Inbox and Environment News: Issue 435

January 26 - February 1, 2020: Issue 435

Hot Days Forecast: Please Keep Your Bird Baths Topped Up Or Put Out Shallow Dishes Of Water In The Shade For Local Fauna

During this January break please be mindful of our local native animals and place shallow dishes in the shade with sticks or twigs to climb on. With BOM weather forecasts predicting soaring heat over the next few weeks we need to look out for and care for the original residents.

PNHA Bushcare Grants For Mona Vale Dunes And Avalon Golf Course: A Great Option For Duke Of Ed. 2020 Aspirants

In mid December 2019 the Pittwater Natural Heritage Association (PNHA) received a grant of $12 215 for bush regeneration on Mona Vale Dunes. This comes from the Federal electorates Communities Environment Program and will pay for contract bush regenerators to tackle more of the awful weeds on the dunes. Work will begin in February 2020. Northern Beaches Council will provide about 800 native plants to speed revegetation of the very degraded site. 

The grant is very welcome to the volunteers of the Mona Vale Bushcare group who have been planting and weeding on the dunes near the end of Golf Ave since 2005 and seen huge improvements. The Yellow area on photo shows where first work will begin. The volunteers have been working north of this area toward Golf Ave. All hands are welcome to join this bushcare group - they meet on the 2nd Saturday +3rd Thursday  each month  8:30 - 11:30am - they're morning teas have become the stuff of legends - find out more in: Mona Vale Beach Dunes Bushcare

Just before Christmas 2019 PNHA, on behalf of Avalon Preservation Association, received a very welcome grant of $10 000 for bush regeneration in the bushland of Avalon Golf Course.
Over 120 native species, including some unusual ones in the Pittwater area, grow on this land. The project will be managed in partnership with Northern Beaches Council; work will probably start in early February.  The grant comes from the Communities Environment Program, through the Federal Electorates. More hands are welcome here too, Duke of Ed. 2020 aspirants; maybe this could be for you?
Find out more in: Avalon Golf Course Bushcare

Photos: Flannel Flowers and the shrub Jacksonia scoparia, or Dogwood (from its strong odour when burning, not tested by us!!) - 

Narrabeen Beach & Lagoon Clean Up 2020

Sunday, January 26, 2020 at 10 AM – 12:15 PM
Hosted by Northern Beaches Clean Up Crew
Our clean ups are always the last Sunday of every month at 10am and our next clean up is in Narrabeen. All welcome to this family friendly event! (We just ask you to leave your political messages at home) The more the merrier. We start on time and clean for about an hour and then we count all the rubbish and submit the data o a marine debris research data base. We have gloves, bags and buckets. Do a good deed for the planet and make new friends at the same time. No need to bring anything but a smile! 

Avalon Boomerang Bags Summer Time 2020: Workshops Resume January 28th

Workshops resume for 2020:  Tuesday 28th January 11.30am - 3.30pm 

Avalon Recreation Centre  
Come for an hour or more, there plenty of cutting, pinning, ironing and of course sewing. Enjoy a cuppa and fabulous company 

Warriewood Wetlands Twilight Walk

Hosted by Dragonfly Environmental
Sunday February 2nd, 2020 at 6:30 PM – 8:30 PM
Katoa Close, North Narrabeen 

Details: It is a magical time of the evening to listen and watch Warriewood Wetlands come alive as the sun sets and the creatures of the night come out to play.
Geraldene Dalby-Ball, one of Australia's leading experts in ecological restoration, will be guiding you through the underground and freshwater systems of the wetlands whilst sharing her knowledge from the Original Peoples of Australia.It will be an evening not to miss.

This is a free event and suitable for all ages.
Pack a water bottle and feel free to bring your camera and binoculars. Meet at Katoa Close at 6.15pm to start the walk at 6.30pm.  
Please respond HERE to let them know you're coming.

Save The Northern Beaches From Blasting And Drilling For Gas Event In Manly: Zali Steggal MP & Abigail Boyd MP Speakers

Hosted by Save Our Coast / Stop Seismic Testing
Sunday February 2nd, 2020
At Manly Town Hall

UPDATE: ZALI STEGGAL MP and ABIGAIL BOYD MP as guest speakers!  

An afternoon of Information, inspiring speakers and a free film screening, to save our coast, save our climate and save the Australia we all love.   

In the wake of the catastrophic fires that have decimated wildlife, instead of plans to reduce emissions to protect climate, plans are afoot for devastating seismic blasting and drilling for gas within PEP 11 (Petroleum Exploration Permit 11 - 4,500 square km of ocean from Manly to Newcastle).  Blasting and drilling for fossil fuels off our beautiful coast in a climate emergency? Further damage to our climate, increasing bushfire risk,  harming marine animals and risking destroying our coast that we all share a deep connection to?  

As extreme weather caused by climate damage exacerbates drought, rises temperatures and worsens bushfires, please join us in the spirit of hope, for a Sunday afternoon of information and community action to help us Save Our Coast, save our climate and save the Australia we all love. (cuppa and cake provided)

Sunday 4th February 2020
3pm - 4.30pm 
Manly Town Hall
1 Belgrave St
Manly NSW 2095

Friends Of Narrabeen Lagoon February 2020 Forum - Catchment Secrets Of Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment: Discoveries So Far In The 21st Century

Next Forum: 7pm Monday Feb 24, 2020
Coastal Environment Centre, Pelican Path
Lake Park Road, Narrabeen
Catchment Secrets of Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment: Discoveries so far in the 21st Century
Speaker: Jayden Walsh

Jayden is always inspiring, telling us about finding various creatures in the wild. He will describe and show images of some of the very special wildlife that is in the catchment of Narrabeen Lagoon, especially recent sightings.

As of the time of writing this, bushfire has not impacted the catchment. Here’s hoping this remains the case for the sake of the wildlife.  Check that February 24 is in your diary and, so that you don’t miss out, book your ticket early by emailing Judith Bennett

Night time Wildlife Walk
Jayden Walsh is offering a special guided night walk at Katoa close from 7:30 to 9:30pm on Friday, the 28th February, at Warriewood Wetlands to meet some of the creatures that he will talk about on the previous Monday. (See item above bout the Forum.)
Bookings essential:

Friends Of Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment: Bushwalks 2020

Sat 8/2/ 2020 Walk & Weed. 
If dry conditions: Meet 7.30am at Deep Creek near dog training area; walk 1hr next to Deep Creek and contributory creek. Weeding (2hrs):small leaved privet, Crofton weed, Ludwigia peruviana and possibly some grass. Walk back and finish at 11:30am.
If wet, but not too wet: Terrey Hills to Morgan Road, with some weeding along  5 Mile Creek track. 

Sun 1/3/2020 walk & plant identification
Meet 8am near 27 Morgan Rd for Narrabeen Lagoon Catchment Transverse.
Carpooling required as we finish at Deep Creek.

Sun 26/4/2020 Cromer Circle
Cromer Circle with 1 hr for weeding grasses along the track of Aboriginal carvings. Fabulous views over the lagoon and its valleys, and viewing of carvings.
10am - 3pm. Limited numbers.

Sat 23/5/2020 Explorative Walk
9am explorative walk from Morgan Rd to N/W catchment corner.

Sun 21/6/2020 walk & weed.
Meet 9am at Deep Creek near dog training area; walk 1hr next to Deep Creek and contributory creek. Weeding 1hr—crofton weed, Ludwigia peruviana etc. Continue walk to Baha'i temple and carpool back ~ 2pm.

PNB 1st Meeting For 2020: Habitat Protection 

Thursday, February 27, 2020: 7:30pm – 9:00pm
Transhed Art and Community Centre
1395 Pittwater Road, Narrabeen
Our first meeting of 2020 focuses on protecting our bushland, eco-systems and habitats.

Permaculture Northern Beaches (PNB) is an active local group based on Sydney's Northern Beaches. We are an independent organisation registered as an association in NSW.

PNB hold monthly permaculture related events on the last Thursday of each month at the Tramshed Community Arts Centre, Lakeview Room, 1395A Pittwater Road, Narrabeen. Buses stop directly at the Centre and there is also car parking. Doors open at 7:15 pm. Meetings are February to November.

Bushcare In Pittwater 

For further information or to confirm the meeting details for below groups, please contact Council's Bushcare Officer on 9970 1367

Where we work                      Which day                              What time 

Angophora Reserve             3rd Sunday                         8:30 - 11:30am 
Avalon Dunes                        1st Sunday                         8:30 - 11:30am 
Avalon Golf Course              2nd Wednesday                 3 - 5:30pm 
Careel Creek                         4th Saturday                      8:30 - 11:30am 
Toongari Reserve                 3rd Saturday                      9 - 12noon (8 - 11am in summer) 
Bangalley Headland            2nd Sunday                         9 to 12noon 

Winnererremy Bay                 4th Sunday                        9 to 12noon 

North Bilgola Beach              3rd Monday                        9 - 12noon 
Algona Reserve                     1st Saturday                       9 - 12noon 
Plateau Park                          1st Friday                            8:30 - 11:30am 

Church Point     
Browns Bay Reserve             1st Tuesday                        9 - 12noon 
McCarrs Creek Reserve       Contact Bushcare Officer     To be confirmed 

Old Wharf Reserve                 3rd Saturday                      8 - 11am 

Kundibah Reserve                   4th Sunday                       8:30 - 11:30am 

Mona Vale     
Mona Vale Beach Basin          1st Saturday                    8 - 11am 
Mona Vale Dunes                     2nd Saturday +3rd Thursday     8:30 - 11:30am 

Bungan Beach                          4th Sunday                      9 - 12noon 
Crescent Reserve                    3rd Sunday                      9 - 12noon 
North Newport Beach              4th Saturday                    8:30 - 11:30am 
Porter Reserve                          2nd Saturday                  8 - 11am 

North Narrabeen     
Irrawong Reserve                     2nd Saturday                   2 - 5pm 

Palm Beach     
North Palm Beach Dunes      3rd Saturday                    9 - 12noon 

Scotland Island     
Catherine Park                          2nd Sunday                     10 - 12:30pm 
Elizabeth Park                           1st Saturday                      9 - 12noon 
Pathilda Reserve                      3rd Saturday                      9 - 12noon 

Warriewood Wetlands             1st Sunday                         8:30 - 11:30am 

Whale Beach     
Norma Park                               1st Friday                            9 - 12noon 

Western Foreshores     
Coopers Point, Elvina Bay      2nd Sunday                        10 - 1pm 
Rocky Point, Elvina Bay           1st Monday                          9 - 12noon

Gardens And Environment Groups And Organisations In Pittwater

A Keynote Speech Delivered By HRH The Prince Of Wales At The World Economic Forum In Davos, Switzerland

Do we want to go down in history as the people who did nothing to bring the world back from the brink in time to restore the balance when we could have done? I don’t want to. And just think for a moment – what good is all the extra wealth in the world, gained from “business as usual”, if you can do nothing with it except watch it burn in catastrophic conditions?

January 22, 2020
Ladies and Gentlemen, I am most touched that Professor Klaus Schwab should have invited me to be with you as we mark the 50th Anniversary of the World Economic Forum and its mission to “improve the state of the world”. It is this mission, and the urgent need to shape the next fifty years, that has inspired me to be with you here today, after an absence of 30 years I hate to tell you.  

We are in the midst of a crisis that is now, I hope, well understood. Global warming, climate change, and the devastating loss of biodiversity are the greatest threats humanity has ever faced – and one largely of our own creation.    

I have dedicated much of my life to the restoration of harmony between humanity, Nature and the environment, and to the encouragement of corporate social and environmental responsibility. Quite frankly, it has been a bit of an uphill struggle. But, now, it is time to take it to the next level.  

In order to secure our future and to prosper, we need to evolve our economic model. Having been engaged in these issues since I suppose 1968, when I made my first speech on the environment, and having talked to countless experts across the globe over those decades, I have come to realize that it is not a lack of capital that is holding us back, but rather the way in which we deploy it. Therefore, to move forward, we need nothing short of a paradigm shift, one that inspires action at revolutionary levels and pace. With this in mind, I am delighted to be launching a Sustainable Markets Initiative, with the generous support of the World Economic Forum.

For me, Sustainable Markets offer a new systems-level framework which ground markets in a higher purpose mission – in other words, putting people and planet at the heart of global value creation.  

Sustainable markets generate long-term value through the balance of natural, social, human and financial capital. Systems-level change within sustainable markets is driven by consumer and investor demand, access to sustainable alternatives and an enhanced partnership between the public, private and philanthropic sectors. Sustainable markets can also inspire the technology, innovation and scale that we so urgently need.  

The past decade has shown us just how quickly industry transformation can happen when you reimagine and re-engineer the business model - we need only look to mobile technology, electric vehicles, the space industry, e-commerce and online streaming for inspiration. Looking forward, new employment opportunities, entire new industries and markets rooted in sustainability are within our grasp, with the potential for unprecedented economic growth.  

Changing our current trajectory will require bold and imaginative action, together with determination and decisive leadership. We all know the problem, and increasingly we agree on the direction. 2020 is the time for solutions and practical action. With our S.D.G. and Paris commitments in mind, - and the good news is that they are well within our reach if, Ladies and Gentlemen, we all pull together in a coordinated global initiative to tackle the greatest global threat - I would like to outline ten practical actions that will drive forward the sustainable markets approach.  

First of all - shifting our default setting to “sustainable”. For sustainable markets this means everyone in a leadership role putting genuine sustainability at the centre of our business models, our analysis, our decisions and our actions. In other words, put simply, we need to put Nature, and the protection of Nature’s capital – from which we draw an annual return – at the heart of how we operate. It also means further defining and developing the discipline and framework of sustainable markets and sustainable industries.

Second - outlining responsible transition pathways to decarbonize and move to net zero. It is time for businesses, industries and countries alike to design and implement how they will decarbonize and transition to net zero. Moving together, with clear roadmaps, will create efficiencies and economies of scale that will allow us to leapfrog our collective progress and accelerate our transition. A little competition in this area could go a long way.

Third - reimagining industries through the lens of sustainable markets. Using a sustainable markets framework, we have an incredible opportunity to create entirely new sustainable industries, products, services and supply chains, based on a circular bioeconomy, while in parallel helping to transition our existing systems. To do this we must look at our markets using a business model approach to revenue generation and system operations.

Fourth identifying game-changers and barriers to transition. We need to identify, showcase and invest in the game-changing technologies and solutions that are emerging around the world. To accelerate, we must also identify the barriers to progress, be it policy, regulation, infrastructure, investment or the wider enabling environment. Often, I have found, it is simply about bringing the right people together to help lift those roadblocks out of the way. This convening role is, I hope, at least one practical contribution my Sustainable Markets Initiative can make. Because it is only by seeking out these game-changers and barriers that we will be able to make tangible progress.

Fifth - reversing perverse subsidies and improving incentives for sustainable alternatives. To achieve scale within sustainable markets we must not be afraid to adapt our long-standing incentive structures if we are to reap the benefits afforded by a more sustainable world.  Re-orientating economic subsidies, financial incentives and regulations can have a dramatic and transformative effect on our market systems. It is time to level the playing field and to think about how we properly deploy taxes, policies and regulation in a way that catalyses sustainable markets. For instance, for many years I have tried to encourage the adoption of the “polluter pays” principle in order to provide the necessary incentives. Public policy, therefore, has a critical role to play.

Sixth - investing in STEM, innovation and R&D. Whether it is AI (where that does not seek to challenge or replace unique human characteristics and intuition), or indeed nuclear fusion, 3-D printing, energy storage, electric transportation, carbon capture, renewables or biotech. We are on the verge of catalytic breakthroughs that will alter our view of what is possible – and profitable – within the framework of a sustainable future. To move forward, we must acknowledge that sustainability and profitability are no longer mutually exclusive. Effective solutions must ensure that sustainable technologies and alternatives are competitively priced.

Seventh - investing in Nature as the true engine of our economy. Beyond major innovations and technologies, we must also look to invest in Nature-based solutions in sectors like agriculture, forestry and fisheries – indeed, for all the resources that we take from the Earth. Nature’s contribution to the global economy is estimated to be worth more than $125 trillion annually – greater than the entire world’s annual G.D.P., estimated at $85.91 Trillion in 2018. Building conservation and nature-based solutions into our asset base and supply chains can, therefore, offer significant economic growth opportunities for countries and businesses alike – including in areas such as the circular bioeconomy, ecotourism and green public infrastructure. If, Ladies and Gentlemen, we valued our natural capital properly (as I have been trying to say for quite a long time), our national and individual balance sheets might look very different indeed!

Eighth - adopting common metrics and standards. An increasing number of corporations are adopting E.S.G. methodologies and highlighting their S.D.G.-aligned investments. However, it is time to move to unified metrics and global standards. People want to trust that the goods and services they buy are socially, environmentally and ethically produced. Through new technologies we have the ability to tag, track and trace supply chains in unprecedented ways – so it is time to make this level of supply chain transparency the norm.   

Ninth - making the sustainable options the trusted and attainable options for consumers. With consumers controlling an estimated 60% of global G.D.P., people around the world have the power to drive the transformation to sustainable markets. Yet, we cannot expect consumers to make sustainable choices if these choices are not clearly laid before them. As consumers increasingly demand sustainable products, they deserve to be told more about product lifecycles, supply chains and production methods. For a transition to take place, being socially and environmentally conscious cannot only be for those who can afford it. If all the true costs are taken into account, being socially and environmentally responsible should be the least expensive option because it leaves the smallest footprint behind. We must communicate better with consumers about the sustainability of the goods, services and investments we offer.

Tenth - connecting investments to investables using platforms that can rapidly scale solutions. On every pressing issue we face, there are solutions that are not just available, but increasingly cost effective. At the same time there are trillions of dollars in sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, insurance, and asset portfolios looking for investible and sustainable projects with good long-term value and rates of return. It is time to align sustainable solutions with funding in a way that can transform the market place. This requires not only showcasing high potential investments, but that we reimagine financial analysis, structuring and models of return. 

Now if we all accept that a profitable, yet sustainable, future is the desired end state – the questions we must ask are: How quickly can we get there and who are the leaders who will drive us forward?

I submit that we are, in fact, far further ahead than we might think, making it critical that we leverage the vital work already underway. I would therefore like to highlight just a few examples to demonstrate that in nearly every industry we are seeing progress that we can build on.  

To start with, despite great efforts over the past 35 years, I have found that we could never convince financial and capital markets of the overwhelming need to invest in ways that truly benefit people and planet. Yet, in the last two or three years, we have seen a dramatic increase in sustainable investing. Investment managers frequently tell me that the demand for these investments far outstrip supply. At the same time, returns on sustainable investments are increasingly out-performing traditional portfolios.  

In the financial sector, many central banks and financial institutions have committed to integrating climate risk into stress-testing, supervision and disclosure. With this progress there are now growing calls from financial institutions and companies alike to make disclosure mandatory.  

In aviation, there are opportunities to develop commercially viable, hydrogen-powered and electric aircraft within the decade. In the interim, many in the industry are ready to adopt Sustainable Aviation Fuel made from waste material that can reduce carbon emissions - starting today. 

In shipping, the manufacturers of ship engines are proposing it may take two to three years to build engines that run on green ammonia and methanol made from solar and wind power. These ships could start operations in the middle of the decade and become the norm around 2030. This hasn’t all been certified and tested, but if the industry and the regulators make a real effort, we can make it work – creating a real tipping point.

In renewable energy, we are witnessing breakthroughs in the cost of solar that have the potential to revolutionise almost every industry. We are rapidly approaching a time when renewable energy will be an order of magnitude cheaper than fossil fuels. 

In carbon capture and storage, there are a growing number of initiatives that might just buy us vital time as we make our transition to sustainable markets and a net zero economy. 

In forestry, Ladies and Gentlemen, we can now transform wood, the most versatile natural material on the planet, into a new generation of wood-based products capable of offering alternatives to plastics, chemicals, textiles, transport and construction. Increasingly, we are seeing that the bioeconomy has the potential to ignite new industries and fuel sustainable markets – thus providing, at last, the economic incentive to value the vastly important eco-system services provided by the immense biodiversity and carbon-capture potential of restored and expanded forests, along with huge opportunities in integrated agro-forestry systems.  

When the right sustainable goods and services are developed, proved and affordable, the choice to adopt them will become obvious. Truly to seize these opportunities, we need to visualize the future and have the confidence to invest in it.  

If there is one critical lesson we have to learn from this crisis it is that Nature, Ladies and Gentlemen, is not a separate asset class. Nature is, in fact, the life blood of our financial markets and, as such, we must – rapidly – re-align our own economy to mimic Nature’s economy and work in harmony with it.

After nearly fifty years of trying to champion this cause, I cannot help but feel that, finally, we are ready to change our trajectory.  

For my part, I have made Sustainable Markets my priority for 2020 and actually beyond – for however long it takes. I have instructed my teams and my organisations similarly to align with this effort – and I expect them to contribute. With the stakes this high, I would challenge you to do the same.  

And, critically, we must foster innovation - and here, if you will allow me, I would like to acknowledge the new Earthshot initiative of my son, The Duke of Cambridge, which seems to me to extol the sort of horizon-lifting approach we need in order to give us hope.

Beginning here at Davos, and throughout the year – and in order to identify game-changers, investments and barriers to transition - I will be convening a broad range of industry and issue roundtables including, but not limited to: aviation; water; carbon capture and storage; shipping; forestry; plastics; financing; digital technology; the bioeconomy; nature-based solutions; renewable energy; batteries, storage and electric vehicles; fisheries; integrated healthcare; cement; steel; traceability and labelling; and agriculture – at the end of which I shall probably be dead. So Ladies and Gentlemen, as we look to design and create sustainable markets and industries, these roundtables will bring together system innovators, investors and decision-makers to start designing and charting the course.  

I believe profoundly in the critical importance, at this juncture, of forming an unprecedented global alliance of investors which can genuinely mobilise the kind of trillions of dollars needed to put our economy on the correct path. This would be the most dramatic act of responsible leadership ever seen by the global private sector and would at once provide a catalytic incentive for the public sector to follow.

With 2020 being seen as the “super year”, kick-starting a decade of action for people and planet, there is also an opportunity to bring sustainable markets into focus in each of this year’s major global meetings. While it will be a bit of a challenge for me to get to them all, I intend to do my utmost to ensure that the message of urgency, systemic change, collaboration and integration is heard. 

After all, Ladies and Gentlemen, do we want to go down in history as the people who did nothing to bring the world back from the brink in time to restore the balance when we could have done? I don’t want to. And just think for a moment – what good is all the extra wealth in the world, gained from “business as usual”, if you can do nothing with it except watch it burn in catastrophic conditions?

This is why I need your help, your ingenuity and your practical skills to ensure that the private sector leads the world out of the approaching catastrophe into which we have engineered ourselves.

It is my greatest possible hope that you will join me this year in accelerating the transition to sustainable markets and rapid decarbonisation – Ladies and Gentlemen, you all have a seat at the table as this must be the year that we put ourselves on the right track.  

Everything I have tried to do, and urge, over the past fifty years has been done with our children and grandchildren in mind, because I did not want to be accused by them of doing nothing except prevaricate and deny the problem. Now of course, they are accusing us of exactly that. Put yourselves in their position, Ladies and Gentlemen. We simply cannot waste any more time – the only limit is our willingness to act, and the time to act is now.

Thank you, Ladies and Gentlemen.

Photo:  H.R.H. The Prince of Wales, The Prince of Wales, speaking at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2020 in Davos-Klosters, Switzerland, 22 January. Congress Center - Congress Hall.
Copyright by World Economic Forum / Christian Clavadetscher

Grants Available To Reduce Climate Change Impacts

NSW Government
NSW communities are invited to apply for grants that will assist them reduce climate change impacts such as heatwaves, bush fires or floods.

The Increasing Resilience to Climate Change (IRCC) community grants program is providing $600,000 in the first round of grants. Grants between $10,000 and $30,000 are available for individual projects.

Community groups can partner with local councils in their applications for funding under the IRCC.

The grants are funded through the Climate Change Fund, which allows the NSW Government to better support the community in its response to the effects of climate change.

Environment Minister Matt Kean said these grants will help local communities plan, coordinate and take action to increase their resilience and adapt.

“IRCC grant funding has already benefited Western Sydney Regional Organisation of Councils for a cool suburbs rating tool and Bega Valley Shire Council to upgrade community halls to be more climate-resilient during extreme heat events,” Mr Kean said.

Apply for round one funding by 31 January 2020 HERE

Foundation For National Parks & Wildlife Community Conservation Grants Are Now Open For Applications

If you are working to preserve a piece of Australian cultural heritage, helping to restore a patch of habitat, connecting more people with our national parks or doing research on a threatened Aussie species you can apply for a Community Conservation Grant from the Foundation for National Parks & Wildlife.

“Organisations and individuals from all across Australia are eligible to receive funding through these grants” said Kylie Piper, Projects & Education Manager for the Foundation for National Parks & Wildlife. “We would love to get applications from every state so we can really understand the type of community conservation work that is happening and help fund essential projects that restore habitat and species, preserve our cultural treasures and improve our National Parks for everyone to enjoy”.

The small grants round will be open for applications from 14 December, 2019 until 14 February, 2020.

Key areas of focus for this year’s grants are:
  • Land and Water - Protection, restoration, rehabilitation and revegetation of degraded habitats to ensure their ability to sustain native species.
  • Threatened Species - Scientific research with tangible conservation outcomes and on-ground works to conserve Australia’s threatened species.
  • Cultural Heritage - Conserving and celebrating Australia’s cultural heritage as part of the gift we leave to future generations.
  • Parks for People - Improving National Park facilities for the enjoyment of all, to foster and encourage the appreciation of nature.
Applications for FNPW's Community Conservation Grants can now be made online and individuals, NGOs or government departments working in these areas are all encouraged to apply for funding for projects commencing in 2020.

For further information and to apply for a grant visit or contact the Foundation for National Parks & Wildlife on

Koala Sightings On The Central Coast

With all the fires that have destroyed much of the koala habitat in recent months it isn't surprising that there are more koala sightings in the Central Coast region. Koalas that survived the fires could be looking to migrate to forests that are remaining. The South Korean Government backed mining company KORES will be clearing a lot of this remaining bushland for the coal mine (Wallarah 2).

Rare koala sightings are being reported around Cedar Brush Creek in Yarramalong. Yarramalong resident Mark Davis has captured images of koalas at his Yarramalong property as recently as October 2019.
Central Coast environmentalist Jake Cassar said he had heard from Yarramalong locals that there had been many sightings over the past few years.

Yarramalong resident and environmental writer Libby Keating said koalas had been in and around Yarramalong since 2012/13.

“They have been here for a long time, they are in the high regions of the valley in the Cedar Brush Creek area,” she said. “People who are seeing them are on properties remote from the roads.”

Koalas have been thought to be extinct for decades on the Central Coast, however there have been a reported sightings in Mogo Creek and one in Rumbulara Reserve in Gosford.

In 2017, two koalas were captured on night-vision cameras in Dharug National Park. The park has since been decimated by the recent Three Mile bushfire which covers 45,944 hectares.

The recent images from Yarramalong have prompted Mr Cassar, the founding member of Coast Environmental Alliance (CEA), to continue calls for an urgent halt to the Wallarah 2 Coal Mine which is set to be built under the Yarramalong and Dooralong valleys.

CEA wants Federal Environment Minister, Sussan Ley, to step up and stop the Korean owned Wallarah 2 coal mine which is set to go ahead only five minutes from Wyong CBD. Conservationist and founding member of CEA, Jake Cassar, said “the discovery of a koala population so close to the proposed mine is not only a significant development, but should be considered a game changer”.

“Locals have told me that they have known about the koala colonies in the area for some time, but have kept quiet in order to protect them,” he said. “After this sighting only weeks ago, and in light of Wallarah 2 recently getting one of the final approvals, I spoke with some local residents who understand how important it is to make this knowledge public.

“With the Environment Minister recently stating that around 30 percent of our already dwindling koala populations have been lost to the fires, the survival of koalas should be a national priority. “The massive clearing of native forests in this area to establish the mine and to construct a new train line will be devastating to this koala colony, not to mention the impact on the water supply for over 200,000 Central Coast residents.

“Sensible Central Coast locals are not opposed to sustainable development, but a giant coal mine should not even be considered in the middle of a koala colony, right below our water catchment, and amidst this terrible drought and unprecedented bushfires. “Then, adding insult to injury, there’s the fact that over the 28 year life of this mine, 90 percent of the coal will be sent overseas.

“It just makes no sense that the government has given this the green light.”

Cassar said that unless the koala habitat was protected they would likely, in the not too distant future, become functionally extinct in the wild. “You don’t need to be a “greenie” or an activist type to want to protect these national treasures, you just need to have a brain and a heart,” he said. “Where there’s one koala, there are more.

“Our group has photographic evidence of koalas at Mangrove Mountain, the Watagan State Forest, and even in Gosford. “These populations, and others across the Central Coast, can play a vital role in the survival of this iconic Australian species. “The area around the mine site obviously has the exact Eucalyptus trees that these koalas rely on for their daily subsistence.

“The area to be mined may be one of the last bastions that can sustain this colony and it needs to be urgently protected before the mining company gets in and starts bulldozing.” Cassar said that Minister Ley recently asked for urgent koala habitat mapping to identify the worst affected areas from the recent bushfires in Queensland and Northern NSW.

“In Brisbane last week, Ms Ley met with a panel of federal and state bureaucrats to determine where to spend the $6M allocated in the May federal budget to protect koalas”, Cassar said.

“The government has the full power to gazette the surrounding Jilliby State Recreation area into the National Park, and in turn put a stop to this foreign monstrosity of a coal mine,” he said. “CEA is calling on our local, state and federal representatives and environmental advocacy groups to urgently contact Ms Ley to see that our local koala populations are not only destined to survive, but to thrive well into the future.”

Rain Enables Myall Lakes National Park To Reopen

January 20, 2020: NSW Government - Dept. of Environment
After being temporarily closed due to fire risk Myall Lakes National Park has reopened following recent widespread rainfall.
Campgrounds, day use areas, beaches and roads in the National Park are now accessible by the public.

Rainfall in the area since Thursday (Jan. 16th) has moderately alleviated the dry conditions in the national park reducing the immediate risk of bush fire.

All NPWS campgrounds, day use areas, 4WD beaches and roads in Myall Lakes National Park have re-opened.

NPWS managed roads, including Mungo Brush road and Violet Hill road, are now accessible.

Waterways are open and boat-based access to land is now permitted.

Tracks and trails located in Myall Lakes National Park are open except for:
  • the Mining Road fire trail
  • the Mungo walking track.
Despite the rain a park fire-ban remains in place.

During park fire ban periods, all campfire and solid fuel (wood, heat beads, charcoal, briquettes, hexamine) barbecues and stoves are prohibited. Fireworks are not permitted in the park.

For updates on alerts and closures for Myall Lakes National Park and other national parks in NSW visit National Parks and Wildlife Service. For up-to-date fire information, including on total fire bans (TOBANs) visit the NSW Rural Fire Service: Fires Near Me website and app. For full details and updates on all road closures check with Live Traffic NSW before travelling through any National Park and generally avoid driving in any bushland.

Phone enquiries: NPWS Manning Great Lakes Area office, (02) 6591 0300

National Parks And Wildlife Service Re-Opens Key Tourist Sites Over The Weekend

January 21, 2020
Key visitor attractions in the fire-affected Blue Mountain National Park and other key sites in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area have re-opened to help attract visitors back to the mountains.
Govetts Leap and Evans lookouts both in Blackheath, top attractions in Blue Mountains National Park are open along with other key lookouts, walking tracks, campsites and mountain bike routes.

National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) Blue Mountains Branch Director David Crust said now the rain has dampened fire activity the huge task of checking fire affected areas across the Blue Mountains World Heritage Area is underway to have them reopen as quickly as it is safe to do so.

"With hundreds of kilometres of walking tracks and fire trails to be checked, we have prioritised high visitation areas," Mr Crust said.

"Before areas can be opened NPWS crews need to check fire affected areas for dangerous trees that can fall or drop limbs at any time.

"There may be trees, branches and debris on tracks or trails and infrastructure such as steps or hand-rails may be damaged.

"Visitors should only enter areas that have been re-opened, which is why it is so important for us to ensure visitors' favourite spots are open as quickly as possible.

"Visitors are reminded to be aware that even though tracks have been cleared of fallen trees and re-opened, there may still be a risk of falling branches or trees especially in windy weather. Please stay alert on newly opened tracks.

"The NPWS is encouraging visitors back to NSW's most visited national park."

"A great way to help the local businesses is to book an experience with one of our Park Eco Pass licensed operators," Mr Crust said.

Key sites in Blue Mountains National Park now open, include:
  • Govetts Leap lookout and the Blue Mountains Heritage Centre
  • Fairfax Track
  • Evans Leap lookout
  • Katoomba, Leura and Wentworth Falls walking tracks including Federal Pass between Scenic World and Fern Bower
  • Empress Falls and canyon
  • Glenbrook precinct and the Euroka campground
  • Victoria Falls Road fire trail
  • Faulconbridge Point
  • Blue Gum Swamp
  • Ingar and Murphys Glen campgrounds
  • Woodford-Oaks track
  • Narrow Neck (Glenraphael Drive as far as the locked gate only – not safe beyond this point)
  • Braeside fire trail (not walk)
  • Nellies Glen
Other areas to be opened soon include:
  • Grand Canyon walk
  • Clifftop walks between Evans, Govetts and Pulpit Rock including Braeside walk and fire trail
  • Burramoko (Hanging Rock) fire trail
Other areas of the Blue Mountains will continue to be assessed over the coming months.

Please check Alerts for NSW National Parks for up to date information on what is open or closed. You can also call 13000 PARKS

National Parks Reopen In Time For Australia Day Weekend

January 23, 2020
The National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) is pleased to announce the reopening of large sections of Bald Rock and Boonoo Boonoo National Parks along with several other locations being opened in time for the Australia Day long weekend.
A full list of reopening parks include:
  • Bald Rock National Park (sections reopening)
  • Boonoo Boonoo National Park (sections reopening)
  • Kwiambal National Park
  • Basket Swamp National Park
  • Kings Plain National Park
  • Mount MacKenzie Nature Reserve
  • Little Llangothlin Nature Reserve
NPWS Area Manager, Darren Pitt said some of these locations have been closed for some time and we are delighted to reopen them to the public to appreciate once more.

“Residents should be aware that the landscapes may look different to what they expect and signage within some national parks may be missing. Therefore, we ask visitors to remain on known walking tracks.”

“Our NPWS staff in the region are working tirelessly to ensure areas can be reopened as soon as possible.”

“The safety of our visitor is paramount and therefore in the coming weeks and months, we will continue to review our park closures and visitor safety”.

In the meantime, please abide by the existing park closure as they are there for your own safety,” Mr Pitt said.

People wanting to visit these, or any other national parks should check the National Parks and Wildlife Service website for the latest updates and safety advice.

Conservation Scientists Are Grieving After The Bushfires – But We Must Not Give Up

January 21, 2020
Stephen Garnett - Professor of Conservation and Sustainable Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University
Brendan Wintle - Professor Conservation Ecology, University of Melbourne
David Lindenmayer - Professor, The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University
John Woinarski - Professor (conservation biology), Charles Darwin University
Martine Maron - ARC Future Fellow and Professor of Environmental Management, The University of Queensland
Sarah Legge - Professor, Australian National University

That a billion animals may die as a result of this summer’s fires has horrified the world. For many conservation biologists and land managers, however, the unprecedented extent and ferocity of the fires has incinerated much more than koalas and their kin.

The scale of the destruction has challenged what is fundamentally an optimistic worldview held by conservationists: that with sufficient time and money, every species threatened by Australia’s 250 years of colonial transformation cannot just be saved from extinction, but can flourish once again.

The nation’s silent, apocalyptic firescapes have left many conservation biologists grieving – for the animals, the species, their optimism, and for some, lifetimes of diligent work.

So many of us are wondering: have lives spent furthering conservation been wasted? Should we give up on conservation work, when destruction can be wrought on the environment at such unprecedented scales?

The answer is, simply, no.

Acknowledge the grief
Federal government figures released on Monday showed more than half of the area occupied by about 115 threatened species has been affected by fire. Some of these species will now be at significantly greater threat of extinction. They include the long-footed potoroo, Kangaroo Island’s glossy black-cockatoo and the East Lynne midge orchid.

Some field ecologists lost study populations of species that had been researched and monitored for decades. Anecdotally, the fires have affected the best known population of the northern corroboree frog. Others lost substantial amounts of field equipment such as long-established automatic cameras needed to monitor wildlife responses to fire.

Of course, action is an effective therapy for grief. There is plenty to do: assess the extent of damage, find and nurture the unburned fragments, feed the survivors, and limit further damage to burned but recovering areas of native vegetation.

The official recovery response has been swift. Victoria, New South Wales and now the Commonwealth have all issued clear statements about what’s happened and how they’re responding. The determination and unity among government agencies, researchers and conservation groups has been remarkable.

However, busyness may just be postponing the grief. Many universities have rightly offered counselling to affected staff – as, presumably, have other institutions. Many researchers are bereft and questioning their chosen vocation.

But as we grieve, we must also remember that decades of conservation work has not been in vain. Some populations and species may indeed have been lost in the recent fires – we shall not know until long after the smoke clears. But the conservation efforts of the past mean fewer species have been lost than would have been the case otherwise.

Focus on survivors
Take the subspecies of glossy black cockatoos endemic to Kangaroo Island. Up to 80% of the area the cockatoos occupy has been burnt – but some survivors have been sighted.

Decades of work by researchers, conservation managers and the community had reportedly brought the cockatoos’ numbers from about 150 to 400. Without this extraordinary effort, there would have been no cockatoos to worry about during these fires, no knowledge of how to help survivors and no community of cockatoo lovers to pick up the work again.

Or take the southern corroboree frog. At Melbourne Zoo, a giant black and yellow frog guards the entrance to a facility where the species is being bred for release. This success is the result of decades of research into this highly imperilled species.
The captive colony was established exactly because a catastrophic event could overwhelm the species in the wild. This fire season is the latest in a sequence of existential threats.

This hard-won knowledge of threats is also improving the nature and speed of fire response. For example, there is now far greater awareness of the damage introduced predators can wreak, especially after severe fires when animals are exposed and vulnerable in a burnt landscape. Control of feral cats and foxes will be critical. Effective fox control immediately following fires in 2003 was likely to have been critical in the persistence and then recovery of the endangered Eastern Bristlebird.

Introduced herbivores such as deer and horses will remove food resources for native herbivores, damage fire-sensitive soils, and weeds will take advantage of the cleared ground. Managing these threats at large scale soon after fires have been extinguished will be needed.

Outside the fire zones
The conservation focus of late has, understandably, been on areas burnt. But it is also critical to continue conservation efforts away from the fire zones.

A recent analysis of the 20 species of mammals and birds most likely to become extinct in the next 20 years showed they are scattered across the
country, mostly in places far from those recently burnt.

The bushfires require large-scale urgent action. But we must not withdraw attention and resources from species elsewhere that need saving. If anything, now we know the unprecedented scale of threats such as fire, more conservation funds are required across the board to prepare for similar events.

We must not give up
Biodiversity loss is mounting across the world. If this generation is to pass on its biological inheritance to the next, more conservation science and management is urgently needed.

History does not have to repeat itself. Conservation programs have been severely set back, and people are right to mourn the severe impacts on biodiversity. But they should also take solace that their earlier efforts have not been wasted, and should recommit to the fight for recovery.

In future fire seasons, the emergency response is likely to be better prepared to protect natural assets, as well as life and property. For example, the extraordinary emergency operation to protect the Wollemi pine in NSW could be carried out for multiple species.

Those involved in conservation should lose neither hope nor ambition. We should learn from these fires and ensure that losses are fewer next time.

Many of our plants and animals have adapted to fires, but now the fires are changing

Eucalypt seeds don’t fall far from the tree, meaning repopulating large areas of forest will be difficult. from
Cris BrackAustralian National University

Australia is a land that has known fire. Our diverse plant and animal species have become accustomed to life with fire, and in fact some require it to procreate.

But in recent decades the pattern of fires – also known as the fire regime – is changing. Individual fires are increasingly hotter, more frequent, happening earlier in the season and covering larger areas with a uniform intensity. And these changes to the fire regime are occurring too fast for our native flora and fauna to adapt and survive.

Read more: Some say we've seen bushfires worse than this before. But they're ignoring a few key facts

Our Fire-Adapted Plants Are Suffering

Many of Australia’s iconic eucalypts are “shade intolerant” species that adapted to exist within a relatively harsh fire regime. These species thrive just after a major fire has cleared away the overstory and prepared an ash bed for their seeds to germinate.

Some of our most majestic trees, like the alpine ash, can only regenerate from seed. Those seeds germinate only on bare earth, where the leaf litter and shrubs have been burnt away.

But if fire is so frequent the trees haven’t matured enough to produce seed, or so intense it destroys the seeds present in the canopy and the ground, then even these fire-adapted species can fail.

The current fires are re-burning some forests that were burnt only a decade ago. Those regenerating trees are too young to survive, but also too young to have started developing seed.

With the disappearance of these tree species, other plants will fill the gap. Acacias (wattles) are potential successors as they mature much earlier than alpine ash. Our tall, majestic forests could easily turn into shrubby bushland with more frequent fires.

Wattles mature early and could take over Eucalypts. from

Even within a burnt area, there are usually some unburnt patches, which are highly valuable for many types of plants and animals. These patches include gullies and depressions, but sometimes are just lucky coincidences of the terrain and weather. The patches act as reserves of “seed trees” to provide regeneration opportunities.

Recent fires, burning in hotter and drier conditions, are tending to be severe over large areas with fewer unburnt patches. Without these patches, there are no trees in the fire zone to spread seeds for regeneration.

Eucalypt seed is small and without wings or other mechanisms to help the wind disperse it. Birds don’t generally disperse these seeds either. Eucalypt seed thus only falls within 100 - 200 metres of the parent tree. It may take many decades for trees to recolonise a large burnt area.

That means wind-blown or bird-dispersed seeds from other species may fully colonise the burnt area well before the Eucalypts. Unfortunately many of these windblown seeds will be weed species, such as African Love Grass, which may then cover the bare earth and exclude successful Eucalypt regeneration while potentially making fires even hotter and more frequent.

Animals Have Fewer Places To Hide

Young animals are significantly more vulnerable to disturbances such as fire than mature individuals. So the best time to give birth is a season when fire is rare.

Spring in the southern zones of Australia has, in the past, been wetter and largely free from highly destructive fires. Both flora and fauna species thus time their reproduction for this period. But as fire seasons lengthen and begin earlier in the year, vulnerable nestlings and babies die where they shelter or starve as the fires burn the fruits and seeds they eat.

Australian fauna have developed behaviours that help them survive fire, including moving towards gullies and depressions, climbing higher, or occupying hollows and burrows (even if not their own) when they sense fire.

Many native animals have learnt to sense fire and take cover, but with greater areas burning, there are fewer places to hide. from

But even these behaviours will fail if those refuges are uncharacteristically burning under hotter and drier conditions. Rainforest, marshes and the banks of watercourses were once safe refuges against fire, but we have seen these all burn in recent fires.

Read more: Animal response to a bushfire is astounding. These are the tricks they use to survive

What Can Be Done?

All aspects of fire regimes in Australia are clearly changing as a result of our heating and drying climate. But humans can have a deliberate effect, and have done so in the past.

Indigenous burning created a patchwork of burnt areas and impacted on the magnitude and frequency of fires over the landscape. These regular burns kept the understory under control, while the moderate intensity and patchiness allowed larger trees to survive.

Read more: There's no evidence 'greenies' block bushfire hazard reduction but here's a controlled burn idea worth trying

There have been repeated calls of late to reintroduce Indigenous burning practices in Australia. But this would be difficult over vast areas. It requires knowledgeable individuals to regularly walk through each forest to understand the forest dynamics at a very fine scale.

More importantly, our landscapes are now filled with dry fuel, and shrubs that act as “ladders” - quickly sending any fire into tree canopies to cause very destructive crown fires. Given these high fuel conditions along with their potentially dangerous distribution, there may be relatively few safe areas to reintroduce Indigenous burning.

The changed fire conditions still require active management of forests, with trained professionals on the ground. Refuges could be developed throughout forests to provide places where animals can shelter and from which trees can recolonise. Such refuges could be reintroduced by reducing forest biomass (or fuel) using small fires where feasible or by mechanical means.

A Kangaroo Island landscape devastated by fire. David Mariuz/AAP

Biomass collected by machines could be used to produce biochar or other useful products. Biochar could even be used to improve the soil damaged by the fires and excess ash.

Midstory species could be cut down to prevent the development of fire ladders to tree crowns. Even the overstory could be thinned to minimise the potential for crown fires. Seed could also be collected from thinned trees to provide an off-site bank as ecological insurance.

Such active management will not be cheap. But using machinery rather than fire could control biomass quantity and distribution in a much more precise way: leaving some biomass on the ground as habitat for insects and reptiles, and removing other patches to create safer refuges from the fires that will continue to come.The Conversation

Cris Brack, Associate Professor, Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

How an Aussie invention could soon cut 5% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions

Australian-designed technology will soon be responsible for 50% of all solar energy produced globally. Glenn Hunt/AAP
Andrew BlakersAustralian National University

In the 1980s, a global race was underway: to find a more efficient way of converting energy from the sun into electricity.

Some 30 years ago, our research team at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) came up with a breakthrough, called the PERC silicon solar cell. The cells have become the most widely deployed electricity generation technology in terms of capacity added globally each year – comfortably exceeding wind, coal, gas, hydro and others.

Read more: Curious Kids: how do solar panels work?

PERC stands for Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell. By the end of this year, PERC technology will be mitigating about 1% of global greenhouse gas emissions by displacing coal burning. Assuming that its rapid growth continues, it should be reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 5% by the mid-2020s and possibly much more in later years.

The terrible bushfires in Australia this summer, enhanced by the hottest and driest year on record in 2019, underline the need for urgent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. By far the most effective way is driving coal out of electricity systems through very rapid deployment of solar and wind.

Soon, our Aussie invention will be generating half the world’s solar power. It is a pertinent reminder of Australia’s capacity for finding transformative technical solutions to address climate change. But we need the right government support.

A solar farm near Canberra. Lukas Coch/AAP

An Aussie Invention

Solar cells convert sunlight directly into electricity without moving parts. More efficient solar cells generally produce cheaper electricity because fewer solar cells, glass covers, transport, land and support structures are needed for a given solar power output.

By the early 1980s, the best laboratory cells around the world had reached 17% efficiency. This means that 17% of the sunlight was converted to electricity, and the rest (83%) of the solar energy was lost (as heat).

During the 1980s, our research team at UNSW led by Martin Green and myself created a series of world-record-efficient silicon solar cells. We reported 18% efficiency in 1984, 19% efficiency also in 1984, and the important milestone of 20% efficiency in 1986.

Read more: Some good news for a change: Australia's greenhouse gas emissions are set to fall

In 1989 our group reported a new solar cell design called “PERC”, with a record efficiency of 22-23%.

This new, more efficient cell was better than the old ones because we eliminated some defects in the silicon crystal surface, which led to lower electronic losses. The PERC design also enabled us to capture the sunlight more effectively.

In the 1990s, further improvements to laboratory PERC cells were made at UNSW, leading to cells in the 24-25% efficiency range. The global silicon solar cell efficiency record remained at UNSW until recently.

There was a 25-year gap between development of the PERC cell and its rapid commercial adoption, which began in 2013. During this time, many people worked to adapt the PERC design to commercial production.

PERC cells are more efficient than previous commercial cells. Strong incentives for more efficient cells have recently arisen due to the continually falling share of cell costs as a proportion of total solar power system costs (including transport, land and mounting systems).

The Big Benefits Of Solar

Currently, solar power constitutes more than 40% of net new electricity generation capacity additions, with fossil, nuclear, wind, hydro and other renewables making up the balance.

Solar is growing faster than the other electricity generation technologies. Over time, as fossil-fuelled power stations are retired, solar (and wind) will dominate electricity production, with consequent large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.

Solar power has experienced sustained rapid exponential growth over decades, while other generation technologies are currently experiencing static, falling or negligible sales.

This year, enough PERC solar modules will be sold to generate 60-70 gigawatts of power. According to projections, PERC will reach three quarters of annual solar module sales in the mid-2020s, enough to match the generation capacity additions from all other technologies combined.

About A$50 billion worth of PERC modules have been sold to date. This is expected to reach several hundred billion Australian dollars later this decade.

Just Imagine

Australian emissions (excluding those from bushfires) are falling because we are installing solar and wind four times faster per capita than the EU, US, Japan and China.

Our position as a global leader in renewables installation is uncertain because the Renewable Energy Target, which was achieved in 2019, has not been extended.

Read more: Weather bureau says hottest, driest year on record led to extreme bushfire season

With supportive policy, such as facilitating more transmission to bring solar and wind power to the cities, Australia could greatly increase the speed at which wind and solar are deployed, yielding rapid and deep cuts at about zero-net cost.

Such policy would entail stronger and sustained government support for renewables deployment, and research and development of new technologies.

Renewables must replace polluting coal-fired power if the world is to tackle climate change. SASCHA STEINBACH/EPA

Looking Ahead

Solar energy is vast, ubiquitous and indefinitely sustainable. Simple calculations show that less than 1% of the world’s land area would be required to provide all of the world’s energy from solar power – much of it on building roofs, in deserts and floating on water bodies.

Solar systems use only very common materials (we could never run out), have minimal need for mining (about 1% of that needed for equivalent fossil or nuclear fuels), have minimal security and military risks (we will never go to war over solar access), cannot have significant accidents (unlike nuclear), and have minimal environmental impact over unlimited time scales.

Australia is making major contributions to mitigating climate change both through rapid deployment of wind and solar and technology development such as our PERC cells. But with better government support, much more can be done – quickly and at low cost.The Conversation

Andrew Blakers, Professor of Engineering, Australian National University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Aussie Bread Tags Collection Points

Collecting bread tags enables us to provide wheelchairs that change the life of disabled people in need, as well as keeping the tags out of landfill to help to preserve the environment. 

Bread Tags for Wheelchairs was started in South Africa in 2006 by Mary Honeybun. It is a community program where individuals and organisations collect bread tags, which are sold to recyclers. The money raised pays for wheelchairs for the less fortunate which are purchased through a local pharmacy. Currently about 500kg of bread tags are collected a month in South Africa, funding 2-3 wheelchairs.

We have been collecting bread tags nationally in Australia since September 2018 and now have more than 100 collection points across the country. In February 2019 we started local recycling through Transmutation - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in Robe, SA, where our tags are recycled into products such as door knobs and bowls. Tags from some states are still sent to South Africa where a plastics company called Zibo recycles them into seedling trays.

These humble bits of polystyrene can make a real difference so get your friends, family, school, workplace and church involved. Ask school tuck shops and boarding school kitchens, child care centres, aged care facilities, hospitals, cafes and fast food outlets to collect for you - they get through a lot of bread!

All the information and signage for collecting or setting up a public collection point is on our website.

Local Collectors
Lesley Flood
Please email for address -
Jodie Streckeisen
Please email for the address -

Back To School 2020: Have A Great Term 1!

The Old Bark School
by Henry Lawson
It was built of bark and poles, and the floor was full of holes
Where each leak in rainy weather made a pool;
And the walls were mostly cracks lined with calico and sacks –
There was little need for windows in the school.

Then we rode to school and back by the rugged gully-track,
On the old grey horse that carried three or four;
And he looked so very wise that he lit the master’s eyes
Every time he put his head in at the door.

He had run with Cobb and Co. – “that grey leader, let him go!”
There were men “as knowed the brand upon his hide”,
And “as knowed it on the course”. Funeral service: “Good old horse!”
When we burnt him in the gully where he died.

And the master thought the same. ‘Twas from Ireland that he came,
Where the tanks are full all summer, and the feed is simply grand;
And the joker then in vogue said his lessons wid a brogue –
‘Twas unconscious imitation, let the reader understand.

And we learnt the world in scraps from some ancient dingy maps
Long discarded by the public-schools in town;
And as nearly every book dated back to Captain Cook
Our geography was somewhat upside-down.

It was “in the book” and so – well, at that we’d let it go,
For we never would believe that print could lie;
And we all learnt pretty soon that when we came out at noon
“The sun is in the south part of the sky.”

And Ireland! that was known from the coast-line to Athlone:
We got little information re the land that gave us birth;
Save that Captain Cook was killed (and was very likely grilled)
And “the natives of New Holland are the lowest race on earth”.

And a woodcut, in its place, of the same degraded race
Seemed a lot more like a camel than the blackfellows that we knew;
Jimmy Bullock, with the rest, scratched his head and gave it best;
But his faith was sadly shaken by a bobtailed kangaroo.

But the old bark school is gone, and the spot it stood upon
Is a cattle-camp in winter where the curlew’s cry is heard;
There’s a brick school on the flat, but a schoolmate teaches that,
For, about the time they built it, our old master was “transferred”.

But the bark school comes again with exchanges ‘cross the plain –
With the Out-Back Advertiser; and my fancy roams at large
When I read of passing stock, of a western mob or flock,
With “James Bullock”, “Grey”, or “Henry Dale” in charge.

And I think how Jimmy went from the old bark school content,
With his “eddication” finished, with his pack-horse after him;
And perhaps if I were back I would take the self-same track,
For I wish my learning ended when the Master “finished” Jim.

Appears in: The Bulletin vol. 18 no. 901 22 May 1897 periodical issue pg. 28
Appears in: Verses, Popular and Humorous Henry Lawson,  Sydney London : Angus and Robertson Australian Book Co., 1900 selected work poetry pg. 216-219

NB: Henry Lawson (1867-1922), the man who would become one of Australia’s most famous and loved writers in fact only received three years of formal schooling. There wasn’t even a school when the Lawsons moved to Eurunderee – it was his mother, Louisa Lawson who pushed for one to be built. And even though young Henry only attended the Eurunderee Provisional School for a few years, he had a soft spot for the ‘old bark school’, writing about it, visiting it years later and even entering an impromptu poem in the visitors’ book. - State Library of New South Wales.

Photographs of Henry Lawson in North Sydney including his former residence, 1922 photographed by Phillip Harris- Henry Lawson talking to children. Image No.: a6161007h, courtesy State Library of NSW

‘What Subjects Do I Choose For My Last Years Of School?’

January 17, 2020 
The Conversation - I Need to Know, A Series for Teenagers
by Susanne Gannon: Associate Professor, Western Sydney University

We are being asked to do work experience this year, in a field we might like to work in. We are being asked to think about choosing electives that are directing us towards our career choices.

I have no idea what I want to do! I haven’t yet found anything I am particularly good at. I feel like I am being left behind. That others are making choices about their lives that I am not prepared for yet. Is this normal? - Lachlan, year 10

Key points
  • Many young people feel this way – it is normal!
  • locking yourself into one career path too early can be risky
  • it’s important to be flexible and learn transferable skills
  • ask lots of questions from people around you.
Hi Lachlan, many young people feel undecided about their career pathway. One study found around one in five teenagers were uncertain about a clear career goal.

The questions you ask are about more than just which subjects to choose in the last years of school. They point towards the bigger decision about what sort of person you want to become. And that is a big decision to make all at once.

Careers advisors, teachers and parents often talk about career choice as a matter of logical decision-making and planning, but it also involves feelings, imagination and knowledge about yourself and the world.

These are constantly evolving so it isn’t surprising you feel confused.

It’s important to be flexible
You say some of your friends already have clear ideas about their futures. But being too rigid can be just as risky as not having a decision. If you set your career sights too narrow, or too early, on just one type of career you might not have a back-up plan.

What happens if it doesn’t work out? Does that mean you will feel like a failure before you even start? You might miss out on possibilities that don’t fit that narrow vision but that might suit you perfectly.
Some research suggests today’s graduates will average five separate careers and around 17 different employers in their working life. This means an important skill these days is the ability to adapt.

The careers you have in the future might be quite different from each other, drawing on new skills and interests developed over time. Changes might happen because a workplace closes, or a new career becomes possible, or you want to move or develop a new interest.
So while having a good idea about you want to do will give you a goal to work towards, it is important to be flexible too. Think of plans as provisional. Be ready to adjust your thinking and recalibrate them as you get more experience.
  • Develop short-term, medium and long-term goals. You’ll find great resources to help with this at Headspace.

Learning your interests takes time
You say you don’t know what you’re good at yet. That’s OK too. Learning to recognise your skills, interests and values takes time. Talking to other people can help including friends, family, people you know through sport or other communities you are part of.

School subjects don’t test some of the important skills for a successful working life, such as the ability to get along with different people or flexible thinking, so you may not know you have them yet.

It is helpful to think about clusters of jobs that draw on similar sets of skills. Particular skills (such as attention to detail) or interests (such as working outdoors or caring for others) can translate from one area into another.

Work experience in customer service or retail sales will develop your skills in communicating with other people, being organised and understanding record-keeping. These are building blocks for success in many other careers.

Learning skills in one context that you can carry to a different one means you are adaptable – one of most important qualities for success. The more you can learn on the job, no matter which job it is, the better off you will be.

There are many pathways
Many young people may choose to pursue a career they already know. Perhaps a friend or family member already does this sort of work. That’s a great start but it can also be limiting.

Many careers have changed in recent years. Some are disappearing while new careers are always on the horizon, so going with something a parent does may not be suitable anymore. Some of the fastest growing career areas include the personal care (such as aged care), health and technology sectors.

Take every opportunity your school offers to explore the world of work. There might be industry tasters, VET immersion days, career expos or fairs, presentations, mentoring programs, workplace and university visits, or school-university partnership programs.

When it comes to subject selection, you might decide to combine vocational training with mainstream academic subjects that will help you work towards a university course.

Read more: Don't stress, your ATAR isn't the final call. There are many ways to get into university

There are also pathway courses and alternative entry programs into universities if you don’t quite get into what you want. There is no decision now that will lock you in to only one possibility for your future. Do stay at school though as that will set you up well for whatever comes in the future. Keep your options open.
  • My Future has fantastic resources including quizzes that will help learn more about what might suit you. You can also match up school subjects with career pathways.

Work experience is a good way to develop skills
The work experience you do at school need not match exactly what you will end up doing in the future, but it gives a great taste of full-time work.

Most young people find it is the most useful career related activity they do at school because it is hands on and puts them in direct contact with employers.

Try for something that draws on some of your current interests and skills, but remember this is an opportunity to try things out. A good report from an employer about your willingness to learn might be really helpful in lots of ways, including helping you get part-time work so you can continue to increase your experiences and responsibilities.


I Need to Know is The Conversations' series for teens in search of reliable, confidential advice about life’s tricky questions. Here are some questions we’ve already answered.

Watch Tim Minchin explain to students at his old university why “You don’t have to have a dream.”

Tim Minchin, the former UWA Arts student described as "sublimely talented, witty, smart and unabashedly offensive" in a musical career that has taken the world by storm, is awarded an honorary doctorate by The University of Western Australia.

The full transcript of Tim Minchin's address is available:

This address was given in 2013.

2020 Enrolled Nurse Scholarships Open

January 14, 2020
Aspiring nurses across NSW can now apply for the 2020 Enrolled Nurse Scholarships which cover course fees and guarantee a job upon completion. NSW Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officer said applications are now open for scholarships to study nursing at 24 campuses across the state, including seven in Sydney and 17 across every regional Local Health District.

“If you’re interested in a rewarding career as a nurse at one of our public health facilities or hospitals, don’t miss this incredible opportunity,” Ms Cross said.

“The scholarship includes course fees for a Diploma of Nursing and an opportunity to work as an Enrolled Nurse as part of our nursing team in NSW Health when you successfully complete the program.

“Our Enrolled Nurses work across a variety of NSW Health clinical settings including in acute medical and surgical units, operating theatres and mental health, caring for people when they need it most.

“We’re particularly encouraging Aboriginal people to apply for the scholarships, to build the Aboriginal workforce across NSW and improve local health outcomes.”

Ashley Gamble, a scholarship recipient who is now an Enrolled Nurse said her role is incredibly rewarding and she recommended the program to anyone interested in a career in nursing.

“I really love my role as an Enrolled Nurse. Every day you’re challenged, every day you’re learning, you’re surrounded by people that are so knowledgeable and who are just willing to teach you,” Ms Gamble said.

“It is the most rewarding experience you will ever have in your life.”

The NSW Government is investing $2.8 billion to recruit 8,300 extra frontline staff over the next four years, including an additional 5000 nurses and midwives.

The scholarships run in partnership with TAFE NSW and the NSW Health Registered Training Organisation. To be eligible you must be an Australian citizen or permanent resident living in NSW.

To apply, click hereApplications close on 19 February.

Discover Seven Worlds, One Planet In VR360

Published by BBC Earth, January 23rd, 2020
Immerse yourself in an incredible artist's visualisation of our seven continents. Best experienced with headphones and Google Cardboard, or a similar VR device.

Curious Kids: Why Does Reading In The Back Seat Make You Feel Sick?

January 16, 2020
Answered by Wayne Wilson, Associate Professor in Audiology, The University of Queensland

Why does reading in the back seat make you feel sick? – Jane, aged 10, from Coburg North, Australia.

Hi Jane, your question about why reading in the back seat makes you feel sick is a very good one. The answer has to do with our eyes, our ears and our brain.

Reading in the back seat can make you feel sick because your eyes and ears are having an argument that your brain is trying to settle!
When you’re reading in the back seat, your eyes see that your book is still. Your eyes then tell your brain you are still.

But your ears feel the car is moving. Your ears then tell your brain you’re moving.

How can your ears tell you’re moving?
Your ears don’t just hear, they help with your balance too.

Your ear has three main parts:
  • the outer ear is the bit you can see on the side of someone’s head
  • the middle ear is your eardrum and some tiny bones and muscles
  • the inner ear is the part of your ear that can help with your balance.

The ear includes more than what you see on the outside. sanjayart/Shutterstock

Your inner ear contains cells that have hairs sticking out the top. Scientists call these “hair cells”.

Some of these hair cells help us to hear. When sound hits those hair cells, the hairs move and the cells send signals to the brain. Our brains use those signals to hear.

Other hair cells help us to keep our balance. When the car we’re sitting in moves, that movement makes the hairs on those hair cells move too, and they send different signals to the brain. Our brain uses those different signals to tell we’re moving.

Why doesn’t the brain like this?
Some people’s brains don’t like it when their eyes say they’re still but their ears say they’re moving.

When eyes and ears argue like this, the brain can think that something dangerous might be about to happen.

If this happens, the brain can get the body ready to fight or run away (scientists call this the “fight or flight” response).

The conflict between our eyes and ears make the brain think something dangerous might happen. wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock

One of the things the brain can do is take blood away from the stomach to give to the muscles.

Giving blood to the muscles can help us to fight or run away. But taking blood away from the stomach can make us feel sick.

What can you do about it?
If reading in the back seat makes you feel sick, you might need to settle the argument between your eyes and your ears.

One way to do this is to stop reading and to look out the car window. This could help your eyes to tell your brain that you’re moving as you see the world whizz by, and your ears to tell your brain that you are moving as you feel the car moving.

But this suggestion won’t work for everyone. Some people will still feel sick when they ride in a car, even if they aren’t reading.

This is because while our eyes and our ears help us to balance, so do our skin and our muscles. This creates many opportunities for arguments that our brain has to settle!

Hello, curious kids! Have you got a question you’d like an expert to answer? Ask an adult to send your question to

This Curious Kids article originally was published in The Conversation. Read the original article here. Republished under Creative Commons licence.

Activation Of A Distinct Genetic Pathway Can Slow The Progress Of Metastatic Breast Cancer

January 17, 2020: La Trobe University
Metastasis, the spread of tumour cells to distant sites, is the major cause of death for people impacted by cancer. With no therapeutic cure available, it is clear that new treatments are needed urgently.

In a study published today in the international journal, Cancer Research a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, investigators at the Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute (the La Trobe University School of Cancer Medicine) have shown that when the protein bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) is switched off, breast cancer can become more aggressive. BMP4 is active during fetal development and is maintained during adulthood in some healthy organs, including the breast.

In this study, led by investigators Dr Bedrich Eckhardt (a Susan G Komen Postdoctoral Fellow) and Prof Robin Anderson (Head of the Translational Breast Cancer Program), it was hypothesised that restoring BMP4 activity would block the ability of breast tumours to metastasise.

"At its core, this study has demonstrated that high levels of the BMP4 protein in breast cancer patients is associated with better outcome, linked to a reduction in metastatic breast cancer," said Prof Anderson. "This is an exciting finding as there has been no reduction in the rates of mortality for people with metastatic breast cancer for over 20 years."

This translational research study revealed that levels of the BMP4 protein are often reduced in late stage breast cancer. But when BMP4 levels were restored in preclinical models of metastatic breast cancer, it could block distant metastasis in multiple organs including the lung and bone. These findings have been achieved through collaboration with researchers at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Fiona Stanley Hospital (University of Western Australia) and MD Anderson Cancer Center (University of Texas, USA).

"As part of the study, we were able to demonstrate how BMP4 activates cellular pathways to block the ability of tumour cells to metastasise," Dr Eckhardt explains, "and importantly show that key proteins induced by BMP4 are critical to block metastasis by reducing the number of circulating tumour cells within the blood."

While the ultimate aim is to bring a new therapy into the clinic through clinical trials, the next phase of research will focus on finding a compound that mimics the anti-metastatic actions of BMP4.

"A current challenge is that BMP4 protein has an active half-life of only 15 minutes or less in the body after administration, so it is not a practical long-term therapy," said Prof Anderson. "We will now focus on finding a more therapeutically viable way of mimicking the action of BMP4 in vivo as a new lead therapy for patients with metastatic breast cancer," said Prof Anderson.

Bedrich L. Eckhardt, Yuan Cao, Andrew D Redfern, Lap Hing Chi, Allan D Burrows, Suraya Roslan, Erica K. Sloan, Belinda S. Parker, Sherene Loi, Naoto T. Ueno, Peter K. H. Lau, Bruce Latham, Robin L Anderson. Activation of canonical BMP4-SMAD7 signaling suppresses breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Research, 2020; canres.0743.2019 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0743

Long Hours Double Junior Doctors' Risk Of Mental Illness And Suicide

January 22, 2020: Black Dog Institute
Junior doctors who work more than 55 hours a week are at a greater risk of developing mental health problems and experiencing suicidal ideation.

More than a quarter of junior doctors (JDs) are working unsafe hours that double their risk of developing mental health problems and suicidal ideation, according to Australian-first research led by the Black Dog Institute and UNSW Sydney.

Published today in BMJ Open, the results reveal a link between long working hours and poorer mental health amongst doctors-in-training, highlighting the need for workplace improvements to help protect their health and wellbeing.

The findings come as the issue of junior doctor suicide and burnout remain in the public spotlight, amidst greater scrutiny of their work and training conditions.

“Long working hours have been par for the course in the culture of medical training for decades, and we’re now starting to understand the human cost behind these excessive workloads,” said co-author Associate Professor Samuel Harvey, Chief Psychiatrist at the Black Dog Institute.

“Pressure on JDs to ‘earn their stripes’ by taking on long work hours has always been common, but what we now know is that this can have profound mental health impacts, with concerning implications for both the individual doctors and our broader health system.” 

The study examined the Beyond Blue National Mental Health Survey (2013) comprising questionnaire data from more than 12,250 Australian doctors, the largest and most recent national figures on mental health outcomes in doctors available.

Assessing the survey’s responses from 2,706 full-time graduate medical trainees in various specialties, researchers identified the number of JDs who met the criteria for common mental disorder (CMD) – such as depression and anxiety – as well as those who reported experiencing suicidal ideation in the last 12 months. 

Once a JD worked more than 55 hours each week, their chance of CMD and suicidal ideation doubled, compared to doctors-in-training who worked fewer hours (between 40-44 hours per week). This association remained regardless of age, gender, level of training, location, marital status and whether the JD was trained overseas or locally. 

A quarter (25.3%) of JDs in the research sample from 2013 worked more than 55 hours per week, suggesting a considerable proportion of this workforce may be at significant risk of poor mental health and suicidality. The latest Australian Medical Association (AMA) survey of doctors’ working hours from 2016 shows that this pattern is ongoing. 

Researchers warn that simply restricting JDs’ working hours without any changes to staff numbers or work planning may be ineffective, as this could increase workloads within shifts or lead to more unpaid or unrostered overtime.

“Ideally, the optimal solution would include increasing the efficiency of the work environment to reduce the workload of JDs, implementing kinder rostering and work practices as well as ensuring adequate staffing to reduce total hours per JD”, the authors note.

“While working hours are a key contributor to JDs’ overall wellbeing, their complex working environments mean this measure shouldn’t be considered in isolation,” said lead author Katherine Petrie from the Workplace Mental Health Research Program at UNSW and the Black Dog Institute. 

“Further research should take account of other factors like fatigue, sleep deprivation, conflicts between work and home life, organisational-level workplace stressors as well as broader regulatory practices.”

This study was led by Black Dog Institute and UNSW Sydney, in collaboration with Deakin University, University of Melbourne, St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne and Alfred Health (Victoria). Katherine Petrie, the lead author, is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. 

If you are experiencing distress and need support, you can contact:

For Youth:
Kids Helpline: 1800 551 800
Headspace: 1800 650 890

For Adults:
Lifeline: 13 11 14
Beyond Blue:1300 22 46 36.
Suicide Callback Service: 1300 659 467
MensLine Australia: 1300 789 978

W.A.: Earth's Oldest Asteroid Strike Linked To 'Big Thaw'

January 22, 2020: Curtin University
Curtin University scientists have discovered Earth's oldest asteroid strike occurred at Yarrabubba, in outback Western Australia, and coincided with the end of a global deep freeze known as a Snowball Earth.

Zircon crystal used to date the Yarrabubba impact. Image: Curtin University, W.A.

The research, published in the leading journal Nature Communications, used isotopic analysis of minerals to calculate the precise age of the Yarrabubba crater for the first time, putting it at 2.229 billion years old -- making it 200 million years older than the next oldest impact.

Lead author Dr Timmons Erickson, from Curtin's School of Earth and Planetary Sciences and NASA's Johnson Space Center, together with a team including Professor Chris Kirkland, Associate Professor Nicholas Timms and Senior Research Fellow Dr Aaron Cavosie, all from Curtin's School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, analysed the minerals zircon and monazite that were 'shock recrystallised' by the asteroid strike, at the base of the eroded crater to determine the exact age of Yarrabubba.

The team inferred that the impact may have occurred into an ice-covered landscape, vaporised a large volume of ice into the atmosphere, and produced a 70km diameter crater in the rocks beneath.

Professor Kirkland said the timing raised the possibility that the Earth's oldest asteroid impact may have helped lift the planet out of a deep freeze.

"Yarrabubba, which sits between Sandstone and Meekatharra in central WA, had been recognised as an impact structure for many years, but its age wasn't well determined," Professor Kirkland said.

"Now we know the Yarrabubba crater was made right at the end of what's commonly referred to as the early Snowball Earth -- a time when the atmosphere and oceans were evolving and becoming more oxygenated and when rocks deposited on many continents recorded glacial conditions."

Associate Professor Nicholas Timms noted the precise coincidence between the Yarrabubba impact and the disappearance of glacial deposits.

"The age of the Yarrabubba impact matches the demise of a series of ancient glaciations. After the impact, glacial deposits are absent in the rock record for 400 million years. This twist of fate suggests that the large meteorite impact may have influenced global climate," Associate Professor Timms said.

"Numerical modelling further supports the connection between the effects of large impacts into ice and global climate change. Calculations indicated that an impact into an ice-covered continent could have sent half a trillion tons of water vapour -- an important greenhouse gas -- into the atmosphere. This finding raises the question whether this impact may have tipped the scales enough to end glacial conditions."

Dr Aaron Cavosie said the Yarrabubba study may have potentially significant implications for future impact crater discoveries.

"Our findings highlight that acquiring precise ages of known craters is important -- this one sat in plain sight for nearly two decades before its significance was realised. Yarrabubba is about half the age of the Earth and it raises the question of whether all older impact craters have been eroded or if they are still out there waiting to be discovered," Dr Cavosie said.

Timmons M. Erickson, Christopher L. Kirkland, Nicholas E. Timms, Aaron J. Cavosie, Thomas M. Davison. Precise radiometric age establishes Yarrabubba, Western Australia, as Earth’s oldest recognised meteorite impact structure. Nature Communications, 2020; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-13985-7

Sea Level Rise Could Reshape The United States; Trigger Migration Inland

January 22, 2020: University of Southern California
When Hurricane Harvey slammed into the Texas coast in 2017, displaced residents flocked inland, trying to rebuild their lives in the disaster's aftermath. Within decades, the same thing could happen at a much larger scale due to rising sea levels, says a new study led by USC Computer Science Assistant Professor Bistra Dilkina.

Water coming over road in Kemah, Texas during Hurricane Harvey (stock image). Credit: © eric / Adobe Stock

The study, published in PLOS ONE, Jan. 22, is the first to use machine learning to project migration patterns resulting from sea-level rise. The researchers found the impact of rising oceans will ripple across the country, beyond coastal areas at risk of flooding, as affected people move inland.

In the US alone, 13 million people could be forced to relocate due to rising sea levels by 2100. As a result, cities throughout the country will grapple with new populations. Effects could include more competition for jobs, increased housing prices, and more pressure on infrastructure networks.

"Sea level rise will affect every county in the US, including inland areas," said Dilkina, the study's corresponding author, a WiSE Gabilan Assistant Professor in computer science at USC and associate director of USC's Center for AI for Society.

"We hope this research will empower urban planners and local decision-makers to prepare to accept populations displaced by sea-level rise. Our findings indicate that everybody should care about sea-level rise, whether they live on the coast or not. This is a global impact issue."

According to the research team, most popular relocation choices will include land-locked cities such as Atlanta, Houston, Dallas, Denver and Las Vegas. The model also predicts suburban and rural areas in the Midwest will experience disproportionately large influx of people relative to their smaller local populations.

Predicting relocation areas
Sea-level rise is caused primarily by two factors related to global warming: added water from melting ice sheets and glaciers and the expansion of sea water as it warms. Within just a few decades, hundreds of thousands homes on the US coast will be flooded. In fact, by the end of the century, 6 feet of ocean-level rise would redraw the coastline of southern Florida, parts of North Carolina and Virginia and most of Boston and New Orleans.

To predict the trajectory of sea-level rise migration, the researchers took existing projections of rising sea levels and combined this with population projections. Based on migration patterns after Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, the team trained machine learning models -- a subset of artificial intelligence -- to predict where people would relocate.

"We talk about rising sea levels, but the effects go much further than those directly affected on the coasts," said Caleb Robinson, a visiting doctoral researcher from Georgia Tech advised by Dilkina and the study's first author. "We wanted to look not only at who would be displaced, but also where they would go." Dilkina and Robinson worked with co-author Juan Moreno Cruz, an economist and professor at the University of Waterloo.

As expected, the researchers found the greatest effects of sea-level rise migration will be felt by inland areas immediately adjacent to the coast, as well as urban areas in the southeast US. But their model also showed more incoming migrants to Houston and Dallas than previous studies, which flagged Austin as the top destination for climate migrants from the southeastern coast.

This result, notes the researchers, shows that population movement under climate change will not necessarily follow previously established patterns. In other words: it is not business as usual.

Sea-level rise could also reroute people relocating from unaffected areas. Counties surrounding Los Angeles, in particular, could see tens of thousands of migrants whose preferred coastal destinations are now flooded choosing alternative destinations.

The results of this study could help city planners and policymakers plan to expand critical infrastructure, from roads to medical services, to ensure the influx of people has a positive impact on local economies and social well-being.

"When migration occurs naturally, it is a great engine for economic activity and growth," said co-author Juan Moreno Cruz, an economist and professor at the University of Waterloo.

"But when migration is forced upon people, productivity falls and human and social capital are lost as communities are broken apart. Understanding these migration decisions helps economies and policy makers prepare for what is to come and do as much as possible to make the influx of migration a positive experience that generates positive outcomes."

Caleb Robinson, Bistra Dilkina, Juan Moreno-Cruz. Modelling migration patterns in the USA under sea level rise. PLOS ONE, 2020; 15 (1): e0227436 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227436

The Mysterious Legendary Giant Squid's Genome Is Revealed

January 16, 2020: Marine Biological Laboratory
How did the monstrous giant squid -- reaching school-bus size, with eyes as big as dinner plates and tentacles that can snatch prey 10 yards away -- get so scarily big?

Today, important clues about the anatomy and evolution of the mysterious giant squid (Architeuthis dux) are revealed through publication of its full genome sequence by a University of Copenhagen-led team that includes scientist Caroline Albertin of the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole.

Giant squid are rarely sighted and have never been caught and kept alive, meaning their biology (even how they reproduce) is still largely a mystery. The genome sequence can provide important insight.

"In terms of their genes, we found the giant squid look a lot like other animals. This means we can study these truly bizarre animals to learn more about ourselves," says Albertin, who in 2015 led the team that sequenced the first genome of a cephalopod (the group that includes squid, octopus, cuttlefish, and nautilus).

Led by Rute da Fonseca at University of Copenhagen, the team discovered that the giant squid genome is big: with an estimated 2.7 billion DNA base pairs, it's about 90 percent the size of the human genome.

Albertin analysed several ancient, well-known gene families in the giant squid, drawing comparisons with the four other cephalopod species that have been sequenced and with the human genome.

She found that important developmental genes in almost all animals (Hox and Wnt) were present in single copies only in the giant squid genome. That means this gigantic, invertebrate creature -- long a source of sea-monster lore -- did NOT get so big through whole-genome duplication, a strategy that evolution took long ago to increase the size of vertebrates.

So, knowing how this squid species got so giant awaits further probing of its genome.

"A genome is a first step for answering a lot of questions about the biology of these very weird animals," Albertin said, such as how they acquired the largest brain among the invertebrates, their sophisticated behaviours and agility, and their incredible skill at instantaneous camouflage.

"While cephalopods have many complex and elaborate features, they are thought to have evolved independently of the vertebrates. By comparing their genomes we can ask, 'Are cephalopods and vertebrates built the same way or are they built differently?'" Albertin says.

Albertin also identified more than 100 genes in the protocadherin family -- typically not found in abundance in invertebrates -- in the giant squid genome.

"Protocadherins are thought to be important in wiring up a complicated brain correctly," she says. "They were thought they were a vertebrate innovation, so we were really surprised when we found more than 100 of them in the octopus genome (in 2015). That seemed like a smoking gun to how you make a complicated brain. And we have found a similar expansion of protocadherins in the giant squid, as well."

Lastly, she analysed a gene family that (so far) is unique to cephalopods, called reflectins. "Reflectins encode a protein that is involved in making iridescence. Color is an important part of camouflage, so we are trying to understand what this gene family is doing and how it works," Albertin says.

"Having this giant squid genome is an important node in helping us understand what makes a cephalopod a cephalopod. And it also can help us understand how new and novel genes arise in evolution and development."

In a rare event, a live giant squid (Architeuthis dux) is hauled to the surface on a baited hook in Japan. The giant squid can be 40 feet long tip-to-tail and weigh nearly a ton. Credit: Tsunemi Kubodera

Rute R da Fonseca, Alvarina Couto, Andre M Machado, Brona Brejova, Carolin B Albertin, Filipe Silva, Paul Gardner, Tobias Baril, Alex Hayward, Alexandre Campos, Ângela M Ribeiro, Inigo Barrio-Hernandez, Henk-Jan Hoving, Ricardo Tafur-Jimenez, Chong Chu, Barbara Frazão, Bent Petersen, Fernando Peñaloza, Francesco Musacchia, Graham C Alexander, Hugo Osório, Inger Winkelmann, Oleg Simakov, Simon Rasmussen, M Ziaur Rahman, Davide Pisani, Jakob Vinther, Erich Jarvis, Guojie Zhang, Jan M Strugnell, L Filipe C Castro, Olivier Fedrigo, Mateus Patricio, Qiye Li, Sara Rocha, Agostinho Antunes, Yufeng Wu, Bin Ma, Remo Sanges, Tomas Vinar, Blagoy Blagoev, Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten, Rasmus Nielsen, M Thomas P Gilbert. A draft genome sequence of the elusive giant squid, Architeuthis dux. GigaScience, 2020; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1093/gigascience/giz152

Setting Controlled Fires To Avoid Wildfires

January 20, 2020: Stanford University
Australians desperate for solutions to raging wildfires might find them 8,000 miles away, where a new Stanford-led study proposes ways of overcoming barriers to prescribed burns -- fires purposefully set under controlled conditions to clear ground fuels. The paper, published Jan. 20 in Nature Sustainability, outlines a range of approaches to significantly increase the deployment of prescribed burns in California and potentially in other regions, including Australia, that share similar climate, landscape and policy challenges.

"We need a colossal expansion of fuel treatments," said study lead author Rebecca Miller, a PhD student in the Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources within the Stanford School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences.

"Prescribed burns are effective and safe," said study co-author Chris Field, the Perry L. McCarty Director of the Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment and Melvin and Joan Lane Professor for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies. "California needs to remove obstacles to their use so we can avoid more devastating wildfires."

Years of fire suppression in California have led to massive accumulations of wood and plant fuels in forests. Hotter, drier conditions have exacerbated the situation. Prescribed burns, in combination with thinning of vegetation that allows fire to climb into the tree canopy, have proven effective at reducing wildfire risks. They rarely escape their set boundaries and have ecological benefits that mimic the effects of naturally occurring fires, such as reducing the spread of disease and insects and increasing species diversity.

To put a meaningful dent in wildfire numbers, California needs fuel treatments -- whether prescribed burns or vegetation thinning -- on about 20 million acres or nearly 20 percent of the state's land area, according to the researchers. While ambitions for prescribed burns in California have been rising -- private, state and federal acres planned for the approach more than doubled between 2013 and 2018 -- up to half of that acreage has gone unburned due to concerns about risks like the resulting smoky air, outdated regulations and limited resources.

To better understand these barriers, the researchers interviewed federal and state government employees, state legislative staff and nonprofit representatives involved with wildfire management, as well as academics who study the field. They also analysed legislative policies and combed through prescribed burn data to identify barriers and ultimately propose solutions.

Barriers to burning
Just about everyone the researchers interviewed described a risk-averse culture in the shadow of liability laws that place financial and legal responsibility for any prescribed burn that escapes on the burners. Private landowners explained how fears of bankruptcy swayed them to avoid burning on their property. Federal agency employees pointed to an absence of praise or rewards for doing prescribed burns, but punishment for any fires that escape. Federal and state employees claimed that negative public opinion -- fear of fires escaping into developed areas and smoke damaging health -- remains a challenge.

Limited finances, complex regulations and a lack of qualified burners also get in the way. For example, wildfire suppression has historically diverted funding from wildfire prevention, many state fire crews are seasonal employees hired during the worst wildfire months rather than the months when conditions are best for prescribed burn and burners who receive federal or state funds must undergo potentially expensive and time-consuming environmental reviews.

Toward solutions
California has taken some meaningful steps to make prescribed burning easier. Recent legislation makes private landowners who enroll in a certification and training program or take appropriate precautions before burning exempt from financial liability for any prescribed burns that escape. And new public education programs are improving public opinion of the practice.

To go further, stakeholders interviewed for the study suggested a range of improvements. They pointed to the need for consistent funding for wildfire prevention (rather than a primary focus on suppression), federal workforce rebuilding and training programs to bolster prescribed burn crews and standardization of regional air boards' burn evaluation and approval processes. Changing certain emissions calculations -- prescribed burn smoke is currently considered human-caused, whereas wildfires count as natural emissions -- may also incentivise treatments.

Making these changes will require a multi-year commitment by the executive and legislative branches, according to the researchers. The magnitude of the 2017 and 2018 wildfires prompted new wildfire-related policy proposals, but maintaining that focus during lighter fire seasons will be critical to protecting California's communities and managing its ecosystems.

"As catastrophic climate impacts intensify, societies increasingly need to innovate to keep people safe," said study co-author Katharine Mach, an associate professor at the University of Miami who was director of the Stanford Environment Assessment Facility and senior research scientist in the Stanford School of Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences at the time of the research. "Much of this innovation is conceptually simple: making sure the full portfolio of responses, prescribed burns and beyond, can be deployed."

Rebecca K. Miller, Christopher B. Field & Katharine J. Mach. Barriers and enablers for prescribed burns for wildfire management in California. Nature Sustainability, 2020 DOI: 10.1038/s41893-019-0451-7

Dwindling Inflows Into Catchment Areas – A Water Supply Disaster In The Making?

January 23, 2020: Lachlan Gilbert, UNSW Media
A study by UNSW engineers suggests we should get used to water restrictions as modelling predicts inflows into natural reservoirs are set to decrease.

Warragamba Dam supplies to 3.7 million people in Sydney and the lower Blue Mountains and is currently sitting at 42.6% full. Picture: Shutterstock

The frequency of water restrictions in Australia is set to treble by the end of the century after modelling by UNSW Sydney engineers showed climate change will significantly reduce inflows into catchment areas.

Researchers from the University’s School of Civil and Environmental Engineering say reservoir reliability – or the frequency with which a reservoir can supply surrounding urban or rural populations without invoking water restrictions – will fall across the country as we head towards the end of the century. In other words, if a current reservoir is designed to face water restrictions 10% of the time today, by the end of this century this figure will rise to 30%

Study co-author Professor Ashish Sharma says the recent study published in the Water Resources Research journal confirms the hypothesis of the group’s past research that found that the frequent flood events that used to fill dams and catchment areas are now supplying less and less water to those areas.

“In our previous research we found that for each degree rise in temperature, you have roughly 10 to 15% reduction in the flood peak,” Professor Sharma says. “This is despite the fact that with increased temperature, you store more moisture in the sky and hence cause more intense storms.”

“Why this happens is because the higher temperatures are drying out the soils faster than before. So now when it rains, a lot of the water that would have previously ended up in the dams is now being absorbed into the parched soil. And so these frequent flood events are now delivering less water to natural reservoirs.”

Professor Sharma says the earlier paper speculated that the reduced flood peaks would translate into water insecurity as the demand of rising urban populations and intensive agricultural irrigation threatened to outstrip supply.

“To use the example of Sydney, when Warragamba Dam was built in 1960, Sydney’s population was a lot smaller, but they had designed the capacity of the dam taking into account how big the population might get.

“So Sydney’s demand has been increasing, as predicted. But what they had not speculated was that the supply into the dam may decrease. While our research is not focused on Sydney’s water supply, it clearly indicates inflows are likely to reduce across the country and our current water supply infrastructure is unsustainable as temperatures continue to rise.”

Sign of things to come
The knock-on effect of a growing population in a drying climate leading to more pressure on water reserves has led us to the Level 2 water restrictions – something we should now get used to, Professor Sharma says.

“The current Level 2 and higher restrictions that apply to most supply areas used to be viewed as extreme measures. But the modelling tells us that it’s not that extreme, but rather, a sign of things to come,” he says.

The current study examined what the modelling projected for the years 2070 to 2100 in Australia after temperature rise and changed rainfall patterns were factored in. Professor Sharma says governments need start planning now to mitigate the effects of more water restrictions and dwindling water inflows.

“Water restrictions will not be able to sustain the dams on their own, we need to approach this from many directions.

“For the big cities near the sea we can use desalination plants, while more can be done to recycle water and incentivise installation of rainwater tanks.

“But farmers can’t be supplied water from a desalination plant, and they’re the ones who are facing the brunt of it because the soils are getting dry. So we may need to think about crop management – for example, looking at growing more water-hungry crops in wetter parts of Australia as well as water transfers to drier parts, where these are viable.

“All of this is by no means easy, these are complex decisions. We need to put all the options on the table and assess which ones make the most socio-economic sense.

“But we need to at least start the assessment process now.”

Most Rehabilitating Sea Turtles With Infectious Tumours Don't Survive

January 22, 2020: Florida Atlantic University
Caused by a herpesvirus, fibropapillomatosis (FP) is the most significant infectious disease affecting sea turtle populations worldwide. It is widespread in warmer climates like Florida, where almost 70 percent of sea turtles in a population have FP in some places; it has been documented in the Caribbean, South America, Hawaii, Japan, Australia, and beyond. The disease leads to the formation of tumors on the turtles' eyes, flippers and internal organs, which often debilitate them by inhibiting feeding and movement, obscuring vision, and/or leading to organ failure.

FP is of major concern in sea turtle rehabilitation facilities and requires extensive quarantine measures to accommodate infected turtles. Even after surgical removal, there is still potential for tumour regrowth since the underlying associated herpesvirus infection remains dormant. These clinical factors, along with the infectious and potentially life-threatening nature of FP, complicate prognoses and extend rehabilitation times of sea turtles diagnosed with this disease.

Annie Page-Karjian, D.V.M., Ph.D., a researcher from Florida Atlantic University's Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute and collaborators, conducted a large-scale, retrospective case series review evaluating tumour score, removal and regrowth in rehabilitating green sea turtles with FP in four rehabilitation facilities in the southeastern United States from 2009 to 2017.

The objective was to assess FP tumour score and regrowth and provide information on tumour regrowth and survival in turtles with different tumor scores. Applying a standardised method for quantifying and qualifying the extent of the disease is necessary to objectively understand the various clinical manifestations of the disease.

Results of the study, published in the journal Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, showed that the majority (75 percent) of the turtles with FP did not survive following admission into a rehabilitation facility, irrespective of whether or not tumour regrowth occurred following surgery. FP is of greatest concern in juvenile sea turtles in nearshore habitats. All of the green turtles with FP in this study were classified as juveniles.

Of the 756 cases, 312 (41 percent) underwent tumor removal surgery, 155 (50 percent) of those had tumour regrowth within an average of 46 days, and 85 (27 percent) had multiple (more than one) regrowth events. Of the 756 turtles with FP, 283 (37 percent) were euthanized and 280 (37 percent) died without euthanasia. Of the 756 turtles with FP, 193 survived, including 186 (25 percent) that were released and seven (1 percent) that were placed in permanent captive care.

"Evaluating cases of rehabilitating wildlife can be an extremely valuable approach for improving our understanding of pathogen activity in both captive and free-ranging wildlife, and for developing recommendations for treatment and management of important wildlife diseases," said Page-Karjian, senior author, an assistant research professor and clinical veterinarian at FAU's Harbor Branch. "Results from our study could help guide clinical decision-making and determine prognoses for rehabilitating sea turtles with fibropapillomatosis."

Tumour removal surgery increased the odds of tumour regrowth, but also enhanced survivorship, whereas tumour regrowth was not a significant predictor of case outcome. Three FP tumour-scoring systems were used to assign tumor scores to 449 cases, and differing results emphasise that tumour-scoring systems should be applied to the situations and/or location(s) for which they were intended. FP tumour score was not a significant predictor for the event or extent of FP tumour regrowth after surgical excision.

"Internal tumours or severe fibropapillomatosis irreversibly diminishes an animal's well-being and ability to survive," said Page-Karjian. "Application of the appropriate scoring system coupled with rigorous triage and admission criteria for stranded turtles with this disease can effectively help reduce facilities' burden in terms of rehabilitating fewer turtles with poor prognoses."

In situations of limited resources, and taking into account any co-morbid conditions, focusing rehabilitation efforts on turtles with lower tumour scores (i.e. one to two) will help further streamline admission and triage of turtles with FP in rehabilitation facilities, and lead to higher rehabilitation success rates.

Pe'e, a green sea turtle with fibropapillomatosis was rehabilitated and successfully released by The Turtle Hospital (Photo credit: The Turtle Hospital)

Study collaborators represent Loggerhead Marinelife Center in Juno Beach; The Turtle Hospital, in Marathon; Clearwater Marine Aquarium in Clearwater; the Sea Turtle Healing Center at Brevard Zoo in Melbourne; and Georgia Sea Turtle Center/Jekyll Island Authority, in Jekyll Island, Georgia.

This project was funded in part by a grant awarded from the Sea Turtle Grants Program, which is funded from proceeds from the sale of the Florida Sea Turtle License Plate.

A Page-Karjian, JR Perrault, B Zirkelbach, J Pescatore, R Riley, M Stadler, TT Zachariah, W Marks, TM Norton. Tumor re-growth, case outcome, and tumor scoring systems in rehabilitated green turtles with fibropapillomatosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 2019; 137 (2): 101 DOI: 10.3354/dao03426

Dozens Of Non-Oncology Drugs Can Kill Cancer Cells

January 20, 2020: Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Drugs for diabetes, inflammation, alcoholism -- and even for treating arthritis in dogs -- can also kill cancer cells in the lab, according to a study by scientists at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. 

The researchers systematically analysed thousands of already developed drug compounds and found nearly 50 that have previously unrecognised anti-cancer activity. The surprising findings, which also revealed novel drug mechanisms and targets, suggest a possible way to accelerate the development of new cancer drugs or re purpose existing drugs to treat cancer.

"We thought we'd be lucky if we found even a single compound with anti-cancer properties, but we were surprised to find so many," said Todd Golub, chief scientific officer and director of the Cancer Program at the Broad, Charles A. Dana Investigator in Human Cancer Genetics at Dana-Farber, and professor of paediatrics at Harvard Medical School.

The new work appears in the journal Nature Cancer. It is the largest study yet to employ the Broad's Drug Repurposing Hub, a collection that currently comprises more than 6,000 existing drugs and compounds that are either FDA-approved or have been proven safe in clinical trials (at the time of the study, the Hub contained 4,518 drugs). The study also marks the first time researchers screened the entire collection of mostly non-cancer drugs for their anti-cancer capabilities.

Historically, scientists have stumbled upon new uses for a few existing medicines, such as the discovery of aspirin's cardiovascular benefits. "We created the re-purposing hub to enable researchers to make these kinds of serendipitous discoveries in a more deliberate way," said study first author Steven Corsello, an oncologist at Dana-Farber, a member of the Golub lab, and founder of the Drug Repurposing Hub.

The researchers tested all the compounds in the Drug Repurposing Hub on 578 human cancer cell lines from the Broad's Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). Using a molecular barcoding method known as PRISM, which was developed in the Golub lab, the researchers tagged each cell line with a DNA barcode, allowing them to pool several cell lines together in each dish and more quickly conduct a larger experiment. The team then exposed each pool of barcoded cells to a single compound from the repurposing library, and measured the survival rate of the cancer cells.

They found nearly 50 non-cancer drugs -- including those initially developed to lower cholesterol or reduce inflammation -- that killed some cancer cells while leaving others alone.

Some of the compounds killed cancer cells in unexpected ways. "Most existing cancer drugs work by blocking proteins, but we're finding that compounds can act through other mechanisms," said Corsello. Some of the four-dozen drugs he and his colleagues identified appear to act not by inhibiting a protein but by activating a protein or stabilising a protein-protein interaction. For example, the team found that nearly a dozen non-oncology drugs killed cancer cells that express a protein called PDE3A by stabilising the interaction between PDE3A and another protein called SLFN12 -- a previously unknown mechanism for some of these drugs.

These unexpected drug mechanisms were easier to find using the study's cell-based approach, which measures cell survival, than through traditional non-cell-based high-throughput screening methods, Corsello said.

Most of the non-oncology drugs that killed cancer cells in the study did so by interacting with a previously unrecognised molecular target. For example, the anti-inflammatory drug tepoxalin, originally developed for use in people but approved for treating osteoarthritis in dogs, killed cancer cells by hitting an unknown target in cells that overexpress the protein MDR1, which commonly drives resistance to chemotherapy drugs.

The researchers were also able to predict whether certain drugs could kill each cell line by looking at the cell line's genomic features, such as mutations and methylation levels, which were included in the CCLE database. This suggests that these features could one day be used as biomarkers to identify patients who will most likely benefit from certain drugs. For example, the alcohol dependence drug disulfiram (Antabuse) killed cell lines carrying mutations that cause depletion of metallothionein proteins. Compounds containing vanadium, originally developed to treat diabetes, killed cancer cells that expressed the sulfate transporter SLC26A2.

"The genomic features gave us some initial hypotheses about how the drugs could be acting, which we can then take back to study in the lab," said Corsello. "Our understanding of how these drugs kill cancer cells gives us a starting point for developing new therapies."

The researchers hope to study the repurposing library compounds in more cancer cell lines and to grow the hub to include even more compounds that have been tested in humans. The team will also continue to analyze the trove of data from this study, which have been shared openly ( with the scientific community, to better understand what's driving the compounds' selective activity.

"This is a great initial dataset, but certainly there will be a great benefit to expanding this approach in the future," said Corsello.

This collaboration involved the Broad's Center for the Development of Therapeutics, the PRISM team, the Cancer Data Sciences team, and the labs of Todd Golub and Matthew Meyerson. The work was funded in part by SIGMA (Carlos Slim Foundation, Slim Initiative in Genomic Medicine for the Americas), the National Institutes of Health, and an anonymous donor.

Steven M. Corsello, Rohith T. Nagari, Ryan D. Spangler, Jordan Rossen, Mustafa Kocak, Jordan G. Bryan, Ranad Humeidi, David Peck, Xiaoyun Wu, Andrew A. Tang, Vickie M. Wang, Samantha A. Bender, Evan Lemire, Rajiv Narayan, Philip Montgomery, Uri Ben-David, Colin W. Garvie, Yejia Chen, Matthew G. Rees, Nicholas J. Lyons, James M. McFarland, Bang T. Wong, Li Wang, Nancy Dumont, Patrick J. O’Hearn, Eric Stefan, John G. Doench, Caitlin N. Harrington, Heidi Greulich, Matthew Meyerson, Francisca Vazquez, Aravind Subramanian, Jennifer A. Roth, Joshua A. Bittker, Jesse S. Boehm, Christopher C. Mader, Aviad Tsherniak, Todd R. Golub. Discovering the anticancer potential of non-oncology drugs by systematic viability profiling. Nature Cancer, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s43018-019-0018-6

Disclaimer: These articles are not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.  Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of Pittwater Online News or its staff.