Inbox and Environment News: Issue 453
June 7 - 13, 2020: Issue 453
Vale Peter Slater, 1932–2020
One of Australia’s most renowned wildlife artists — Peter Slater — passed away on May 28th. He was 87.
Peter’s interest in birds began when he was just 2 years old. This is hardly surprising, as he grew up in Western Australia, surrounded its remarkable diversity of unique birdlife. That early interest was to influence the rest of his life.
Peter started his artistic life as a bird photographer. With an astute eye, he used artistic principles to carefully compose his images, and his photographic portfolio was outstanding, winning numerous awards at international exhibitions. Fittingly, he was made an ‘Artiste of the Fédération Internationale de l'Art Photographique’ in 1964.
However, Peter also saw the merits of painting birds, which allows an artist to capture the essence of the subject in a way that photography often can’t. Despite his prowess with the camera, Peter is now probably best remembered for his prolific artwork. Indeed, he claimed to have painted every species of Australian bird at least four times!
Although he trained as a school teacher, and that was his early profession, his love of birds was barely concealed, always bubbling away just below the surface. In his spare time, he would watch birds, photograph and paint them, contributing his images to various wildlife books and other publications.
In 1966, Peter and his family moved to tropical North Queensland, where he was surrounded by another stunning array of birds, and 2 years later he quit teaching to become a professional wildlife painter.
Peter wrote and illustrated numerous books about Australian birds and other wildlife. Probably one of his most well known is his first field guide of Australian birds. Published in two parts, A Field Guide to Australian Birds was the first new Australian field guide published since Cayley’s What Bird is That? — which first hit the shelves the year before Peter was born! Peter’s new field guide revolutionised birdwatching in this country. It featured colour illustrations that actually looked like the birds they depicted, as well as innovations such as distribution maps and life-size outlines of the bills of seabirds to aid the identification of beachcast birds. He also wrote much of the text — a testament to his abilities as a naturalist. It remained the go-to reference for a decade or more.
In 1986, Peter produced, in collaboration with his family, a follow up — The Slater Field Guide to Australian Birds — another revolutionary work. It was the first field guide since Leach’s An Australian Bird Book (published in 1911) to be a suitable size to be taken into the field. It also featured images of the eggs of species that breed in Australia.
His two field guides became favourites of many Australian birdwatchers.
Fittingly, Peter was working on another book, this time on raptors, right till the end.
A modest man, Peter regularly worked in collaboration with others, and the acknowledgements in his books are a virtual ‘Who’s Who’ of Australian ornithology. Peter’s name rightly belongs alongside them.
Peter once said that he “lived for birds” and Australia’s birdwatching community can be grateful that he did.
Bauer's Midge Orchid At Ingleside
Bauer's Midge Orchid, Corunastylis fimbriata, flowering in March in Coastal Upland Swamp off Waratah Rd Ingleside. This terrestrial orchid is only pollinated by a Chloropid fly, an example of the intimate relationships between orchids and their insect pollinators. Image: Wendy Grimm.
World Oceans Day: June 8
The United Nations celebrates World Oceans Day every year on 8 June. Many countries have celebrated this special day since 1992, following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro.
In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly decided that, as of 2009, 8 June would be designated by the United Nations as “World Oceans Day”.
Every June 8th, we have an opportunity to raise global awareness of the benefits humankind derives from the ocean and our individual and collective duty to use its resources sustainably. Future generations will also depend on the ocean for their livelihoods.
Aquariums, science centres and research institutions, NGOs, communities and governments all around the world mobilise millions of people around events big and small.
Together with the United Nations Family let’s celebrate all that the ocean gives us every day: from the oxygen we breathe to the inspiration that moves our poets.
The theme this year is 'Innovation for a Sustainable Ocean'
More here: https://unworldoceansday.org/
$1.5 Million In NSW Government Grants To Stop And Clean Up Illegal Dumping
June 2, 2020
The NSW Government is encouraging councils, public land managers and community groups to apply for grants to tackle illegal dumping in their local area.
The grants are a part of the NSW Combating Illegal Dumping Clean-up and Prevention program which has awarded $6.7 million to projects to combat illegal dumping since the program commenced.
Executive Director, Circular Economy & Resource Management, Sanjay Sridher said illegally dumped waste can harm our health, pollute the environment and cost millions of dollars in taxpayers money each year to clean up.
“We want to see as many applicants as possible apply for funding, with previous grants being put to great use to tackle local dumping hotspots,” Mr Sridher said.
“This has included the installation of gates, signs, surveillance cameras and fencing to tackle illegal dumping along with the removal of thousands of tonnes of illegally dumped waste.
“I encourage any councils, public land managers or community groups that want to tackle an illegal dumping problem in their area to visit the website and apply for one of these grants.
“The grant program is funded under the Waste Less Recycle More initiative, administered by the NSW Department of Planning, Industry an Environment.”
The grants can be used by councils, public land managers and community groups to implement prevention and clean-up action on publicly managed land or to establish illegal dumping baseline data.
Applications for grants will close on the 17th July 2020.
Applicants are able to apply for funding under three streams;
$50,000 - $120,000 for councils and public land managers to carry out illegal dumping clean-up and prevention projects.
Up to $20,000 for councils and public land managers to establish illegal dumping baseline data.
Up to $50,000 for illegal dumping clean-up and prevention community partnerships.
More information about the NSW Combating Illegal Dumping Clean-up and Prevention program is available at https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/working-together/grants/illegal-dumping/illegal-dumping-clean-prevention.
Household Chemical CleanOuts Back
Mona Vale Beach Car Park, Surfview Road, Mona Vale
Sat 20, Sun 21 June 2020: 9am - 3:30pm
Household Chemical CleanOut events are returning to your neighbourhood after a break because of COVID-19.
The free service, run jointly by the NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment and local councils, provides a safe way to dispose of potentially hazardous household items such as paint, oils and cleaning products.
The return of these events is a welcome addition to the calendar for the NSW community, with many people using their recent spare time to de-clutter the house and garage. Any problem wastes discovered while de-cluttering can now be disposed of for free at a Household Chemical CleanOut.
You can take household quantities of many chemicals and items – up to a maximum of 20 litres or 20 kilograms of a single item – to a CleanOut event, including:
- Car and household batteries
- Fire extinguishers
- Gas bottles
- Smoke detectors
- Acids and alkalis
- Pesticides and herbicides
- Pool chemicals
- Fluorescent globes and tubes, and more
The events re-start this Saturday 30 May at Glendale TAFE, followed by Meadowbank, Nowra, Mona Vale, Rutherford, Leumeah, Katoomba and Heffron Park, Matraville in coming weeks.
See the EPA website for information about individual events, for dates, times and other details including locations, with more events being added regularly.
Due to COVID-19 there are new protocols that participants need to be aware of:
Before you attend a Chemical CleanOut event, please place all materials in the rear of your vehicle. On arrival, remain in your vehicle and our contractor will collect your items. Contractors onsite will be wearing personal protective equipment and following social distancing measures.
Fishing In Sanctuary Zones Not Tolerated
June 3, 2020
A man has been ordered to pay a fine and court costs following his apprehension for illegally fishing in a Sanctuary Zone on the NSW Central Coast, NSW DPI Acting Fisheries Compliance Director, Dr Andrew Moriarty, said today.
“NSW Department of Primary Industries (NSW DPI) Fisheries Officers from the Port Stephens District apprehended the man following a patrol of the Little Beach area,” Dr Moriarty said.
“The man was identified as fishing off Nelson Head, this area is within the Fly Point Corrie Island Sanctuary Zone of the Port Stephens – Great Lakes Marine Park, in which harming or attempting to harm animals is deemed to be a serious offence under the Marine Estate Management Act 2014.
“The officers intervened and spoke to the fisher who was in possession of two snapper illegally taken, with one being of prohibited size. The catch was seized by Fisheries Officers and the fisher was issued a $500 penalty notice.
“The fisher elected to have the matter heard in court, and subsequently the penalty was increased to $700. The man was also made to pay an additional $1,400 in court costs.
“Sanctuary Zones provide for the highest level of protection and only allow for activities that do not involve harming any animal or plant or causing any damage to or interference with natural or cultural features or habitat.”
Regulations under the Marine Estate Management Act 2014 are in force to protect and maintain a biologically diverse, healthy and productive marine estate.
Fisheries Officers patrol marine parks day and night, on weekdays, weekends, and public holidays to ensure everyone is following the rules.
People found fishing in sanctuary zones can expect to be caught and heavy penalties of up to $22,000 for each breach handed down. The seizure of a fishers catch as well as fishing gear, vehicles and boats can also apply.
Information regarding marine parks is freely available at local boat ramps, through phone applications (FishSmart NSW and Avenza), on DPI’s website, at tackle stores and local fisheries offices - really there are no excuses for not keeping up-to-date with the rules in your fishery.
“Make yourself aware of the rules before heading out or face the consequences,” Dr Moriarty said.
Report illegal fishing online or via the Fishers Watch phone line on 1800 043 536 and find information on marine parks.
Campaign To Stop Sediment Runoff As Building And Home Renovations Increase
June 1, 2020
The Get the Site Right campaign in June will increase awareness of the dangers of runoff from building sites impacting the environment and encourage developers, builders and home renovators to implement appropriate erosion and sediment controls.
The campaign is kicking off in response to an increase in home renovation and DIY projects during the COVID-19 isolation period as well as several large construction projects that are expected to commence in coming months.
Developments of all sizes will be monitored by councils and the NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) as part of the month-long campaign.
Get the Site Right is a joint program between the Parramatta River Catchment Group (PRCG), Cooks River Alliance, Georges Riverkeeper, Sydney Coastal Councils Group, Lake Macquarie Council, NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA), Department of Planning, Industry and Environment, and local councils. It is in its fifth year.
Environment Minister Matt Kean said that regardless of the project size, implementing proper erosion and sediment controls is key to protecting our waterways.
“Whether you’re a home renovator who’s laying new paving or a developer building a 20-storey apartment block, it’s important that you prevent runoff from leaving your site,” Mr Kean said.
“When sediments such as sand or soil and other building materials are washed down stormwater drains and into our waterways, it not only degrades water quality it can destroy aquatic habitats by smothering native plants and animals that live there.
“It also can block stormwater drains leading to flooding and overflows.”
PRCG Chair Cr Mark Drury said that builders and home renovators can’t afford to be complacent about the impacts of site runoff.
“Builders and renovators need to be aware that their actions can have a significant impact on the health of our local rivers and creeks. Get the Site Right is an important part of our ongoing strategy to manage the environmental impacts of construction to help achieve our mission to make the Parramatta River swimmable again by 2025,” Cr Drury said.
“Every building site, regardless of size, must ensure they have controls in place to help improve river health for the entire community and the benefit of the environment.”
Sediment spills affect our environment and waterways by:
- Destroying aquatic habitats and smothering native plants and animals that live in our waterways.
- Directly polluting creeks, rivers and harbours by filling them with dirt, soil, sand and mud. This leads to poorer water quality, affecting swimming or leisure activities in and around our waterways.
- Blocking stormwater drains leading to flooding and overflows.
- Eroding creek and riverbanks.
Members of the public can report poor sediment control on building sites to their local council or to the EPA’s 24/7 Environment Line on 131 555.
More information about the campaign and the importance of erosion and sediment control is available at: https://www.ourlivingriver.com.au/help-the-river/getthesiteright/
Tarrawonga Coal Fined After Environmental Breach At Mine
May 28, 2020
The NSW Environment Protection Authority has fined Tarrawonga Coal Mine $15,000 after an alleged breach of its environment protection licence when a sediment dam failed at its mine near Boggabri.
EPA Manager Regional Operations Lindsay Fulloon said sediment dams are an important part of the pollution control system and they need to be maintained to ensure they work effectively.
“A sediment dam wall breached during heavy rain in February this year, causing sediment-laden water to discharge onto a neighbouring coal mine. Fortunately, the water was contained on this neighbouring site and did not make it to any waterways.
“EPA investigations show that the mine did not have a maintenance plan for the dam in place, including an inspection schedule which could have helped identify the emerging structural failings,” Mr Fulloon said.
Tarrawonga Coal Mine uses sedimentation dams to hold and treat sediment-laden water generated during mine operations to prevent sediment discharging into the environment.
The company is revising its maintenance plans to ensure that this incident does not reoccur.
Penalty notices are one of a number of tools the EPA can use to achieve environmental compliance including formal warnings, official cautions, licence conditions, notices and directions and prosecutions. In this instance the EPA issued a penalty notice. The notice recipient may pay the penalty notice, seek a review, or elect to have the matter determined by a court.
For more information about the EPA’s regulatory tools, see the EPA Compliance Policy at www.epa.nsw.gov.au/legislation/prosguid.htm
Tarrawonga Coal Mine
MOD 7 - Life of Mine
Changes to ROM coal production rate, size of open cut pit, and post mining landform; and construction and operation of water supply pipeline
Submissions Open until June 8, 2020 HERE
Government Condemned For Voting Down CSG Moratorium Bill
June 4, 2020
The Berejiklian and Barilaro Government’s decision to vote down the CSG Moratorium Bill under extraordinary circumstances shows it has abandoned farmers and rural communities, according to Lock the Gate Alliance.
Independent MP Justin Field’s Bill passed the Upper House overnight, only for the Berejiklian Government to break with normal process and bring the Bill forward to use its majority in the Lower House to vote it down.
The Government came under criticism in the parliament for failing to implement the recommendations of the Chief Scientist for managing the risks of coal seam gas, which prompted the passage of the Bill in the Upper House last night to pause the industry while protections and data collection are put in place.
Narrabri renewable energy consultant Rohan Boehm said the government’s rejection of the Bill was a kick in the guts for locals who had spent the past decade struggling with the twin threats of the drought and Santos’ Narrabri gas project.
“We know that renewable energy, wind, solar, and bioenergy are the perfect fit for north west NSW and Narrabri in particular,” he said.
“With major new infrastructure developments coming through we urgently need a whole suite of brand new industries based on low cost and abundant energy. That’s what renewables will do and at a much cheaper price than what coal seam gas could ever do for the people of the north west and the state.
“The Narrabri Gas project will immediately become an abandoned project because it simply cannot compete in the energy market - the gas is far too expensive, it will never add any value to the region and will add no value to NSW.”
Lock the Gate Alliance spokesperson and Mullaley farmer Margaret Fleck said the Berejiklian Government and in particular its National Party members had betrayed rural people.
“We applaud the efforts of our local member Roy Butler who is listening to and representing the people of Barwon and Justin Field who brought this bill to the parliament. We also thank the Labor Party, Greens and Animal Justice Party for supporting the passage of the bill,” she said.
“It is deeply troubling that, at a time when we are still struggling with the impacts of an unprecedented drought, the government would put our scarce water resources at further risk by encouraging the polluting and risky coal seam gas industry.
“Santos’ plan to drill 850 coal seam gas wells through farmland and the Pilliga Forest is a serious threat to a Great Artesian Basin water recharge zone.
“It is also greatly troubling the Berejiklian Government has gone so far out of its way to bring forward this debate and vote down this Bill when it can’t even implement all of the Chief Scientist’s recommendations on managing the risky CSG industry.
“The Berejiklian Government has spectacularly failed to deliver its promise and implement these recommendations. With the rejection of this Bill, it has now utterly sold out the bush.”
Please Help Sydney Wildlife Rescue: Donate Your Cans And Bottles And Nominate SW As Recipient
You can Help Sydney Wildlife help Wildlife. Sydney Wildlife Rescue is now listed as a charity partner on the return and earn machines in these locations:
- Pittwater RSL Mona Vale
- Northern Beaches Indoor Sports Centre NBISC Warriewood
- Woolworths Balgowlah
- Belrose Super centre
- Coles Manly Vale
- Westfield Warringah Mall
- Strathfield Council Carpark
- Paddy's Markets Flemington Homebush West
- Woolworths Homebush West
- Bondi Campbell pde behind Beach Pavilion
- Westfield Bondi Junction car park level 2 eastern end Woolworths side under ramp
- UNSW Kensington
- Enviro Pak McEvoy street Alexandria.
Every bottle, can, or eligible container that is returned could be 10c donated to Sydney Wildlife.
Every item returned will make a difference by removing these items from landfill and raising funds for our 100% volunteer wildlife carers. All funds raised go to support wildlife.
It is easy to DONATE, just feed the items into the machine select DONATE and choose Sydney Wildlife Rescue. The SW initiative runs until August 23rd.
Latest Climate Models Show More Intense Droughts To Come
June 2, 2020
An analysis of new climate model projections by Australian researchers from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes shows southwestern Australia and parts of southern Australia will see longer and more intense droughts due to a lack of rainfall caused by climate change.
But Australia is not alone. Across the globe, several important agricultural and forested regions in the Amazon, Mediterranean and southern Africa can expect more frequent and intense rainfall droughts. While some regions like central Europe and the boreal forest zone are projected to get wetter and suffer fewer droughts, those droughts they do get are projected to be more intense when they occur.
The research published in Geophysical Research Letters examined rainfall-based drought using the latest generation of climate models (known as CMIP6), which will inform the next IPCC assessment report on climate change.
"We found the new models produced the most robust results for future droughts to date and that the degree of the increase in drought duration and intensity was directly linked to the amount of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere," said lead author Dr Anna Ukkola.
"There were only slight changes to the areas of drought under a mid-range emissions scenario versus a high-emissions pathway. However, the change in the magnitude of drought with a higher emissions scenario was more marked, telling us that early mitigation of greenhouse gases matters."
Much of the earlier research into future droughts only considered changes to average rainfall as the metric to determine how droughts would alter with global warming. This often produced a highly uncertain picture.
But we also know that with climate change, rainfall is likely to become increasingly variable. Combining metrics on variability and mean rainfall, the study increased clarity around how droughts would change for some regions.
The researchers found the duration of droughts was very closely aligned to changes in the average rainfall, but the intensity of droughts was much more closely connected to the combination of average rainfall and variability. Regions with declining average rainfall like the Mediterranean, Central America and the Amazon are projected to experience longer and more frequent droughts. Meanwhile, other regions, such as the boreal forests are expected to experience shorter droughts in line with increasing average rainfall.
However, the situation is different for drought intensity alone with most regions projected to experience more intense rainfall droughts due to increasing rainfall variability. Importantly, the researchers were unable to locate any region that showed a reduction in future drought intensity. Even regions with long-term increases in rainfall, such as central Europe, can expect more intense droughts as rainfall becomes more variable.
"Predicting future changes in drought is one of the greatest challenges in climate science but with this latest generation of models and the opportunity to combine different drought metrics in a more meaningful way we can gain a clearer insight into the future impacts of climate change," said Dr Ukkola.
"However, while these insights grow clearer with each advance, the message they deliver remains the same -- the earlier we act on reducing our emissions, the less economic and social pain we will face in the future."
Anna M. Ukkola, Martin G. De Kauwe, Michael L. Roderick, Gab Abramowitz, Andrew J. Pitman. Robust future changes in meteorological drought in CMIP6 projections despite uncertainty in precipitation. Geophysical Research Letters, 2020; DOI: 10.1029/2020GL087820
ORRCA Art 2020 And ORRCA Census Day 2020
ORRCA stands for the Organisation for the Rescue and Research of Cetaceans in Australia. Put simply, our primary focus is the rescue, preservation, conservation and welfare of Whales, Dolphins, Seals and Dugongs in Australian waters.
ORRCA operates a 24/7 Rescue Hotline for the public to report any injured or stranded whales, dolphins, seals and dugongs. Simply call 02 9415 3333.
We are the only volunteer wildlife rehabilitation group in New South Wales licensed to be involved with marine mammal rescue, rehabilitation and release. Our members come from all walks of life, age groups and nationalities.
ORRCA offers the community one of the most experienced and successful whale, dolphin, seal and dugong rescue teams in Australia. We are also proud that today, we have rescue trained teams in Western Australia and Queensland available to support local authorities should a marine mammal incident arise.
All members within ORRCA are volunteers
We operate as a non-profit organisation and have charity status.
It is because of the generosity of the public providing donations, and the love and passion of people wanting to get involved and learn about these amazing animals, that ORRCA exists on its own two flippers today.
Through our ever growing membership base of valued and dedicated volunteers and our highly commended rescue training workshops coupled with the strength and dedication of the Committee, ORRCA has achieved extraordinary things over the past 34 years.
ORRCA operates a 24/7 Rescue Hotline for the public to report any injured or stranded whales, dolphins, seals and dugongs. Simply call 02 9415 3333.
Rat Poisons Are Killing Our Wildlife: Alternatives
BirdLife Australia is currently running a campaign highlighting the devastation being caused by poison to our wildlife. Rodentcides are an acknowledged but under-researched source of threat to many Aussie birds. If you missed BirdLife's rodenticide talk but would like to know more, share data and comment on the use of rodenticides in Australia please visit: https://www.actforbirds.org/ratpoison
Owls, kites and other birds of prey are dying from eating rats and mice that have ingested Second Generation rodent poisons. These household products – including Talon, Fast Action RatSak and The Big Cheese Fast Action brand rat and mice bait – have been banned from general public sale in the US, Canada and EU, but are available from supermarkets throughout Australia.
Australia is reviewing the use of these dangerous chemicals right now and you can make a submission to help get them off supermarket shelves and make sure only licenced operators can use them.
There are alternatives for household rodent control – find out more about the impacts of rat poison on our birds of prey and what you can do at the link above and by reading the information below.
Let’s get rat poison out of bird food chains.
The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) – is currently asking Australians for their views on how rodent poisons are regulated.
Have your say by making a submission here.
Powerful Owl at Clareville - photo by Paul Wheeler
Pesticides that are designed to control pests such as mice and rats cane also kill our wildlife through either primary or secondary poisoning. Insecticides include pesticides (substances used to kill insects), rodenticides (substances used to kill rodents, such as rat poison), molluscicides (substances used to kill molluscs, such as snail baits), and herbicides (substances used to kill weeds).
Primary poisoning occurs when an animal ingests a pesticide directly – for example, a brushtail possum or antechinus eating rat bait. Secondary poisoning occurs when an animal eats another animal that has itself ingested a pesticide – for example, a greater sooty owl eating a rate that has been poisoned or an antechinus that had eaten rat bait.
Rodenticides are the most common and harmful pesticides to Australian wildlife. Though no comprehensive monitoring of non-target exposure of rodenticides has been conducted, numerous studies have documented the harm rodenticides do to native animals. In 2018, an Australian study found that anticoagulant rodenticides in particular are implicated in non-target wildlife poisoning in Australia, and warned Australia’s usage patterns and lax regulations “may increase the risk of non-target poisoning”.
Most rodenticides work by disrupting the normal coagulation (blood clotting) process, and are classified as either “first generation” / “multiple dose” or “second generation” / “single dose”, depending on how many doses are required for the poison to be lethal.
These anticoagulant rodenticides cause victims of anticoagulant rodenticides to suffer greatly before dying, as they work by inhibiting Vitamin K in the body, therefore disrupting the normal coagulation process. This results in poisoned animals suffering from uncontrolled bleeding or haemorrhaging, either spontaneously or from cuts or scratches. In the case of internally haemorrhaging, which is difficult to spot, the only sign of poisoning is that the animal is weak, or (occasionally) bleeding from the nose or mouth. Affected wildlife are also more likely to crash into structures and vehicles, and be killed by predators.
An animal has to eat a first generation rodenticide (e.g. warfarin, pindone, chlorophaninone, diphacinone) more than once in order to obtain a lethal dose. For this reason, second generation rodenticides (e.g. difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone and difethialone) are the most commonly used rodenticides. Second generation rodenticides only require a single dose to be consumed in order to be lethal, yet kill the animal slowly, meaning the animal keeps coming back. This results in the animal consuming many times more poison than a single lethal dose over the multiple days it takes them to die, during which time they are easy but lethal prey to predators. This is why second generation poisons tend to be much more acutely toxic to non-target wildlife, as they are much more likely to bioaccumulate and biomagnify, and clear very slowly from the body.
Species most at risk from poisons
Small mammals including possums and bandicoots often consume poisons such as snail bait, or rat bait that has been laid out to attract and kill rats, mice, and rabbits. Poisons such as pindone are often added to oats or carrots, and lead to a slow, painful death of internal bleeding. Australian possums often consume rat bait such as warfarin, which causes extensive internal bleeding, usually resulting in death.
There is a very poor chance of survival. Possums are also known to consume slug bait, which results in a prolonged painful death mainly from neurological effects. There is no treatment.
Small mammals can also be poisoned by insecticides. Possums, for example, can ingest these poisons when consuming fruit from a tree that has been sprayed with insecticide. Rescued by a WIRES carer, the brushtail possum joey pictured below was suffering from suspected insecticide poisoning. Though coughing up blood, luckily the joey did not ingest a lethal dose as he survived in care and was later released.
Despite their size, large mammals including wallabies, kangaroos and wombats can also fall victim to pesticide poisoning. Wallabies and kangaroos have been known to suffer from rodenticide poisoning, while poisons often ingested by wombats include rat bait from farm sheds, and sodium fluroacetate (1080) laid out to kill pests such as cats and foxes.
Australian mammals are also impacted by the use of insecticides. DDT, although a banned substance, has been reported as killing marsupials.
Birds have a high metabolic rate and therefore succumb quickly to poisons. Australian birds of prey – owls (such as the southern boobook) and diurnal raptors (such as kestrels) – can be killed by internal bleeding when they eat rodents that have ingested rat bait. A 2018 Western Australian study determined that 73% of southern boobook owls found dead or were found to have anticoagulant rodenticides in their systems, and that raptors with larger home ranges and more mammal-based diets may be at a greater risk of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure.
Insectivorous birds will often eat insects sprayed with insecticides, and a few different species of birds may be affected at the same time. Unfortunately little can be done and death most often results.
Organophosphates are the most widely used insecticide in Australia. Birds are very susceptible to organophosphates, which are nerve toxins that damage the nervous system, with poisoning occurring through the skin, inhalation, and ingestion. Organophosphates can cause secondary poisoning in wild birds which ingest sprayed insects. Often various species of insectivorous birds are affected at the same time as they come down to eat the dying insects. After a bird is poisoned, death usually occurs rapidly. Raptors have also been deliberately or inadvertently poisoned when organophosphates have been applied to a carcass to poison crows.
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent, bio-accumulative pesticides that include DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor and chlordane. OPC’s have been used extensively in the agriculture industry since the 1940s. Some of the more common product names include Hortico Dieldrin Dust, Shell Dieldrex and Yates Garden Dust. Although no OCP’s are currently registered for use in the home environment in Australia, many of these products still remain in use on farms, in business premises and households. OCP poisons remain highly toxic in the environment for many years impacting on humans, animals, birds and especially aquatic life. They can have serious short-term and long-term impacts at low concentrations. In addition, non-lethal effects such as immune system and reproductive damage of some of these pesticides may also be significant. Birds are particularly sensitive to these pesticides, and there have even been occasions where the deliberate poisoning of birds has occurred. Tawny frogmouths are most often poisoned with OCP’s. The poisons are stored in fat deposits and gradually increase over time. At times of food scarcity, or during any stressful period, such as breeding season or any changes to their environment, the fat stores are metabolised, and with it, the poison load in their blood streams reaches acute levels, causing death.
Although herbicides, or weed killers, are designed to kill plants, some are toxic to birds. Common herbicide glyphosate (Roundup) will cause severe eye irritation in birds if they come into contact with the spray. Herbicides also have the impact of removing food plants that birds, or their insect food supply, rely on. Birds can also readily fall victim to snail baits, either via primary or secondary poisoning.
Reptiles and Amphibians
As vertebrate species, reptiles and amphibians are also at risk of pesticides. Though less is known about the effects of pesticides on reptiles and amphibians, these animals have been known to fall victim to pesticide poisoning. Blue-tongue lizards, for example, often consume rat bait and die of internal bleeding. A 2018 Australian study also found that reptiles may be important vectors (transporters) of rodenticides in Australia.
How to keep pests away and keep wildlife safe
Remember, pesticides are formulated to be tasty and alluring to the target species, but other species find them enticing, too. It is safest for wildlife, pets and people for us to not use any pesticides, and prevent or deter the presence of pests practically, rather than attempt to eliminate them chemically.
Tips to prevent and deter wildlife deaths from poisoning:
- Deter rats and mice around your property by simply cleaning up; removing rubbish, keeping animal feed well contained and indoors, picking up fallen fruits and vegetation, and using chicken feeders removes potential food sources.
- Seal up holes and in your walls and roof to reduce the amount of rodent-friendly habitat in your house.
- Replace palms with native trees; palm trees are a favourite hideout for black rats, while native trees provide ideal habitat for native predators like owls and hawks which help to control rodent populations.
- Set traps with care in a safe, covered spot, away from the reach of children, pets and wildlife. Two of the most effective yet safe baits are peanut butter and pumpkin seeds.
- To control slugs, terracotta or ceramic plant pots can be placed upside down in the garden or aviary. Slugs and snails will seek the dark, damp area this creates, and can be collected daily. They can then be drowned in a jar of soapy water. You can also sink a jar or dish into the soil and fill it with beer. The slugs are attracted to the yeast in the beer, fall in and then drown.
If turning to pesticides as a last resort:
- Use only animal-safe slug baits.
- Place tamper-proof bait stations out of reach of wildlife.
- Avoid using loose whether pellets or poison grain, present the highest risk, the latter being particularly attractive to seed-eating birds and to many small mammal species.
- Read the label and use as instructed.
- Avoid products containing second generation products difenacoum, brodifacoum, bromadiolone and difethialone, which are long-lasting and much more likely to unintentionally poison wildlife via secondary poisoning.
- Cover individual fruits when spraying fruit trees with insecticides.
Poisons kill dogs too
Because of their poisonous nature, pesticides pose a risk to animals and people alike, including pets and children. Roaming pets like cats and dogs are most at risk of being poisoned, with one 2016 study at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences finding that one in five dogs had rat poison in its body, and a 2011 study by the Humane Society in the United States finding that 74% of their pet poisoning cases are due to second-generation anticoagulants such as rat baits.
It is best to avoid the use of all pesticides, or otherwise use them sparingly, carefully and only after researching each poison and its correct usage. Always supervise pets and children, keep poisons locked out of their reach, and be vigilant in public spaces where pesticides may have accumulated, e.g. poisons can accumulate in streams or puddles where herbicides have recently been sprayed.
If you suspect your pet has been poisoned, seek veterinary help immediately.
If you suspect your child or another adult has been poisoned, do not induce vomiting and call the NSW Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26 for 24/7 medical advice, Australia-wide.
Lohr, M. T. & Davis, R. A. 2018, Anticoagulant rodenticide use, non-target impacts and regulation: A case study from Australia, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 634, pp. 1372-1384.
Lohr, M. T. 2018, Anticoagulant rodenticide exposure in an Australian predatory bird increases with proximity to developed habitat, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 643, pp.134-144.
Lohr, M. T. 2018, Anticoagulant Rodenticides: Implications for Wildlife Rehabilitation, conference paper, Australian Wildlife Rehabiliation Conference, awrc.org.au
Olerud, S., Pedersen, J. & Kull, E. P. 2009, Prevalence of superwarfarins in dogs – a survey of background levels in liver samples of autopsied dogs. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, Department of Sports and Family Animal Medicine, Section for Small Animal Diseases.
Healthy Wildlife, Healthy Lives, 2017, Rodenticides and Wildlife, healthywildlife.com.au
Society for the Preservation of Raptors Inc. 2019, Raptor Fact Sheet: Eliminate Rats and Mice, Not Wildlife!, raptor.org.au/factsheetpests.pdf
W.I.R.E.S. Poisons and baits don't just kill rats.
Barking Owl (Ninox connivens connivens)- photo by Julie Edgley - this nocturnal animal will eat mice and so become a victim of poisons through them
Echidna season has begun. As cooler days approach, our beautiful echidnas are more active during the days as they come out to forage for food and find a mate. This sadly results in a HIGH number of vehicle hits.
What to do if you find an Echidna on the road?
- Safely remove the Echidna off the road (providing its safe to do so).
- Call Sydney Wildlife or WIRES
- Search the surrounding area for a puggle (baby echidna). The impact from a vehicle incident can cause a puggle to roll long distances from mum, so please search for these babies, they can look like a pinky-grey clump of clay
What to do if you find an echidna in your yard?
- Leave the Echidna alone, remove the threat (usually a family pet) and let the Echidna move away in it's own time. It will move along when it doesn't feel threatened.
If you find an injured echidna or one in an undesirable location, please call Sydney Wildlife on 9413 4300 for advice.
Lynleigh Greig, Sydney Wildlife, with a rescued echidna being returned to its home
Tiger Snakes Tell More About Local Wetlands’ Pollution Levels
June 2, 2020
Tiger snakes living in Perth's urban wetlands are accumulating toxic heavy metals in their livers, suggesting that their habitats -- critical, local ecosystems -- are contaminated and the species may be suffering as a result.
Lead researcher PhD Candidate Mr Damian Lettoof, from the Behavioural Ecology Lab in the School of Molecular and Life Sciences at Curtin University, said that not only were the snakes' livers shown to contain moderately high levels of heavy metals, but sediment samples taken from some of the wetlands sites were found to have amounts of arsenic, lead, mercury and selenium that exceed current government guidelines.
Lead researcher PhD Candidate Mr Damian Lettoof holding a tiger snake.
"Urban wetlands are almost always polluted, commonly from contaminated storm water, past or present dumping of waste, and spill events," Mr Lettoof said.
"Wetlands areas are usually situated at low points in the landscape, so unfortunately, a lot of urban run-off ends up in them. Generally speaking, the longer the wetland has been urbanised, the higher the levels of pollution.
"It's important to note that many heavy metals exist naturally in the wetlands sediment and surrounding rocks, in low concentrations, which may cause some heavy metals to leach in to the wetlands environment.
"However, the high concentrations of heavy metals we found in the snakes' livers and sediment samples suggest urbanisation and human-induced pollution are the cause, and consequently could be affecting local snake populations," Mr Lettoof said.
The study found the metal concentrations in the snake livers were collectively highest in Perth's most urbanised wetland: Herdsman Lake in the north western suburbs.
"Snakes tested from Herdsman Lake also had the highest concentration of the metal molybdenum ever reported in a terrestrial reptile, in the world," Mr Lettoof said.
"Continuous, chronic exposure to contaminants can have a range of impacts on the health and behaviour of animals. The contaminated populations could be suffering poorer health conditions, leading to shorter lifespans, higher predation, and ultimately, local extinction with cascading consequences such as reduced local biodiversity."
Collectively, Lake Joondalup had the lowest levels of metals. The researchers also analysed samples from Bibra Lake and Loch McNess in Yanchep National Park.
Tiger snakes are a top predator in the wetlands environment, and most likely have bioaccumulated the heavy metals through eating frogs, which are very sensitive to accumulating contaminants.
The Curtin University study was the first of its kind in Australia to show that snakes are a good bio-indicator of wetland contamination, and highlights the use of monitoring snake populations as an important indicator species of environmental health.
D. C. Lettoof, P. W. Bateman, F. Aubret, M. M. Gagnon. The Broad-Scale Analysis of Metals, Trace Elements, Organochlorine Pesticides and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wetlands Along an Urban Gradient, and the Use of a High Trophic Snake as a Bioindicator. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 2020; 78 (4): 631 DOI: 10.1007/s00244-020-00724-z
Sea Snakes Have Been Adapting To See Underwater For 15 Million Years
May 28, 2020
Sea snakes first entered the marine environment 15 million years ago and have been evolving ever since to survive in its changing light conditions, according to a new study.
Research led by the University of Plymouth (UK) has for the first time provided evidence of where, when and how frequently species have adapted their ability to see in colour.
It suggests sea snakes' vision has been modifying genetically over millions of generations, enabling them to adapt to new environments and meaning they can continue to see prey -- and predators -- deep below the sea surface.
In an unexpected twist, the study published in Current Biology also suggests that diving sea snakes actually share their adaptive properties not with other snakes or marine mammals, but with some fruit-eating primates.
The research was led by Dr Bruno Simões, Lecturer in Animal Biology at the University of Plymouth, and involved scientists from the UK, Australia, Denmark, Bangladesh and Canada.
Dr Simões, formerly a Marie Sk?odowska-Curie Global Fellow at the University of Bristol (UK) and University of Adelaide (Australia), said: "In the natural world, species obviously have to adapt as the environment around them changes. But to see such a rapid change in the sea snakes' vision over less than 15 million years is truly astonishing. The pace of diversification among sea snakes, compared to their terrestrial and amphibious relatives, is perhaps a demonstration of the immensely challenging environment they live in and the need for them to continue to adapt in order to survive.
"Our study also shows that snake and mammal vision has evolved very differently in the transition from land to sea. Sea snakes have retained or expanded their colour vision compared to their terrestrial relatives, whereas pinnipeds and cetaceans underwent a further reduction in the dimensions of their colour vision. This contrast is further evidence of the remarkable evolutionary diversity of snake eyesight."
In the study, scientists say that despite being descended from highly visual lizards, snakes have limited (often two-tone) colour vision, attributed to the dim-light lifestyle of their early snake ancestors.
However, the living species of front-fanged and venomous elapids are ecologically very diverse, with around 300 terrestrial species (such as cobras, coral snakes and taipans) and 63 fully marine sea snakes.
To try and establish how this diversity occurred, scientists analysed various species of terrestrial and sea snakes from sources including fieldwork in Asia and Australia and historical museum collections.
They investigated the evolution of spectral sensitivity in elapids by analysing their opsin genes (which produce visual pigments that are responsible for sensitivity to ultra-violet and visible light), retinal photoreceptors and eye lenses.
Their results showed that sea snakes had undergone rapid adaptive diversification of their visual pigments when compared with their terrestrial and amphibious relatives.
In one specific example, a particular lineage of sea snake had expanded its UV-Blue sensitivity. Sea snakes forage on the sea floor in depths exceeding 80 metres, yet must swim to the surface to breathe at least once every few hours. This expanded UV-Blue sensitivity helps the snakes to see in the variable light conditions of the ocean water column.
Also, most vertebrates have pairs of chromosomes resulting in two copies of the same genes. In some fruit-eating primates, the two copies might be slightly different (alleles) resulting in visual pigments with different spectral properties, expanding their colour vision. This study suggests that some sea snakes used the same mechanism to expand their underwater vision with both UV sensitive and blue-sensitive alleles.
Dr Kate Sanders, Associate Professor of the University of Adelaide and senior author, said: "Different alleles of the same gene can be used by organisms to adapt new environmental conditions. The ABO blood types in primates are a result of different alleles of the same gene. However, despite being very important for the adaptation of species this mechanism is still poorly reported. For vision, it has been only reported on the long-wavelength opsin of some primates but our study suggests an intriguing parallel with diving sea snakes."
Bruno F. Simões, David J. Gower, Arne R. Rasmussen, Mohammad A.R. Sarker, Gary C. Fry, Nicholas R. Casewell, Robert A. Harrison, Nathan S. Hart, Julian C. Partridge, David M. Hunt, Belinda S. Chang, Davide Pisani, Kate L. Sanders. Spectral Diversification and Trans-Species Allelic Polymorphism during the Land-to-Sea Transition in Snakes. Current Biology, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.061
New Shorebird Identification Booklet
The Migratory Shorebird Program has just released the third edition of its hugely popular Shorebird Identification Booklet. The team has thoroughly revised and updated this pocket-sized companion for all shorebird counters and interested birders, with lots of useful information on our most common shorebirds, key identification features, sighting distribution maps and short articles on some of BirdLife’s shorebird activities.
The booklet can be downloaded here in PDF file format: http://www.birdlife.org.au/documents/Shorebird_ID_Booklet_V3.pdf
Paper copies can be ordered as well, see http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/counter-resources for details.
Download BirdLife Australia's children’s education kit to help them learn more about our wading birdlife
Shorebirds are a group of wading birds that can be found feeding on swamps, tidal mudflats, estuaries, beaches and open country. For many people, shorebirds are just those brown birds feeding a long way out on the mud but they are actually a remarkably diverse collection of birds including stilts, sandpipers, snipe, curlews, godwits, plovers and oystercatchers. Each species is superbly adapted to suit its preferred habitat. The Red-necked Stint is as small as a sparrow, with relatively short legs and bill that it pecks food from the surface of the mud with, whereas the Eastern Curlew is over two feet long with a exceptionally long legs and a massively curved beak that it thrusts deep down into the mud to pull out crabs, worms and other creatures hidden below the surface.
Some shorebirds are fairly drab in plumage, especially when they are visiting Australia in their non-breeding season, but when they migrate to their Arctic nesting grounds, they develop a vibrant flush of bright colours to attract a mate. We have 37 types of shorebirds that annually migrate to Australia on some of the most lengthy and arduous journeys in the animal kingdom, but there are also 18 shorebirds that call Australia home all year round.
What all our shorebirds have in common—be they large or small, seasoned traveller or homebody, brightly coloured or in muted tones—is that each species needs adequate safe areas where they can successfully feed and breed.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is managed and supported by BirdLife Australia.
This project is supported by Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority and Hunter Local Land Services through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program. Funding from Helen Macpherson Smith Trust and Port Phillip Bay Fund is acknowledged.
The National Shorebird Monitoring Program is made possible with the help of over 1,600 volunteers working in coastal and inland habitats all over Australia.
The National Shorebird Monitoring program (started as the Shorebirds 2020 project initiated to re-invigorate monitoring around Australia) is raising awareness of how incredible shorebirds are, and actively engaging the community to participate in gathering information needed to conserve shorebirds.
In the short term, the destruction of tidal ecosystems will need to be stopped, and our program is designed to strengthen the case for protecting these important habitats.
In the long term, there will be a need to mitigate against the likely effects of climate change on a species that travels across the entire range of latitudes where impacts are likely.
The identification and protection of critical areas for shorebirds will need to continue in order to guard against the potential threats associated with habitats in close proximity to nearly half the human population.
Here in Australia, the place where these birds grow up and spend most of their lives, continued monitoring is necessary to inform the best management practice to maintain shorebird populations.
BirdLife Australia believe that we can help secure a brighter future for these remarkable birds by educating stakeholders, gathering information on how and why shorebird populations are changing, and working to grow the community of people who care about shorebirds.
To find out more visit: http://www.birdlife.org.au/projects/shorebirds-2020/shorebirds-2020-program
Bushcare In Pittwater
Where we work Which day What time
Angophora Reserve 3rd Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Dunes 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Avalon Golf Course 2nd Wednesday 3 - 5:30pm
Careel Creek 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Toongari Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon (8 - 11am in summer)
Bangalley Headland 2nd Sunday 9 to 12noon
Winnererremy Bay 4th Sunday 9 to 12noon
North Bilgola Beach 3rd Monday 9 - 12noon
Algona Reserve 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Plateau Park 1st Friday 8:30 - 11:30am
Browns Bay Reserve 1st Tuesday 9 - 12noon
McCarrs Creek Reserve Contact Bushcare Officer To be confirmed
Old Wharf Reserve 3rd Saturday 8 - 11am
Kundibah Reserve 4th Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Mona Vale Beach Basin 1st Saturday 8 - 11am
Mona Vale Dunes 2nd Saturday +3rd Thursday 8:30 - 11:30am
Bungan Beach 4th Sunday 9 - 12noon
Crescent Reserve 3rd Sunday 9 - 12noon
North Newport Beach 4th Saturday 8:30 - 11:30am
Porter Reserve 2nd Saturday 8 - 11am
Irrawong Reserve 2nd Saturday 2 - 5pm
North Palm Beach Dunes 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Catherine Park 2nd Sunday 10 - 12:30pm
Elizabeth Park 1st Saturday 9 - 12noon
Pathilda Reserve 3rd Saturday 9 - 12noon
Warriewood Wetlands 1st Sunday 8:30 - 11:30am
Norma Park 1st Friday 9 - 12noon
Coopers Point, Elvina Bay 2nd Sunday 10 - 1pm
Rocky Point, Elvina Bay 1st Monday 9 - 12noon
Gardens And Environment Groups And Organisations In Pittwater
Aussie Bread Tags Collection Points
NSWRL Return To Play Update
Manly Warringah Netball Association Presidents' Update
- Training can take place in groups of 10, as per the guidelines released two weeks ago.
- Training is NOT restricted to children. Players of all ages can train.
- Competitions for players aged 18 and under can commence on July 1st.
- There is no timeline for adult sport to restart in NSW as of today.
Who's This Girl? Why Is She On The Front Page This Week?
Check out this Issues' Aquatics Feature to find out!
Englishman In New York: Be Yourself No Matter What They Say
"Englishman in New York" is a song by English artist Sting, from his second studio album ...Nothing Like the Sun, released in October 1987. Branford Marsalis played soprano saxophone on the track, while the drums were played by Manu Katché and the percussion by Mino Cinelu.
The "Englishman" in question is the famous eccentric and gay icon Quentin Crisp. Sting wrote the song not long after Crisp moved from London to an apartment in the Bowery in Manhattan. Crisp had remarked jokingly to the musician "that he looked forward to receiving his naturalisation papers so that he could commit a crime and not be deported."
The video was shot in black-and-white and was directed by David Fincher, and featured scenes of Sting and his band in New York, as well as the elusive Quentin Crisp. At the end of the video, after the song fades, an elderly male voice says: "If I have an ambition other than a desire to be a chronic invalid, it would be to meet everybody in the world before I die... and I'm not doing badly." In 2011, the official video was replaced with a version without the male voice.
A favourite lyric for many of us 'oldies' from the song is ''Be Yourself No Matter What They Say'' which forms part of the ending chorus.
Yoga Keeps Seniors Forever Young
Tour From Space: Inside The SpaceX Crew Dragon Spacecraft On Its Way To The Space Station
Stay Healthy During The HSC
In any ‘normal’ year the HSC requires dedication and focus as well as the support of friends and family.
This year hasn’t exactly panned out to be a ‘normal’ year, with announcements about changes to the HSC due to COVID-19.
Despite all the goings-on, students across NSW are continuing to study for their HSC with focus and determination, and we at NESA are here to help.
This year we are partnering with mental health organisation ReachOut to deliver news, information, guidance and advice to support all HSC students.
You’ll hear from experts, teachers, parents and other students as well as some inspiring spokespeople. This year we are planning to lighten your mental load with practical tips and tricks for staying active, connected and in charge of your wellbeing.
ReachOut’s Study Hub has heaps of info about taking a proactive approach to your mental health or where to go if you need more support. ReachOut’s Forums are great for sharing what’s going on for you and get ideas about the best ways to feel happy and well.
So follow and use #StayHealthyHSC for regular health and wellbeing updates and information.
View our range of social media images, posters and flyer to help you get involved and share the Stay Healthy HSC message with your community.
BirdLife Australia 2020 Photo Comp
Young Writers' Competition 2020
Splash through puddles, hear a suspicious splash or have your face splashed across the news... How will you make a splash?
The Northern Beaches Young Writers' Competition 2020 is now open!
Write an original story using this year's theme word 'splash' for a chance to be published as an author in a library eBook.
The competition is open to students up to and including year 12 who live or go to school on the Northern Beaches and are members of the Northern Beaches library service.
How to enter:
Complete the online entry form and attach your story as a Word document. If your story is hand-written, then a clear, readable photo or scanned PDF can be submitted. All entries must be submitted by 8pm, Wednesday 10 June.
Not a member of the library? Don't worry, we will use this form to create a membership for you. Just mark 'no' under the library member field in the online form. If you are a member and unsure of your library card number, just mark 'yes' in the library member field in the online form and we will find your library membership number.
About the competition:
Entries will be judged according to characterisation, originality, plot and use of language and will be arranged into six different age group categories.
Winners from each category will have their stories published in an eBook that will be added to our collection.
For more information, please email our Library Programs team or call 9976 1739.
Want some inspiration? Check out the 2019 Young Writers' Competition winning entries in the eBook Wild.
Colouring-In Competition: 40th Anniversary Of Long Reef Aquatic Reserve
- First-place prize for each age category is a voucher for a Merlin annual pass valued at up to $500
- Second-place prize for each age category is a $250 voucher for Long Reef Surf shop.
- Third-place prize for each age category is a $100 voucher for art and craft supplies from Eckerleys.
- 4 to 6 years
- 7 to 9 years
- 10 to 12 years
Size : 696.482 Kb
Type : pdf
Curious Kids: Why Do We Burp?
Why do we burp? We sometimes also burp before meals, why does this happen? — Ahaana, age 7
A Translucent Butterfly: Greta Oto
Sydney Film Festival 2020 Features Two Macquarie University Filmmakers
COVID-19 Could Be A Seasonal Illness With Higher Risk In Winter
Atmospheric Scientists Identify Cleanest Air On Earth In First-Of-Its-Kind Study
Could You Be Missing Out On The $750 Stimulus Payment?
- be an Australian resident living in Australia
- have reached the pension age
- meet an income test
- not be receiving any payment from Veterans Affairs.
- adjusted taxable income
- a deemed amount from account-based income streams.
- $55,808 for singles
- $89,290 for couples
- $111,616 for couples who are separated by illness, respite care or prison.
New Virtual Hospital Model To Benefit Rural Patients And Medical Students
Sniffer Dogs Recruited To Detect Hidden Leaks In NSW
Our Response To COVID-19 Should Not Sponsor The Fossil Fuel Industry
Previously Claimed Memory Boosting Font 'Sans Forgetica' Does Not Actually Boost Memory
- Establishing the extent to which material written in Sans Forgetica feels difficult to process
- Comparing people's memory for information displayed in Sans Forgetica and Arial
- Analysing the extent to which Sans Forgetica boosted people's memory for information in educational text
- Testing people's understanding of concepts presented in either Sans Forgetica or Arial.
- Across the four experiments with 882 people, this scientific team found that in Experiment One, Sans Forgetica feels harder to read compared to Arial.
Disclaimer: These articles are not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of Pittwater Online News or its staff.