inbox and environment news: Issue 551
August 21 - 27, 2022: Issue 551
Masked Lapwing Plover Chicks Were In Danger: Now They're Dead
Local councils responsibilities as defined under the Local Government Act 1993 directs councils to properly manage, develop, protect, restore, enhance and conserve the local environment for which it’s responsible, in a manner that’s consistent with and promotes the principles of Ecologically Sustainable Development.
That's why it was so surprising to see the local council recommending formalising illegal bike tracks at Ingleside and North Narrabeen, where wildlife was once safe and could live in peace, and where at least one wallaby has already been run over by a biker. Visit: Council's Open Space and Outdoor Recreation and Action Plan Open For Feedback: Supports Formalising Illegal Bike Tracks In Bush Reserves and Public Parks feedback closed August 14.
Under the Local Government Act 1993 :
36E Core objectives for management of community land categorised as a natural area
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as a natural area are—
(a) to conserve biodiversity and maintain ecosystem function in respect of the land, or the feature or habitat in respect of which the land is categorised as a natural area, and
(b) to maintain the land, or that feature or habitat, in its natural state and setting, and
(c) to provide for the restoration and regeneration of the land, and
(d) to provide for community use of and access to the land in such a manner as will minimise and mitigate any disturbance caused by human intrusion, and
(e) to assist in and facilitate the implementation of any provisions restricting the use and management of the land that are set out in a recovery plan or threat abatement plan prepared under the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Fisheries Management Act 1994.
36J Core objectives for management of community land categorised as bushland
The core objectives for management of community land categorised as bushland are—
(a) to ensure the ongoing ecological viability of the land by protecting the ecological biodiversity and habitat values of the land, the flora and fauna (including invertebrates, fungi and micro-organisms) of the land and other ecological values of the land, and
(b) to protect the aesthetic, heritage, recreational, educational and scientific values of the land, and
(c) to promote the management of the land in a manner that protects and enhances the values and quality of the land and facilitates public enjoyment of the land, and to implement measures directed to minimising or mitigating any disturbance caused by human intrusion, and
(d) to restore degraded bushland, and
(e) to protect existing landforms such as natural drainage lines, watercourses and foreshores, and
(f) to retain bushland in parcels of a size and configuration that will enable the existing plant and animal communities to survive in the long term, and
(g) to protect bushland as a natural stabiliser of the soil surface.
Councils also have a range of functions, powers and responsibilities that can influence NRM on public and private land. This includes strategic planning and development control, managing public land, and regulating private activities. Natural Resource Management (NRM) activities include biosecurity, stormwater, biodiversity, roadside environmental management, water quality, as well as restoration and rehabilitation of habitat and support to local bush care and land care activities. They do not as yet specify any required response to wildlife in peril in these LGA's.
However, no council in Sydney states it is or will be responsible for the wildlife living within these LGAs. No legislation compels them to do so.
All councils refer you on to wildlife organisations that exist solely because of volunteers who also pick up all the costs for saving local wildlife, as well as donating hundreds of hours each month to look after animals that come into care.
Council's Bushland and Biodiversity Policy Statement, published February 2021, outlines their own current commitments.
Public Meeting On Northern Beaches Aboriginal Lands Approval By State Government
Leopard Seal Visitor
Echidna 'Love Train' Season Commences
Dogs Off-Leash On Beaches Open For Feedback
- Calls For Council To Address Dogs Offleash Everywhere After Two Serious Dog Attacks On Local Beaches In Same Week - owner has still not come forward or been identified as of Saturday August 6, 2022
- Sydney Dog Attack Victim Awarded $225, 000: July 2022
- Council Push For Dogs Off Leash On Family Beaches Among Wildlife Habitat
White faced heron landing at north Palm Beach, March 7th, 2022 during storm event. All native birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals (except the dingo) are protected in New South Wales by the Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016 (BC Act).
Magpie Breeding Season: Avoid The Swoop!
- Try to avoid the area. Do not go back after being swooped. Australian magpies are very intelligent and have a great memory. They will target the same people if you persist on entering their nesting area.
- Be aware of where the bird is. Most will usually swoop from behind. They are much less likely to target you if they think they are being watched. Try drawing eyes on the back of a helmet or hat. You can also hold a long stick in the air to deter swooping.
- Keep calm and do not panic. Walk away quickly but do not run. Running seems to make birds swoop more. Be careful to keep a look out for swooping birds and if you are really concerned, place your folded arms above your head to protect your head and eyes.
- If you are on your bicycle or horse, dismount. Bicycles can irritate the birds and the major cause of accidents following an encounter with a swooping bird, is falling from a bicycle. Calmly walk your bike/horse out of the nesting territory.
- Never harass or provoke nesting birds. A harassed bird will distrust you and as they have a great memory this will ultimately make you a bigger target in future. Do not throw anything at a bird or nest, and never climb a tree and try to remove eggs or chicks.
- Teach children what to do. It is important that children understand and respect native birds. Educating them about the birds and what they can do to avoid being swooped will help them keep calm if they are targeted. Its important children learn to protect their face.
Wanted: Photos Of Flies Feeding On Frogs (For Frog Conservation)
Possums In Your Roof?: Do The Right Thing
Local Wildlife Rescuers And Carers State That Ongoing Heavy Rains Are Tough For Us But Can Be Tougher For Our Wildlife:
- Birds and possums can be washed out of trees, or the tree comes down, nests can disintegrate or hollows fill with water
- Ground dwelling animals can be flooded out of their burrows or hiding places and they need to seek higher ground
- They are at risk crossing roads as people can't see them and sudden braking causes accidents
- The food may disappear - insects, seeds and pollens are washed away, nectar is diluted and animals can be starving
- They are vulnerable in open areas to predators, including our pets
- They can't dry out and may get hypothermia or pneumonia
- Animals may seek shelter in your home or garage.
You can help by:
- Keeping your pets indoors
- Assessing for wounds or parasites
- Putting out towels or shelters like boxes to provide a place to hide
- Drive to conditions and call a rescue group if you see an animal hit (or do a pouch check or get to a vet if you can stop)
- If you are concerned take a photo and talk to a rescue group or wildlife carer
There are 2 rescue groups in the Northern Beaches:
Sydney Wildlife: 9413 4300
WIRES: 1300 094 737
Please be patient as there could be a few enquiries regarding the wildlife.
Generally Sydney Wildlife do not recommend offering food but it may help in some cases. Please ensure you know what they generally eat and any offerings will not make them sick. You can read more on feeding wildlife here
Information courtesy Ed Laginestra, Sydney Wildlife volunteer. Photo: Warriewood Wetlands Wallaby by Kevin Murray, March 2022.
Aviaries + Possum Release Sites Needed
Sydney Wildlife Rescue: Helpers Needed
Bushcare In Pittwater
Where we work Which day What time
Angophora Reserve 3rd Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Dunes 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Golf Course 2nd Wednesday 3 - 5:30pm
Careel Creek 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Toongari Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon (8 - 11am in summer)
Bangalley Headland 2nd Sunday 9 to 12noon
Winnererremy Bay 4th Sunday 9 to 12noon
North Bilgola Beach 3rd Monday 9 - 12noon
Algona Reserve 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Plateau Park 1st Friday 8:30 - 11:30am
Browns Bay Reserve 1st Tuesday 9 - 12noon
McCarrs Creek Reserve Contact Bushcare Officer To be confirmed
Old Wharf Reserve 3rd Saturday 8 - 11am
Kundibah Reserve 4th Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Mona Vale Beach Basin 1st Saturday 8 - 11am
Mona Vale Dunes 2nd Saturday +3rd Thursday 8:30 - 11:30am
Bungan Beach 4th Sunday 9 - 12noon
Crescent Reserve 3rd Sunday 9 - 12noon
North Newport Beach 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Porter Reserve 2nd Saturday 8 - 11am
Irrawong Reserve 2nd Saturday 2 - 5pm
North Palm Beach Dunes 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Catherine Park 2nd Sunday 10 - 12:30pm
Elizabeth Park 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Pathilda Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Warriewood Wetlands 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Norma Park 1st Friday 9 - 12noon
Coopers Point, Elvina Bay 2nd Sunday 10 - 1pm
Rocky Point, Elvina Bay 1st Monday 9 - 12noon
Gardens And Environment Groups And Organisations In Pittwater
Plibersek Wins Federal Court Backing To Destroy Habitat Of Critically-Endangered Species In Gelorup Corridor: Roads Plan Ignores Already Cleared Land Alongside
Formal Consultation On Safeguard Mechanism Reform Opens
- setting baselines for existing and new facilities;
- setting indicative rates for baseline decline;
- lowering costs through crediting over performance and the use of offsets;
- identifying options for tailored treatment for emissions-intensive, trade-exposed businesses; and
- taking account of available and emerging technologies.
Dungowan Dam Evauluation 'Costs Far Outweigh Any Benefit'
'While the New Dungowan Dam and Pipeline will have community benefit and increase resilience, it is a significant infrastructure intervention with costs that far outweigh the benefits that will be delivered. Based on our assessment, the Increased Urban Reserve option (Chaffey Dam), which is also considered in the business case, appears to be a feasible, lower cost solution that addresses the problem and warrants further detailed consideration.'
Infrastructure Australia has finalised its independent assessment of the business case for the New Dungowan Dam and Pipeline in accordance with the Infrastructure Australia Assessment Framework. The proposal has not been added to the Infrastructure Priority List at this time.The New Dungowan Dam and Pipeline aims to increase town water supply for Tamworth and maintain water reliability for agricultural production in the Peel Valley. The proposal was developed in response to long periods of drought and water restrictions. At a time in 2019, Tamworth was 12 months away from running out of water from its primary water source, the Chaffey Dam.The project has a capital cost of more than $1 billion and a benefit cost-ratio of just 0.09. Although it offers sustainability and resilience benefits, our assessment found that similar community benefits could be achieved through a combination of lower cost build and non-build options.This includes increasing the amount of water from Chaffey Dam that is available for urban use, along with policy changes such as demand management and water use efficiency measures.We would welcome a revised business case for an investment solution that better aligns to the identified problems and opportunities for providing increased water security to the Tamworth region.Infrastructure Australia Chair Col Murray declared a conflict of interest in relation to this project and was not present during any discussion or decision-making relating to the business case assessment, in line with Infrastructure Australia’s Conflict of Interest Policy.
''The option has been recommended on the basis that “the other options do not develop new capacity and therefore focus on shifting the burden of the existing level of service, which is expected to decline, between different stakeholders either within the Peel Valley or Namoi region.” This is inappropriate, as the problem that has been identified is the need to address Tamworth’s water security risk (i.e. access to water), rather than increasing the storage capacity in the region. Economic analysis of the three options presented in the business case demonstrates that the water security risk is more efficiently addressed by options that do not involve the development of new capacity. The Increased Urban Reserve option returns a significantly better BCR and NPV result than the other shortlisted options, outperforming the New Dungowan and Pipeline option in terms of the quantified benefit from improved water security ($3.85 million compared to $3.43 million).The recommendation of the preferred option is based primarily on the outcomes of a Strategic Merit Test, which has not been well explained. Specifically, the Increased Urban Reserve option scored poorly in relation to investment decision readiness and stakeholder acceptance. This is not supported by the results of the cost-benefit analysis or other information in the business case. In relation to the risk associated with stakeholder acceptance, the cost-benefit analysis includes quantification of the disbenefit attributable to the reduced reliability of supply for irrigators in the Peel Valley. This disbenefit is quantified at only $660,000 in PV terms under the Increased Urban Reserve option. This indicates the adverse impact on irrigators is highly likely to be mitigable at low cost.Compensation to non-urban users was not considered in the Increased Urban Reserve option. In addition, the poor performance of this option in terms of investment readiness gives insufficient consideration to the lack of infrastructure required to implement it, whereas the New Dungowan Dam and Pipeline option would not be completed until 2029.Further assessment, including hydrological, economic, and ecological analysis, will provide greater understanding of the feasibility of the Increased Urban Reserve option. Hence, having regard to the results of the cost-benefit analysis and justification of the assessment of the shortlisted options in the Strategic Merit Test, the identification of the New Dungowan Dam and Pipeline option as the preferred option appears inappropriate. The Increased Urban Reserve option achieves greater benefits at significantly lower economic cost, with limited deliverability risk.
- Local water utility and Domestic and Stock water access licence holders received an allocation of 70% of entitlement.
- High security water access licence holders in the Peel Regulated River water source and its sub categories received an allocation of 50% of entitlement.
- General security water access licence holders received an allocation of 0% of entitlement.
- All local water utility and Domestic and Stock water access licence holders in the Peel Unregulated River, Peel Alluvium and Peel Fractured Rock water sources received an allocation of 100% of entitlement.
- In the Peel Alluvium water source, aquifer access licence holders received an allocation of 100% of entitlement, while aquifer (general security) access licence holders received an allocation of 51% of entitlement.
- Peel Unregulated River water access licence holders received an allocation of 100% of entitlement.
- Aquifer access licence holders in the Peel Fractured Rock water source received an allocation of 100% of entitlement.
Water For Brewarinna Update (February 2020 Community News Page)
#YaamaNgunnaBaakaBusy couple of days delivering 15L water bottles throughout the Brewarrina Community especially to the Elders and those on dialysis.Hopefully this will go some way to helping the people before clean drinking water becomes available again. Those of you with water bottles please keep for refills, we don’t want to have plastic waste #SavingOurWater #NoPlasticWasteSpecial thanks to-Neil and the Northern Beaches mob- and Robert and staff from IGA in Bourke for their support.
- Yamma Ngunna Baaka - From The Northern Beaches To Bre: Our Sister City Shares Its Water Woes - October 2019
- Water Activists United Call At Newport Meeting For Greater Flows In The Baaka – The Murray-Darling Basin - November 2019
- Christmas Appeal Launched For Aboriginal Kids In Sister City Brewarrina - November 2019
- Narrabeen Bridge Protest Demands Water For Rivers - March 2020
Wilcannia Weir Project Delivers Water And Jobs
Miner MMG Remove Machines From Tasmania’s Forests Under Environmentalists Supervision
Climate Driver Update - Wet Outlook Continues With An Increased Chance Of La Nina Developing This Spring
Governments And The Healthcare Sector Must Lead On Climate Change AMA And DEA Say
- A net zero Australian healthcare system by 2040 with majority of emission cuts by 2030.
- The development of a national climate change and health strategy to facilitate planning for climate health impacts, which the federal government has committed to.
- Establishing a National Sustainable Healthcare Unit to support environmentally sustainable practice in healthcare and reduce the sector’s own emissions.
- Education of current and future doctors to:
- be well equipped to care for patients and populations impacted by the adverse health effects of climate change, and
- provide sustainable health care to support sector-wide emissions reduction.
- Collaboration on climate change mitigation strategies with populations most at risk of climate-related adverse health impacts, such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Applications Now Open For 2022 Gone Fishing Day Grants
It’s Raining PFAS: Even In Antarctica And On The Tibetan Plateau Rainwater Is Unsafe To Drink
Pittwater Reserves: Histories + Notes + Pictorial Walks
A History Of The Campaign For Preservation Of The Warriewood Escarpment by David Palmer OAM and Angus Gordon OAM
America Bay Track Walk - photos by Joe Mills
An Aquatic June: North Narrabeen - Turimetta - Collaroy photos by Joe Mills
Angophora Reserve Angophora Reserve Flowers Grand Old Tree Of Angophora Reserve Falls Back To The Earth - History page
Annie Wyatt Reserve - A Pictorial
Avalon's Village Green: Avalon Park Becomes Dunbar Park - Some History + Toongari Reserve and Catalpa Reserve
Bairne Walking Track Ku-Ring-Gai Chase NP by Kevin Murray
Bangalley Headland Bangalley Mid Winter
Banksias of Pittwater
Barrenjoey Boathouse In Governor Phillip Park Part Of Our Community For 75 Years: Photos From The Collection Of Russell Walton, Son Of Victor Walton
Barrenjoey Headland: Spring flowers
Barrenjoey Headland after fire
Botham Beach by Barbara Davies
Bungan Beach Bush Care
Careel Bay Saltmarsh plants
Careel Bay Birds
Careel Bay Clean Up day
Careel Bay Playing Fields History and Current
Careel Creek - If you rebuild it they will come
Centre trail in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park
Chiltern Track- Ingleside by Marita Macrae
Clareville/Long Beach Reserve + some History
Coastal Stability Series: Cabbage Tree Bay To Barrenjoey To Observation Point by John Illingsworth, Pittwater Pathways, and Dr. Peter Mitchell OAM
Cowan Track by Kevin Murray
Curl Curl To Freshwater Walk: October 2021 by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Currawong and Palm Beach Views - Winter 2018
Currawong-Mackerel-The Basin A Stroll In Early November 2021 - photos by Selena Griffith
Currawong State Park Currawong Beach + Currawong Creek
Deep Creek To Warriewood Walk photos by Joe Mills
Drone Gives A New View On Coastal Stability; Bungan: Bungan Headland To Newport Beach + Bilgola: North Newport Beach To Avalon + Bangalley: Avalon Headland To Palm Beach
Duck Holes: McCarrs Creek by Joe Mills
Dunbar Park - Some History + Toongari Reserve and Catalpa Reserve
Dundundra Falls Reserve: August 2020 photos by Selena Griffith - Listed in 1935
Elsie Track, Scotland Island
Elvina Track in Late Winter 2019 by Penny Gleen
Elvina Bay Walking Track: Spring 2020 photos by Joe Mills
Elvina Bay-Lovett Bay Loop Spring 2020 by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Fern Creek - Ingleside Escarpment To Warriewood Walk + Some History photos by Joe Mills
Iluka Park, Woorak Park, Pittwater Park, Sand Point Reserve, Snapperman Beach Reserve - Palm Beach: Some History
Ingleside Wildflowers August 2013
Irrawong - Ingleside Escarpment Trail Walk Spring 2020 photos by Joe Mills
Irrawong - Mullet Creek Restoration
Katandra Bushland Sanctuary - Ingleside
Lucinda Park, Palm Beach: Some History + 2022 Pictures
McCarr's Creek to Church Point to Bayview Waterfront Path
Mona Vale Beach - A Stroll Along, Spring 2021 by Kevin Murray
Mona Vale Headland, Basin and Beach Restoration
Mount Murray Anderson Walking Track by Kevin Murray and Joe Mills
Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment: Past Notes Present Photos by Margaret Woods
Narrabeen Lagoon State Park
Narrabeen Lagoon State Park Expansion
Narrabeen Rockshelf Aquatic Reserve
Nerang Track, Terrey Hills by Bea Pierce
Newport Bushlink - the Crown of the Hill Linked Reserves
Newport Community Garden - Woolcott Reserve
Newport to Bilgola Bushlink 'From The Crown To The Sea' Paths: Founded In 1956 - A Tip and Quarry Becomes Green Space For People and Wildlife
Pittwater spring: waterbirds return to Wetlands
Pittwater's Lone Rangers - 120 Years of Ku-Ring-Gai Chase and the Men of Flowers Inspired by Eccleston Du Faur
Pittwater's Parallel Estuary - The Cowan 'Creek
Resolute Track at West Head by Kevin Murray
Resolute Track Stroll by Joe Mills
Riddle Reserve, Bayview
Salvation Loop Trail, Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park- Spring 2020 - by Selena Griffith
Seagull Pair At Turimetta Beach: Spring Is In The Air!
Stapleton Park Reserve In Spring 2020: An Urban Ark Of Plants Found Nowhere Else
The Chiltern Track
The Resolute Beach Loop Track At West Head In Ku-Ring-Gai Chase National Park by Kevin Murray
Topham Track Ku-Ring-Gai Chase NP, August 2022 by Joe Mills and Kevin Murray
Towlers Bay Walking Track by Joe Mills
Trafalgar Square, Newport: A 'Commons' Park Dedicated By Private Landholders - The Green Heart Of This Community
Tranquil Turimetta Beach, April 2022 by Joe Mills
Turimetta Beach Reserve by Joe Mills, Bea Pierce and Lesley
Turimetta Beach Reserve: Old & New Images (by Kevin Murray) + Some History
Warriewood Wetlands and Irrawong Reserve
Whale Beach Ocean Reserve: 'The Strand' - Some History On Another Great Protected Pittwater Reserve
Wilshire Park Palm Beach: Some History + Photos From May 2022
Winji Jimmi - Water Maze
New Shorebirds WingThing For Youngsters Available To Download
A Shorebirds WingThing educational brochure for kids (A5) helps children learn about shorebirds, their life and journey. The 2021 revised brochure version was published in February 2021 and is available now. You can download a file copy here.
If you would like a free print copy of this brochure, please send a self-addressed envelope with A$1.10 postage (or larger if you would like it unfolded) affixed to: BirdLife Australia, Shorebird WingThing Request, 2-05Shorebird WingThing/60 Leicester St, Carlton VIC 3053.
Shorebird Identification Booklet
The Migratory Shorebird Program has just released the third edition of its hugely popular Shorebird Identification Booklet. The team has thoroughly revised and updated this pocket-sized companion for all shorebird counters and interested birders, with lots of useful information on our most common shorebirds, key identification features, sighting distribution maps and short articles on some of BirdLife’s shorebird activities.
The booklet can be downloaded here in PDF file format: http://www.birdlife.org.au/documents/Shorebird_ID_Booklet_V3.pdf
Paper copies can be ordered as well, see http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/counter-resources for details.
Download BirdLife Australia's children’s education kit to help them learn more about our wading birdlife
Shorebirds are a group of wading birds that can be found feeding on swamps, tidal mudflats, estuaries, beaches and open country. For many people, shorebirds are just those brown birds feeding a long way out on the mud but they are actually a remarkably diverse collection of birds including stilts, sandpipers, snipe, curlews, godwits, plovers and oystercatchers. Each species is superbly adapted to suit its preferred habitat. The Red-necked Stint is as small as a sparrow, with relatively short legs and bill that it pecks food from the surface of the mud with, whereas the Eastern Curlew is over two feet long with a exceptionally long legs and a massively curved beak that it thrusts deep down into the mud to pull out crabs, worms and other creatures hidden below the surface.
Some shorebirds are fairly drab in plumage, especially when they are visiting Australia in their non-breeding season, but when they migrate to their Arctic nesting grounds, they develop a vibrant flush of bright colours to attract a mate. We have 37 types of shorebirds that annually migrate to Australia on some of the most lengthy and arduous journeys in the animal kingdom, but there are also 18 shorebirds that call Australia home all year round.
What all our shorebirds have in common—be they large or small, seasoned traveller or homebody, brightly coloured or in muted tones—is that each species needs adequate safe areas where they can successfully feed and breed.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is managed and supported by BirdLife Australia.
This project is supported by Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority and Hunter Local Land Services through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program. Funding from Helen Macpherson Smith Trust and Port Phillip Bay Fund is acknowledged.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is made possible with the help of over 1,600 volunteers working in coastal and inland habitats all over Australia.
The National Shorebird Monitoring program (started as the Shorebirds 2020 project initiated to re-invigorate monitoring around Australia) is raising awareness of how incredible shorebirds are, and actively engaging the community to participate in gathering information needed to conserve shorebirds.
In the short term, the destruction of tidal ecosystems will need to be stopped, and our program is designed to strengthen the case for protecting these important habitats.
In the long term, there will be a need to mitigate against the likely effects of climate change on a species that travels across the entire range of latitudes where impacts are likely.
The identification and protection of critical areas for shorebirds will need to continue in order to guard against the potential threats associated with habitats in close proximity to nearly half the human population.
Here in Australia, the place where these birds grow up and spend most of their lives, continued monitoring is necessary to inform the best management practice to maintain shorebird populations.
BirdLife Australia believe that we can help secure a brighter future for these remarkable birds by educating stakeholders, gathering information on how and why shorebird populations are changing, and working to grow the community of people who care about shorebirds.
To find out more visit: http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/shorebirds-2020-program
Aussie Bread Tags Collection Points
When you're having a walk on the beach you may sometimes find one of these - we saw this one on Whale Beach:
Do you know what is it?
That's right - it's a cuttlefish bone. You may have seen these in pet shops too as they are good for pet birds. For birds Cuttlefish bone serves as a source of calcium, which is lacking in seed. It also provides your bird with a hard surface to gnaw on, which should help to prevent their bill from becoming overgrown.
But what is a cuttlefish?
Cuttlefish or cuttles are marine molluscs of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses. Cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone, which is used for control of buoyancy.
Cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from 15 to 25 cm (6 to 10 in), with the largest species, the giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama), reaching 50 cm (20 in) in mantle length and over 10.5 kg (23 lb) in mass.
Cuttlefish eat small molluscs, crabs, shrimp, fish, octopus, worms, and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, sharks, fish, seals, seabirds, and other cuttlefish. The typical life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about 1–2 years. Studies are said to indicate cuttlefish to be among the most intelligent invertebrates. Cuttlefish also have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates.
The "cuttle" in cuttlefish comes from the Old English name for the species, cudele, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi (cushion) and the Middle Low German Kudel (rag). The Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed. The word for it in both Greek and Latin, sepia, now refers to the reddish-brown colour sepia in English.
Sepia mestus swimming (Australia). Photo: John Turnbull
The earliest fossils of cuttlefish are from the Cretaceous period, so 145 million to 66 million years ago.
The family Sepiidae, which contains all cuttlefish, inhabits tropical and temperate ocean waters. They are mostly shallow-water animals, although they are known to go to depths of about 600 m (2,000 ft). They have an unusual biogeographic pattern; they are present along the coasts of East and South Asia, Western Europe, and the Mediterranean, as well as all coasts of Africa and Australia, but are totally absent from the Americas. By the time the family evolved, ostensibly in the Old World, the North Atlantic possibly had become too cold and deep for these warm-water species to cross.
Cuttlefish, like other cephalopods, have sophisticated eyes. The organogenesis and the final structure of the cephalopod eye fundamentally differ from those of vertebrates such as humans. Superficial similarities between cephalopod and vertebrate eyes are thought to be examples of convergent evolution. The cuttlefish pupil is a smoothly curving W-shape. Although cuttlefish cannot see colour, they can perceive the polarization of light, which enhances their perception of contrast. They have two spots of concentrated sensor cells on their retinas (known as foveae), one to look more forward, and one to look more backward. The eye changes focus by shifting the position of the entire lens with respect to the retina, instead of reshaping the lens as in mammals. Unlike the vertebrate eye, no blind spot exists, because the optic nerve is positioned behind the retina. They are capable of using stereopsis, enabling them to discern depth/distance because their brain calculates the input from both eyes.
The cuttlefish's eyes are thought to be fully developed before birth, and they start observing their surroundings while still in the egg. In consequence, they may prefer to hunt the prey they saw before hatching.
Cuttlefish possess an internal structure called the cuttlebone, which is porous and is made of aragonite. The pores provide it with buoyancy, which the cuttlefish regulates by changing the gas-to-liquid ratio in the chambered cuttlebone via the ventral siphuncle. Each species' cuttlebone has a distinct shape, size, and pattern of ridges or texture. The cuttlebone is unique to cuttlefish, and is one of the features that distinguish them from their squid relatives.
As can be read above, cuttlefish are relatives to octopus.
A few weeks back Joe Mills, who send in great photos each week to share with you, sent in some images of an octopus at North Narrabeen. Joe says;
''The octopus is back again. This little one is hard to spot with great camouflage. The grey material is scooped soil to make space under the rock. I think the occy is a small female.''
How To Win When You Don't : Lea Davison
Be The Boss: I Want To Be A Pilot
If you love travelling, or the sensation of freedom that comes with being up in the blue sky, or fiddling with knobs and dials, a career as a pilot may be for you.
Pilots are trained to operate aircraft, including airplanes and helicopters, in order to transport passengers and goods between locations. Flying aircraft includes takeoff and landing, staying in touch with the control tower on departure, and requesting permission to land on approach to destinations.
A commercial airline pilot is usually assisted by a Co-pilot, but in smaller aircraft, the Pilot must navigate in addition to monitoring engines, fuel, and aircraft systems throughout the flight.
Pilots also file flight plans, perform maintenance checks and ensure the craft is ready for departure.
To become a Pilot you need a licence, which requires many hours of practical and theoretical training. Specific training requirements vary depending on the type of licence you want.
Complete high school. While a high school certificate isn’t always a formal requirement, secondary education will teach you math and English skills that are important for Pilot roles.
Choose the licence type you want to pursue and a flight school that aligns with your goals. Two common licence types are Private Pilot Licences (PPL) and Commercial Pilot Licences (CPL).
Hold a current medical certificate. There are different types of medical certificates required depending on the licence you’re pursuing.
Complete the training required for your chosen licence type. A PPL usually involves 55–60 hours of flight training over 2–12 months. A CPL usually requires at least 150 hours of flight training over 12 months.
Pass an exam and flight test to earn your licence and fly solo.
While most people think of pilots flying passengers around the world
on commercial airlines, there are many more diverse career paths in
aviation. Some of these are:
- › instructing people to become pilots or learn new skills
- › charter flying to carry people for business or tourism
- › agricultural flying
- › aerial photography and survey work
- › helicopter mustering
- › military flying in some of the world’s most expensive and advanced aircraft.
Aviation is also critical in medical evacuations, firefighting and other emergency operations to help save people’s lives, livelihoods, and homes.
Professional pilots must be able to physically control an aircraft, as well as make accurate decisions in complex, time-critical situations.
You will need to be in good health, have good eyesight and hearing, and typically have an education in English to become a commercial pilot. Most people who succeed in aviation have above-average initiative, self-discipline, common sense, patience and perseverance.
This guide will help you decide if flying is a good career for you. You should also do as much research as possible. Contact or visit flight training organisations and talk to people in the industry.
The amount of training required can seem daunting at first, but with drive and dedication, you can turn your love of flying into a highly satisfying career.
Download (PDF) PILOT CAREER GUIDE 2021 by CASA (Civil Aviation Safety Authority - Australian Government).
The Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) does not require you to have any formal educational qualifications to train for an Australian pilot licence.
You can pass CASA’s private pilot licence examination with a standard education and ability to speak, read, write and understand the English language.
For commercial or higher licence levels, a good background in maths and physics is useful, but not essential. If you don’t have this background, you could consider theory training with a reputable theory training centre or theory provider.
It is also a good idea to contact employers in your area of aviation interest to check their requirements. Many airlines generally require passes at high school certificate level in physics and maths, although this may vary between companies. Some may suggest you investigate aviation diplomas or degrees offered by some universities.
U.S. Army Air Forces test pilot Lt. F.W. "Mike" Hunter wearing a flight suit in October 1942. Photo by Alfred T. Palmer
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Word Of The Week: Warriewood
From the middle family name of the Macpherson family who owned much of the land in Warriewood.
1. On the Narrabeen Lagoon. 2. View from Sheepstation Hill, looking south. 3. Bay View. 4. A dip in the surf at Narrabeen. 5. Near Long Reef. 6. Approaching Narrabeen. 7. One of the creeks. The distance from Manly to Bay View is about 15 miles. The road is by the Narrabeen-road past Rocklily. A proposal to put down a tram line is now being considered, and a member of the ministry was recently driven over the country, which in many parts is remarkably picturesque. MANLY TO BAY VIEW—A POPULAR EASTER RESORT BY ROAD. (1900, April 14). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 878. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165297416
Warriewood at this time was still very wooded - although men such as Leon Houreux, of the Rock Lily, was one of the woodcutters who may have worked for fellow Frenchman Gustave Lix who owned the land housing the failed Ingleside Powder Works are stated to have been woodcutters in the valley, even as late as the 1950's and 1960's the valley and its hill surrounds were still very alike the hills above and part of the Narrabeen Lagoon State Park we see today.
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Lying down, sitting, leaning over? What science says about the best way to take your medicineElise Schubert, University of Sydney; Nial Wheate, University of Sydney, and Tina Hinton, University of Sydney
When pharmacists dispense tablets or capsules they commonly advise when and how often to take them, and if this needs to be with or without food.
You generally don’t hear them tell you to lean to one side when swallowing. But preliminary research from Johns Hopkins University in the United States suggests this might improve how fast your medicine is absorbed and gets to work.
The results are based on a computer simulation, rather than in actual patients, and may not equate to the real world. So it’s too early to suggest you strike a yoga pose when taking your medicine.
But your posture can be important when taking pills or capsules, for comfort or safety.
What Happens When You Swallow Your Medicine?
Once you swallow a tablet or capsule, it moves down the throat to the stomach. There, a tablet swells and disintegrates, or a capsule breaks open. The drug can then dissolve and your body can absorb it.
Most drugs do not start being absorbed until they reach the small intestine. However, some drugs, such as aspirin, are likely to be absorbed in the stomach because of its acidic environment.
A number of other factors can also affect where and how a drug is absorbed.
These include how fast the tablet disintegrates to release the drug, how fast the swallowed contents move from the stomach to the small intestine, the amount of food and drink consumed before taking the medicine, and how easily the drug is absorbed across the gut lining.
How About This Latest Study?
The researchers used software they developed to simulate several ways of taking a pill: staying upright, leaning to the left or right, or leaning backwards.
They showed leaning 45 degrees to the right favoured a faster movement of stomach contents into the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). This would allow the pill to be absorbed more quickly and start to take effect.
The results could be important for medicines that you’d want to act quickly, such as pain medicines, or ones used to treat a heart attack.
There is already some earlier evidence from real patients suggesting posture may influence how medicines are absorbed. This includes the option of leaning to the right. But the authors acknowledge many factors influence absorption, not just posture.
When Is It Best To Sit Or Stand?
Sometimes your pharmacist may advise you to swallow your medicine sitting, standing, or lying down for reasons other than speeding up absorption.
For example, certain drugs are more likely to cause side effects such as heartburn, where stomach acid leaks from the stomach and moves up into the oesophagus (food pipe).
So if this is a problem for you, it may help to take these medicines sitting or standing, and not lying down straight away afterwards. That’s because your stomach acid is less likely to leak back up into your oesophagus.
Some medicines can irritate the throat if they become stuck. This is because they damage the protective mucosal barrier that lines your oesophagus and stomach, causing irritation and inflammation.
For these medicines it is important to take these sitting up or standing, and remaining upright for 30 minutes afterwards.
How About Lying Down?
Pharmacists advise patients to sit or lie down before using this spray as it can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure, making you feel very dizzy.
Other heart medicines, such as diuretics, are also known to cause dizziness. Although you don’t usually need to take these medications lying down, if you do become dizzy it is best to sit or lie down, and ensure you stand up slowly afterwards.
There are also medications that can cause drowsiness or make you feel “woozy”. These can include strong pain killers (such as opiates), sleeping tablets, some epilepsy medications, or drugs for certain mental health conditions, such as anxiety or schizophrenia.
These don’t need to be swallowed while lying down, but lying down can help if you become dizzy or drowsy.
What If I’m Not Sure?
Next time your pharmacist dispenses your medicine, unless they provide specific guidance about sitting, standing or lying down, you are generally safe to take it whichever way is most comfortable.
So how about this latest evidence suggesting leaning to the right might help? At this stage, you likely won’t hear your doctor or pharmacist recommend you should lean over to take your medicines until further research is done.
But next time you need to take a medicine for pain, as long as it is not uncomfortable, feel free to try this to see if your pain is relieved faster.
Elise Schubert, Pharmacist and PhD Candidate, University of Sydney; Nial Wheate, Associate Professor of the Sydney Pharmacy School, University of Sydney, and Tina Hinton, Associate Professor of Pharmacology, University of Sydney
Aged Care Roundtable Advances Practical Solutions
Feeling Frail? Here’s How To Beat It
- Shrinking: You’ve unintentionally lost 10 or more pounds in the past year.
- Feeling weak: You have trouble standing without assistance or have reduced grip strength.
- Feeling exhausted: Everything you do takes a big effort, or you just can’t get going for three or more days most weeks.
- Activity level is low: This includes formal exercise plus household chores and activities you do for fun.
- Slow walking: Your pace is considered slow if the time it takes you more than six or seven seconds to walk 15 feet.
- A history of falls: If you have fallen more than once in the past six months, you are more likely to fall again.
- Low blood pressure: Older people with naturally low blood pressure may feel light-headed, dizzy or unsteady while moving.
- Postural (orthostatic) hypotension: With this condition, blood pressure drops when changing positions, such as sitting to standing. Older people with postural hypotension, whether natural or due to a medication’s side effect, are at increased risk of having a fall.
- Incontinence: You may need to hurry to the toilet often, increasing the risk of a fall, particularly at night.
- Stroke, Parkinson’s disease and arthritis: These conditions change how you move. They make it harder to react quickly and stop yourself if you stumble.
- Diabetes: Changes in blood sugar levels can make you feel faint. Diabetes can also affect your eyesight and reduce the feeling in your feet and legs.
- Depression: Older people with depression may take a medicine that can increase their risk of falling.
- Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias: Older people with dementia can become less aware of their surroundings and less able to react quickly.
- Sydney - Padstow, Chatswood, Bexley, Hurstville.
- Melbourne - Epping, Mulgrave, Keilor East.
- Canberra - Monash, Florey, Rivett.
- Brisbane - Eagleby, Raceview, Birkdale.
- Adelaide - Hallett Cove, Happy Valley, Mount Barker, Golden Grove.
- Perth - Armadale, Canning Vale, Bassendean, Kingsley.
- Darwin - Fannie Bay, Rapid Creek, Wanguri.
- Hobart - Risdon Vale, Brighton, South Hobart.
Seniors Left Out In The Cold – Here’s How To Help
- Older people aged 50 years or older and are prematurely ageing.
- Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 45 years and older.
- Those on a low income.
- Halve the number of households experiencing rental stress by 2027 and end rental stress by 2032;
- End homelessness for women, children and young people;
- End homelessness for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians;
- Halve the numbers of people returning to homeless services by 2027, and halve the numbers again by 2032.
- Building 25,000 social housing properties a year.
- Providing a housing guarantee to women and children fleeing family violence.
- Providing homes and support to people who have been homeless multiple times to help them stay housed.
- Providing young people who can’t live at home with the support they need to succeed.
- Increasing JobSeeker to at least $70 a day and boosting Commonwealth Rental Assistance by 50 per cent.
Dementia Action Week
19 – 25 September 2022
- Give a little support to a person living with dementia.
- Give a little support to a carer, friend or family member of a person living with dementia.
- Help healthcare professionals make their practice more dementia-friendly.
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Curtin Enabling Better Lives Through Consumer-First Health Research
- Child and Family Health – Research endeavours to improve the physical and mental health of children and their families for a promising future. It focuses on the first 1000 days of life and how to pave a way for a healthy and happy future;
- Mental Health – Research will help identify the mental health priorities in WA and ensure everyone has a voice in that process, with a mission to help care providers understand how to keep people well and flourishing.
- Optimising Health & Wellbeing – Multidisciplinary and collaborative research to optimise health and wellbeing recognising that these are influenced by the physical, environmental, emotional and social experiences of our unique lives.
- Dementia and Ageing – Working with community, people living with dementia and those providing care to help them live their best lives. This research will help answer questions that the most affected by dementia and ageing feel are important.
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Disclaimer: These articles are not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of Pittwater Online News or its staff.