Queenslander (Brisbane, Qld. : 1866 - 1939), p. 42. Retrieved from

So if you're going to the Royal Easter Show this year 

When: Daily, 10am - 5.30pm
Where: F20 - next to Farmyard Nursery and Woolworths Food Farm
How do milk, butter and cheese get from grassy paddock to breakfast table? Dairy Farmers Working Dairy takes you behind-the-barn-door to see the inside workings of a modern dairy. In this display of contemporary agricultural technology in action, you will see state-of-the-art machinery in operation, watch as cows are milked and learn how today’s dairy farmers monitor their herd for maximum performance.
Visit the Working Dairy and the nearby Dairy Farmers Milking Barn for a look at the incredible changes that present-day technology has brought to the business of agriculture.

Stay safe
When you come into contact with farm animals at the Sydney Royal Easter Show, just remember two simple rules: take care of the animals and take care of yourself. Download a copy of the Stay Safe fact sheet.

The Royal Easter Show
1 Showground Rd 
Sydney Olympic Park, NSW 2127

Show opens at 9am
Pavilions open at 9.30am
Evening entertainment until 9pm
Showbag Pavilion til 9.30pm
Carnival until late

Also available

Getting To The Sydney Royal Easter Show From Mona Vale

Sydney Olympic Park Major Event Buses will run each day during the 12-day Sydney Royal Easter Show.
Services start running between 07:00 and 07:30, depending on the route, each day. Services run every 15 to 25 minutes and more frequently during peak times and begin arriving at the precinct from around 08:45 each morning until 17:30 in the evening.

Return services start running from Olympic Park at around 12:45, with the last bus on each route leaving the precinct at 23:00 each night of the Show.
Note: scheduled wheelchair accessible buses will travel on each route. Find the closest stop to you using the Major Event Bus interactive map. 

Route To / from SOP (Forest Coach Lines)
1A Warriewood via Dee Why
1B Warriewood via Mona Vale

You can also view:

Travel to the Royal Easter Show
All pre-purchased ShowLink tickets include return public transport for your trip to the Royal Easter Show on any one day.
You can pre-purchase your ShowLink ticket on the Sydney Royal Easter Show website. ShowLink tickets are not sold at train stations, ferry wharves or on buses.

Travel public transport with ShowLink tickets
Present your ShowLink ticket for travel on:
  • Train services (bounded by Bomaderry (Nowra), Goulburn, Bathurst and Dungog stations)
  • Sydney Olympic Park major event buses
  • Regular bus services
  • Sydney Ferries services
  • Light rail services.
Keep your ShowLink ticket for your return trip home as you will need to present your ShowLink ticket or have a valid ticket when travelling on public transport.

ShowLink tickets are not available for purchase on-board transport services or at train stations. ShowLink tickets are only available at selected Woolworths outlets or online via Ticketmaster. Alternatively, you can purchase your ShowLink ticket at the Sydney Showground ticket booths located at the entry gates to the Show, however we strongly encourage you to pre-purchase your ticket where possible as there will be queues.
Remember to keep your ShowLink ticket safe for your return trip home as you will need to present your ShowLink ticket or have a valid ticket when travelling on public transport.

Single day, two-day or Twilight (after 4pm entry) ShowLink tickets are available. For more information on all the available ticketing options, seeTicket types. For more information on the terms and conditions that apply to ShowLink tickets on public transport, visit Please note there are no exchanges, refunds or cancellations on purchased ShowLink tickets.

Early Bird ShowLink: Available online until 22 March 2018

Dairying In Pittwater

Pittwater online News has already run a few historical insights into the local dairy industry stretching back as far as the legendary butter once made by the Foley family at Mona Vale and the Therry family those who took that farm after the Farrells of Newport, also dairy folk, ran both families out of the district by stealing and/or killing their cows. 

TO be LET, TWO FARMS, situate at Pitt-water, the one containing 700 Acres, and the other 400 Acres of Land, rieariy contiguous to each other, and
particularly well calculated for the purposes of Grazing and Agriculture.-Apply to D'ARCY WENTWORTH, Esq. the Proprietor, at Sydney.
Classified Advertising (1822, August 9). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from

Classified Advertising (1827, July 9). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from

They also ran off the next family to take over the farm, the Wilson family, although there was also the loss of a young daughter while Mr. Wilson was in court, alike the preceding families, seeking justice, that may have contributed to their decision to move from 'Mona Vale' farm.

Cows at Newport - circa 1920

THE district of Newport had a nasty reputation at one period. Witness the case of Farmer Foley, a reputable man who occupied Robert Campbell's original grant at Mona Vale. He experienced considerable success, and Mrs. Foley's butter always topped the market in Sydney and was the pride of the district. His success caused jealousy and he was continually subjected to thefts and petty annoyances. Finally he informed the police and an arrest was made. On the day before the matter was brought to court Foley was shot dead near Black Swamp, and the prosecution had to be abandoned. Mona Vale farm remained empty for some years until taken over by James Therry, nephew of Rev. J. J. Therry. But the place seemed under an evil spell. Therry's house was burnt, his cows and calves were shot and his horses stolen, all within the space of a few years. Sergeant McGlone, who had captured Gardiner, was sent there to investigate, and soon made an arrest. These outrages gained the district a bad reputation. 

The "Sydney Morning Herald" of March, 1867, comments thus: "The history of the Mona Vale case reveals a condition of Society within a few miles of Sydney that might well defer persons from settling there, and though the arm of the law fell on some of the evildoers there is now too much reason to fear that similar outrages will again disturb the district." Crime continued to stain the fair name of Pittwater for some years, and detectives were often on the watch. Six, it is said, were camped on Sheep Station Hill for some time. 
ROADS OF TO-DAY—TALES OF YESTERDAY (1937, August 25). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 43. Retrieved from 

187. Hoane Maria, Edward, milk, &c. to David Foley, Pittwater 

THE undermentioned Prisoners having absconded from the Individuals and Employments set against their Names respectively, and some of them being at large with stolen Certificates, and Tickets-of-Leave, all Constables and others are hereby required and commanded to use their utmost exertions in apprehending and lodging them in safe custody.
Any Person harbouring or employing any of the said Absentees, will be prosecuted as the Law directs :—

Foley Mary, No. 31-373, Hooghley, 21, Servant of Allwork, Kerry, 4 feet 11¾, sandy hair, hazel eyes, ruddy freckled comp. long diagonal scar inside upper part of left arm, small scar over right eye, four blue dots on back left hand, from David Foley, Pittwater. 
Government Gazette Notices (1832, November 7). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 396. Retrieved from 

MURDER--The coroner's inquest on the body of Mr. David Foley who was found murdered at Pittwater, on Thursday, the 8th instant, will be resumed this day. Poynard, one of the parties suspected is still in custody, and Mrs. Collins, the wife of another suspected person, has also been apprehended. Collins made his escape in the " Fancy," bound to Twofold Bay, on the day after the murder; and suspicion rests upon him, not on account of his hasty flight, but also from some revengeful observations which, it is reported, he was heard to make against the deceased. Foley was about to appear at the present quarter sessions as a witness against Collins who was charged with stealing some tin milk vessels. Although the departure of Collins was known within a few hours, yet, the government did not take any steps towards his apprehension, a negligence which cannot be too severely re-probated. A small steamer ought to be in their service. The public we are satisfied, would not object to pay the expense of such a highly necessary appendage. It is remarkably singular that those who have the disposition of the public's money are profusely lavish upon things which are of little utility, and correspondingly niggardly in those which are beneficial.
LOCAL INTELLIGENCE. (1849, November 17). Bell's Life in Sydney and Sporting Reviewer (NSW : 1845 - 1860), p. 3. Retrieved from

Sir,-In Thursday's "Herald" Mr. Alfred Newham, in his letter, stated that there was no Mona Vale in the early days. This is quite at variance with the fact, as the land from Sheep Station Hill to Pittwater was occupied by my grandfather prior to 1825, and named by him Mona Vale.Correspondence from him in 1830 is extant at the Mitchell Library, and the shingles for the first St. Mary's were supplied by him from timber grown at Mona Vale.

I am, etc,
Deewhy, July 12
EARLY MANLY. (1935, July 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from

Mona Vale, Pitt Water District.— It seems that the spirit of animosity towards the tenants of this homestead has only been slumbering, and has now broken out afresh. The snake was only scotched, not killed. It will be in the recollection of many of our readers that we have had to report cattle stealing, cattle shooting, and even murder as having occurred in this district. Now again, the destruction of cattle has commenced, without the authors of such atrocities at present having been discovered. No later than last Wednesday, a valuable bull was missed from the paddocks at Mona Vale, at present occupied by Mr. Thomas Wilson, long well known as a resident of the Manly Beach and Pitt Water districts. Due search, as a matter of course, was made for the animal, which was subsequently found dead, having evidently been destroyed by a gunshot wound. This loss to Mr. Wilson is serious, as the bull was of a superior breed, and the only one on his run. A bullock belonging to a Mr. McMahon, residing on the North Shore, was also found dead from a similar cause, and the carcass was about a quarter of a mile from that of the bull, and on the same property. How far the authorities have been correct or justified in tho removal of the mounted troopers from the immediate vicinity of these occurrences it is not for us to say, but it is impossible for one sergeant or one policemen, resident at Manly, although mounted, to attend to the whole of the district and the requirements nearer at home. Sydney Empire 13 instant. GOONDIWINDI. (1867, March 20). The Toowoomba Chronicle and Queensland Advertiser (Qld. : 1861 - 1875), p. 2. Retrieved from 

Above Warriewood there was the St Cloud Jersey Stud: Elanora Heights that was owned by Sir Frederick Stewart, MP, the gentleman behind Stewart House and one of those responsible for ensuring children received milk in school (when that was around). 

In the St Cloud Jersey stud page are a few insights into other local dairies; Mr. A. Skene's Brookvale dairy, the Greenhill Dairy at Narrabeen, and the Homer Dairy in Bassett Street, Mona Vale; and these are just a few.

At Palm Beach one early tenant of the land on the tombola warned about cattle straying on to his land while a few decades later the Verrills-Gonsalves family had cows, some of which people complained of when they wandered onto Palm Beach Golf course even though the cows were there first.

Gonsalves family home in Waratah Street, Palm Beach. From and courtesy Peter Verrills - from family album.

At Avalon Beach there were the Collins family stretching back to early days too, Charles de Boos visiting their farmhouse on his trek to Barrenjoey and remarking on the glowing health of their children, based, he suspected, on the quality of their product, while later on the Hammonds in 1935 took on the management of a branch dairy owned by Mr. Bill Jones. The dairy was situated on a site at the intersection of Barrenjoey Road and Careel Head Road, North Avalon and there was Sam Meek who worked on the Careel Bay dairy and was also the local butcher.

A correspondent, signing himself "Another Visitor," in a letter to the Editor of the "Herald," writes endorsing "Visitor's", remarks concerning the state of the roads between Newport and Palm Beach. He directs attention to "another evil very prevalent In that locality, particularly at Avalon." He states that . cattle suffering from a malady commonly known as ricketts, contracted through eating Burrawong plant, are allowed to roam about the neighbourhood. The stock, he states, because partly paralysed in the bind quarters, and suffer intense pain. It was not very pleasant for tourists to witness the agonising struggles of the stricken animals. DISEASED CATTLE AT AVALON. (1924, February 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from

On the other side of the estuary there were cattle at The Basin which belonged to Sally Morris and prior to her arrival Martin Burke and then Patrick Flynn was said to have some at Little Mackeral, later Wilson's Beach. Cattle were once run on Scotland Island and every early farm had at least one or two to supply themselves with milk and butter - a fact that existed until changed by the then Warringah Shire Council

Mail by horseback Postie
One of the few women "posties" in NSW, 18 year old Josephine Griptock, of Bayview, delivers the mail on horseback to people living along the shores of Pittwater. Although she is neyer footsore, Josephine says she often feels shaken to pieces and utterly weary by the time she has finished her day's work. Josephine came from England nearly four years ago' with her mother, Mrs. S. L. Gristock, and her brother George. She has worked with the PMG since her arrival, first at Mona Vale post Office as a telegram girl, and now as official Post-woman at Bayview.' Housewives prefer a ters and packages, she believes. "They chat  to me about their children' and their household worries and often get me to pick up messages for them from the local store," Josephine said. "A. postwoman has a chance to help them as no one else could." 

Horses earn keep 
Her work at the' post office keeps Josephine's two horses in good condition as well as providing the money to keep them. She takes special care to see that they are well groomed while on the mail round, and is delighted if one of the householders comments on their smooth appearance. Both horses, a white and a chestnut, have won prizes in local gymkhanas and will be entered for the Royal Easter Show this year. Before she came to Australia, Josephine lived in Kent, where she did not keep any pets. Now she has three cats, two cockatoos, a cow, two horses, ducks and fowls to look after. At Christmas Josephine received presents for the pets as well as for herself from grateful customers.

MISS JOSEPHINE GRISTOCK saddles her horse, Johnnie, ready for the morning mail delivery. 
Mail by horseback 'postie' (1953, February 4). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 25 (LATE FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from 
A shady lagoon and group of cattle, circa 1906, Kerry Photograph, courtesy Tyrrell Photographic Collection, Powerhouse Museum 
Butter Churns - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2018

 Previous Collectors Corner pages:

Blacksmiths and Tinsmiths  Nylon Stockings Poster Art Furphy's Water Cart   Mousehole Anvil  Sapphire One Armed Bandit  Gould's 1840 Single and Compound Microscope  Tibetan Thangka Wheel Of Life Painting  Cast Iron Seats  Mabel Lucie Atwell Prints  The Customs of Traditional Dining by Hans and Jenny Carlborg  Albert Collins Landscape   Boomerang Harmonicas  Drinking: 18th Century Style Part I by H&J Carlborg  Drinking 18th Century Style Part II by H&J Carlborg Fleece Shears  Wood Case Crank Telephone  1803 Timepeice  Vintage Guitars  Milestones  No.38 Rolls Royce Motor Oiler  Christmas Postcards  Seashells  McCormick-Deering Horse Drawn Mower  Rope Making Machine  Marilyn Monroe 1955 Calendar  Stubbie Holders  Hill's Hoist  Akubra Hat  Fowler's Bottling Kit The Bold Autographed Script  Fishing Tackle  Arnotts Biscuit Tins  Comic Books  Silver Opium Pipe  Mrs Beetons Book  Souvenir Teaspoons  Bendigo Pottery  Gianelli Figurines  Key Fobs  Model Aircraft-static  Porcelain Slippers Wagon Wheels Rhys Williams Painting  Chinese Guardian Lions Australian Halfpenny  Bud Vases  Rolling Stones Still Life LP Autographed  WL1895 Thinking Monkey  Estee Lauder Ginger Jar  Reel Mowers  Surf Reels Millers Car Collection Hilton Lingerie - Slips Miniature Books of Verse - A Romantic Tradition  REGA Pouring Can  R O Dunlop - Sailing At Itchenor Painting Morning Shadows by C Dudley Wood  The Father of Santa Claus - Xmas 2012 HMS Penguin Anchor at RPAYC - Newport  SS Birubi Mast at RMYC - Broken Bay  Helen B Stirling Ship's Wheel at Club Palm Beach   Woomeras  HMSEndeavour Replica Cannon at RPAYC  The Doug Crane Classic Handmade Double Blade Paddle  HMS Bounty Wooden Ship Model Collecting Ladies - Ferdinand Von Mueller and Women Botanical Artists  Australian Bark Art  Chinese Ginger Jars  Hand Plough and Jump Stump Plough - Australian Inventions Frank Clune Books  Frederick Metters - Stoves, Windmills, Iron Monger  Trinket Boxes  1933 Wormald Simplex Fire Extinguisher is Pure Brass  Chapman 'Pup' Maine Engines - Chapman and Sherack  The Beach Ball  Figureheads Salty Wooden Personifications of Vessels Binnacle at RMYC The Australian Florin - Worth More Than 20 Cents to Collectors  Weathervanes; For Those Passionate About Seeing Which Way the Wind Blows Her Majesty's Theatre 1962 Programme - Luisillo and his Spanish Dance Theatre  Cooper's Sheep Shower Enamel Sign and Simpson's and Sons of Adelaide Jolly Drover Sugar Bowl and English Pottery A Means to Gaze into the Past Chief Joseph and Edward S Curtis; His Images of Native Americans an Inestimable Record of Images and Portrait Photographs His Masters Voice, Old 78'™s and Australia's Love of Music Jack Spurlings 'Tamar' Picture 1923  Resch's Beer Art - A Reflection of Australiana Now Worth Thousands  The Compleat Angler - Izaak Walton's Discourse Inspires Generations of Fishers Portable Ice-Boxes and Coolers “ How Many Claim This Invention as Theirs?  Malley's and Sons Ltd. - A Munificent Australian Family Company  Vintage Paddles and Gigs  Nautical Memorabilia  The Crinoline - a 550 Year Old Fashion  B.B. King - King of the Blues Goes Home: a Timely look into Photographs and Autographs and Being Buyer Aware  Deep Down Among the Coral - By Christopher Corr - A Limited Edition Print in Celebration of the seventy fifth anniversary of QANTAS Airways  Old Chinese Rice Bowls for Marriage: Worth More Than You Think...   Commanderie St. John: An Ancient Wine - From 1927 with Lineage to Cyprus in 1210/92 and Methods of Production to Greece in 800 B.C.  Pittwater Regatta Air Race Trophies: from 1934 and 1935 and The Pilot Who Saved William Hughes  Vintage Brass Mortar and Pestle  1958 Bedford 'D' Truck and GM Holden Australian Made Car Bodies  Heart Padlock Charm Bracelets for Newborns: A Golden Tradition  Marvellous Marbles: An All Ages Preoccupation for Collectors  Antique Silver Fish Servers: Artisans Past  Tuckfield's Bird Cards: to Swap or Collect   Joseph Lyddy – O.B.B. Dubbin Boot Polish  Vintage Wooden Tennis Racquets: A Collectors Item As Popular As Summer  Australian Trade Tokens Record Enriching Colonial Histories: the Cascade Shilling First Art Form To Record 'Tasmania' And Kangaroos  Australian Vinyl Singles of the 1950's and 1960's  Dicken's The Old Curiosity Shop bought at The Old Curiosity Shop  Pear's Soap: Artworks For The Masses  Collecting Vintage Photographs: Early Tasmanian Photographer - J W Beattie  Cyclops Vintage Toys  Year Dated Beer Bottles Found In The Estuary Adjacent To Taylors Point - Roger Wickins  Collecting Matchboxes: A Great Way To Explore History And Art  Black Bakelite Telephone: Early Pittwater Phone Numbers