June 23 - 29, 2024: Issue 629


Roads To Pittwater: The Mona Vale Road

Pittwater Road [a view through the trees] circa 1860 by William Andrews (1840-1887) from album 'Sketches of Sydney and environs, 18-- ' Image No.; c12837 0021 c - courtesy State Library of NSW

In April 1788 Australia's first Governor, Captain Arthur Phillip, led a reconnaissance party from Manly Cove upstream through the Stoney Creek (St Ives) area, seeking fertile land for growing crops. On this journey, he noted the tall trees which were to provide timber for the growing colony. 

Mona Vale Road runs along a ridge dividing the watershed on the south east via the Pymble Valley to Middle Harbour and north to Cowan Creek towards Broken Bay, and towards the Lane Cove River catchment. It is likely to have been formed in the path of an Aboriginal route, and is one of the first roads defined as a route to Pitt Water. 

This rough bush track was successively known as Pennant Hills Road, Lane Cove Road, Gordon Road. At what we now call Gordon and St. Ives, the Stoney Creek road commenced and ran from Gordon to meet up with this track. The major transport route in the area was a dirt track known as Stoney Creek Road (now Mona Vale Road), originally constructed by Daniel Mathew to take timber from his saw mill to Sydney.  Access was also in the opposite direction along Pittwater Road to Pittwater. Originally the stretch from the Lane Cove Road (Pacific Highway) to Telegraph Road in St Ives was called 'Stoney Creek Road' and from Telegraph Road(at St. Ives) northwards it was called 'Pittwater Road'.

The Lane Cove Road (now Pacific Highway) was formed closely following the original bullock tracks of these early timber-getters.

At the other end, the Mona Vale/Rocklily end, the road was called the 'Lane Cove road' - simply because it was the 'road to Lane Cove', which later became 'the road to Gordon'. It is important to remember that what we now call Mona Vale had a few names in the past - one being Turrimetta and Taramatta.  The area was also known to be called 'Rocklily' or Rock Lily - some residents had 'Rock Lily' as the birth place on their birth certificates, even into 1910's.

Initially, the council formed to be made responsible for all roads in its area, Warringah Shire Council, contracted local residents to 'grub out trees near Mona Vale Cemetery and into Ingleside'. This was done to facilitate turning farm fields into suburbia.

By 1928 and into the early 1930's the name 'Mona Vale Road' applied as the State Government, eager to ensure the 1920's rollout of 'suburbs for people' continued, took back responsibility for those roads that connected people over several areas and declared this a Main Road.

With the completion of the Mona Vale Road East project, a look into where it all began.

F.109 Mona Vale road to Broken Bay from Volume 1: Sketches of N. S. [New South] Wales, 1857-1888 / by H. Grant Lloyd, Image No.: a5894117h, courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales. NB: This aspect looks as though the walkers are heading to Mona Vale from Newport, also there is no St John's on what we now call Mona Vale headland - that chapel opened in 1871.

The route wound over Sugarloaf and then down Tumbledown Dick Hill to Foley's Hill, named for Daniel Foley, the unfortunate gentleman who settled 'Mona Vale Farm' and was murdered on his way home. Visit - The Murder of David Foley by Shelagh Champion OAM 

One of the first landholders in the St Ives/Gordon/Pymble end was Daniel Dering Mathew, who arrived in the colony in 1812. In 1819 he returned to England to purchase mechanical saw-milling machinery. A timber-getter, merchant, architect and magistrate, in 1819 he acquired a 400 acre grant he named the 'Clanville Estate' at what is present day Roseville. Here he felled timber and farmed.  The name of the estate remains as that of one of the best known streets in Roseville.  His grant covered the area from the present highway east to Archbold Road, and from Boundary Street north to Tryon Road.  Around 1830, Mathew sold this grant to Richard Archbold. 

In 1822 Mr. Mathew petitioned for another grant on which to erect a newly arrived 'sawing machine' and in 1823 he was granted 800 uncleared acres which he named 'Rosedale', which was sited at present day St Ives and stretched into what is now Pymble Golf Course - East Pymble.  In 1824 he established a saw mill on the corner of Cowan Road and Stoney Creek Road referred to as the 'Cowan sawmill'. This grant was formalised in 1831. [2.]

Mona Vale Road then marks Matthew’s access road to his early mechanised sawmill on Cowan Rd, St Ives. Telegraph Road marks the main timber getting route through Pymble and Matthews grants towards Stoney Creek Road (Mona Vale Rd). In 1831 Mathews disputed Surveyor Mitchell’s northern boundary of his Cowan mill site (correctly) but which was already granted to John Ayers. 

1838 eventual gazettal of disputed ‘Rosedale’ grant 800 acres to DD Mathew (perhaps including the 400 of the former Clanville) extending from Lane Cove Rd (Pacific Hwy) to Killeaton St., St Ives, and includes Mona Vale Rd. To north the 1871 parish map names John Ayres as owner of 320 acres.


I was much gratified on my visit last week to the Cowan Saw-mills. I think it one of the completest pieces of machinery produced by animal power that ever I saw. Tho proprietor took every pains in pointing out the different powers of his machinery ; this machine cuts 450 feet of flooring boards every hour, or 300 feet of battens. The teeth of the saw passes through the space of 8200 feet a minute, being at the rate of 96 miles in the hour. The fly-wheel of this machine travels at the rate of 7000 feet per minute. I wish the proprietor every success in his highly valuable undertaking.
ILLAWARRA. (1831, July 14). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2201520

AUSTRALIAN MACHINERY.—The proprietor of the Cowan Saw-mill, the first that has been erected in New South Wales, has now brought his machinery to such perfection that he can cut 450 feet superficial of flooring boards, or 600 feet of battens in one hour; the teeth of the saws pass through the space of 8200 feet per minute, being at the rate of 96 miles in the hour, a speed produced by animal power never known before. The fly wheel of this machine travels at the rate of 7000 feet per minute. Domestic Intelligence. (1831, July 18). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12843288

GORDON. 1. Daniel Dering Mathew, 800. Eight hundred Acres; bounded on the West by part of the East boundary of Pymble's Farm, bearing South 114 chains to the Parramatta-road; on the South by that road to the Western corner of B. Clayton's Farm, and by the North-west  boundary of that farm, bearing East thirty degrees North 28 chains; on the East by a line bearing North 135 chains; and on the North by a line bearing West 61 chains to the Eastern boundary of Pymble's Farm. Quit-rent, £6 13s. 4d. sterling, commencing 1st January, 1839. Classified Advertising (1831, October 1). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2202859

The corner of Pittwater Road (now Mona Vale Road) and Cowan Road, St. Ives, circa 1900 to 1909. Courtesy Ku-Ring-Gai Historical Society.


This old building (which stood at the corner St. Ives-road and Cowan-road), after serving various purposes was used for divine worship, until recently demolished. It stood near the site of the present Pymble Golf LinksNo title (1930, May 21). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160631304

In 1838 Thomas Brown, orchardist and timber merchant, buys 52 acres of DD Mathew’s land on both sides of Stoney Creek (MV) Rd with one side adjoining Brown’s Forest and Dalrymple Hay Nature Reserve. Greenwood (no 121 MV Rd) was built in 1870 but curtilage reduced to 1 ¼ acres by 1973-4 when MV Rd widened.

The Dalrymple Hay Nature Reserve may be read of in Annie Wyatt Reserve: Palm Beach. This reserve gives a glimpse, still, of what the forest was like prior to being carted away via bullocks and before the orchardists came. An Extract from that page:

A TREE SANCTUARY! In the Dalrymple Hay Forest Reserve, Pymble. Community Quilts (1933, December 27).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 48. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165961981 

Proposal to add Ten Acres.
Pymble Forest, an area of almost virgin gum tree country, within a mile of the intersection of the Pacific Highway and Stony Creek road at Gordon is again a matter of public interest.

A proposal has been made by the members of the Rangers' League to purchase an additional 10 acres of the original 50 acres out of which the Crown purchased 26 ½ acres in 1925 to be held in perpetuity as an example of the beautiful woodlands of the nearer northern gullies for the days when most of the stately giant eucalypts will have vanished for ever from the more accessible landscapes within the metropolitan area.

The 10 acres It is proposed to purchase, or regain by any legitimate means, will be added to the 26 ½ acres now known as the Pymble Forest, to increase a nearby roadside reservation that is easily visible from the roadway of the Sydney Harbour bridge and while the trees hold together it will remain one of the most conspicuous and beautiful of the grey-green landmarks on the northern hillsides.

The area in question is priced at £ 1310, and at that price an option has been taken by the Rangers' League who have an assurance from the owners that the odd £310 will be handed over as a gift if a like sum is contributed by the tree-loving public for the purchase of so desirable and so lovely and so easily accessible a 10-acre forest property.

On three occasions during the last three years the Kuring-gai Municipal Council has been pleaded with to regain possession of as much of the 29 ½  acres as possible. Sympathetic consideration was given to the requests, and every effort was made that the council could make, but the purchase of further lands out of council funds was not recommended.

The Mayor and aldermen of Kuring gai have for some years been lavish in their purchase and construction of playing and recreation areas for the benefit of the ratepayers The work which the Rangers' League are now proposing to do is certain to receive the support of the aldermen and the tree-loving residents of Kuring-gai.

"Brown's Brook" was the name under which the new forest area was originally known. It lies on the south side of the Pittwater or Stony Creek road and begins a few yards of the St Ives side of Mr F. E. Pratten's well-known residence on the Telegraph-road corner, from which the Macquarie lighthouse on South Head and the blue Pacific Ocean are easily visible at any hour of the day when the sky is clear of rainclouds.

Mr. Thomas Brown held the property for many years and times almost without number refused the offers which the timber cutters made for the privilege of milling and marketing the stately and colourful grey gums, the stringybark, the blackbutts, the bloodwoods, peppermints, and ironbaiks.

"Old Tom," as he was known to the axe-men, was as hard of heart as any of his beloved gum trees, not one of the wily wood-men of the northern hills could get him to look at the colour of their silver or gold.

' While I live those trees live with me You boys remember this," said the gum tree lover and orange grower over and over again. Had any other owner been in charge of the area, all the big tree trunks would have been chipped out and wheeled away long ago. How the Crown ever managed to get hold of the key of his gate lock I do not know. However, they did what to other people was impossible.
Mr Dalrymple Hay it was who conceived the idea of acquiring the area for a small demonstration forest I remember the metropolitan forester of that day (Mr McLeod) saying that the area was one of the prettiest and most suitable under his hand. That opinion has been confirmed time and again.

I have no hesitation in saying that my heart and interest are with the young men of the Rangers' League in their great effort to save for the nation the thousands of stalwart young eucalypts from the fate that awaits so many other splendid trees that are not so happily placed. The future belongs to the young men and to the young gum trees they so much admire. No more splendid effort has been made since the Bush Walking Clubs bought and saved the Blue Gum Forest area in the valley of the Grose.
Pymble forest is almost within the city gates. That makes it so much more valuable This proposal has already burned a hob in my shallow pocket. A call from our gum trees is irresistible. An appeal for funds has been issue b> the Rangers' League, of which the honorary treasurer is Mr Chas R Barton, 5 Macquarie-place, Sydney. 
A picture of some of the land it is proposed to purchase is to be seen on the illustrations page.
PYMBLE FOREST. (1934, March 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17074535 

Some other earlier settlers and the 'by-road':

Accidental Death.
On Friday afternoon, a party consisting of William Morgan, Jame Peiniiell, Joseph Waterhouse, Robert M'Intosh, and Jim Allen Jones, set out on horseback from Lane Cove, intending to proceed to Pittwater. They had proceeded about three miles along the by-road or foot-track, when Jones rode against an over hanging limb of a tree with such violence as to throw him from his horse, fracturing his skull. His companions conveyed him home, where he lingered until about six o'clock on Saturday morning, when he expired. Deceased was a tailor by trade, and until recently was a resident in Sydney.-Herald, Feb. 27. 
Sydney News. (1854, March 4). The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser (NSW : 1843 - 1893), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article686369 

The Robert M'Intosh referred to here is Robert McIntosh II, son of the Robert McIntosh who held land by grant at Pittwater. 

Robert McIntosh junior, aged 21, married Jane Pymble in 1830. They lived at Gordon, where they had an orchard opposite St. John’s Anglican Church. The inscription on their gravestone at St. John’s, Gordon, states that Robert was born on 4 February 1809 and died 30 June 1889, while Jane died 28 June 1882, aged 72 years. [3.]

Pymble was named after Robert Pymble (1788–1861) who acquired a land grant of 600 acres (242.8 hectares) in June 1823. Mr. Pymble was a silk-weaver from Hertfordshire, England, who arrived in Sydney with his wife and six children on board the Marquis of Wellington on 24 July 1821 as a free immigrant. Upon arriving in Sydney, Pymble hired convict labour and cleared the forest land for agriculture. By 1828 he had cleared 10 acres (4 hectares) of land east of Lane Cove Road as far as the border of Irishtown (now North Turramurra), sold the timber to lumberyards and had cultivated three acres (1.2 hectares) for orchards of orange trees. From 1826 until 1833 he served as policeman and pound keeper of the Lane Cove district.

HIS EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR has been pleased to approve of the following Alterations in the
Police of the ColonyIn the Town of Sydney-To be Constables
In the District of Hunter's Hill.-Robert Pymble, came free, per Marquis of Wellington, to be Constable and Poundkeeper.
In the District of Windsor.--John Roche, per Ship Earl St. Vincent (1), free by servitude, to be a Constable in the Room of Richard Hayes, Prisoner of
the Crown, permitted to resign.
At Myrtle Creek.-Joseph West, per Ship Coromandel (2) free, to be a Constable in the Room of James Hartley, per Ship Indefatigable, dismissed.
By His Excellency's Command.'
Advertising (1826, December 22). The Monitor (Sydney, NSW : 1826 - 1828), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31758073

On the 6th instant, at his late residence, Lane Cove, after a  long and painful illness, Mr. Robert Pymble, sen., an old and respected colonist, in the 78th year of his age. He was one of our early settlers, having arrived in the colony with his wife and six children in the year 1821. Family Notices (1861, January 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13050988

FUNERAL.—The Friends of the late ROBERT PYMBLE are respectfully requested to attend his Funeral. The procession to move from his late residence, Lane Cove, THIS DAY, Tuesday afternoon, at 1 o'clock, and thence to proceed to St. Leonard's Cemetery, and arrive at 4 p.m. at the above place mentioned. REUBEN THOMAS, undertaker, 141, York-street, late of 54, King street. Family Notices (1861, January 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13051002

"Pymble in 1887 / showing residences of Mr James Pymble / Mr E.A. McIntosh / & Casey's house in distance / Position: Photograph taken from site of present / Railway Station facing towards Mr E.R. / Taylor's house in Grandview St."/ Mitchell Library / 30.11.37 / with complts from / Mr Justice Boyce" in ink in the same hand on the reverse. With the compliments of E.A. McIntosh on the reverse. Image No.: a1528228h, courtesy State Library of NSW.

"Taken from site of present Station / to East / Pymble 1887 / Showing residence of Mr CB Bradford in the / distance & orchard & nursery of Mr E.A. McIntosh / fruit packing shed cart & buggy shed & Miss Gaden's. / The latter was known as Wallaby Hall & was / at one time Mr E.A. McIntosh's batchelor's [sic] quarters. / The blue gum tree on the hill is still in Mr F.S. Boyce's grounds." in ink in the same hand on the reverse. With the compliments of E.A. McIntosh on the reverse. Image No.: a1528229h, courtesy State Library of NSW

Another orchardist was Vernon’s son-in-law, Philip Richardson, an Irish gentleman, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, sometimes known as The Squire of Rosedale.  He was said never to have worked his farm: his native-born wife Julia Vernon superintended it with much vigour.  Killeaton Street is named after Richardson’s family home in Ireland.

Other early orchardists included George Mudie, a Scot who, having worked for his father in a bakery at Circular Quay and tried his luck  on the Victorian gold fields, who bought 125 acres at £1 an acre, on the Cowan Road. Mudies Road bears his name. James Terrey, had 100 acres, now the site of the Pymble Golf Course. Mr. Terrey also owned 640 acres further east, owned for a few years by his Obadiah prior to his early deaths and later named after James Terrey - Terrey Hills - as well as land at Cottage Point. [4.]

Further east at what we now call Frenchs Forest Simeon Henry Pearce (1821–1886) and his brother James acquired 200 acres in 1853. The area was known as Rodborough and designated as being part of Manly Cove although today Rodborough Road is in Frenchs Forest and runs into Allambie Heights off the Warringah road. Part of this was acquired by James Harris French 1817 - 1893, a prominent citizen in the founding of the Municipality of North Willoughby on 23 October 1865 and where a road named for him is still. He was born in Dorset, England, to James and Mary French in 1817. James H. French junior arrived in Sydney on the Alfred in January 1841 at the age of 23 and married Mary Tiffin, a daughter of the prominent Jamaican 'Billy' Blue on 10 August 1842. To Mr. French is also ascribed the development of Forestville.

Surveyor General's Office,
Sydney the 28th January, 1857.

THE descriptions of the following portions of land are published for general information, in order-that the.persons concerned may have an opportunity of. correcting any errors or omissions that may have been made inadvertently.

At the expiration of one month from this date, if no caveat be lodged in this Office, or other issue of uncertainty appear, the Deed of Grant of the same will be executed in favour of the approved Trustees.

County of Cumberland.

One acre, 1a., parish of Manly Cove, at Rodborough; commencing at the south-eastern intersection of,the Bantry Bay Road with a road 1 chain wide, dividing it from S. H. and J. Pearce's 200 acres, and bounded on the north by the road dividing it from S. H. and J. Pearce's said 200 acres, bearing east 2 chains 50 links on the east by a line bearing south 4 chains; on the south by a line, bearing west 2 chains *50 links to the Bantry Bay Road; and on the-west by that Road bearing north 4 chains-At the point of commencement. (As Site for a church)

Two roods, 2r., parish of Manly Cove, Rodborough, commencing at the north-east corner of the Church. of England church allotment, ! on the southern side of a road 1 Sham wide, dividing it from S. H. find J. Pearce's 200 acres, and bounded on the north by that road,, bearing east 1 chain ; 25 links; on the east by a line bearing south 4 chains; on the south by a line bearing west 1. chain 25; links; and on the west by a line dividing it from Church allotment aforesaid, bearing north 4 chains, to the point of commencement. (As Site for /School.')

Two roods, 2r.,-parish of Manly Cove, at Rodborough commencing at the north-east corner of the Church of England; School allotment, on the southern side-of: a road 1 chain wide, dividing it from S. H. and J. Pearce's 200 acres, and bounded on 'the ruorfeby thatroad, bearing east 1 chain 251inks ; on the east by a line bearing south 4 chains; on the south. by a line bearing west 1 chain 28 links; and on the west by a line dividing it from the allotment aforesaid, bearing north 4 chains to the point of commencement, (a Site for a  Parsonage)


Surveyor General. CHURCH OF ENGLAND CHURCH, SCHOOL, AND PARSONAGE, AT RODBOROUGH. (1857, January 30). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 184. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229955233

Crown Land Sales at Rodborough in 1858:


The following lots of land will be offered for sale, public auction, at the undermentioned places,Wednesday, the 25th August, at 11 o'clock : (At the Land Sales' Room, Colonial Treasury, Macquarie-street, Sydney.)


County of Cumberland, parish of Manly Cove, at the west boundary of S. H. and J. Pearce's 200 acres at Rodborough:-Lots 3 to 5, SO», ouch ; 0,18a. : Upset price, £1 5s. per acre.

County of Cumberland, parish of Manly Cove, at Rodborough, and lying to the west of William Redman's 24 acres:-Lot 7, 12a. 3r. Op.; 8, lia. lr. 38p.j 9, li 3r. 0/. Upset price, £1 5s. per nore.

County of Cumberland, parish of Manly Cove, lying north-westerly from William Redman's 21 acres, at Rodborough :-Lots 10 and ll, 30a. 3r. 8p. each, 18 lol 20a. each. Upset price, £1 5s. per acre.

County of Cumberland, parish of Manly Cove, adjoining and lying to the north of Redman's, Jones's, and Ainsworth's portions, near Rodborough :-Lot 10, ll lr. Sip. ; 17 to 20,20a. each ; 21 to 33, 21a. each; 5 20a. lr. 24p. ; 26, 14a. lr. 24p. ; 20, 13a. ; 27 and S I 14a. lr. 24p. each. Upset price, ..


County of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby, lying to the south of Wright's 25 acres, and J. Nichols' 35 acres, and near the head of Burns's Bay :--Lot 1, lío.3C| Upsot price, £2 10s. per acre. Lot 2, 18a. lr, ; 9, Ul lr, 8p. Upset price, £2 per acre. Lot 4, Sis. Or. 8J« Upset price, .£1 per acre s-Lot Ö, lfla Upset price per acre. Lot 0,14a. Or. 18p. ; 7, 14a. Or. 34p. ; 8,13i 3r. 30p. Upset price, £2 10s. per acre.

County of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby, adjoining and near to the northwest boundaries of Nichols' 380 acres. Lot 0, 10a. 3r. 32p. Upset price £2 per acre. Lot 10, 12a. 2r. 20p. ; ll, 13a. Or. 33p. 13, 13a. 2r.*23p. Upset price, £2 10». por acre, w 13,18a. Or. Op. Upset prioe, £2 per aore. Lot 14, IO» Or. 18p. ; 16, lia. 3r. 38p. ; 10,13n. Or. 17p. ¡ 17, DJ. it 18p. ; 18,10a. 2r. 4p. Upset prloo, £2 lOa.por acre Lot 10, 20a. 2r. 37p. ! 30, 18n. Or. 33p. Upsot price £2 10s. per acre.

County of Cumberland, parish of Manly COVE, to the east of J. H. French's 41 acres and 12 perches, near Rodborough :-Lots 21 and 22, 13 a, 2r, 23p ; each. Upset price, £2 10s. per acre. CROWN LAND SALES. (1858, July 29). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60426637

The Speaker, took the chair at half-past three o'clock.


Mr. SMITH asked the honorable Secretary for Land and Works, if the sum of £100, voted by the House on the 3rd August, 1858, for opening up a road through Manly Cove has been expended ; and if so upon what road ?

In reply to this question, Mr. ROBERTSON stated that the £100 voted for opening up a road through Manly Cove, was placed at the disposal of the hon. Mr. Bligh, Mr. W. Redman, and Mr. French. Mr. French had, however, resigned the trust. Without further enquiry it was not at present known how much of the money had yet been expended. The particular road for which the money was granted was described as the new road from Bantry Bay to Rodborough, in the parish of Manly Cove. PARLIAMENT OF NEW SOUTH WALES. (1858, November 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13020527

View of the ford over the Lane Cove River at the tidal limit at the 'Blue Hole' circa 1860. The cart road was superceded by today's Ryde Road and Lane Cove Road linking Pymble and Ryde. Notice the pile of timber billets and the cart. Photo taken by Professor Smith (in stovepipe hat) of Sydney University. Primary Records reference number 5/2861

Middle Harbour road at Linfield circa 1900, courtesy State Library of NSW

There was and is also 'Duffy's Forest'.  This was a land grant in 1857 and he too was a timber-getter who cleared a road through the bush to Cowan Creek, where he built a stone wharf for transporting timber. The wharf is still known as Duffys Wharf and the road as Duffys Track.

Patrick Duffy (1786–1854) was a labourer until he enlisted in the British Army 3rd Regiment of Foot (known as the Buffs) for unlimited service at Sligo on 14 Sep 1805, aged 19 - he served (more below), married, had children. The Duffy family sailed on the ship 'Eliza' on the 20th, landing in Sydney on 22 November 1822.

Patrick was appointed Superintendent of the convict barrack at Parramatta. He was instructed to 'immediately report yourself'.On 21 Jul the Government Gazette reported that he was to be appointed Constable at Parramatta in the room of John Murphy, deceased.

On 3 Febuary 1830, Patrick signed a long petition to the Governor applying for a grant of land. He stated that he had been left in New South Wales when the Buffs went to India, on the recommendation of Colonel Stewart. He had been 'discharged in consequence of ...length of service and large family...was a non commissioned officer in the Buffs nearly 18 years during which time and the whole of his service Petitioner maintained an unblemished character' and '...is now labouring under very sever attacks of Rheumatism and other bodily debilities occasioned by the fatigues and wounds indured during the peninsula campaign...'

One hundred acres were granted and Patrick began to clear the land. A dispute arose with neighbours who claimed that portions of the land had been allocated to them. After the Surveyor General admitted an eror had been made, Patrick was authorised to select another plot on 6 Sep 1831 and this time, took possession of 100 acres at South Colah (now  Thornleigh).

On 23 Sep 1832, James Milson, who held land near Duffy, wrote to the Surveyor General concerning the making of the road 'Duffy's Lane'...'since that time a complaint had been made by Patrick Duffy and one Sweeney, holding a ticket of leave, that the road which was originallly marked out by Mr Abbott is inconvenient to them and insist on having a new line on road...as these persons are every day threatening and interrupting my men in their work. I shall feel obliged to your finally settling the point of dispute'. The road along the top of the ridge was then marked and confirmed. It exists today as Duffy Avenue, Thornleigh, running from Pennant Hills Road to Westleigh.

Patrick's three eldest sons had by this time left home, but each is recorded in his own right as a householder living nearby, probably on portions of their father's original grant.

The Sydney Morning Herald of 13 Apr 1854 recorded the death of Patrick; 'At his residence, Pennant Hills on the 11th inst. in the 68th year of his age, Patrick Duffy, late Sergeant of His Majesty's 3rd Buffs and father of P.J. Duffy of the firm Duffy and Mitchell, Timber Dealers, leaving a large family to deplore their loss'. He died just a few weeks after his wife:

At her residence, Pennant Hills, in the 68th year of her age, Bridget, the beloved wife of Mr Patrick Duffy, late sergeant of Her Majesty's 3rd Regiment, or Buffs, and mother of Mr P J Duffy, of the firm of Duffy and Mitchell, Timber Dealers, Market Wharf, leaving a husband and large number of children and grand-chil-dren to deplore their loss. Family Notices (1854, February 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12956397

Peter Joseph Duffy (1814-1878), Patrick's second son, lived at the 'George Inn' on the corner of Market and Castlereagh Streets Sydney, and in the 1840's he was a sawyer of Kent Street Sydney. His brother Patrick Michael Duffy (1825-1897) had 100 acres at the 'Parish of South Colah' (also Parish of Gordon on some maps) by 1839 - this was in what we call now Hornsby.

589. John Thorn, 640, Six hundred and forty acres, parish of South Colah, commencing at the south-west corner of Patrick Duffy's 100 acres ; and bounded on the north by that grant by part of Milsom's and by part of Samuel Horn's 320 acres 55 chains; on the east by a line south 25 degrees 30 minutes west 95 chains to the Field of Mar's Common ; on the south by that common being a line north 64 degrees west to the Pennant Hills Road 39 chains; and again by a line north 64 degrees west 60 chains; and on the north-west by a line north 62 degrees east 84 chains to the south-west corner of Patrick Duffy's 100 acres as aforesaid.  GRANTS OF LAND. (1839, September 7). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 989. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230384451

([184-]). Parish of South Colah, County of Cumberland (and section from) Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-230002153

In the Insolvent Estate of Peter Joseph Duffy, of Lane Cove, sawyer.

WHERE AS the Estate of Peter Joseph Duffy was, on the 21st day of August, 1843, placed under Sequestration in my hands by order of His Honor Mr. Justice Stephen, I hereby appoint a Meeting of the Creditors of the said Peter Joseph Duffy to be holdeh at the Supreme Court House, Sydney, on Tuesday, the 5th day of September next, to commence at 1, p.m., and end at 1.30, p.m., for proof of Debts, and election of a Trustee or Trustees for the collection, administration, and distribution of the said Insolvent's Estate; and nnless at the said Meeting it be shewn that the goods and effects of the Insolvent exceed £100, the Commissioner will summarily proceed to rank the Debts which shall be then proved, and will direct the proceeds to be distributed by the Trustees accordingly.—Dated this 23rd day of August, 1843.

Chief Commissioner of Insolvent Estates.
WHEREAS the Estate of Peter Joseph Duffy was, on the 21st day of August, 1843, (1843, August 25). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1103. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230126502

By 1854:

WANTED, an experienced Drayman. Apply to DUFFY and MITCHELL, Timber Yard, Market Wharf.

WANTED, Sawyers and Splitters. Apply to DUFFY and MITCHELL, Timber Yard, Market WharfAdvertising (1854, March 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12953339


THE surrenders of the following estates were accepted by his honor the CHIEF JUSTICE.

Peter Joseph Duffy, and James Mitchell, of Sydney, timber merchants, on petition and affidavit ; schedule to be filed on or before Saturday next. Mr. Perry, official assignee. INSOLVENT COURT. (1855, August 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12972618

In 1857 P J Duffy was looking for more people for:

WANTED, Labourers for the Bush. Apply to PETER J. DUFFY, Brodie and Craig's Wharf.
WANTED, a Rough Carpenter for the Bush. Apply to PETER J. DUFFY, Brodie and Criag's Wharf.
WANTED, a Bullock Driver for the Bush. Apply to PETER J. DUFFY, Brodie and Craig's Wharf. 
Advertising (1857, January 31). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12991766

. In 1874 he is recorded as a timber-getter at Brisbane Waters. He passed away in 1878:

DUFFY. — November 18, at his residence, 472, Harris-street, Ultimo, Peter Joseph Duffy, aged 63 years, leaving a wife and a large circle of friends to mourn their loss. Family Notices (1878, November 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13413339

THE FRIENDS of the deceased Mr. PETER JOSEPH DUFFY are respectfully invited to attend his Funeral ; to move from his late residence, Harris-street, Ultimo, THIS AFTERNOON, at 2 o'clock, to Necropolis. THOMAS, Undertaker, 141, York-street.
GRAND UNITED ORDER OF ODDFELLOWS. — GRANDMASTERS' COUNCIL. — All Members of the Grandmasters' Council are requested to attend the Funeral of our late esteemed Brother, P.G.M. PETER JOSEPH DUFFY ; to move from his late residence, Harris-street, Ultimo, at a quarter-past 2 o'clock, THIS DAY.
HENRY STOCK, G. Sec. GRAND UNITED ORDER OF ODDFELLOWS, SYDNEY DISTRICT. — The Officers and Brothers of the various Lodges are requested to attend the Funeral of our late esteemed Brother P.G.M. PETER JOSEPH DUFFY, of the Travellers' Home Lodge, 731, to meet at his late residence, Harris-street, Ultimo, at a quarter-past 2 o'clock, THIS DAY,
The Officers and Brothers of the Travellers Home Lodge, together with the officers and brothers of the various lodges, are re-quested to attend the Funeral of our late esteemed Brother, P. N. F. PETER JOSEPH DUFFY, to meet at his late residence, Harris-street, Ultimo, at a quarter-past 2 o'clock, THIS DAY. JAMES BOYLE, N. G., CHARLES HOULAND, Secretary. 
Family Notices (1878, November 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28392986

John Frederick Duffy, Orchadist with residence listed as 'Mona Vale, Pittwater', and who had a son of the same name, born at Thornleigh in 1895, who was also an Orchadist and a driver in WWI, was Warringah Shire President 1915-1918 and Councillor thereafter:

NOTICE is hereby given that Councillor John Frederick Duffy has been duly elected President of the Shire of Warringah for the term commencing 1st proximo.
Shire Hall, Brookvale, Shire Clerk.
22nd February, 1915. 
SHIRE OF WARRINGAH. (1915, March 3). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1471. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226909386

WEDDING BELLS DUFFY-WHITE. On Saturday, 19th instant, at St. St. Jame's Church, King-street, Sydney, the pretty wedding of Miss Rita Florence White, only daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Frederick White of Manly, (late of Parramatta), and Mr. John Frederick Duffy, only son of Mr. and Mrs. Duffy of Mona Vale, Manly, was solemnised by Rev. J. Russell. 

The church was beauty-fully decorated with choice white blooms, and the guest pews tied with true lovers knots. The organist presided at the organ, and during the signing of the register, "Beloved it is Morn,', was sung by Miss Kathleen Lovell (cousin of the bride). The bride who was given away by her father wore a beautiful scintillating bridal gown of ivory georgette over silver tissue, with underskirt of jewelled embroidery. The court train was of pink tulle and ninon, draped with silver lace, held in place by clusters of silver roses. With her tulle veil, she wore a band of silver tissue and trail of orange blossom. Her bouquet of roses and carnations with tulle and silver streamers, and a cheque were the gifts of the bridegroom. Two brides-maids were in attendance, Misses Louie Flook (bride's cousin) and Elvie Duffy (bridegroom's sister), prettily and effectively frocked respectively in shaded mauve, and champagne pleated crepe de ehene, worn with hats to match; their bouquets to tone and gold armlet and diamond brooch were the bridegroom's gifts. Mr. Ritchie White (bride's brother) was best man, and Mr. Stan White (bride's brother), grooms man. Mrs. White (bride's mother) wore orchid mauve floral georgette, over brocaded tissue, and large crinoline hat of fuchsia shade. She carried a posy of pansies, red roses and lavender. Mrs. Duffy (bridegroom's mother) black morocain, trimmed with white pleated georgette, black hat. Her posy was of scarlet roses. After the ceremony a reception was held at Sargent's, Market-street, about 100 guests being present. Mr. P. Winston presided, and the usual toasts were honored. Later Mr. and Mrs. J..P. Duffy left for the Jenolan Caves, where the honeymoon is being spent.  WEDDING BELLS (1925, December 23). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article103769683

A weatherboard cottage owned by Mr. John Duffy In Waratah Street, Mona Vale, 
was destroyed by fire yesterday afternoon, just after Mr. Duffy had completed arrangements for Its sale.

In trying to save £150 In notes in one of the rooms Mr. Duffy suffered cuts and scorched hands, but the money was burnt with the exception of a few silver coins. It is not known how the fire started. £150 DESTROYED IN COTTAGE FIRE (1943, December 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17878955

The McIntosh-Pymble and Duffy connection is not the only between St. Ives and Pittwater as William Henry McKeown, who was later to own acreage of the 'Rosedale' once held by Daniel Mathew, was also among those who were responsible for erecting the Chapel at Church Point and was named as he who conducted services under a tree at Bayview prior to that. There is more on himself and his orchard below but he also had chickens:

Mr. W. H. McKeowns Poultry. 

ON Saturday lost we had the pleasure of paying a visit to Mr. W. H. McKeown's Poultry Farm at Gordon (Lane Cove), where are to be seen—as the majority of people interested in poultry know —some of the most creditable specimens of the Langshan breed of fowls to be found this side of the line. The renown of Mr.  W. H. McKeown's Langshans, we need scarcely remark, has travelled throughout New South Wales, and is not unknown in the other colonies. Without an effort towards making any artificial display, the gentleman named has—by simply rearing first-class birds, and doing business in the good, old-fashioned, best system, of faithfully giving customers that treatment which he professes to give—scored so heavily that to confess to an ignorance of the merits of his strain is to confess one's self a stranger to Langshan fowls in Australia. Mr. McKeown e has bred, during his 48 years residence in the district which is now proud to claim him as a leading resident, many good varieties of feathered stock; but he confesses that the Langshans have triumphed in the end. A. few game pullets, and a decent-looking rooster, and the Last of the Mohic ---the Spanish, we should say—just preserve a semblance of caste superiority, over the odd barn-doors,picking about the place; but the days of even these few survivors of past glories, are numbered. 

The Langshans have " cut out" all the old favourites, and—with Mr. McKeown—have evidently come to stay. In this connection we may perhaps quote with a advantage, a few lines published by Mr. McKeown (with reference to the particular breed under notice) some years back. The remarks still hold good, the only thing which remains to be added being, that the value of the last lines may now be emphasized more than ever. Mr. McKeown, in the little publication referred to, says:—

" I bought a cock and three hens . . . and by the amalgamation of the strains, and careful mating, I have succeeded in raising birds which have won many prizes at the Sydney shows, and are superior to any imported Langshans I saw; in Christchurch, N.Z. . . , . I have-proved the Langshan to be one of the best all round of the many breeds of fowls. They are good layers, grand table fowls, and very hardy. . . . The young ones develop so well that it is difficult to distinguish pullets which I have of nine months,from the old hens." 

On a road or lane leading from the old "Lane Cove Road," off towards Pittwater, is Mr. McKeown's homestead. It stands on the crest of a rise, and the orchard slopes away from the proprietor's residence, towards the north-east, giving an aspect, for t tne cultivated land, Such as is generally coveted by the settlers when marking out his future holding. Over "billows" of rolling uplands the view stretches out towards the rugged country, on the coast, near Marrabeen. The .glimpses of the country inland, when the visitor turns, and looks out westerly, are charming. The land dips deeply in the near front, and then rises to bear, on the crest of the next wave, so to speak, the old main road, and the new steel-way, both running upwards and onwards towards Hornsby. Then, beyond, and far • away over the charming stretches of fields, rich in their emerald mantles of young crops, or with brown soil just turned in regular furrows by the yeoman's plough are forest land, and the homesteads of Field of Mars, Carlingford, and Ryde;— In the centre of these attractive surroundings,-is Mr. McKeown's orchard, with its old-fashioned cottage residence, numerous outbuildings, and poultry yards.. It seems most natural that the birds thrive, and prosper,—till their renown spreads through the country, carrying proudly into other districts the fame of their breeder. They would be most ungrateful Langshans, were it otherwise! 

The fast-developing town of Gordon is reached, either by road or rail. In the latter case, a pleasant trip may be taken via Sydney, the visitor crossing the harbour, landing at Milson's Point, and taking the new line through St. Leonard's to Chatswood, and so on, to the spot known in the " good old days" as Lane Cove. This is, of course, an interesting trip, and, the day we ; made it, the country was at its best; the scent from the clearings—busy with "bush" labour—and the sight of the glorious wattle bloom,brightening every yard of the route—tending to make the .journey a perfect dream of delight. After a fairly long walk from Gordon station, we reached our destination. Greeted cordially by our host, we were soon perfectly, at home and before many minutes had flown were "doing" the place. We first crossed the road to the poultry pens on the part of the proprietor's estate lying nearest the railway. Here we caught our first glimpse of the renowned Langshans. The rooster in the first yard passed was in-prize at Newcastle late show. 

A taken at spme of our host's Game «idj| fewSpitnisn came upon more of lhe |» this farm—a number of splendid hens, with a couple of disti Dgulshed looking. mates, of almoit f>erfebt shape and feather. One bird, particularly. attractive, was a rooster which 'it would not be easy to best, in this class any where in this part of the-world. A few others, in pens close by claimed attention also, it being difficult to differentiate, in relation to merit, between the birds. 

Retracing our steps, we passed the home-stead again; and inspected the pens on, the other side of the farm. Here a magnificent Langshan prince was met with, whose only fault was a slightly defective comb. Otherwise, he would perhaps have ranked, oh bis merits, as the first rooster of his class in , Australia. As he was, he took a prize, a little while ago, in the Melbourne Show, after most critical examination, and against, of course, a strong opposition. . In homes near by, were birds differing in characteristics;. bat al boasting that distinctive aristocratic shape, plumage, and mein, which make conspicuous the well-bred fowls already dealt with in detail. 

Mr. McKeown, having come at last to the end of his feathered trophiesled the way to the dog kennels and here, a surprise quite as genuine as any in connection with the birds, awaited us. Finer specimens of St. Bernard's we never wish to see (—and how they are treated at this week's Exhibition will not be uninteresting to those who have a kindly corner in Aeir hearts for man's faithful friend!) The puppies—great lumbering, frolicsome, affectionate, fluffy young lions, they looked— greeted us with never-ceasing manifestations of interest and delightal most tumbling us- over meanwhile. Words can hardly give an idea of the " high degree " of these canine beauties; but figures may—and when we say, that one of Mr. McKeown's St. Bernard's is a relative, by immediate descent, of an animal whose price was fixed at £1,400, we may have said sufficient for the purpose. 

The illustration at the head of this article gives a very good idea of the Langshan—the type of bird bred, and shown with success, by Mr. McKeown. It may be said, finally, that many poultry fanciers, and more especially men and women who expect to make a business by raising the most profitable breed of fowls known in New South Wales, will only be doing a natural thing if in'future they watch for the honoured name of W. H. McKeown, in the Langshan classes, when the prize-lists of our different big shows are being published. THE FAMOUS LANE COVE LANGSHANS. (1893, August 26). The Cumberland Mercury (Parramatta, NSW : 1875 - 1895), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article249016039


How does the Lane Cove-road, the main thoroughfare of the North Shore districts, get its name? It never comes within sight of Lane Cove waters, and, except for a brief incursion, it scarcely enters the municipality of that name. Indeed, people who live along its northern end call it the Gordon-road, which seems more appropriate, for it does go through Gordon.

It is the oldest white man's road in the district, for it follows the track that was cut by Lieutenant Henry Lidgbird Ball, of H.M.S. Supply, in 1789, from Blue's Point, along the ridge which affords the easiest route for the penetration of the North Shore region. Quite possibly, Ball followed up an aboriginal trail, of which there were many between Port Jackson and Broken Bay. The present North Shore railway to Hornsby follows nearly the same route as the Lane Cove-road and the rails are seldom far apart. Like the Military road of Mosman, its course is tortuous, and for the same reason the makers of those old trails avoided as far as possible the primal curse of man, and went round a big tree rather than undertake the labour of removing it.

For at least seventy years the road was a very rough one, not much more than a dray track through the big timberWhen William McKeon, whose descendants are well known in Sydney to this day, went to Gordon (then known as Lane Cove Settlement) in 1845 there were only a few bark huts, occupied by timber-getters, along the track. In 1851, some money was appropriated by Parliament for improving the road, for we are told by the "Sydney Morning Herald" of May 1 that a meeting was held at the Old School, Lane Cove (where St. John's Church, Gordon now stands), to elect trustees to supervise the expenditure of the vote. Mr. Burgess was in the chair, and the trustees elected were Messrs. Geering, John Duffy, McKeon, R. Porter, Richard Hill, and H. Whittingham, all well-known names in the chronicles of Lane Cove, using the name in its earlier sense, as referring to all the country lying between St. Leonards and Wahroonga.


But the expenditure of a Government subsidy did not put the road into first-class order, for we read in Lepinstrier's book on Willoughby that in 1805, when the mail cart started from Chatswood for Blue's Point, it always carried an axe to cut away trees that might have fallen across the track. The fare was eighteen pence, and seats had to be booked a day previously. The road is in somewhat better condition now, for it is recognised as one of the great arterial avenues leading out of Sydney, and very large sums have been, and are being, spent on it. It is not known as the Lane Cove-road until you go to the North Sydney Post-office. For the first three miles or so, the grade from the waterside is steep. A height of 210 feet is reached at St. Leonards, but from that point to Pymble the grades are easy. But from Pymble there is a steep series of grades to Pearce's Corner (630 feet), where the old Pennant Hills road is met, and the Lane Cove road loses its name. This corner, at the modern Wahroonga, was named after Aaron Pearce, one of the earliest settlers. Here beginneth the Peat's Ferry road.

The populous region now comprised in the municipalities of Willoughby and Lane Cove and Kuring-gai Shire was known in the early days of the colony as Lane Cove, because it was generally approached by the Lane Cove River, then navigable by small craft as far as, and beyond, Fidden's Wharf, near the present Killara. If you visit St Thomas' Graveyard in North Sydney you will see that the Archbolds, a well known Roseville family, are described as "of Clanville, Lane Cove." Clanville being the present Roseville neighbourhood.


The first white settlers of this district were what the Americans call "lumberjacks." Sydney Town was a voracious consumer of building timber, which came chiefly from the big gum trees of Lane Cove. They were felled by the pioneers, sawn into planks, or hauled in the log to the various wharves on Lane Cove, and shipped to the city. When the bush was cleared, orchards and market gardens were planted. Here is an advertisement from the "Sydney Gazette" of May 5, 1804, only 16 years after the arrival of the First Fleet, showing that settlements had been formed In Lane Cove at a very early date -

Whereas public notice has heretofore been duly given, cautioning persons from committing acts of trespass upon the farms known as Watson's, Archer's, Ikin's, and Waitrel's, lying near to and about Lane Cove, now the property of James Willshire, notwithstanding which, a number of very fine sheoaks and other trees have been fell and removed, no labour and exspense will be spared In putting the law, In force against them.

The land agents who advertise properties for sale in the Roseville-Pymble districts, describe their wares as choice, exclusive, and superior, but It was not ever thus. Lane Cove was a refuge for escaped convicts and bad men; sporting bloods went there to see cock fights and prize fights.' Stolen booty and unlawful liquors were cached in its thickets and caves. 

This is, what the "Sydney Gazette" said in its leader of February 25, 1841:- -

"Lane Cove has long been noted as the resort, of disreputable people, and we do not hesitate to say that there should be a military post established there, to prevent smuggling and sly-grog selling. Sly-grog selling is carried on so openly at Lane Cove that can scarcely be said to deserve the name of 'sly.' Thieving is practised, the grog sellers being the receivers of stolen goods. If an active police magistrate were to visit this Infamous district frequently, we make no doubt that much would be done towards cleansing it of as great a set of ruffians as the colony holds." 

The people of Killara and Gordon are not quite like that now. 

THE LANE COVE ROAD. (1928, February 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16439308 

LOST, stolen, or strayed from Stoney Creek, Lane Cove Road,—A bay horse, branded eJ9. £l reward. Apply—
Ominbus Proprietor, Lane Cove Road. 
LOST, stolen, or strayed from Stoney Creek, Lane Cove Road,—A bay horse, branded B. £1 reward. Apply— (1883, May 1). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 2323. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225725299 

Map sections from Pymble-St Ives. Area, County of Cumberland Parish of Gordon Land Map - cancelled 1967, still show most of these earlier land grants and settlers sections side by side - above is Pacific highway end - then following two head east towards Mona Vale:

The timber-getters became orchardists. An early attempt to remedy the old bullock track into something more traverse-able came in the form of a petition accompanied by a prayer:

Mr. DARVALL presented a petition from certain residents at Hunter's Hill, the Pennant Hills, Wollombi, Pitt-water, &c., praying for the repair of the road leading from the North Shore, Sydney, to the northern districts. -Received. PETITIONS. (1851, November 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12932187

By 1880 the development of orchards along what we now call Mona Vale road attributed for most of the population of what is now the Ku-ring-gai Shire Council area. Those up the hill were also active on these 'improve the road' grounds in Pittwater decades later:

Pittwater Affairs.
A meeting of the residents of Pittwater was held on Saturday evening at Bolton's Hotel, for the purpose of urging the Government to make the road from the Lagoon to Newport. Mr. Crawford, who was appointed chairman, in a neat speech, explained the object of the meeting and drew attention to state of the road which, in some parts was almost impassable, he stated that he was convinced it was only necessary to brine the matter under the notice of the Minister for Works to get the work done. After several forcible and appropriate speeches were made the following gentlemen were appointed to wait upon the Minister.— Messrs. M'Keon, Drs. Tebbut, O’Riley, James, and F. Smith. At the conclusion of the business a concert was given by a number of ladies and gentlemen, (visitors from Sydney), and a most enjoyable evening was spent.
 Pittwater Affairs. (1883, March 27).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107230268 

The road itself:

23181 Department of Mines, Sydney, 1st May. 1883.
NOTICE is hereby given thit the line of Parish Road mentioned in the annexed Schedule has been formally marked and opened by the proper officer, and that the same is now open for public use.  JOSEPH P. ABBOTT.
Schedule. Roads No. 83-1349 81-500-14 SG, R.8810
Description of Road. 
Road from the Stony Creek Head to the Lane Cove Road, at Wright's Hill, parish of Gordon, county of Cumberland, being part of the road from Lane Core to Pittwater.
Date of Gazette of last Notice. 10 June, 1881, folio 3146. Plan, &c., lodged at the Police Office at— Ryde. 
FORMAL OPENING OF A PARISH ROAD. (1883, May 1). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 2303. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225725410

TENDERS ACCEPTED.-The following tenders have been accepted : ... M'Gee and Brennan, Lane Cove road, £300 0s. D. Bailey, road Lane Cove to Pittwater, £543 18s. 7d.  GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. (1887, July 30).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13652337 

The rail link to Pearce's corner/Hornsby opening in 1890 was the next phase of development which may have meant improvements along the old bullock track. The push to extend suburbia and open up heretofore inaccessible areas would allow subdivisions:


The adoption by the Government of a tender, under certain conditions, for the construction of n railway from Pearce's Corner to St. Leonards has caused general satisfaction, as this work is looked upon as a necessary one, and will afford employment to a large number of men out of work. The length of the proposed line is 10 miles r.O chain., and the estimated cost, for the work of construction only, is about £12,000 a mile. The line at Pearce's Corner will form a junction with the Southern and Northern Junction railway at 20 miles 03 chains 10.3 links. From Pearce's Corner the line runs in a southeasterly direction through the county of Cumberland, parish of Gordon, and then through the county of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby, and at the St. Leonards terminus the nearest portions of the harbor to the station will be Neutral Bay and Lavender Bay. 

During Mr. Lyne's tenure of office, when the matter was prominently considered, almost the the whole of the landowners on the route of the proposed line came forward and undertook to give the land that might be required for the line free, with the exception of one large fil and-it is understood that the owners of the land are disinclined to fulfil the obligation morally entered into, and the present Government, it appears, are determined that the construction of the railway shall only be conditional upon all the land, as promised, being conveyed free to the Crown. It is supposed that the Government have under consideration a proposal for a tramway line along the main road, which would require no purchase of land whatever; and, failing the agreement of the owners to give the land required, it is thought that probably the Government will take into consideration the propriety of making a tramway, which could be constructed at a quarter of the cost of a railway and which at the same time would he suitable for all requirements. 

The estimated value of the land through which the railway will pass is a little over £60, 000. The various properties through which the line passes are very numerous. Of about 305 sections of land touched by the line only 41 belong to the Crown. The remainder are owned by about 110 persons. A glance at the map which is published herewith will show how numerous are the blocks of land affected by the line, and it is right to suppose tun: if the area required for railway purposes were given, the gift would be more than repaid by the improvement to the other portions of the land by the introduction of the railway. The largest quantity of land required by the Goverumeut from any one individual is not more than 6a. 2r. and 11p., and this is bush land. Messrs. John Brodie, sen., and J. Brodie, jun., are the owners of about 5a. of bush country wanted. The land required from nearly all the owners is on an average less in area than 1r. Owing to the large number of the allotments cut by the line and their small size, we are unable to do what we had wished to do — namely, indicate on the allotments shown on our plan the names of their owners. 

The following streets among others will be intersected by the proposed line: Lane Cove-road, Stony Creek-road, Mount William-street, Park-avenue, Harold-street, Occupation-road, all in the parish of Gordon ; also, Albert-street, William-street, Ashley-street, Anderson-street, Wilson-street, Day-street. Railway-street, M'lntosh-street. Help-street, Brown-street. Victoria-avenue, Thomas-street, Carlotta-street and O'Brien-street, in the parish of Willoughby. 

A great deal of the land on the route is bush land and allotments, and there are a few paddocks and orchards. The proposed line, beginning at Pearce's Corner, runs almost parallel with the Lane Cove-road for the first nine miles, only cutting it in two places, namely, at the third mile and the fourth

The following is a list of the names of the owners of the land required for the purposes of the railway :-Messrs. Ross, Robertson and M'Rae, 2a.2r.lp.; Richard Archibald, ua. lr. 13p. ; Precious and Doust, 5a.; J. and J. Brodie, 5a. ; Harnett and Smart, la. 2r. ; Henry Cornwall, 4a. lr. ; Win. M'Intosh, 4a. lr. ; Wm. M'Gillivry, 4a.; John Dawson, 3a.; trustees of the late Sir Alexander Stuart, 3r. 26p. ; William Graccy, Jacob Dreis, Penny, Herbert Fowler, Henry Ingram, Frank Mooney, Patrick Noonan, J. B. Lucas, Joseph Dobson, R. B. Smith, Reuben Sawyer, trustees late J. F. Jones. Henry Hare, E. Keen, Daniel Ryan. E. K. Wilson, W. Ray, Peter Gilvov, Port Jackson Land and Investment Company, M'Millan, J. W. M'Mabon, H. A. Brady, It. Porter, jun., It. Porter, sen., J. It. Porter, M. Porter, G. M'Intosh, J. Jones, Osbourne, M. O'Grady, E. M'Intosh, U. and C. Buckingham, W. M'Keown, A. Menzies, J. Vernon, G. K. M'Intosh, W. L M'Intosh, R. Precious, G. Precious, H. Moorhouse, T. Stead, jun., G. Norton TL Kitching, R. Neville, J. G. Edwards, A. J. Brady, J. Johnston, William Braharn, W. Bickle. J. Kent, J. Burns, Erwin, trustees of the late R. leeldon, J. F. Montgamery, T. Coleman, It. Archibald, G. Archi-Frauds Lord, Sydney and Suburban Mutual Permanent Building and Land Investment Association, J. Houghton, P. B. Treatt, E. Bains, John Basskan, E. H. Day, P. F. Richardson, Thomas Dalton, J. Walsh, H. Peduleson, F. Murphy, James Medley. J. F. Burns, Edward Lee, John Cardwell, W. L. Korsley, G. .Tunes, E. E. Brett, John Clatworthy, T. Broughton, Dr. On Lee, Captain Pockley, Captain Craig, Rev. George M'Intosh, Mesdames Drewitt, Annie Hill, Jane Pymble, Edwards, E. Macmahon, Annie M'lntosh, Powell, Misses E. M-Intosh and Gazely. 

The total area required from Pearce's Corner up to Mr. Berry's land is 193a. 2r. 39 2/3p. It is at this point that the St. Leonards end of the line will terminate. 

NORTH SHORE TO PEARCE'S CORNER RAILWAY. (1887, June 29). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239811498

The North Shore Railway.

The following are the general conclusions at which the Public Works Committee have arrived in reference to the North Shore railway :— The proposed railway is enormously expensive, and being so, every precaution should be taken before the expenditure is authorised, to see that, if constructed, the line will prove remunerative. 

The circumstances attending the construction of the present North Shore railway, and the present condition and prospects of North Shore being such as to show that the original plan in regard to passenger traffic on this rail way was not misconceived, there is nothing on those grounds to prove that this, railway, assisted by adjuncts other than the proposed connecting line to Milson's Point, will not meet public requirements for at least some years. 

The proposed railway, if constructed, would be useless to the great majority of the present and future population of North Shore, inasmuch as most of the settlement in the suburb is, and will continue to be, to the east of the proposed line. 

The prospect of a large population along the North Shore railway, travelling to and fro similar to what is to be seen on the suburban railways starting from Redfern, is not free from considerable doubt. A through passenger traffic is a matter of great uncertainty. 

The evidence respecting the subject of a goods traffic is contradictory and inconclusive, and generally of such a nature as to show that the question of goods traffic has not been thoroughly and satisfactorily considered. 

By extending the present -tramway for a short distance, at very small cost 'compared with the estimated cost of the proposed railway, and making provision for improving the running of the frame, at certain times of the day, in point of speed and frequency of journeying, public requirements could be met, the North Shore railway utilised, and the great expense of constructing the proposed railway avoided. 

As a bridge to carry a railway may be constructed between Sydney .and North Shore within the next few year--, it is necessary to provide for a connection of the railway crossing the bridge with the railway at North Shore on a high level, and this requirement would not be met by the proposed extension to Milson's Point. The evidence taken in the inquiry was considered by the committee on Tuesday, November 5, and the following extract from the minutes of the meeting will show the resolution which was passed:— 

Mr. Dowel moved, — ' That the committee consider it expedient that the proposed railway' to connect the North Shore railway with the deep waters of Port Jackson at Milson's Point, as referred to them by the Legislative Assembly, be carried out.' Mr. Garrard seconded the motion. The motion was negatived, after discussion, on the following division :— Ayes, 5 : Dr. Garran, Mr. Humphery, Mr. Garrard, Mr. Dowel, Mr. Hurley. Noes, 8 : Mr. Abbott, Mr. Lackey, Mr. Trickett. Mr. C'ux, Mr. Copeland, Mr. Tonkin, Mr. O'Sullivan, Mr. Lee. 

Mr. Trickett moved, — 'That the committee do not consider it expedient that the proposed rail way to connect the North Shore Railway with the deep waters of Port Jackson at Milson's Point, as referred to them by the Legislative Assembly, be carried out.' The motion was seconded by Mr. Lackey, and passed on the following division : —Ayes, 8 : Mr. Abbott. Mr. Lackey, Mr. Trickett, Mr. Cos, Mr. Cope) and, Mr. Tonkin, Mr. O'Sullivan, Mr. Lee. Noes, 5 : Dr. Garran, Mr. Humphrey, Mr. Garrard, Mr. Dowel, Mr. Hurley. (Signed) J. P. Abbott, Chairman. Sydney, December 11. The North Shore Railway. (1889, December 28). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1423. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162066095

North Shore railway terminus (St Leonards) c1890s nla.obj-142827586-1_0

The North Shore Line was opened on January 1st, 1890 as a single track between Hornsby and St Leonards. The line was finally extended to the Sydney Harbour foreshore at Milsons Point on May 1st, 1893. From 1890 on the subdivisions commenced, as did the calls for new roads and improvements to those already in place:


The question of opening a road from the Gordon railway station along the eastern boundary of Mr. Matthew's land was also placed before the Minister of Lands by a deputation yesterday. A petition in favour of the work was presented, and it was stated that the deputation would guarantee subscriptions to the amount at £200 towards the cost.

Mr. Brunker read reports from officers of the department, which were quite opposed to the work being done. These, however, had been made sometime since, and the contentions were, in part, repudiated by the deputation. The Minister promised to call for a fresh report, and to inform the deputation of his decision. THE APPROACH TO GORDON RAILWAY STATION. (1890, October 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13791918


Yesterday Mr Howarth M L A , introduced a deputation of the residents of Pymble and St Ives to the Minister for Works to request that Telegraph-road in the Gordon district should be classed as a first class schedule road and should receive an annual vote. It was pointed out that the proposed increased expenditure would result in a corresponding decreased expenditure on Stoney Creek-road. The principal traffic to the Pymble station would be greatly benefited if the wishes of the deputation were granted.

The Minister, in reply, said he was not prepared to say that the relative value of Telegraph road was such as to entitle him to regard it as a main artery of traffic and to expend a large amount of money on it. The view taken by some of the superior officers of the department last year is that more money was spent in the North Shore district than its reasonable claims warranted. Also it had been pointed out that in a district in which the population was increasing and which was close to the great centres of population the residents might do something for themselves by way of incorporation. He could not promise to do anything for them until after the Estimates were passed. Then he would call for a further report. He would never schedule a road within 20 miles of Sydney unless it was a main artery of trafficTELEGRAPH-ROAD, GORDON. (1898, November 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14183376 


Sir, Kindly permit me to correct a statement which occurs in your issue of this morning. Under the heading "Over the Lane Cove River" are the statements, that till lately it was understood that the bridge (the proposed Lane Cove River bridge) was to be built lower down the river, either at Moubray-road or at Fuller's-road, the aldermen of Willoughby and Lane Cove having agreed In conference to leave to the department the final decision as to which of these two sites was the more desirable. But then the people of Pymble and thereabouts 'arrived' suddenly with a scheme for a bridge at the head of the navigable portion, of the river, and obtained something very like a promise from Mr. Lee." 

As an old resident of this district— one who distinctly remembers the whole history of the bridge movement— I can assure you that the foregoing statements are Incorrect. Over 80 years ago the residents' of Gordon and Ryde agitated for the construction of a bridge across the river at a spot only a few yards from where it is now proposed to erect It. Repeatedly during the last 80 years has the agitation been revived by the residents of Gordon and Ryde, and during that time surveys have been made, estimates given, and even a sum of  money put on the Estimates for carrying out the undertaking at the head of navigation. Many years after what may be called the commencement of the Pymble agitation it was suggested by the Willoughby Council (and old members of the council, such as Alderman Forsyth, will doubtless confirm my statements) that the building of the bridge at Fuller's-road would better serve the interests of Willoughby, and that an effort should be made to block the Gordon proposal

Since then every effort made by the northern districts to have the work carried out— which has been repeatedly promised by Ministers of the Crown — has been opposed by our Willoughby friends, with the result that Willoughby, which, in the writer's opinion, does not require the bridge, is unable to get it, and Pymble cannot get it either. 

Mr. Lee certainly, fully understood the question when he decided the bridge should be put at the head of navigation, and promised the residents that he would have the work carried out at once. Chatswood, Willoughby, and Hunter's-Hill are well served, by the bridge at the Fig Tree. This bridge is approached by good roads both from Hunter's Hill and Willoughby, whilst to make roads and approaches to a bridge at Fuller's-road would probably cost six or seven thousand pounds. If, too, another bridge is required, surely it should be put half-way between Wahroonga and the present Fig Tree bridge, otherwise only the southern part of the districts will be served. 

Moreover, all the main roads through Hunter's-hill, Ryde, Marsfield, Eastwood, Carlingford, etc., converge to the head of navigation, whilst on the other side of the river the road from Manly through French's Forest, from Pittwater, from Sugar Loaf, and from the head of Cowan all junction with Stoney Creek-road, which is a production of the main highway from Hunter's-Hill. From Fig Tree Bridge to where Fuller's-road junctions with the river is not much over two miles, and it would be unwise to place two bridges close to each other whilst all the rest of the river remained without bridge accommodation. Unless the Government is prepared to erect bridges at Intervals of two miles tile whole river length, then there is but one place for the bridge, and that to at the head of navigation. — Yours, etc., JAMES G. EDWARDS. "Killara," September 13. OVER THE LANE COVE RIVER. (1899, September 15). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237194089 

Kerry image, circa 1900

This isn't Mona Vale road but lends insight into how, if a place 'now becoming populated' couldn't get a look in than a place further out wasn't going to have much done either - the railway was it. This road eventually got the go-ahead in 1901 but ran and runs, alongside the Lane Cove river.


The desirableness of Governmental action being taken to put the main road from Ryde to Pittwater in proper repair was pressed upon the notice of the Minister for Works yesterday by a deputation from the Ryde and Hunter's-Hill Municipal Council. Replying, Mr. O'Sullivan stated that the report of the departmental engineer was against the work being done by the Government, but he would look carefully into the matter and see what could be done.  THE RYDE TO PITTWATER ROAD. (1900, June 8). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237329893 

The need of putting part of the road from the Ryde district to the sea coast at Pittwater into repair was brought under the notice of the Minister for Works yesterday by residents of Ryde and neighbourhood. It was a main road and a military road at one time, and passed through Crown lands, and, with the opening of the bridge over the Lane Cove would have a considerable traffic. The Minister said the report of the officer was against the proposal. He would, in view of their representations, look further into the matter. 
PITTWATER-ROAD. (1900, June 8). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229378260 

The Pittwater Road Trouble Ended 
An Expenditure of £11600. Forty Men to be Put on.
The dangerous and almost impassable Pittwater-road, a portion of which forms the boundary between the Ryde and Hunter's Hill municipalities, has for a long time been a source of anxiety to the Ryde Council and to those unfortunate ratepayers who have been compelled to use it. Being a main military road, it has always been contended that it should at least be put in an efficient state of trafficable order by the Government, notwithstanding the fact that it traverses the municipalities of Ryde and Hunter’s Hill. 

During the last administration, it was contended by the then Minister for Works (Mr. Young) that the Hunter's Hill and Ryde Councils were jointly liable for its repair and maintenance, and all the Councils could got was a small annual subsidy towards keeping it in repair. This they have consistently refused to accept for years, as they considered acceptance would mean a recognition of a liability which they were not prepared to admit. The result was that these annual votes lapsed and the road lapsed too — into a dangerous and disgraceful condition. In fact, it has been described as positively the worst road in the entire estate. However, this very undesirable state of affairs is to be altered very shortly. A letter was read at the last meeting of the Ryde Council from Mr. Frank Farnell, M.P., conveying the welcome intelligence that on his representations the Minister for Works had decided to put 10 men at work on Pittwater-road early on the following week to place it in an efficient state of repair. The estimated cost of the work, Mr. Farnell added, was £1600. All the men employed on the work, he further stated, would be engaged at the Labour Bureau, he had no power to recommend anyone for employment — all would have to register at the Bureau. The announcement that this much needed work was at last to be undertaken was received with general satisfaction, though the Council would have preferred very much to have had the control of the expenditure of the large sum stated. The Council has not much faith in the value of Labour Bureau work. Alderman Sutton expressed the opinion that the carrying out of the work by day labor in the manner stipulated, meant the wasting of at least £1000.
The Pittwater Road Trouble Ended. (1901, November 9). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article85828930 

In March 1901 the Lane Cove bridge was opened, officially! - and eased the way to Pittwater, but this is not Mona Vale road coming into its own either:




Lane Cove Bridge and Field of Mars Tramway.
(See illustrations on this and previous page.)

Mr. O'Sullivan, State Minister for Public Works, officially visited Ryde on Saturday. The opening of the Lane Cove Bridge and the turning of the first sod of the Field of Mars tramway at Gladesville, with refreshments, speeches, and a banquet was the programme, and each portion thereof was carried out to the satisfaction of all concerned. There was a numerous attendance of residents of the various localities Interested in the two works, and a number of city gentlemen took advantage of the opportunity to visit some very pretty scenery and make themselves better acquainted with the results of the industry of the people who will be directly benefited by the bridge and tramway. Different routes were taken by the visitors. One small party drove from the Ridge-street tram section. North Sydney, and enjoyed a very pleasant journey, calling en route at the residence of Mr.  G. Howarth, M.L.A., to partake of refreshments. Upon arrival at the bridge a welcome was ac corded by the members of the executive commitee. The construction of this work connects the road from Sydney to Pittwater and Broken Bay, via Gladesville and Pymble, and its position is at the point of navigation about three miles on the Ryde and Gladesville side of Pymble. The river at this point runs in a gorge about 200ft below the level of the surrounding country. The bridge ls 300ft in length, the deepest part of the gorge being crossed by a single span of 165ft-the largest of its kind in the colony, if not in Australia. This span is an under truss, a type of construction which, as Mr. O'Sullivan explained, was found successful in America.

It was further set forth in an official document describing the work that "a combination of steel and ironbark timber used in its construction has produced a bridge of great strength, rigidity, and lightness." The estimated cost of the bridge and immediate approaches was £3500; but the approaches, since the work has started, have been much extended, as well as metalled and fenced, bringing the total cost to close on £4000. The work was constructed by the Bridges Branch of the Works Department, the only contracts let being for the supply of steel and timber, and the manufacture of the steel and iron work, the latter having been placed with Messrs. Pope, Maher, and Company, of Darlington.

It was intended that the ribbons should have been cut by Miss O'Sullivan, but the Minister explained, in apologising for her absence, that the day happened to be her birthday, and she was engaged elsewhere. The ceremony was, therefore, performed by Master Frank O'Sullivan.




After the due delivery of the necessary speech es a small knot o£ residents formed, with Mr. O'Sullivan in the centre, and half an hour was spent in explaining the needs of the district in several directions. Refreshments, chiefly liquid, were consumed, and the party set out for Gladesville in numerous vehicles, admiring the picturesque scenery and the practical signs of the fertility of the country en route. At Gladesville there was a little display of bunting, and the presence of a body of mounted police and a number of the local members of the Defence Force imparted some dignity to the function of turning the first sod of the Field of Mars Tramway.

In asking the Minister to perform this little ceremony, for which a green plot had been placed in the centre of the road. Mr. G. E. Herring spoke a few appropriate words, in which Mr. O'Sullivan was described as a "Good Samaritan," who had ; not failed to give assistance where he saw it was; required. The residents had been euchred out of the tram for many years, but now they were going to see the straight game played, and the Minister was going to "lead spades." In turning the sod, the Minister expressed the conviction that it was only the beginning of a tram line that would eventually go to Woolwich. After lusty cheers, the company sat down to a banquet, which had been prepared in the Drill Hall.
THE LANE COVE BRIDGE AND THE FIELD OF MARS TRAM. (1901, March 2). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71464262


APPLICATIONS hating been made to bring the lands hereunder described under the provisions of the Heal Property Act, Certificates of Indefeasible Title will issue, unless Caveats be lodged in accordance with the Third Schedule to the said Act, on or before the date named opposite each case respectively.


No. 11,361. County of Cumberland, parish of Gordon, 9 acres 2 roods 26 ¾ perches, situated near Pymble, adjoining the properties of J. Terrey, — Ashdown, D. Stuart, and T. Brown,—is lot C of a subdivision of lot No. 5 of the Rosedale Estate, and part of 800 acres (portion No. 15 of parish) granted to Daniel Dering MathewNOTICE UNDER REAL PROPERTY ACT. (1901, December 13)Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 9524. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226391586 

A fete at Pymble in 1902, attended by well over one thousand people, shows the shift from orchards towards residential areas was already taking place:

In Aid of the Royal North Shore Hospital.

The people of Pymble, acknowledging the claim of the new northern suburbs hospital for support, decided to organise a fete, the proceeds of which would be handed over to the North Shore Hospital committee to augment the funds of the new building, portion of which is now nearing completion.

 A committee, consisting of Dr. O'Reilly (president). Dr. Kottman, Rev. J. Marshall, Rev. Father Kirby, S.J., Messrs. T. H. Jackson, C. M. Buck (treasurer), A. Cooper, F. S. Willis, W. A. Gilder, M. Blake, W. A. Roof, P. Hepworth, and J. G. Hull (hon. secretary) was formed and it was decided that the demonstration should take the form of an open air fete. Every arrangement was made to ensure the success of the movement, and the residents responded liberally.

On Saturday some 1500 people attended the fete, which was held in a large paddock close to the railway station, the formal opening being performed by Mr. Dugald Thomson, M.IL.A, who during the course of a few remarks congratulated the committee upon the excellence of the arrangements, and wished the function every success. 

The grounds were gay with bunting, and several tents had been erected, where refreshments, confectionery, flowers, and fancy goods were procurable. Proceedings were enlivened with music supplied by the Police and Fifth Regiment (Scottish Rifles) bands.

The attractions were varied and interesting, all the side shows and other entertainments being well patronised. The children of the Gordon Public school gave a creditable dumb-bell display, and amongst the numerous attractions were maypole dances, woodchipping contests, fancy dress, cricket match, fancy -dress tug-of-war, catching the greasy pig, treacle bun contest, punch and judy shows, Aunt Sally shooting galleries, pony riding, gramophone selection and palmistry. Collecting boxes were carried round, and altogether a good sum was realised. It was, however, unfortunate that shortly before 5 o'clock a heavy thunderstorm passed through the district, the rain causing a great many of the visitors to bent a hasty retreat. The various stalls did good busines, and the function was in every way successful.

Back Row-Reading from Loft to Right : W. A Gilder. A. Cooper. P. Hepworth. Dr. Kottmann. W. A. Roof. T. U. Jackson. C. M. Buck (treasurer). Mc-Keown, Charlton. Front Row : F. S. Willis, Dr. O'Reilly (president). J. G. Bull (secretary). THE COMMITTEE.



1 Maypole. 2. Fancy Dress Cricket. 3. Some Lady Workers. 4. The Ventriloquist . FETE AT PYMBLE.

OPEN AIR FETE AT PYMBLE, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 8. (1902, November 12). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1253. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165385841

This has Tumbledown dick Hill as being close to Pymble:


The Sydney and Parramatta squadrons of the New South Wales Lancers were engaged on Saturday and part of yesterday in some interesting fluid operations in the neighbourhood of Rock Lily and Newport. The parade was also the last of the year.

The Sydney squadron, numbering 69, under Captain King, was as supposed to represent the advance party of an enemy which had landed at Bongan Bongan Beach, near the entrance to Broken Bay. The squadron left the city at 8.30 a.m., and bivouacked at 1 p.m. at Narrabeen. The landing party, by arrangement, commenced to make its dispositions at 2 p.m. from the Rock Lily Hotel, and the idea, was that the telegraph lines should be tapped in order to prevent reinforcements of the defending force coming from Hornsby.

The Parramatta, squadron of Lancers was ordered to find out the strength of the enemy that had landed at Bongan Bongan Beach. According to the plan of operations the road via the Spit was held to be untenable, so that the detachment had to proceed via Pymble. The Parramatta men mustered 72, and were under the command of Captain Mackenzie. They left Parramatta at 8a.m. and reached Tumble-down Dick, near Pymble, in time for lunch.  Lieutenant-Colonel James Burns, officer-commanding, accompanied them, and at Pymble Brigadier-General Finn, Major A. P. Luscombe, D.A. Q.M.G., and Lieutenant Macartney, A.D.C., joined the party with a view to witnessing the manouvres.

A start was made at 2 p.m. from Tumbledown Dick to ascertain the whereabouts of the enemy, and very rough country was encountered, but trooper's and horses got over the ground capitally. The enemy's landing party not having time apparently to achieve its object, its officer-commanding threw out a line of outposts extending from the Rock Lily Hotel to a little point near Newport. Shortly alter 3 p.m. the Parramatta squadron got into touch with the outposts about two miles from the hotel, and after some good work on both sides the evening's advance guard, according to the prearranged plan, was driven back to the reserve near the beach.

Owing to this reverse and the weather becoming thick and stormy the landing party was supposed to be unable to re-embark by boats on board of the cruisers, consequently a position was taken up on Bongan Head. In this phase of the operations, however, the Sydney squadron no longer represented the enemy, but joined the Parramatta men. The enemy's position on Bongan Head was represented by eight canvas targets, which had been erected under the supervision of Major M. Hilliard, D.S.O., and Captain P. C. Timothy. Four of these were located about 500 yards from the main road and the other f our about 900 yards distant, but the ranges were unknown to those who subsequently took part in the firing. It was decided that the attack on this position should be made shortly after daybreak on the following day by the entire body of Lancers representing the home force.

The two squadrons a little after 5 p.m. reached Mr. George Brock's Mona Vale estate, where Captain Timothy had arranged with the owner for the whole force to bivouac for the night. The troops were here joined by Colonel H. D. Mackenzie, A.A.G., Captain J.  Purves, and Captain J. S. Brunton, the two latter travelling by motor car. The Lancers band also came down by a coach provided by the officers, who also contributed the commissariat supplies.

The State Commandant addressed the officers and N.C.O's. during the evening, and said that he was well pleased generally with the tactics, intelligence, and conduct of the troops. The men had shown their efficiency as skilled horsemen in very rough country, and he complimented them on their mobility. The outpost work was creditably performed, but at times rather humid. After tea a camp-fire concert was held, in which the band figured conspicuously, and Mr. Brock' rendered valuable assistance. A boxing bout between two amateur champions, Troopers Parbury and R. Baker, proved exciting, as were also some smart singlestick tourneys.

At daybreak yesterday the reveille sounded, and the Lancers at 5.45 a.m. were on the way to attack the enemy's position, indicated by the canvas targets on Bongan Head, forty rounds of ball cartridge were fired per man in the attack, which was at unknown distances. The shooting was good. One target had about 200 hits on it. The weakness of the attack, according to Brigadier-General Finn, lay in the fact that the men were too prone to expose themselves and rush forward in large numbers instead of in twos and threesThese were defects apparent in all sham fights, however, and only corrected by a taste of the " Real thing."

The troops returned to camp at 8.16. After morning "stables " a bathing parade was held, in which nearly every Lancer participated on his horse. Mr. Brock was thanked for his kindness in quartering the forces, and route march was then taken via the Spit for the Sydney Squadron and via Pymble for the Parramatta men. - The Sydney detachment reached the city in the afternoon. MILITARY INTELLIGENCE. (1902, December 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14521240

Pymble station circa 1908 The road going along the hill is Grandview.

Lane Cove Road, Turramurra 1908, from album Glass plate negatives of North Shore, Sydney Harbour and general subjects, courtesy State Records of NSW - Also Visit:  Roads To Pittwater: The Pittwater Road  

Another foray:


On Monday last the Sydney Squadron of Lancers returned from a three days' staff ride in the vicinity of Pittwater. The work was undertaken on a tactical scheme connected with the landing of an enemy, the whole being under the command and supervision of Lieutenant M'Mahon. Organised as a complete regiment, the squadron left Sydney about 9 a.m. on Saturday, on a rapid march on Bay View, two squadrons travelling via Gordon and Tumbledown Dick Mountain, and two via Manly and Narrabeen, the advanced parties, by means of signalling communication, coming simultaneously into touch with each other in the scrub behind Rocklily. All ranks had duties of a higher nature than their existing rank, particular attention being paid to the issue of written orders, the forwarding of reports, and sketches In the field. Tents were not taken, the intention being to camp in the open, but owing to the wet weather, the men were billeted in one of Mr. Brock, of Mona Vale's, buildings, the 90 horses being picketed in the rear. MILITARY. (1906, October 4). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14828169

And a description of the road during those years:

The Old Gordon-Rocklily Road

The old road to Gordon from Mona Vale is at present in a very bad condition. About twenty years ago it was a fairly good road, but now trees grow in the middle of it. Cart-wheels sometimes sink to the axle. This was a proper Government roadway. It was made by the Government not much over twenty years ago, and it is said that It partly owed its origin to ideas of military strategy. The residents in the vicinity are about to get up a big petition to have it put in good order again. They say it is impossible to drive a vehicle upon it. For five or six miles from Gordon many orchards are seen. The whole distance from Gordon to Mona Vale or Rock Lily is 16 miles. There is an opening here for a line of coaches—or at any rate there will be when settle meat has increased. The road could be easily improved, especially from Station Hill. At Folly Rock 2 1/2 miles from Rock Lily the road is very bad. The Old Gordon- Rocklily-road. (1906, July 21). The Mosman Mail (NSW : 1898 - 1906), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article247014780

Photo: sections from 1905 Parish of Narrabeen Map showing Tumbledown Hill end of Lane Cove Road and the Village of Turimetta (Mona Vale - Rocklily) end

Photo: sections from 1905 Parish Map of Narrabeen showing railway dotted line - that was rejected - and 'The Sugarloaf - this section at Terrey Hills part of map also shows 'James Terrey & Philip Spies' owning section of 640 acres previously held by Obadiah Terrey - Below map was Proclaimed April 22nd 1886:

In 1904 the Lane Cove Road (Pacific Highway) to Telegraph road section in St Ives was still called Stoney Creek (MV) Rd, north of Telegraph Rd was still called Pittwater Road. Lane Cove Rd to Woodlands Ave (then Plum St) was in Gordon, Woodlands to Telegraph was Pymble, north of Telegraph was St Ives. The other end, at 'Rock Lily', Taramatta and today's Mona Vale was called the 'Gordon Road'.

With the advent of motor vehicles becoming available in 1904 and 1905 the days of people putting up with dirt tracks were going to come to an end. As more and more people could afford a vehicle, and the advent of motoring bodies such as the N.R.M.A. advocating for better roads where they were in place and the construction of those where they were not, and when this fitted in with 'opening up new areas for residential purposes', the 'road to Lane Cove' was getting closer to actually being that rather than an old bullock track.


A little known stretch of country is that lying between the upper portion of the Milson's Point railway line and the district of Rocklily, Newport, Bayview, etc. The track that gives access from Gordon to Rocklily, passing through the rustic village of St. Ives, is known as the Pittwater-road, and has been in existence for some years, in a more or less neglected condition. Now, however, the authorities are bestirring themselves, and though in places there are stretches of deep sand to negotiate, and in others abrupt and dangerous descents, the major portion of the road is suitable for light traffic, and as the surface is further improved, this road will become more and more popular with tourists. There are views from different portions of the route, which for beauty and extensiveness even excel the Blue Mountains. The road passes through great forests, whose delicious coolness, even on the hottest day, is something: to look back upon with delight, whilst from the summits, of the more elevated plateaus the eye takes in an extent of country which to the west presents a succession of rolling hills and isolated mountain peaks as far as the eye can reach, and lo the east, the smiling landscape is bordered by the deep blue of the Pacific Ocean, the gleam of yellow seabeaches, with their silvery line of surf, standing out pure and white against the background of blue. Already the wild flowers art: breaking forth into bloom. The lovely epacris, or native heath, abounds in this region, and in the proper season must fill this well favoured locality with a blaze of glory. The handsome grevillia, or spider plant, with its deep red and silver-grey blossoms, may be found everywhere, and late though the season was when the writer visited this district, myriads of Christmas bells were still in bloom, and the numerous Dilwynnia family, with their variegated flowers of red and yellow, formed oases of colour amongst the grass.

About midway between Gordon and Rocklily the road winds up the side of a high mountain, locally known as 'Tumbledown Dick,' the views from every bend, being superb. Here would be the place for a fine, up-to-date residential hotel, which would be convenient to the city, would be surrounded by charming scenery, and whose inmates would derive the benefit to be obtained from the pure mountain air, without undergoing the preliminary toil and fatigue of a long railway journey. A few hundred pounds spent on the road would, enable a swift motor-car service to be initiated between this locality and Manly, Narrabeen, or Rocklily, and irrespective of the future, when, without doubt, accommodation houses will be built along this route, the whole extent of the road from Gordon to its terminus at Rocklily or Narrabeen would make an ideal tourist route, and amply justify the money spent in making the road fit for traffic. As to the name of this mountain, 'Tumble-down Dick,' it is high time that such nomenclature of beauty spots should be done away with, and as a suggestion the writer would offer the name of 'Mount Cook,' or 'Cook's Plateau,' as a tribute to the great navigator, whose eyes no doubt rested upon this elevated spot in his memorable passage up the coast in the year 1770. The whole of this region to the west is practically unexplored, a greater part of it being bounded by the area known as the Kuring-gai Chase, and it only awaits development, in the shape of good roads, to make of it a desirable place, where the city merchant could establish his country home, and though almost in touch with the metropolis find himself surrounded by all that is health-giving and enchanting in Nature. A LITTLE KNOWN BEAUTY SPOT. (1909, May 19). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164292811 

Photo: Stoney Creek Road near Gordon, 19 May 1906 – photo by Frank Walker. RAHS states; Unidentified man with bicycle on Stoney Creek Road, near Gordon. Possibly Frank Walker's cycling companion Richard Rowell. From negative in Mitchell Library Frank Walker Collection ON 150, Item 161 Visit: The New Cycle Path - Manly to Pittwater (1901) in Motor Car Tours To And In Pittwater Show Us The Way This Place Once Was

As seen in Roads To Pittwater: The Pittwater Road, in 1906 the "Local Government Act 1906 No 56" and "Local Government Extension Act, 1906 No 40" the responsibility for roads was devolved to local government under the new Local Government Act, which came into operation on 1 January 1907. The Act also increased the number of local government authorities by compulsorily incorporating many rural areas as shires. However, the Public Works Department remained the main construction authority. On 30 June 1906, the Public Works Department cared for 48,311 miles (77,749 km) of roads. Roads Trusts cared for 195 miles (313.8 km). A total of 1,338 miles (2.153.3 km) was controlled by local government with government subsidies. An additional 8,300 miles (13,357.6 km) of municipal roads received no subsidy.

This meant the newly formed Warringah Shire Council became responsible for the Mona Vale and Ingleside end of what we today call 'Mona Vale Road' although then, and for a while longer, it would remain in name as the 'Gordon Road' simply because it was still the road to Gordon.

Several examples of Warringah Shire Council seeking tenders for the work to improve and even build this road from the Mona Vale end are throughout that council's records:

13th December 1907; it was decided to call for fresh tenders for the clearing of Gordon road from west end of Mona Vale Cemetery to Larkins. ('Larkins' was the Waratah Farm, near and comprising the former Ingleside Powder Works)

WARRINGAH. At a meeting of the Warringah Shire Council the clerk presented a statement showing a credit balance of £538 He stated that although the ordinances and regulations were somewhat intricate, they proved it valuable assistance to him in his work Contracts were lot for the supply of 300 yards of metal, and for the clearing and forming of part of Gordon road, to Messrs. Oliver and Whitney respectively. WARRINGAH. (1907, July 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14834033

5th June 1908; C. Harrington asking for work on the Gordon Road Mona Vale


At the last meeting of the Warringah Council, C.» M'Intosh moved:— "That application be made to the Minister for Lands to re-name Manly and Curl Curl Lagoons, as their present names are not in keeping with their positions.:' The mover Adopted a suggestion that the motion stand overs to allow, him to suggest suitable names. . . Cr. M'lntosh moved and Cr. Ralston seconded— "That this council take the necessary steps under section 120, to secure by resumption or appropriation, about three chains of land lying between the Pittwater-road and Nicolson-street. The resumed area to be for a road of access for quarry and other purposes." It was decided to first ask the landowners in the benefited area to contribute to the cost of the undertaking. Cr. M'lntosh moved, and Cr. Powell seconded— (a) "That the engineer prepare an estimate of the cost of forming and ballasting 30 chains ot the Fish-road, Dee-why." (b) "As the above road gives direct access to large areas of Crown lands, which will shortly be made available by auction sale, application be made to the Governor to declare the making of the above road a national work, as. provided for in section 137, L.G. Act, and to pay to the council such proportion of the cost of the work as may be agreed upon between the Minister and the council. Carried unanimously. As the successful tenderer for the Gordon-road work (Mr. Hill) declined to take up the contracts, they were given to the next Jowett— Devlin and Erickson. £100/10/; and G. Riddle, £108/15/. The consideration of tenders for metal for the Beacon-hill was allowed to stand over until the next meeting. IN THE SHIRES. (1909, September 6). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238323050

Gordon Rd, Lindfield ca.1910. Taken on Gordon Road (now known as the Pacific Highway) looking North with Strickland Avenue on the right. Courtesy State Records of NSW

March 1911 Warringah Shire Council Records show improvements had ben made, although there was still criticism on how good these were:

WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL: the president's minute.

At the last meeting of the Warrningah Shire Council, the president (Cr. Quirk) submitted his annual minute. The finances of the shire were in a very sound condition, the total income amounting to £8391,. as against £5552 for the previous year. As the outlook was most promising, the current year would probably give a corresponding increase. Surf bathing was one of the shire a principal assets, and the pastime had received every attention from the council, accommodation being established at Newport and Narrabeen during the year. Towards the expenditure on the new enclosures the Government department had contributed £ for £, while the local residents subscribed one-third of the amount. 

The roads throughout the shire had been improved considerably. The principal amount spent was on Gordon-road, viz., £500. That thoroughfare was being made trafficable for the purpose of providing a new and direct route to the seaside for northern suburbs residents

An excellent business transaction resulted in the handing over of the whole of the Newport beach frontage— about six acres— to the shire. The transfer was effected through the payment of £150 by the Lands Department. 

The extension of the tram to Brookvale was most satisfactory, and made all tlie more pleasing by reason of the Minister's promise for an ultimate extension to Narrabeen. During the year 130 new dwellings had been erected within the area. Turimetta Reserve had been improved, and a splendid site secured for the Brookvale Park. Queenscliff and Freshwater had been lighted for the first time, the water supply of those places being also carried out by means of mains from Manly. The health of the shire was good, not one case of infectious disease having occurred during the year. Cr. Quirk hoped for the continued success of the council under the new presidency of Cr. Ralston. WARRINGAH SHIRE COUNCIL (1911, March 1). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238718474

Mr. Joe Pearson, who travelled, over the road from Rocklily to St. Ives a few days ago, says that the road is being Improved, but It will be some time before It Is in a good condition. At any time the best way to travel would be from St. Ives to Rocklily as the grades Ii places are some-what severe, there being a rise up Foley’s Hill of 600ft. In three miles, when there is a fall of about 100ft in the next mile, after which the ascent of 'Tumbledown Dick' Is made, 250ft being the rise In a little over one mile. As several sandy patches are met on the Journey, they make the ascent rather severe, but by going the way recommended they should not be so troublesome. It Is a pity that greater efforts are not made to make the road, better, as some of the views from various parts are charming. In fact there are not many better around Sydney. CYCLING AND MOTORING. (1911, June 8). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114138913 

A petition, signed by sixty residents, was presented to the Warringah Shire Council at its last meeting. The object was to draw attention to the drainage of Mona Vale. The Black Swamp is nothing more than a pool of stagnant water the greater part of the year, and when not under water It considered a menace to health by reason of the amount of decaying vegetable matter washed Into it during every storm. It was suggested that a drain be made from Warriewood and Newport roads to the ocean, via Bayview. If this were done a considerable portion of good residential and agricultural ground would be opened up. The matter is to have consideration. MONA VALE DRAINAGE. (1913, June 18).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113364399 

By 1919-1920 the entire length from Lane Cove Rd (Pacific Hwy) is now called Pittwater Road. In 1914 a 'truck' bus operated from Pymble station in a Model T Ford and quickly became a real 'bus service. The Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences has a great webpage on World War One veteran, James (Jim) Maunder of "Braeside" Cowan Road, St Ives and Arthur Hellewell Gillott, who ran buses along this road to Dee Why Beach, eventually.

There are frequent 'bus services to and from Gordon, Pymble, Warrawee and St. Ives. ...IN THE HEART of a NORTHERN PARADISE (1924, November 9). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 24. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128150211

The growth in automobile users gives us descriptions of the roads to Pittwater they could now take, particularly this still relatively alike a 'bush track' version of Mona Vale Road:

With a well-oiled car, equipped with a spare tyre, a supply of fuel and oil, and with good lamps - a motorist should never leave his garage without lamps - a run of 10 miles may be undertaken without trepidation. If the motorist lives in the city, or on the southern side of the harbour, he must ferry his car across to Milson's Point and commence the steady climb up past St. Leonards railway station, along the Lane Cove-road to Chatswood, and through the pleasant uplands towards Gordon, now thickly dotted with the picturesque houses of the dwellers on the

North Shore line.
There is a Green Gate Inn at Gordon, and a little beyond a road to the right is found leading through St. Ives to Pittwater. The motorist is now heading for the coast, but is still climbing up and breathing the pure air of the mountains. The road is fair - a little sandy in places, perhaps, but of no account to the car, although the cyclist is compelled to dismount only to be lured off the track a moment later by the wealth of wild flowers growing in the bush. Once past the notorious "Tumble Down Dick"' there are glimpses of the sea, with the horizon, it would seem, even higher than the road.

The by-roads leading to Narrabeen are not taken as the view from Bushranger's Hill must be seen, and to reach this viewpoint it is necessary to pass through Rocklily, where the main coast road to Broken Bay is joined. Bay View from where Pittwater may be seen at its best must certainly be visited as well, and if time permits, Church Point also, which is the terminus of the road through Rocklily, so a return must be made to the main road, and the turn to Newport taken.

But it is not wise to go beyond Newport in this direction. The road leads on to Barrenjoey, the south head of Broken Bay, but although rivalling the Old South Head-road from Sydney in scenic splendour, it is a wretchedly rough trail, and not fitted for the wheels of motor cars. A turn should there-fore, be made back to the Newport turn-off, where a track will be found on the right, leading away to the far-famed Bushranger's Hill with both land and sea scapes, unequalled on these coasts.

To Manly from Newport the way lies past Rocklily again, and follows the sea coast, or as near to it as it is possible to go, past the flourishing little township of Narrabeen, with its surfing beaches, and wellstocked lake - a Mecca for fishermen. Narrabeen has a 
motor 'bus service, too, and a tentacle of the Manly tramways has now pushed its way to the "city limits," which means, of course, that wild flowers are only to be gathered farther afield - away by the old powder works or on the wooded slopes of Sheep Station Hill. The tramway has not spoiled the run alongside the Deewhy Lagoon all the way through Manly to the Spit ; but if the dust is troublesome the road via Condamine-street to the Spit, which will be found on the right just eight miles from Rocklily, may be taken, which is a shorter route home and leaves out Manly.

It is only 8½ miles from Manly to Milson's Point via the Spit, so perhaps if it is not too late and the breakers are inviting, a halt may be called while the driver looks to the mechanism of his car ; or if the moon per-chance should rise early it would repay the party to stay in the "village" for tea, and cross the Middle Harbour hills by moonlight, for those who have travelled far afield say that the scenes remind them of the fjords of Norway.
PLEASANT TOURS AWHEEL. (1913, September 30). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15454171

Frenchs Forest Soldier Settlement: group in car. Motor with Dr Arthur, Mr P and 2 returned soldiers and lady, circa 1916 - 1918. Courtesy State Records of NSW. Visit: Roads To Pittwater: The Wakehurst Parkway Along Old Oxford Falls Track (Roseville Bridge and Soldier's Settlement Scheme section)

A very pleasant afternoon's run is that from North Sydney to St. Leonards, -Chatswood, Lindfield, Gordon,' St. Ives, French's Forest, Rocklily, Bayview, Newport, back to Manly, via Narrabeen, thence via the Spit and Mosman to North Sydney, a distance of 50 miles. ' The horse ferry has to be taken to Milson's Point, and thence the route is to follow' the tram line, turning left at the North Sydney post-office j on to the Lane Cove-road, and on to St. Leonards, Chatswood, Roseville, Lindfield, Killara, to Gordon. The tourist must turn right, here, under the railway line, and keep to the right on through St. Ives. From here across to Rocklily is a most enjoyable run through the bush. A few sandy stretches are encountered, but the road will not be objected to by the average motorist. At the seven-miles post — measurements are taken from Narrabeen— the road to French's Forest is met on the right, but the tourist goes straight on past Tumble-down Dick, from which a fine view of Narrabeen Lakes in the distance is obtained. A little further on another turn-off on the right, which leads to Narrabeen, is passed, and in another three miles the tourist comes out at Rocklilywhere the turn to the left is taken. 

Still keeping to the left, Bayview, and Church Point — a pretty and popular spot— is reached, after a three miles' run from Rocklily. One of the finest views to be had of Pittwater is obtained at Bayview. Returning to the main road, the tourist turns left for Newport, passing the turn-off for Barrenjoey on the right en route. A track here leads to Bushranger's Hill, from which a magnificent view is to be had. The return journey should fa's made back to Rocklily, continuing straight on through Narrabeen. Ten miles from Newport, there is a road off the right which leads to the Spit, via Condamine-street. From the Spit to Milson's Point is plain sailing. This will be found to be one of the best afternoon runs to be had close to the city, and at this time of the year it is a short tour that appeals most to motorists. 
PLEASANT TOURS (1916, July 16). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article121346878 

 Above and Below: Panorama of Mona Vale, New South Wales, ca. 1930 [picture] / EB Studios National Library of Australia PIC P865/125 circa between 1917 and 1946] and sections from made larger to show detail.

The road to Bay View from Mona Vale Village Park junction - circa 1917

Motor Fatality
A young woman named Oliver was thrown out of a motor car on Mona Vale road yesterday, and was killedMotor Fatality (1918, March 25). The Gundagai Independent and Pastoral, Agricultural and Mining Advocate (NSW : 1898 - 1928), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article121755649 

When a motor lorry capsized in Pittwater Road, Mona Vale, on Saturday afternoon, the driver, Herbert Walker, and Jack Bass were injured. Walker's hand was badly hurt, and Bass sustained severe shock. The other occupants of the lorry escaped injury. Walker and Bass were taken to the Manly Cottage Hospital. LORRY CAPSIZES (1923, December 31).The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article246001938 

Local Rate Required
The extension of the water service to Mona Vale will involve the necessity for a local rate. The roads to be served are: Pittwater-road, Bay-view-road, Newport-road, Vineyard-street, Bungan-street, Mona-street. Darley-street, and By-the-Sea-road. The total ratable frontage will be 42,408ft. This at 80s per foot, an average struck on values, as assessed for this year, has (says the shire clerk in a report to the Warringah Council) a total unimproved value of £63,612. The rate necessary to be levied to make up the estimated annual deficiency of £317 14s 9d is 1 l-5d in the £. . : A petition has been forwarded to the Water Board asking for the inclusion of Warriewood-road in the reticulation scheme.
MONA VALE WATER SERVICE (1923, September 18). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 10 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222681170 

In 1924 two local approaches, The Spit Bridge, and the Roseville Bridge, were opened, improving access and lifting local aspirations:

Residents Insist on Good Roads and Other Improvements — Progress Association formed
Residents of the district extending from Green Hills to Church Point met at the Mona Vale Town Hall last night formed a Progress Association to co-operate with the Warringah Shire Council in getting necessary work done in their picturesque area. There was a splendid roll-up of enthusiasts from all parts of the district. Some came in their motor cars, others walked through the bush for miles, guided by the light of their lanterns. 

They elected their officers, adopted their rules, and outlined their plan of campaign. Mr. H. Lodge was appointed president, Mr. W. W. Hill vice-president, Mr. Muddle secretary, and Mr. Austin, treasurer. The president pointed out that the association would confine its activities to the area extending from Green Hills to Church Point, which had not received the attention at the hands of the council that it deserved. 

REFORM PLAN. Mr. Williams (Bay View) said that the Progress Association would not rest content until: — 
(1) The Warringah Shire Council makes a more equitable expenditure in A riding in proportion to the rates paid by the residents of that area. A riding extends from Narrabeen to Barrenjoey, and to Cowan on the western side.) 
(2) First-class roads are constructed from Manly to Pittwater— the gateway from Sydney to the beautiful Kuringai Chase. 
(3) The approaches to the surfing beaches are improved. 
(4) The wharves and baths at Bay View are made safe. (At present the stringers on the wharves are rusty, and the wire-netting In the baths Is in a most dilapidated condition— sharks ran easily get through the huge holes at high tide.) 
(5) The steps are made safe from the wharves to the boats at Bay View. (At present one has to be a gymnast to be able to Jump from the boats to the first step on the wharf. Four steps are missing, and the rest are rotting.) 
(6) The wharf at Church Point is made safe for the public. (It, like the wharf at Bay View, is rotting away.)
(7) The Black swamp at Mona Vale is drained and utilised either as a public park or a golf course. 

When these reforms are executed the district will be the pride of all Australians, blessed by Nature with scenic beauty beyond compare in the world; with glorious surfing beaches and mile after mile of beautiful bays, set like Jewels in sylvan surroundings, reflecting in their still depths the graceful trees that adorn them — bays for boating, fishing, and swimming, it is little wonder that the Pittwater district, which the newly-formed Progress Association is out to improve, is so popular with tourists. 

The district has commercial possibilities also, in its soil almost anything can be grown. Mr. Fredericks, of Mona Vale, is cultivating successfully pineapples, bananas, mangoes, citrus fruits, and sugar cane. And only 18 miles from Sydney! 

At present the district is renowned as a tourist resort, but with the advent of the Spit Bridge, rendering it, with good roads, easily accessible to the city, it will probably develop into one of the most popular residential areas on the outskirts of Sydney. The Mona Vale Progress Association is determined that this wonderful district shall come into its own. MONA VALE GETS A MOVE ON (1924, July 2). The Labor Daily (Sydney, NSW : 1924 - 1938), p. 5. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236544961 

The Turning Point 
AND now a break — for who needs any description of the route between Collaroy and Mona Vale, which in earlier days was frequently called after the old Rock Lily Hotel, whose career as a hostelry is over? 
Mona Vale for us spells another deviation, and we branch to our left just before we come to the angle of lthe recreation reserve, where the roads fork to Bayview and Barrenjoey respectively. Our path now is one that has been traversed by many lovers of the wheel, and it will take us in the course of a rather rough and steep journey to the new Gordon road, which always forms a welcome 'glide off' to the day's run. 

A little bit of easy going, and then we are faced by the notorious Tumble Down Dick, which is the pass to the uplands. A few days ago we met a man whom we thought to be above suspicion, and he told us that on one occasion he had pushed a motor-bicycle the whole way up this hill; but those who know this place will probably excuse our cynicism. 

Through the forest we speed as fast as ruts, potholes, and steep pinches will allow, until at last, we come to a spot where a road runs in from the left. This is the point we should have reached if we had followed the left-hand 'turning at the loquat trees. However that is by the way, and we tear along at our best pace towards St. Ives, for the shadows are lengthening and we still have some attractive ground to cover. Passing through the village, we near an old church on the left, and here we must halt for a few moments to point the way to another. by-path. 

A Disused Path and a Gully 
THE church stands at the angle of two roads, the one which we have been following, and another which serves a number of orchards and farmlets in the direction of the head of Cowan Creek. At one time this road was trafficable as far as Cowan Creek, but that is not the case to-day. Nevertheless, the tourist with an hour up his sleeve can pass the time very pleasurably by exploring this old road. After the main line, of settlements has been left, behind, the road for some hundreds of yards becomes wide and gravelly, with a fair sprinkling of bad ruts. Then it narrows again, and an odd-looking shack will be observed on the near side, of the track. By careful driving one can get some distance beyond this, as far as a cultivated clearing in which stands a tiny cottage. Here one should leave the car and strike off obliquely to the left down a barely perceptible track. Keep along the upper ridge of the hillside until the valley shows signs of deepening and then cut down towards the bottom of the gully. As a check on the direction taken, may mention that an old water-filled ... claypit will he passed before one heads down into the deeper part, of the valley. An easy walk of a few minutes duration will bring you to a pretty little cascade, and it is a ...
But time presses, and once again we are back at the church. To ... the new Gordon road, which we pick up midway between Pymble and Gordon, we have but to keep on our course. Very soon we come to the crest of a hill, down which journey, and so pass under a railway bridge and come out on to the new road.
The northern country between Turramurra and Dural still remains untouched hut we must' reserve this for another day, content will) having' proved to our own satisfaction that he who runs may find beauties innumerable in that fine tract of country which might well be styled our Northern Suburban Playground. Motoring (1925, March 18). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 35. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article159721719

A very picturesque run for a day's outing for motorists over roads which for the most part are from fair to good Is out through the northern suburbs and along the const to New-port and Barrenjoey, returning via the aptly named Tumbledown Dick Hill to Gordon, and thence over De Burgh's Bridge to Ryde to Sydney.
This trip was made during the week in a light car, the course being from Sydney to Milson's Point, the Spit Bridge, Condamine-street (between Balgowlah and Manly), Brook-vale, and Mona Vale to Newport. Then, Instead of going on to Barrenjoey the car returned to Church Point and back to Rocklily, where the Gordon-road was taken through the hilly forest country. Leaving Fort Macquarie at about 10.45 a.m., the road was excellent from Milson's Point to Deewhy. Condamine-street has been tarred, making a line highway of It, and the 11 miles Journey to Collaroy was completed without any notable Incident. The tarred road, except for patches, ends at Narrabeen, and a slower pace was found advisable on some of the tough spots, but nevertheless the going was good. Near Rocklily the party lunched on the side of the road, and afterwards proceeded quietly as far as Newport Beach. Instead of pushing on to Barrenjoey, the car returned to Rocklily through Mona Vale, and the turn towards Bayview and Church Point taken. 

A pretty run of three miles along the shores of Pittwater was made, and on returning to Rocklily the Gordon-road, which turns up to the right through the forest and hills, was followed. Almost Immediately a steep climb had to be negotiated up Foley's Hill, from the top of which there is a magnificent view of Narrabeen Lake and Long Reef Beach. Beyond this point the forest has been interfered with but little, and many picturesque scenes are presented. About 2 ¾ miles from the turn-off at Rocklily there is a turn to the left, which leads down to Narrabeen, past the Powder Works, and soon afterwards the Sugarloaf Hill Is climbed, followed a couple of miles later by Tumbledown Dick Hill-all three of these hills being long, steep, and having hairpin bends, which necessitate caution on the part of the driver. 

Nearing St. Ives a stop was made to visit Mclntosh's lookout over the great gullies of the forest, and then the run was continued to the Gordon-road, via the Stony Creek-road. Crossing the Gordon-road at the Gas Company's office a long descent of about  2 ¼ miles was made over tarred road with some turns, and then the surface degenerated, being very rough in places, until the Upper Lane Cove River was crossed by De Burgh's Bridge. This beautiful gorge itself is worth a visit any time. Crossing the bridge after a short halt the road was still Inferior for a mile or two. In one place a deviation having to be followed through the bush to avoid great watercourses, and then more tarred road was found leading into Ryde. Thence the tramline was followed through Gladesville over the bridge across the Parramatta River and into Drummoyne, and via Lyons-road to Fivedock, the Parramatta-road, and Ashfield. 
Altogether it was a drive of about 60 miles through a fine variety of scenery, and constituted a pleasant day's outing.

No road user to-day can fail to be Impressed by the disregard for simple precautions In the interests of safety shown by numbers of drivers or riders of every type of vehicle, every driver can relate Instances, many, in number, of hair-breadth escapes from more or less serious accident after almas! every drive of a few miles, caused by the Ignorant or inconsiderate tactics of others, who take every sort of risk to pass or get In front of the quietly-driven vehicle. The necessity for every road-user realising that he should be cautious in all circumstances, including patience in accepting the tedious pace of a stream of traffic In billy city or suburban streets, In emerging from or turning into side streets, in driving within the range of safety provided by the lamps he Is using at night, in refraining from the temptation to pass other vehicles on the wrong side, cutting sharply in front of other traffic In order to spine a position, without regard for the safety of the occupants of the vehicle overtaken, and In a multitude of other ways showing a dis-regard for safety, grows more pressing every day.

During the week ended March 3 217 new members joined the National Roads and Motorists' Association, including 29 from New-castle There were 12 lady motorists among the new members. The association now has a total of 13,781 members, of whom 1689 have joined since January 1.

The council of the National Roads and Motorists' Association has granted the secretary (Mr. H. I. Johnson) six months' leave of absence to enable him to visit England, Europe, and America. Mr. Johnson, to whose energy and capacity the success of the N.R.M.A. is largely due, has been commissioned to investigate a number of important matters having relation to motor traffic, and he will report on these with a view to having the best and most up-to-date methods adopted, to the advantage of members of the association and members of the public generally. During Mr. Johnson's absence Mr. H. E. Richards will act as secretary of the N.R.M.A.

The Ford In Australia Club has arranged a hill climb at Artillery Hill, National Park, on Saturday, March 13, at 2.30 p.m. The test will be conducted in three sections, one being for standard cars, one for non-standard cars, and a special class for speed cars. MOTORING. (1926, March 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16272585 

The N.R.M.A. was formed as the National Roads Association in 1920 and became the NRMA in 1923. They were advocates for safe driving from the outset and as part of that, safer roads through better roads. When you take into account the rapid embrace of the motor vehicle as an independent means of transport, and the reach of those who could afford automobiles, clearly mostly male at the outset and most likely meeting 'those with influence' through work, or being those with influence themselves, the stance taken by such an organisation, still maintained today, saved lives then as it does today.

Taken alongside the fact that women could not vote in New South Wales until 1902, nor stand for a seat until 1918, with the first woman elected to the Legislative Assembly (and the second to any Parliament in Australia) being Millicent Preston-Stanley, who held the seat of Eastern Suburbs for the Nationalist Party 1925-1927, cars were mainly for boys and girls were still, mostly, expected to be 'seen and unheard'. 

Some statistics:

Sydney. Saturday.
When Australia federated in 1901 the population was 1.776,000. To-day it is nearly 6,000.000. The Federal Parliament has to date passed 4000 Acts.
 AUSTRALIA'S POPULATION (1926, January 2). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article45921343

2.300,000 AT END OF 1925
Sydney, Friday.
Mr. H. A. Smith, Government Statistician, in his annual report, states that at the end of 1925 the population of New South Wales was 2.300.000. The proportion of males to females was 104 to 109
POPULATION OF N.S.W. (1926, October 29). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article45952583

Many of these road reports came from the N.R.M.A.:

Sydney to Palm Beach. — Generally very good to the Spit; good with bumpy patches to Brookvale, Narrabeen, Mona Vale, and Newport; fair to rough from Newport to Palm Beach. 
Milson's Point to Hornsby. — Very fair to bumpy to Crow's Nest, from here Willoughby-road may be taken to Chatswood or Lane Cove-road may be followed through St. Leonards ; excellent to Pearce's Corner; new surface between there and Hornsby. 
Hornsby to Berowra.— Mostly, worn and rough metalled surface, the new road towards Hawkesbury River may be taken for several miles, but it is not yet possible to reach Hawkesbury River, except by the. old road (rough and steep for the last mile). 
Galston Gorge to Parramatta. — Bumpy stretches of hard surface to Rogan's Hill, then generally good to Parramatta. 
Bobbin Head to Gordon-road. — Steep climb, with a succession of hairpin bends out of valley, then fair gravel surface through Kuring-gai Chase, rough near the gates; bear right at fork and reach Gordon-road by Turramurra-road (avoiding Bobbin Head-road, which is rough). 
French Forest Roads. — Generally fair, with occasional patches of exposed sandstone; the road from Roseville Bridge to the centres north of Manly is very freely used, and much traffic also passes over Pittwater-road (worn stretches) from Pymble to Mona Vale. Mona Vale may also be reached through French's Forest road from Roseville Bridge and from The Spit Bridge. Pearce's Corner to Parramatta. — Worn and pot-holey for a few miles along Pennant Hills-road, then becoming better, with occasional rough patches. 
Parramatta to Ryde, via Kissing Point-road.— Mostly worn surface ; excellent entering Ryde ; Victoria-road is {inder repair at the Ryde end. Ryde to North Sydney (via the bridges). — Good to Ryde boundary; mostly rough and pot-holey to Northern Suburbs Cemetery and Fuller's Bridge; very fair to good to Chatswood. 
Gladesville to North Sydney (via Fig Tree Bridge and Burn's Bay-road).— Fair in early stages ; then very good concrete surface to the junction with Lane Cove-road. 
Gladesville to Pymble or Chatswood (via Pittwater-road). — Exceedingly rough ; little used by motor traffic. Parramatta to McGrath's Hill. — First half-mile bumpy, then very good. 
McGrath's Hill to Wiseman's Ferry. — New road to beyond Cuttai Creek, but rough for last few miles to Wiseman's Ferry. 
McGrath's Hill to Richmond and Kurrajong Heights. — New road into Windsor, then patchy; very fair up the long hill. Kurrajong Heights to Mt. Victoria. — Very fair through Bilpin to foot of Mt. Tomah; exceedingly rongh over Mt. Tomah and, in parts, for the next few miles to the Mt. Wilson turn-off, then generally very fair to good country road through to Bell and Mt. Victoria. (Traffic over this route is frequently blocked by fallen trees)'.
SYDNEY ROAD CONDITIONS (1927, March 27). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 22. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128517487 

Situated on the hill which rises behind Mona Vale Beach Is the Tonkin Estate; which Is to be sold by auction next Saturday by Messrs. Peach Bros. This estate Is within a few yards of the Manly-Pittwater-road, the main traffic artery of the Barrenjoey peninsular, which Is to be reconstructed In concrete. The 47 homesites have frontages to Vineyard-street and the Lane Cove-roadOne large allotment has a homestead already built upon it. Handy to surf and 'bus services, the Tonkin Estate also has the advantage of quick access to Pittwater by the direct Bay View-road. Deposit required is £10 per lot. '
SEA VIEWS (1927, November 16). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 23 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222739443 

In August 1928 Main road no 162 was finally declared, but was still not called the Mona Vale Road as yet:

D. R. S. de CHAIR, Governor.

I Sir Dudley Rawson Stratford de Chair, Governor of the State of New South Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, and in pursuance of the provisions of section 8 of the Main Roads Act, 1924-27, do hereby repeal the Proclamation of the Main Roads numbered and described in Schedule "A" attached hereto, and proclaim these roads as Main Roads in accordance with the numbers and descriptions set out in Schedule "B" attached hereto, together with certain other roads whose recommendation has been concurred in by the Councils of the Municipalities and Shires concerned.

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this eighth day of August, 1928.

By His Excellency's Command,

No. 162. From the intersection of Wicks-road and Lucknow -road (Main Road No. 191) at North Ryde, via Wicks-road, Pittwater-road, Lane Cove road, De Burgh's Bridge, Ryde Road, Gordon, Stoney Creek Road, St. Ives and Tumble Down Dick and Lane Cove road, to Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 164) at Rock Lily. 
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1927. (1928, August 17). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3814. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219952359

A special up-to-the-minute report on the condition of the main southern road, between Sydney and Goulburn, is provided in this week's report by the N.R.M.A. Touring Department, one of whose officers is now engaged in an extensive road-reporting tour through the Southern districts of the State.

The principal motoring roads around Sydney are also treated in the report.

Narrabeen to Palm Beach.— Fair generally to Newport, with some good stretches; fair winding road to Palm Beach, with occasional worn patchesMona Vale to Church Point.— Splendid tarred surface, but worn and bumpy approaching Church Point.

French's Forest to Mona Vale, by way of Pittwater-road.— Bumpy and worn gravel to Pittwater-road, then fair, becoming rough In parts over Tumbledown Dick and for a mile or so beyond; fair to Mona Vale.
SOUTH ROAD--SYDNEY TO GOULBURN (1928, August 9). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 4 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222171027

FURTHER improvements in the condition of some of the more popular motoring routes around Sydney and within easy distance of the city are recorded in this week's N.R.M.A road bulletin, which has been prepared for the benefit of motorists contemplating week-end trips.

Conditions around Sydney towards the north and west are described as follows:— Milson's Point to The Spit: Good. The Spit to Brookvale: Good along Sydney-road, concrete stretches, and Condamine-street; good, with bumpy stretches along the tramlines Brookvale. Brookvale to Narrabeen: Bumpy to good, tarred road. Narrabeen to Palm Beach: Fair generally to Newport, with some good stretches; fair, winding road to Palm Beach, with occasional worn patches. Narrabeen to Pittwater-road: Fair gravel surface along Powder Works-road. Manly to Brookvale: Bumpy along the tramlines in Pittwater-road; a preferrable route is by way of North Steyne. Mona Vale to Church Point: Splendid tarred surface, but worn and bumpy approaching Church Point. Milson's Point to Crow's Nest: Good to North Sydney Post Office. Thence by way of Miller and Falcon streets to Crow's Nest good. Lane Cove-road under repair between North Sydney Post Office and Crow's Nest. Crow's Nest to Hornsby: Concrete surface along Lane Cove-road to Boundary-road Concreting both sides of Gordon-road, from Roseville to Pymble, Centre track being used Good thence to Hornsby. Chatswood to Ryde, by way of Fig Tree Bridge: Good, with corrugated stretches along Burns Bay-road. Concrete road to Gladesville Terminus, then under repair to Ryde. Detour over a good road by way at Meriton-street, Morrison-road and Church-street. Chatswood to Ryde, by way of Fuller's Bridge: Mostly good to Fuller's Bridge, then fair to Twin-road; Lane Cove-road under repair, detour along Boyce and Bruce streets, fair. 

Pymble to Ryde, by way of De Burgh's Bridge: Good to the bridge. Very good for half a mile. Under repair approaching Lucknow-road and again on the Ryde side of Lane Cove-road to Roseville Bridge. Turn to the right into Boundary-road and immediately after passing under the railway line turn left into Hill-street and shortly after-wards into Bancroft-avenue. The surface is good at first, with rough going down the hill to Roseville Bridge. Crow's Nest to Roseville Bridge: Excellent concrete surface along Willoughby-road to the Junction with Victoria-road, Chatswood. Good tarred surface along Penshurst-street to Boundary-road, where turn left to Archibald road. Here turn right into Addison-avenue over fair surface becoming rough on the hill going down to Roseville Bridge. Roseville Bridge to Brookvale, by way of French's Forest: Bumpy and worn gravel sur-face through French's Forest, improving to fair to Brookvale. French's Forest to Manly: Fair to worn gravel road, followed by good concrete stretches along Sydney-road to Manly. French's Forest to Mona Vale, by way of Pittwater-road: Bumpy and worn gravel to Pittwater-road, then fair, becoming rough in parts of Tumbledown Dick, and for a mile or so beyond; fair to Mona Vale. Pittwater-road lo Commodore Heights on Broken Bay: Mostly rough, bad patches in wet weather.
STATE OF THE ROADS (1928, October 11). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117462679


IF members of the N.S.W. Rangers League succeed in making the Wildflowers' Protection Act something more than a mere name they will earn the gratitude of all true Australians.

A ramble from Duffy's Wharf, opposite Bobbin Head, to the Pittwater-road, last Sunday, took me through the heart of Duffy's Forest, where the toot of the motor horn has so far failed to drown the notes of the bush birds. I saw the earliest of the Waratahs bursting Into bloom, and repeatedly had to make short detours to avoid walking knee-deep In luxurious boronia blooms. On sections of the track, where probably no touring motorist has ever been able to penetrate. I witnessed the now unusual sight of last year's Waratah seed-pods dropping their contents on to the fruitful soil. The despoiler or the bush had not placed his desecrating hands upon them, and a new crop will soon be springing up there. As I neared the Pittwater-road, however, I came across, first, a motor lorry loaded with newly-cut timber, and then stacks of cut timber alongside the track. That motor lorry later careered along the Pittwater-road with Its freight of forest victims, and apparently without anyone questioning the driver. . 

A couple of miles down the French's Forest road leading towards Manly, a new notice board attracted attention. It had held a notice printed on cloth relating to the Wildflowers' Protection Act, and specifying the protected flora. Only a narrow strip of the cloth remained on the board. The rest, torn to shreds, lay on the ground below. There are very few wildflowers along the French's Forest roads now, but the bush vandal must tear up something. —A. R. WILKIE
FOREST VANDALS (1929, August 20). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article118997107

Through French's Forest and Round to Pittwater
Some of the most delightful motor tours around Sydney are quite close at hand. Of course, for the motorist who can spare a couple of days there are beautiful trips to be made north, south and west, but they are beyond the reach of the average man. He wants somewhere that will allow him to get along at an easy pace, have time to linger by the roadside, admire the view, boil a billy or even, perhaps have a little sleep beneath the shade of a tall gum. One of the prettiest and handiest runs for a Sunday afternoon is that which takes in French's Forest, with all its wealth of flowers, with its occasional glimpses of the sea — and which gives also a taste of the salt air about Narrabeen, Mona Vale and Brookvale. There are picnic places galore — communal camping grounds and secluded spots where one will not be disturbed. The best route to follow is that which starts from the Gordon-road, at Pymble. 

Gordon-road, of course, is reached by following the Lane Cove-road from North Sydney). From Gordon-road, turn to the right and follow the road — clearly marked— which leads under a railway bridge, and takes you to the pretty St. Ives country, with its orchards and little farms. Beyond St. Ives Is Davidson Park, where you can stop for afternoon tea, if you have brought it with you. Without difficulty the road can be followed till it junctions with French's Forest-road, which goes to the right, leading to Roseville Bridge or The Spit. Do not take this route, but continue ahead — Kuring-gai Chase can be seen to the left, the ocean to the right, Tumbledown Dick is the one hill which will probably compel you to get Into low gear, and, by the way. It Is as well to keep a sharp lookout for cars coming down the dangerous curve near the base of the hill. 

Beyond Tumble-down Dick is Foley's Hill, from the foot of which is easy going to Palm Beach-road. Here take a turn to the left, and a little way further on, the road branches, the left fork leading to Bay View and Church Point. Along this road, which skirts the edge of beautiful Pittwater, are numerous spots where you can camp. On the return trip, retrace your tracks till you reach Mona Vale, and then continue along the road to Narrabeen, whence you follow the tram line through Collaroy and Dee Why to Brookvale. At the school at Brookvale take the road which runs off to the right, and you will get some more fine bush scenery In French's Forest, culminating In the beauty of upper Middle Harbor, where you cross Roseville Bridge, and soon find yourself back on the Gordon-road. This is a tour which the N.R.M.A. recommends with confidence. The total distance is about 45 miles. Through French's Forest and Round to Pittwater (1929, November 24). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225153350   

New Middle Harbour Bridge.
In response to a request by the Minister for Works (Mr Davidson), Dr. Bradfield visited Collaroy on Monday evening, and out-lined to the Warringah Transport League an unofficial plan for the construction of a concrete motor road, via the Harbour Bridge, from Milson's Point to Mona Vale.

The scheme, which was evolved by Dr. Bradfield three years ago, when Mr Buttenshaw was Minister for Works, is known as the Kirribilli-Pittwater Super-highway. It traverses North Sydney, Mosman, Manly, and the shire of Warringah. Dr Bradfield claims that it would develop not only districts that are eminently suited for residential and pleasure purposes but also Warringah Shire where it is estimated that, excluding parks and recreation reserves, almost 1000 000 persons could make their homes, with a population density of 20 persons per acre.

The highway as planned, comprises three sections The first which is three miles and a half long, begins at the northern approach to the bridge at Alfred-street It traverses North Svdney and Mosman to Middle Harbour. The second section comprises a high level bridge across Middle Harbour, and the third section a super-highway from the bridge to French's Forest-road thence a bus highway through Manly and Warringah Shire to Mona Vale a distance of 11 miles.

In the Kirribilli-Middle Harbour section provision is made for a highway with an overall width of 100 feet In the centre is a roadway for fast traffic going above or below important cross thoroughfares, and fenced off from side roadways that are designed for ordinary traffic For the first quarter of a mile the roadway would be Independent of existing streets and would cross Warringah Park at the head of Neutral Bay by a street highway, 90 feet above park level It would meet Ben Boyd-road eventually passing under Military-road The estimated cost of this section would be £660 000.

The estimated cost of the Middle Harbour High Level Bridge is £900 000 Preliminary designs have already been made The bridge, of cantilever design with three deck truss spans and an overall length of steelwork of 2003 feet, would be half a mile upstream from the existing Spit Bridge and would connect Beauty Point with Seaforth.
The third section from the bridge to Mona Vale, would cost £510,000, and the total cost is estimated at £2 070,000, which would be reduced by nearly one-half by temporarily utilising the existing Spit Bridge. 
MONA VALE. (1932, February 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16838670 

Mona Vale road during 1934.

Most Sydney motorists have made the run along the northern beaches to Palm Beach, but few have deviated from the main road to explore the many pleasant places in the Pittwater district

From Sydney to Palm Beach, by way of The Spit, is 27 miles, and the N.R.M.A. suggests this as a morning run, with a picnic lunch at the sheltered beach and an exploring run on the way home. The motorist does not take his departure from Palm Beach by way of the main road. At the northern end of tile beach a sharp turn is made to the left on to a road that winds up the hillside. This road is somewhat narrow, and there are several sharp bends, but the steep climb is well worth while. Looking North At the top of the hill It Is advisable to pause In the Journey for there are several fine views looking north in the direction of Lion Island.

Continuing on over a fair road surface, the tourist comes to another splendid vista of headland and beach — Whale Beach, which is viewed from the heights. Over the southern end of Whale Bench the motorist makes a right-hand turn and descends to the main road, where the turn to the left is taken to Avalon, Just before entering Avalon from the direction of Palm Beach turn to the right on to the road that lends to Clareville. This road should be followed for a mile or so through pretty timber country to where there arc several lino picnic spots, having splendid views of Pittwater. It is not advisable to follow this road, to its dead-end. its it becomes very narrow, and turning is difficult. Back at Avalon either the new or old roads arc taken past the golf links to the top of the rise overlooking the settlement. The view from here Is splendid, but if the road to the right up the hill Is taken, n more extensive panorama may be viewed. Turning again on to the main road In the direction of Sydney, the tourist passes through Newport to Mona Vale, where the turn-off to Bayviww and Church Point is seen on the right. It is about three miles from the main road to Church Point, but the run is well worth taking. 

Running again on the main road towards the city, the motorist sees on the right just more than a mile before reaching Narrabeen, a road running inland to Elanora Heights, it is a climb up to the heights, but the reward is another line panorama of coastline.

If the traveller does not wish to return again to the main road, the Elanora Heights road may be followed inland to Stoney Creek or Pittwater-road, which is traversed up Tumbledown Dick, past St. Ives show-ground to Pacific Highway. This by no means exhausts the long list of by-ways off the main Palm Beach road, says the N.R.M.A. but merely outlines a few of the worth-while deviations from the well-known route.
DETOUR (1934, September 1). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (FOOTBALL RESULTS). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230318925

Across Kuring-gai Municipality.
On Saturday afternoon the first section of an avenue of trees, which will be five miles long, was planted In Telegraph-road, Pymble It was intended as a memento of the visit of the Duke of Gloucester to Sydney, and was done In response to the request of the citizens' organising committee which had asked councils to mark the occasion by tree-planting in their areas. The section planted was a quarter of a mile long, and the completed avenue would extend from east of St Ives, along Pittwater-road, Telegraph-road, and Ryde-road to De Burgh bridge.

Alderman Cresswell O'Reilly, who presided said the scheme was an illustration of what could be accomplished by co-operation between citizens and the council for the beautification of a locality In this connection he acknowledged the work of Mr C R Barton and the officials of the Australian Forest League. Trees were planted by Sir Samuel Wälder (chairman of the organising committee) Sir Thomas Bavin Alderman Selby (Mayor of Kuring-gai), Mr S Tout (Forestry Commission), and representatives of the Australian Forest League Tree Lovers' League, Boy Scouts, Girl Guides and local bodies The red bottle brush was the tree chosen for the occasion.

Sir Samuel Waldor said the committee's request to local government bodies to plant trees as mementoes of the Duke's visit had met with a remarkable response Favourable replies had been received from 134 councils, and only six had refused.
MEMORIAL AVENUE. (1934, November 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17113598

Pittwater Rd. M.R. 162 [Main Road]. Shire of Ku-ring-gai. Deviation at First Rocks (St.Ives)during construction - see old road at side. November 19th, 1934

New Road Construction
Motorists who journey to Sydney Urban northern beaches by way of Warringah-road, from Roseville through French's Forest, will soon be able to avoid the steep climb and descent, of Beacon Hill, near Brookvale, advises the N.R.M.A. Good progress is being made with construction of a road from the top of Beacon Hill down to Pittwater-road near its junction with Harbord road. The new thoroughfare, which follows in some parts the line of ... road, is an easy grade and from it some splendid panoramic views are obtained. As well as avoiding the steep hill, the route will, shorten the journey to 'places north of Brookvale.
BEACON HILL (1935, March 9). The Maitland Daily Mercury (NSW : 1894 - 1939), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126029583

The photograph shows the new road to the coast from Beacon Hill, above Dee Why. Beacon Hill is associated with the name of Governor Phillip, who made many trips afoot and by sea in the course of his exploration of the territory adjacent to Sydney. New Road to Dee Why (1935, September 11). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 43. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160501155 

This road wasn't the only one being improved locally in 1935 - although it did take a few years for these works to be completed, this was the commencement of the dirt bullock track becoming a tarred road:

Pittwater Rd after construction looking towards Pacific Highway August 1935. Image No.: d1_21454h, , courtesy State Library of NSW

Sydney, 30th October, 1935.
I, Sir Alexander Hore-Ruthven, Governor of the State of New South Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby notify that the roads hereunder described, in pursuance of the provisions of section 18, Public Roads Act, 1902, are hereby declared to be public roads, and dedicated to the public accordingly.

A. HORE-RUTHVEN, Governor. E. A. BUTTENSHAW, Minister for Lands.


Municipality of Ku-ring-gai.
Road of variable width, being a widening of part of Pittwater-road (Main Road No. 162) near St. Ives Show Ground. Plan R. 19,756-1,603, parish Manly Cove, county Cumberland, Land District Metropolitan.
DECLARATION OF ROADS TO BE PUBLIC ROAD UNDER PROVISIONS OF SECTION 18, PUBLIC ROADS ACT, 1902. (1935, November 15). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4452. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223069306

The road to Mona Vale was clearly attracting more traffic and with that came more reports on the state of that road - the firsdt is interesting in that it is headed 'Mona vale Road' but goes on to call the stretch of road the Pittwater-road - must have been confusijng for some, all these 'Pittwater' roads - and a nightmare for those making roadmaps - as is remarked on in a 1939 article:

The Pittwater-road which provides a convenient route from the Western suburbs to the coast are in sand call for careful driving, through St. Ives, to the end of ... beyond the intersection of the road the road is very good, the route onward to Mona Vale are treacherous even In the dry. The gravel surface has been r..n and the holiday traffic, and stone foundation at track ..are glazed and slippery. The ... climbs at Tumbledown Dick, Mona Vale to the uplands are ...asant state, and there is a ten wheel-spin to develop if fast spell. The narrowness of the road the risks and many sections are rutted as well as slippery. MONA VALE ROAD. (1935, December 31).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17208906 

French's Forest Route 
On a recent trip from Pymble to Mona Vale through French's Forest, officers of the N.R.M.A. touring department noticed that the road on the Mona Vale side of the French's Forest turnoff is very, worn and badly in need of top dressing. The surface on Tumble Down Dick and Foley's Hill is also corrugated and in places loose. 

This road carries heavy traffic, as it is one of the most important outlets from the North-Shore suburbs to Palm Beach, Avalon, Mona Vale, Church Point and other popular holiday places in this district. This road is in need of immediate repair, and in view of its importance the N.R.M.A. has taken the matter up with the responsible authoritiesBAD ROAD (1936, January 9). The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104694165 

When people wanted to 'test' a car - where did they go?:
The new Hupmobile eight-cylinder sedan, known as the "Series 521-0," is a large and powerful model equipped with an imported all-steel body, which provides ample accommodation for six passengers. Its price here, exclusive of sales tax, is £735. The model tested over the "Herald" course had previously covered a fair mileage, but was barely run-in, so that it was not deemed advisable to drive at full throttle for any great distance. Its performances were very satisfactory, not only on account of the results noted in the various tests of hill-climbing and acceleration, but also because of its consistent liveliness, ease of control, and smooth riding on even the worst of roads. There was in all circumstances a sensation of effortless speed and power in hand. With the exception of the "stunt" climb, all hills were taken as a matter of course in top gear and without any rushed starts.

Alfred-street, North Sydney, was begun at 25 m.p.h., and a steady 35 m.p.h. was maintained on the steepest section, after which the rate rose quickly to 45 m.p.h., and had It not been necessary to decelerate In the interest of safety, a very fast finishing speed could have been reached.

The Hupmobile, "series 521-0," eight-cylinder sedan.

At David-street, Mosman, an abrupt hill with practically no variation in gradient, the Hupmobile vindicated the claim that its engine has an even and very efficient power curve, with a high output at low revolutions. That hill was started at 25 m.p.h., and was climbed in top gear at 21 m.p.h., a very convincing example of flexibility, which was the more meritorious in that the engine showed no trace of labouring and the impression gained was that it was not overtaxed in top gear.

Several miles of the route between Mona Vale and the Pacific Highway are in a very poor state, the surface being worn and some of the bends on the steeper hills peculiarly unpleasant. The car came up the long ascent from the coast in excellent style in top, and took the worst corners at good speed with-out any suggestion of wheel-spin or unsteadiness. There was throughout a feeling of stability of springing and complete control of the steering, with an absence of what has been termed a "floating sensation."

The "stunt" hill above Bungaroo swimming pool near St. Ives is dry, rutted, and strewn with loose stones and gravel. On that climb the starting speed was 17 m.p h., and the car kept well to its work in second gear, the speedometer never falling below 20 m.p.h. There was inevitably a little wheel-spin, but far less than might have been expected.

It might be added that motorists who con-template visiting that secluded picnic spot would be well advised not to drive their cars down the steepest pinch of the hill, but to park them on the cleared space just to the left of the post which, before the coming of some vandal, carried a notice warning drivers to change into second gear.

Although no attempt was made to reach absolute maximum speed in top, the Hupmo-bile on a half-mile stretch of level road soon accelerated to 80 m.p.h., at which indi-cated rate the engine was very quiet and the car admirably steady. Suffice It to say that this model is so powerful that cruising speeds to which only very accomplished drivers should aspire can be maintained with plenty of the throttle still In reserve.

In second gear, 55 m.p.h. was registered without driving "flat out," and had it not, been desired to avoid over-driving the engine a faster speed could have been attained.
MOTORING (1936, January 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved September 1, 2018, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17210699

Another new road off the Pittwater-Lane Cove-Mona Vale road:

THE new road being constructed by the Public Works Department from the Pymble-Mona Vale road (Pittwater-road) to Coal and Candle Creek has been completed for a distance of three miles, and is available for traffic over this section.
The new road will not run to Cottage Point, at the junction of the Cowan and Coal and Candle Creeks, but beyond the site of the construction camp marking the termination of the present completed gravel pavement, it will swing back and gradually work down the hill on to Coal and Candle Creek at a point approximately two miles up the creek from Cottage Point. A mile and a half of road has yet to be constructed, and it is expected that the full length of four and a half miles will be available for traffic in about four months' time. The turn-off from the Pymble-Mona Vale road is a short distance on the Pymble side of the top of Tumbledown Dick Hill. The surface out to Coal and Candle Creek will be gravel throughout. COAL AND CANDLE CREEK (1937, August 1). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169610787

Many complaints have leached the N R M A regarding the poor condition and the narrow carriageway on Pittwater Road between the West Head turnoff and Mona Vale. This road is classed as an important link between the north shore suburbs and the various coastal resorts between Narrabeen and Palm Beach and is used by thousands of motorists travelling to the beaches during the summer months.

From Pymble to the West Head turn-off by way of St Ives the road surface is good but from this point to Mona Vale particularly on Tumble Down Dick Hill and Foley s Hill the gravel has become badly worn and the roadway is considered barely wide enough to carry safely the large amount of motor traffic using this route.
The NRMA has taken up the matter with the Department of Main Roads and is urging that this section of road be resurfaced Widened and realigned. 
ROAD REPORTS. (1937, November 5).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17415102 

Looking west along old road, Main road 162 Feb 18th 1938. Image No.: d1_29544h, courtesy State Library of NSW

Looking east along old road from Ch.1650: Main Road 162February 1938. Image No.: d1_28589, NSW Govt Printer series - Main Roads, courtesy State Library of NSW

Looking east along main road 162 Feb 18th 1938. Image No.: d1_29543h, courtesy State Library of NSW

New Roads To Unspoilt Beauty Spots
FRENCH'S FOREST is a popular touring ground for Sydney motorists, and work now in progress in the north of the area will open up new country and many attractive picnic places.
THE N.R.M.A. Touring Department reports that probably the most important work is the new road down to Oyster Bay, on Coal and Candle Creek. This route leaves the Pymble-Mona Vale Road and leads for about three miles to a point at the top of the hill overlooking Oyster Bay. The new construction is completed (o this point, but work is proceeding on the section descend ing the hill to the bay. It will be probably a month or two before the hill section is completed and available to traffic. Another new road in this locality will make accessible a very pleasant round trip embracing Church Point on Pittwater. This route, known as the McCarr's Creek road, leads off from the Oyster Bay Road. At the moment construction has been completed for approximately a mile and a half towards Church Point. Work has also been started from the Church Point end, where a short section has been completed. It is expected that the road will be ready for traffic in about eight months. 

For the time being, motorists are advised not to use the completed section of the McCarr's Creek road, as the formation is narrow and there are very few turning places. With the completion of this road an interesting alternative to the Pymble-Mona Vale trip will be available. The tourist will be able to leave the Pymble-Mona Vale Road west of Tumbledown Dick Hill and travel north, eventually circling to join the existing road at Church Point. The return journey will then be through Mona Vale on to the main Pittwater Road. Both these works are being carried out by the Public Works Department with funds made available for unemployment relief. A road improvement scheme is also to be put in hand in this locality by the Department of Main Roads. 

The Department is to reconstruct the Pymble-Mona Vale Road at Tumbledown Dick. At present this section includes severe turns and sleep grades, and the roadway is narrow. The reconstruction work will eliminate these hazards. New road work is also in progress at Bobbin Head in Kuring-gai Chase. From Bobbin Head construction is proceeding along the northern side of the waterway towards Apple Tree Flat, a mile distant At the present time it is not pro posed to carry this road beyond Apple Tree Flat, but it is likely that a picnic area may be developed at this point. The N.R.M.A. advises motorists that it is not yet possible to use this section of road.
HIGHWAYS IN THE FASTNESSES OF FRENCH'S FOREST (1938, March 20).Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169087596 

Finally - some tar!:

The construction of a new road over Tumbledown Dick Hill, between St. Ives and Mona Vale, is now in progress, and when completed will afford an easier grade, with less severe turns than those on the old road. For the time being, motorists have to negotiate narrow side tracks, which become very slippery after rain. To avoid this section, motorists travelling to Mona Vale and further north towards Palm Beach may follow either the Roseville Bridge-Dee Why route, or go by way of Mosman, The Spit, and Condamine-street. The association has asked the Department of Main Roads to erect notices at the French's Forest road turn-off beyond St. Ives, and at Mona Vale, warning traffic of the work in progress. 
ROAD WORK ON TUMBLEDOWN DICK HILL (1938, June 3). Albury Banner and Wodonga Express (NSW : 1896 - 1938), p. 28. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article102337514 

Aboriginal carvings Main Road 162 taken Feb 18th 1938. Image No.: d1_29539h, courtesy State Library of NSW 

Mona Vale Road, near top of Foleys Hill, looking south, May 1938. Image No.: d1_25344, NSW Govt Printer series - Main Roads, courtesy State Library of NSW

Mona Vale Road looking towards Foleys Hill, May 1938. Image No.: d1_26931, NSW Govt Printer series - Main Roads, courtesy State Library of NSW

Mona Vale Rd, bottom of Foleys Hill looking west from Alan StreetMay 1938. Image No.: d1_25347, NSW Govt Printer series - Main Roads, courtesy State Library of NSW

Mona Vale: looking west from Sugarloaf. August 1938. Image No.: d1_27007, NSW Govt Printer series - Main Roads, courtesy State Library of NSW

Main Road 162, Shire of Warringah - Tumble Down Dick Hill from ch. 3000 after constructionSeptember 1938. Image No.: d1_32531, NSW Govt Printer series - Main Roads, courtesy State Library of NSW

Mona Vale: looking E from top of Tumble Down Dick HillDate: August 1939. Government Printing Office 1 - 27008, courtesy the State Library of NSW. 

And some gravel!:

New Road to Church Point.
Officers of the NRMA touring department recently inspected the new road by way of McCarr's Creek to Church Point which has just been completed by the Department of Public Works. The road is of gravel formation of good average width and well graded.

To reach the new road the motorist proceeds along the St Ives-Mona Vale road from Terrey Hills and turns left on to the Coal and Candle Creek road at a small garage. A little more than a mile further on the new road to Church Point bears away to the right. Then follows a long, winding down grade through picturesque bush country. The road crosses the extreme upper reaches of McCarr's Creek near a turn-off to Coal and Candle Creek. This is a new road not yet open to traffic.

A corner store with garage in Terrey Hills, in 1937.

The Church Point road bears slightly to the right and continues over easy grades down the eastern side of McCarr's Creek. In the last two or three miles to Church Point there are some very pretty glimpses of the creek as the road winds round the eastern bank. 

The surface throughout is in very fair condition but until this road is tar sealed the association warns drivers to exercise care as with the dry summer weather and increased traffic loose edges might appear

The total distance from the Coal and Candle Creek road turn off to Church Point is five miles. ROAD REPORTS. (1938, December 16).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17562662 

direct road which connects Ryde with northern beaches, and which is known in different sections as Lane Cove Road, Ryde Road, Gordon Road, Stoney Creek Road, and Pittwater Road, causes considerable confusion amongst travellers
The Main Roads Department, in a letter to Ryde Council and other councils, through whose areas the road passes, suggests that one name should be applied to it and asks the councils to suggest a name.
The road, which joins Pittwater Road from Manly, at Mona Vale, will connect with the new Spooner Highway, from Epping to St. Leonards, at Lucknow Road, North Ryde. 
ROAD WITH FIVE NAMES. (1939, February 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17547834 

A glimpse of the quaintly-named Coal and Candle Creek from the new scenic road which is being constructed by the Public Works Department. As an accompanying article explains, this road can be reached from Church Point on the Pittwater or from Pymble. It runs through part of the area controlled by the Kuring-gai Chase Trust and opens to the motorist some of the wild and unspoilt areas of the Hawkesbury River country.

NEW SCENIC ROAD OPENS UP FRESH COUNTRY. (1939, April 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17570090

£180,000 TO BE SPENT.
Aiding Unemployed.

The State Cabinet has approved the expenditure of £15,000 for the construction of a road to open up about 400 acres of Crown lands in Duffy's Forest, adjacent to French's Forest, and their subdivision into small holdings.

This work is included in a list of road works, which was released by the Premier, Mr. Mair, yesterday. The works will involve an expenditure of nearly £180,000, and will employ at least 660 men under unemployment relief conditions.

Other works are: Improvements to the Orange-Parkes road at an estimated cost of £18,000, to employ 100 men; Yarra level crossing, five miles south of Goulburn, construction of approaches to new bridge and elimination of existing level crossing, cost £24,000, to employ 100 men; Parkes, Wellington road, near- Yeoval, additional work £ 15,000, to employ 40 men; Bathurst-Blayney road, deviation, cost £17,000, to employ 100 men; Braldwood-Tarago road, reconstruction of sections, cost £18,000, to employ 80 men; Tamworth-Gunnedah road; Tamworth-Werris Creek-Qulrindi roads, reconstruction; Tamworth-Nundle road, reconstruction, cost £40,000, to employ 200 men; the construction of 13 miles of road from Kempsey to Crescent Head, at an estimated cost of £23,000; repairs to the roads in the grounds of the Morrisset Mental Hospital, cost £6,000, to employ 40 men. 
NEW ROADS. (1939, December 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17622044

Plans for Subdivision.
It is expected that, with the proposed subdivision of about 400 acres of Crown lands in Duffy's Forest, at the northern end of French's Forest, small holdings, each from approximately eight to ten acres in area, will be made available.

As announced in yesterday's "Herald," the State Cabinet has approved an expenditure of £15,000 for road construction as part of the subdivision scheme.

Duffy's Forest is between Terry Hills-on the road between Pymble and Mona Vale-and Kuring-gai Chase, and is about two and a half miles north of St. Ives Showground. The land which will be made available for small holdings extends roughly from Terry Hills to the boundary of Kuring-gai Chase. It Is suitable mainly for poultry raising, the growing of flowers, and apiculture.

The Minister for Lands will fix the terms on which the subdivided land will be leased, but it Is understood that the area will be thrown open for application by way of special leases for small rentals until the lessees are prepared to convert them Into conditional purchase holdings with the object of securing the freehold. 
DUFFY'S FOREST. (1939, December 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17621131

Escapes Death By Gas
INVESTIGATING a leak in an underground gas main in Pittwater Road, Mona Vale, yesterday, Robert Brown of Pittwater Road, Manly, narrowly escaped death. Brown, an employee of the North Shore Gas Co. Ltd., had traced a leak in the gas supply to the main. A gang of workmen uncovered the pipes and Brown entered the trench to plug the leak. He was unconscious when workmates dragged him from the ditch and carried him to a nearby house. When Manly Ambulance officers arrived Brown was still unconscious, lying on the front lawn. They gave him Co2 gas, and within five minutes he revived sufficiently to be placed in the ambulance and taken to Manly Hospital. On the way, he became violently ill, but after treatment at the hospital he recovered and was allowed to go home. 
Escapes Death By Gas (1940, January 6).Daily News (Sydney, NSW : 1938 - 1940), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236360559 

The works were completed by late 1940:

The road between Pymble and Mona Vale through French's Forest has been considerably improved, reports the N.R.M.A. A bituminous surface now extends to the foot of the Sugarloaf Hill on the Mona Vale side, but, as work is in progress between First Rocks Hill and Terry Hills, care should be exercised. From the Sugarloaf to Mona Vale work is in hand between the Elanora turn-off and Mona Vale Cemetery, where gravelling is in progress and traffic should proceed with care
PYMBLE TO MONA VALE. (1940, May 2).Catholic Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1932 - 1942), p. 36. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article146101811 

Father And Son In Road Smash
SYDNEY.-When a truck in which he and his father were travelling skidded and crashed over an embankment at Mona Vale last night Douglas Smith (22), carrier, of Narrabeen, was almost choked to death by the wreckage of the truck, which fell on him. The truck twice somersaulted and the nearside front wheel pinned Smith by the throat cutting off his breath until near by-residents lifted the wreckage off him. By that time he was black in the face. Father and son were admitted to hospital in a serious condition. 
Father And Son In Road Smash (1945, April 18). Barrier Miner (Broken Hill, NSW : 1888 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49999137 

Man Killed in Road Smash
SYDNEY, Saturday. Ernest Hillier (55), stonemason, of Cabbagetree Road, Mona Vale, was killed last night when his car came in collision with a military truck.
An eye-witness told the police that Hillier had been catapulted from the driver's seat and hurled 16 feet into the roadway. He was killed instantly. Police were told that two men and a woman jumped from the truck and ran away
Man Killed in Road Smash (1945, December 15). Glen Innes Examiner (NSW : 1908 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article185424006 

In 1946 there were more resumptions to make Foley's Hill safer and new sections were declared to be part of Public Road No: 162 along the whole road:

Sydney, 24th July, 1946.
I, the Honourable Sir Frederick Richard Jordan, Lieutenant Governor of the State of New South Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council, do hereby notify that in accordance with the provisions of section 9, Public Roads Act, 1002, the lands described hereunder and required for' the roads specified, shall be and are hereby resumed and dedicated as public road; and in accordance with the provisions of section 18 of such Act, the roads described hereunder are hereby declared to be public road, and dedicated to the public accordingly; and also that the roads hereunder specified (intending closing of which has been duly notified), are hereby closed.

P. R. JORDAN, Lieutenant-Governor.
W. F. DUNN, Minister for Lands.

Description or Road opened:—Deviation loop and widening at Foley's Hill, of part of the road from Ryde to Mona Vale, Main Road No. 162, parish Narrabeen, county Cumberland,— as shown on plan deposited in the Department of Lands, Sydney, and catalogued R. 23,205-1,603 roll. R. 45-2. D.M.R. 479-1,242.

Particulars of lands resumed and dedicated as public road, of parts of roads declared to be public road, and of parts of roads which are now closed are given in Schedule hereunder.
A proposal to close the parts of roads mentioned was published in the Government Gazette of 7th December, 1945.

RESUMPTION OF LANDS AND DEDICATION OF ROADS UNDER SECTION 9, AND DECLARATION OF ROADS TO BE PUBLIC ROAD UNDER SECTION 18, PUBLIC ROADS ACT, 1902, AND OF THE CLOSING OF ROADS. (1946, August 2). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1777. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224791612


AT TOP: Woman rider Miss Nancy Campbell talking with competitors Dave Jenkins (left) and Tom Hanson before the senior expert division at the Open Road Hill Climb at Foley's Hill, Mona Vale, yesterday. The events were organised by the Northern Districts Motor Cycle Association. 

LOWER: G. Ryan takes a spill during the lightweight event. 
SPEEDSTERS IN OPEN ROAD EVENT (1950, October 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article27570891 

Roadside stop in 1951 in colour from what were then practically the rural outskirts of Sydney. Source: heavylambs panoramia

In 1951 Main road No.: 162 finally received the official naming we know this road by today:


(L.S.) J. NORTHCOTT, Governor.
I, Lieutenant-General Sir John Northcott, Knight Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Member of the Royal Victorian Order, Governor of the State of New South Wales and its Dependencies, in the Commonwealth of Australia, with the advice of the Executive Council, and in terms of section 8 of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1950, and in pursuance of the Transport (Division of Functions) Act, 1932-1950, do by this proclamation give and notify to the main roads or portions thereof described in the first column of the Schedule hereto the names appearing opposite thereto in the second column of the said Schedule.

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this tenth day of January, 1951.

By His Excellency's Command,

W. F. SHEAHAN, Minister for Transport.



Description.                                                                                                                          Name. 
That portion of Main Roads Nos. 159 and 164 from Raglan-street, Manly,                    Pittwater-road.
to Mona Vale, and Main Road No. 174 from Main Road No. 164 at Mona Vale 
to Church Point.                                      

Main Road No. 164 from Mona Vale to Ocean-road, Palm Beach.                                  Barrenjoey-road.

Main Road No. 162 from the Pacific Highway (State Highway No. 10) at Pymble         Mona Vale road.
to Main Road No. 164 at Mona Vale.

Main Road No. 174 from Church Point to Main Road No. 162 at Terry Hill.                        McCarrs Creek road.

Main Road No. 328 from Pittwater- road (Main Road No. 164), Brook-vale,                       Warringah-road.
to Roseville Bridge within the Shire of Warringah.

(D.M.R. 479-5,320)
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1950.—PROCLAMATION. (1951, February 2). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 290. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220102904

Improvements continued:

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1951.
Notification of Approval of Governor to Plans of a Proposal for the Realignment (by the Realignment Method of Acquisition) of Part of Gordon-road, Main Road No. 162, at its Intersection, with Pitt water-road, Main Road No. 164, in the Shire of Warringah, under Division 1 of Part Yb of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1951.

IN pursuance of the provisions of section 27e of the Main Roads Act, 1024-1951, the Commissioner for Main Roads, who proposes to cause the alignment of part of Gordon-road, Main Road No. 162, as abovementioned. to be realigned pursuant to Division 1 of Part Vb of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1951, and to apply the realignment method of acquisition to the lands affected by such realignment, hereby notifies that the plan of the proposal has been approved by His Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, and that such plan (being plan No, 162S146) may be inspected at the Department of Main Roads and copies of such plan may be Inspected at the Shire of Warringah Council Chambers. (D.M.R. 479-1,481)

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this 27th day of February, 1952.

(us.) A. E. TOYER, Commissioner for Main Roads.

I, Alfred Edward Toyee, the Commissioner for Main Roads, have hereto affixed the official seal of the Commissioner for Main Roads in the presence of J. Fleming, J.P. 
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1951. (1952, March 14). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 805. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220004424

A dual carriageway mooted:

Department of Main Roads has announced provision has been made in its 1957 -'58 programme of works for the construction of an additional lane in Mona Vale Road and Forest Way, Terrey Hills. This will facilitate traffic movement at the junction of the two roads. Motorists who have experienced the heavy congestion that occurs in this locality during many weekends will welcome the advice received by the N.R.M.A. This follows representations drawing attention to the abnormal banking-up of traffic, which, at times was felt as far back as St. Ives. New Road Plan (1957, June 19). The Cumberland Argus (Parramatta, NSW : 1950 - 1962), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article132134022 

And at the Pacific Highway end:

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1960
Municipality of Ku-ring-gai and Shire of Warringah. Main Road No. 162—Mona Vale road. Proposed widening between Killeaton-street and Palm-street, also between St. Ives Showground and West Head road (Main Road . No. 174)

IN pursuance of the provisions of section 27e of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1960, The Commissioner for Main Roads who proposes to cause the alignment of parts of Main Road No. 162—Mona Vale road between Killeaton-street and Palmstreet, also between St. Ives Showground and West Head road (Main Road No. 174) within the Municipality of Ku-ring-gai and Shire of Warringah to be realigned pursuant to Division 1 of Part Vb of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1960, and to apply the realignment method of acquisition to the lands affected by such realignment being the lands described in the Schedule hereto hereby notifies that plans of the proposal have been approved by His Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, and that such plans (catalogued as 162.S.176, 162.S.177, 162.S.178 and 162.S.179 in the Department of Main Roads and lodged with the Registrar-General's Department on 31st May, 1963, and numbered as Deposited Plans 218,266, 218,267, 218,269 and 218,268, respectively), may be inspected at the Department of Main Roads and copies of such plans may be inspected at the Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council Chambers, Gordon, and the Warringah Shire Council Chambers, Brookvale.


Lots 1-6 inclusive, 8, 10-24 inclusive, 26-30 inclusive, 32-37 inclusive, 39 and 40, Deposited Plan 218,266.
Lots 57, 72 and 73, Deposited Plan 218,267. Lots 89 and 90, Deposited Plan 218,269.
Lots 91, 96, 97 and 99-111 inclusive, Deposited Plan 218,268.

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this second day of August, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-three.

I, John Alexander Lachlan Shaw, The Commissioner for Main Roads have hereto affixed the Official Seal of The Commissioner for Main Roads in the presence of—
C. W. Mansfield, J.P.


J. A. L. SHAW.
(D.M.R. No. 238-1,665) of Approval of Governor to Plans of a Proposal for Realignment Under Division 1 of Part Vb of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1960
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1960 (1963, August 16). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2415. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220335648

MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1963
Notification of Approval of Governor to Plans of a Proposal for Realignment under Division 1 of Part Vb of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1963
Municipality of Ku-ring-gai. Main Road No. 162—Mona Vale roadProposed widening between Pacific Highway (State Highway No. 10) and Killeaton-street.

IN pursuance of the provisions of Section 27e of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1963, The Commissioner for Main Roads who proposes to cause the alignment of parts of Main Road No. 162—Mona Vale road, between Pacific Highway (State Highway No. 10) and Killeaton-street, within the Municipality of Ku-ring-gai to be realigned pursuant to Division 1 of Part Vb of the Main Roads Act, 1924-1963, and to apply the realignment method of acquisition to the lands affected by such realignment being the lands described in the Schedule hereto hereby notifies that plans of the proposal have been approved by His Excellency the Governor with the advice of the Executive Council and that such plans (catalogued as 162.S.182 and 162.S.183 in the Department of Main Roads and lodged with the Registrar-General's Department on 20th December, 1963, and numbered as Deposited Plans 220,613 and 220,614 respectively) may be inspected at the Dpartment of Main Roads and copies of such plans may be inspected at the Ku-ring-gai Municipal Council Chambers, Gordon.

Lots 1-62 inclusive, 64-88 inclusive and 90-108 inclusive, Deposited Plan 220,613.
Lots 1-24 inclusive and 26-36, inclusive, Deposited Plan 220,614.

Signed and sealed at Sydney, this first day of May, one thousand nine hundred and sixty-four.

I, Russell John Starr Thomas, The Deputy Commissioner for Main Roads, have hereto affixed the Official Seal of The Commissioner for Main Roads in the presence of—

C. W. Mansfield, J.P. (D.M.R. No. 238-1,712)


MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924-1963 (1964, May 15). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1529. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220380505

Roadside stall at Terrey Hills, 1966

The Great Railway Schemes

A subject that has been discussed even today is a rail connection to Pittwater, or Narrabeen or Dee Why to Chatswood along the thoroughfare that will lead past the new Northern Beaches Hospital.

Such notions have been around for a while - caused speculators to bu land in Pittwater at even the hint of a tram running to Narrabeen and unfortunately for one gentleman, Mr. Brock, meant the loss of a grand estate in 'The Oaks' at Mona Vale.  

Some earlier schemes lend insights into the paths to and from Pittwater, in a round about way:

Camp Life at Field of Mars, Ryde.

The scenery of Ryde and its neighbourhood is of the most picturesque character, offering glimpses and peeps of diversified views, with variations of light and shade, charming in the extreme. Ryde parish church is an elegant structure, reminding us of the old English village style, and its graveyard contains many handsome tombs, placed by loving mourners to the memory of the departed. Ryde itself, is the nucleus of what will one day be a large and flourishing town.

The Field of Mars, portions of which our illustrations represent, is distant from Ryde some-thing less than three miles. 

The " Government Party " Camp, Field of Mars, near Sydney, New South Wales.

1. Overseer's' Camp. 2. Main Camp. 3. Pittwater-road (Tram Route to Parramatta). 4. Lane Cove River (seen from the Estate). 5. Camp on Kitty's Creek. 6. Grinding Axes. 7. Sylvan, Scene on the Kitty's Creek. 

The Colonial Secretary, it may be remembered, at a critical period in the depth of winter, and owing to the disorganization of the labour market, through the late disastrous drought, which so severely affected the whole colony, felt himself called upon to give employment to some hundreds of " unemployed '' who thronged the streets of Sydney, and were reduced to great straits. The common of the Field of Mars has been cleared by some of these men, and is now surveyed and laid out in roads, streets, and allotments, the acreage" of the latter and the width of the former being defined and accurately shown on the maps. We have been informed that this splendid tract of land will be thrown into the market very shortly for sale by auction, as villa sites,and the situation of some of the sections, overlooking the Lane Cove River, are exceedingly fine. The wildness of rugged crags in shapeless grandeur and primeval form, offering a singular contrast to the soft foliage of the far away bush, dotted here and there with a solitary homestead, nestling in, and gleaming white against the dark background, and the placid river flowing at our feet. 

The common is to be approached by a tramway which is to run through Balmain and Gladesville, crossing Stranger's Creek, where an elegant bridge is to be erected, the material for which is now on the ground. This tramway will traverse the common on its eastern side, then proceed in a northerly direction along a main road to Pittwater, and form a loop of a line to be taken from Ryde to Pittwater. The common of the Field of Mars is also comparatively of easy access from the Figtree Wharf on the Lane Cove River, and also by the Parramatta River from Ryde or Gladesville, from each of which it is about equi-distant. The acquisition of land here for villa sites, of an exceptionally pleasing and attractive nature, will doubtless have consideration from those in search of a retired and select location, and it is said the idea is to make this quarter very select-a second Potts Point in fact. On the ridges the soil is of good quality, fit for orchards and vineyards ; the timber is chiefly young mahogany, bloodwood, and gum. Other portions possess soil of the richest description, and for speculators will, no doubt, when offered for sale, be provocative of keen competition. There is a cemetery 27 acres in extent which has been thoroughly cleared, and is apportioned for the various sects and denominations, and will be shortley dedicated and handed over to trustees. From its centre may be obtained one of the prettiest views of the village of Ryde and its church.

Where it rises above the graves on the hill, Silent and sad, and sombre and still.

If the idea of the aristocratic officials to develop a fashionable suburb be accomplished, the piece of country -which has been cleared by the men who sought employment from the Govern-ment offers special advantages, easy of access, a salubrious climate, a rich and fertile soil, and exquisitely beautiful scenery. The roads are all open to excursionists, whether on horseback or by conveyance. Camp Life at Field of Mars, Ryde. (1884, December 13). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 26. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71021325


Though within easy distance of Sydney, very little is known of the magnificent charnpaign country lying contiguous to the many bays which are to be found in Middle Harbor, certainly the most beautiful portion of our beautiful harbor." The many who take the trip round the harbor, going up its glorious waters up to Green Cape, seen on either side steep, rock -guarded uplands, with a rich mass of verdure clothing them with perennial green ; but few have explored these uplands from the land side, or have any conception not only of the goodness of the land but of the magnificence of the views to be obtained from almost every point. Here, extending north of Si. Leonards, is a grand sanatorium— a large extent of country in its native state, consisting of undulating land covered with heather and thick undergrowth, running eastward towards the waters of Middle Harbor. Some time since this attractive area, which hitherto had lain idle, being cut into allotments mainly owned by one man, attracted the attention of two gentlemen who saw that bore was an opportunity of bringing these magnificent sites for suburban residences within easy access of Sydney, opening out country with the finest uplands, breezy and health-encouraging, running on towards the waters of Middle Harbor, and at the same time forming a straight route on to Pittwater and Narrabeen, two place which in the near future must become of increased importance, not only us holiday resorts but also as settled centres of industry. The idea was that a tramway line carried from the present terminus of the North Shore cable tramline at the corner of St. Leonards Park, straight along Miller-street, on through the municipality of North Willoughby to a point near the head waters of Middle Harbor would not only be a good speculation but would also be the means of bringing into existence a new' suburb, which in point of picturesque beauty of scene would outrival many of the beautiful outskirts of the city. A thousand acres of ground shown' in the annexed plan marked with horizontal and perpendicular lines were acquired by purchase by Mr. Andrew Armstrong and Mr. James Alexander Brown, each owning 600a., and after much consultation and many and varied calculations it was decided to get permission, if possible, from Parliament to construct a tramway to the extremity of the property so acquired. After some trouble the matter was brought before Parliament, and on July 18, 1887, an Act was assented to authorising Messrs. Armstrong and J. A. Brown to construct and maintain a tramway along the proposed route. 

The description of the tramway in the Act is from the terminal point of construction of the St. Leonards cable tramway, along Miller-street, Palmer-street and Bellevue-street, in the town and municipality of St. Leonards, and through certain private land, across French's-road, Mowbray-road, M'Lellan-street, -Victoria-avenue and along Murano-road, in the municipality of North Willoughby. It was specified in the Act that the tramline should not occupy in any part of a road or street a greater space in breadth than 22ft. including the support and foundations ; that it should be constructed and brought into use within three years from the passing of the Act and constructed In a workmanlike manner that nothing should impair the lawful authority of the municipalities of St. Leonards and North Willoughby or of any other corporation to construct, maintain and preserve gasworks, water works, sewerage works and other works lawfully constructed under ground ; that the gauge of the tramway should be 4ft. 8 ½ in. that it should be laid with rails subject to the approval of the Commissioner for Railways; "that the promoter should maintain in perfect order the tramway and the pavement of the streets between the rails and for the space of 1ft. Oin. on each side of the rails, and should erect all necessary causeways ; that they should emptor electricity, locomotive engines, stationary engines with cable connection, horses, or other moving power ; that they should be responsible for all injuries caused through negligence or improper construction ; that regulations should be framed, but none or' them should authorise the closing of the tramway between sunrise and sunset, except at any time when In consequence of any of the works being out of repair it should be necessary to close the line or any part of it ; and finally, that the Government should have power at any time to purchase the line at its then assessed value. 

After this the land, which had been purchased by Messrs. Armstrong and Brown, who were the real fathers of the scheme, attracted the attention of a number of capitalists, and two companies were formed, who in December, 1887, and January, 1888, acquired the whole of the land. The first of these was styled the North Sydney Investment and Tramway Company, with a nominal capital of a million sterling, and the land owned by them is shown on the map marked with horizontal lines. The second company the North Shore and Middle Harbor Land Company, with a nominal capital of £1500,000, has its property distinguished by perpendicular lines, and as will be seen, this company own two pieces of land away from the proposed tramline, the one to the left an area known as the Royal Park Estate, and the other an allotment 270a, in extent on the opposite side of Middle Harbor, near where there is a further proposal to erect abridge for a road or train extending from the proposed line. This area of ground which has been bought with a view to further, development has a water frontage on the main waters of Middle Harbor, commencing at a point situated just above a small cove, where the steamers plying usually turn and close to an exquisite spot — a crag bound little peninsular extending to the water, covered with a beautifully green carpet of turf surrounded by rich and variegated, woodland foliage. This spot was a favorite resort of Sir Hercules Robinson when Governor of New South Vales, and he and his family and friends were wont to come here picnicking. The whole of this property, owned by two companies, is well adapted for residential purposes. The total length of the proposed line is about three miles and a half, the distance from the present cable tram terminus to the bridge at Long Bay being one mile, and it is stated that will present but few engineering difficulties. 


Hitherto the whole of the large area of country situated within the boundaries of the borough of North Willoughby, and extending back to the parish of Gordon, has been to a great extent cut oft' from communication with Sydney in consequence of the rugged gorge formed by the waters of Long Bay, the southernmost arm of Middle Harbor, the waters of .which extend a long distance westward, terminating in what in summertime is a Huge canon with steep sides, mid at whose bottom lie huge boulder, through which the course of g . creek 'is discernible, its existence being marked only by. here and there a limpid pool of water and its sides, rough, uneven land, which might be utilised without trouble, and on the slopes of which arc dotted here and there a number of residences of all kind, some of them of the most primitive type. The design of the proposed tramline, which is to be at once proceeded with, is to bridge this chasm and to open out in the first instance the areas running on the one side out through the territories included in the borough of North Willoughby comprising the lauds through which the railway to Crow's Nest runs, and on to the unimproved and at present, owing to the unwillingness of the proprietor to sol unimprovable, estate owned by Mr. David Berry, the whole of the original grant known as .Wolstoncrofte, and on the other the areas running eastward to though shores of Middle Harbor and its numerous offshoots. This latter is comprised in four distinct ridges ; the first and the largest of the four in point of area, bounded on the south by Long Bay and on the north by Mowbray Bray : the second between Sailor's Bay and Sugar Loaf Bar ; the third a beautifully-situated promontory on either side of what is known as Sugar Loaf Bay ; and the fourth washed on either side by the main waters of Middle Harbor up to beyond its navigable waters. This is in effect the design, of the first portion of the scheme shown on the plan, but its extension is contemplated on to Pittwater with a detour to the west to Manly. 

Taking the tramline as proposed, the first portion will run from the present terminus of the cable tramway, (by the Government) at the south-western corner of St. Leonards Park along Miller-street for a -distance of a little over a mile to the waters of Long Bay, and will bring into direct and near communication with Sydney the whole of the northern portion of the borough of .St. Leonards, as on either side of the. line there is a large population, with spacious well-formed streets. The whole of the land to the left of the line is portioned off into streets up to the boundaries of the Berry Estate, a small portion of which has been alienated. And on this stand numerous residences and places of business, besides several public buildings, including the pretty cottage hospital—a credit to the borough, which was formally opened by Sir Henry Parkes less than a year ago. To the right of the line is the St. Leonards Park — a well laid out public reserve —which is yearly being Improved; while beyond, a little, further to the westward, below Ernest-street, is situated Cammeray Park, a triangular piece of ground through which passes a road leading to Cammeray Point, whilst in a once sequestered nook, which has been of late invaded by a tramline leading to Borne quarries at the extremity of a little harbor is situated Folly Point, approached by a road formed by the St. Leonards corporation, a favorite boating and fishing resort, but which is not. used as it might be owing to the difficulty of access from Milson's Point. The gorge at Long Bay is to be crossed by a handsome suspension bridge, and after crossing this the line enters upon the territory of the borough of North Willoughby. 

At present the only means by which this borough can be reached from Milson's Point direct is by the Sydney-road, a well-formed thoroughfare, whilst the bay as it is still called, though it really is a creek, dry in summer but a roaring torrent after heavy or even moderate rains, has been spanned through the energy of the North Willoughby Council by a massive stone bridge, which cost somewhere about £5000. Near here, perched on the heights, are the residences of Mr. Thomas Datton, M.P., and Mr. Douds, M.L.C. Passing over the bridge the road ascends, and though the land is pleasant and the scenery delightful there is not much settlement until what is known as the Central Township is reached, a beautifully laid out little village, where there are numerous pretty residences and a large tannery, the most extensive to be found around Sydney, owned by the Messrs. Forsyth, who have taste-full villa residences in the vicinity. The whole of the rest of the country to the westward of the land, including Mowbray Park, the township of North Sydney, Alleyne Park, the Artarmon Estate and numerous other allotments — some merely fenced in, others lying waste, and others again built and settled upon— is a rich country, where gradually people are finding their way, and which only wants an impetus such as a tramline should impart to make it one of the gardens of New South Wales.  As an instance of progress, it may be stated that out in this now distant and but little-known suburb, at a spot whore there is but a straggling population, Mr. Museton is meeting a line hall to be called the Centennial. 

But after all in connection with the tramway, it is the land situated to the eastward, with some seven miles of frontage to Middle Harbor and extending from Long Bay to the topmost arm of the harbor, which will give it Its chiefest charm and value. No finer views are to he obtained near Sydney, and the combination of water and wood and tree and fern, upland and valley and clear heathland and rocky defiles, clothed with all the rich flora and ferns of New South Wales, are all beautiful. The whole of this country is owned by the two companies who hare taken in hand the task of constructing and carrying on the tramway, with the exception of a few stray allotments which are shown in our plan, and several valuable reserves which have been retained, but never up to the present time used by the Government. The first ridge through the extremity, of of which the tramway will pass is bounded on the south by Long Bay, with a curious inlet known as Saltpan Creek, which many years ago was looked upon us a natural dock, and which it was intended should be used for Government purposes. This is included in a large reserve designed partly for a site for harbor defences and partly for a training school for boys from the ship Vernon, but up to the present it remains wild and unimproved. The whole of the land on this peninsula has been partially cleared and a fine roadway formed, whilst from a lofty dome-shaped hill which rises abruptly from the surrounding plateau an attractive view of the harbor and its tributaries is to be had. Below, abutting sharply on the water is Figtree Point, a well-known resort by persons voyaging into these waters, and at the northernmost extremity of the promontory a piece of laud known ns Albert Town, with a park reserve adjoining, to which the rood, which has been formed partly by the company and partly by the borough council, descends. Opposite is the curious point known as Quaker's Hat and a rich flat, which some time or another must become valuable. All the land on this area is well adapted for residential sites. The ridge beyond this is intersected by Mowbray-road, and the character of the land is similar, though in parts more rugged, while the scenery as we advance northward assumes a bolder and more mountainous character, softened always by the glorious stretch of water which spreads itself in all directions, terminated by lovely bays and rich campaign areas. The most northerly of the ridges, and by far the most beautiful, is at present approached by the Teralba-road leading from Alleyne Park and descending to the bond of Sugarloaf Bay, where there is a considerable settlement. A creek runs in to the bead of the buy, and along its banks are two tanneries and a number of pretty residences, all surrounded by gardens and orchards; in fact, everywhere in this fertile region fruit trees seem to flourish to an astonishing extent, and wherever the hand of man has been at work luxurious gardens are to be found. On the heights to the southward of Sugarloaf Bay, near Mount Wilson, there is a large Chinese garden of some 21 ha., owned by a man who in years past was a celebrity amongst his countrymen, one Chenateak, and here a large vegetable trade is done. At the back of the garden there is a joss house which is used by the numerous Chinese gardeners, who have made for themselves a home in various likely spots throughout the borough of North Willoughby— In fact, wherever water was to be found. 

The proposed tramway terminates on a crested hill, known as Echo Farm, after crossing a rock-embrasured creek which just below the tramline passes through a series of rocky' basin, and then tumbles over a precipice, forming n waterfall some 70ft. or 80ft., the sides of this narrow gorge, only about 10ft. in width, being covered with ferns and every species of flora and shrub. As opening out this magnificent country and thus bringing within easy reach a land but little known either to the tourist or the resident of Sydney the tramline proposed, apart from any profit it must bring to the companies who have obtained permission to construct It, must be regarded as a public benefit." Its extension, as contemplated, on to Manly and further afield to Narrabeen and Pittwater, in lieu of the line proposed through St. Leonards and across the Spit by means of a bridge, is a matter only of time. THE PROPOSED ST. LEONARDS TRAMWAY. (1889, January 19). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article235866189

The bridge referred to above was originally called the North Sydney Bridge. The depression of 1892 saw both companies go into liquidation and at that point the name Northbridge began to appear. This downturn was caused by a number of factors including a severe drought, the sinking of wool, wheat and metal prices, and most of all, the withdrawal of British investment in NSW on a major scale.

The plan for a train to Pittwater persists:

In ten years time you might have a chance: to-day you have none. This in effect was the reply made yesterday by the Minister for Works to a deputation which waited upon him with a request that he would favourably entertain the building of a railway from the North Shore line in the neighbourhood of Gordon or Pymble across to Pittwater with Broken Bay as the final objective. The deputation lacked nothing in numbers. There was a strong representation of the Kuringai and Warringah Shire Councils, of the Kuringai Ratepayers' Association, and of the Pittwater Progress Association It was introduced by Mr. Wade who with Dr Arthur emphasised the advantages to be derived from the construction of the proposed line. Dr Arthur enlarged on the advantages of throwing open for settlement country that from the standpoint of hygiene lacked nothing. It would be an ideal district he said for testing the Government scheme for erecting workmen’s homes. The land lay from 600 to 700 feet above sea level the surroundings were most picturesque and it lent itself well to drainage and sanitation. Since Sydney was increasing at such an enormous rate people would be driven more and more Into the Suburbs and he thought It would be a pity to compel them to seek homes along the low lying parts served by the Western line or along the shores of Botany Bay when such elevated and beautiful country as that lying between the North Shore line, and the ocean could be made accessible.

The Rev. Paul Clipsham president of the Kuringai Shire Council said the country lying between Gordon-Pymble on the one side and Narrabeen-Mona Vale on the other rivaled In its beauty anything to be seen on the Blue Mountains. He had not the slightest doubt that if the line were constructed it would develop an enormous passenger traffic. A line 17 miles long would open up the district well and seeing that there are no engineering difficulties to be overcome, he did not think It would be an expensive line to build. Apart from that it would greatly enhance the use of Crown lands through which the railway would pass. In all probability it would pay almost from the start. It would run through St Ives one of the most thriving fruit growing districts in the state. It would carry heavy consignments of fruit to Sydney and doubtless when communication with Broken Bay was opened up much of the fish supply of Sydney would be carried by It.

Messrs Ralston (president of the Warringah Shire Council) Griffiths, T. W. Taylor, Jones (secretary Pittwater Association) and R D Brown also addressed the Minister In Support of the railway project.

It was pointed out that Broken Bay would play an important part in any scheme of defence and that under these circumstances the Defence Department of the Commonwealth might be prepared to contribute to the cost of the maintenance of the line.

The Minister for Works said one of the stock arguments used by advocates of railway projects was the bearing the line would have upon defence. His business was to build lines not for defence purposes but for the development of the country. If however, there was anything in the suggestion that the Defence Department would pay part of the cost of a line to Broken Bay he would of course go carefully into the matter. He did not need to be told anything about the beauties of the country through which the proposed line would pass. He knew the country and it was the most beautiful country he had ever seen. It was to Australia what the Riviera was to Southern Europe. But he could not give the deputation a very encouraging reply. In time the railway would he made but he could not see his way to regard it as one of pressing necessity. Apart from that it would be enormously costly. The North Shore line cost £55 300 per mile and on that basis it would cost over a million to build the 20 miles to Broken Bay or if the line stopped at Mona Vale the cost would run to three quarters of a million. That was an enormous sum to spend to open up even so beautiful a district as the one in question. It would be a very fine thing for the landowners of the district whose property would be enormously increased in value. The State would get little out of it seeing that barely 1 ½ miles of the line would pass through Crown land. If the railway were justified on other grounds he would not object to making the fortunes of the landowners of the district.

But it was not Justified seeing the larger areas of unoccupied land to which the North Shore line gave access. Within 1 ½ miles of Wahroonga station alone there were hundreds of acres of primeval bush and the same thing applied to other stations along the line. The land was being held by owners, waiting for fancy prices. That land must be settled before the line to Pittwater could be considered. It was the policy of the government to spend what money it could get in building railway to open up wheat and agricultural country.

That was obviously more urgent work than building a railway into residential country which already had a railway on one side and would have an electrical tramway on though other side. It was proposed to have the electric tram service extended to Mona Vale. The line would be built off the road and In order to secure a speedy service the stopping place would be at Intervals of quarter or half mile. For quite a number of years that is all the residents could expect to get. The railway would come some day. Perhaps if the deputation waited upon the Minister 10 years from now they would probably get a more encouraging answer than he was able to give. TURNED DOWN. (1911, November 21).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15290696 

Photo: Gordon Railway Station, in the Upper North Shore of Sydney in 1907, courtesy State Library of NSW

Photo: sections from 1905 Parish Map of Narrabeen showing railway dotted line - that was rejected - and 'The Sugarloaf - this section at Terrey Hills part of map also shows 'James Terrey & Philip Spies' owning section of 640 acres previously held by Obadiah Terrey

The opening of the tram to Narrabeen renews the call for a train or tram to Broken Bay, as well as describes the road:

In the olden times St. Ives was not the Important fruit-growing centre it afterwards became. The country was thickly wooded, and the first Industry started in the district was that of timber getting and sawing. The majority of the resident, were so engaged. 

Mr. Matthew, one of the original grantees, a man who before setting foot in Australia studied medicine in the Old Country, was one of the first settlers to start a sawmill, which was situated on the south-west side of St. Ives. To supply the mills he engaged a number of men in timber cutting, most of the labor being supplied by assigned servants— the custom of the times. After the timber had been cut and sawn into the marketable lengths, It was conveyed by road to the Lane Cove River, somewhere In the vicinity of the present golf links at Killara, whence It was, by boat, carried to Sydney, and landed, at the Market Wharf. Most of the timber from the district as far north as Hornsby was taken to the water by way of Fidden's Wharf-road— named after old 'Joe' Fidden, one of the oldest boatmen of the day. 

The Industry was a profitable one, but at the timber disappeared, residents commenced to cultivate their lands, and put them to other uses. The first orchards were established in Gordon, Pymble, and Turramurra, followed in 1884 by those at St. Ives. Mr. James Matthews cultivated portion of his land, known as the Rosedale grant, and planted a small orchard. This may be looked upon as the start of the Industry at St. Ives. After Matthews' death his land was subdivided, and passed into other hands. At this period the most conspicuous settlers were James Terrey, B. Smith, Hughes, Jones, Cates, Richardson, Britton, S. Johnson, Leonard, and Reid; and later still Moffitt, Bradley, John and Thomas Hughes, and Nancarrow, all of whom were orchardists. Some of the orchards had but a brief existence, but the others flourished, and exist at the present time, the fruit grown including oranges, lemons, peaches, apples, pears, and plums. To-day orchardists are setting a good return from the Industry, for which the country and soil are eminently suited. 

St. Ives is a picturesque centre, and is reached from Pymble by either the Stony Creek-road, or Telegraph-road, which Junction about a mile distant from the Lane Cove-road, and thence along the Pittwater-road enters the settlement two or three miles further on. It boasts a public school and a Methodist Church and school hall, and quite recently the Church of England purchased a building in which Divine Service is regularly held, at the corner of Cowan and Pittwater roadsThe last-named road leads right on to Broken Bay. 

After passing through St. Ives the country becomes rocky and poor, and though within the population boundary as far as Tumbledown Dick, it is unproductive. 

St. Ives is not only picturesque, but healthy, the latter fart being in no small measure due to its altitude of 600ft. The pretty hamlet is constantly visited by motorists, who, while enjoying the cultivated beauty of the place and its bracing air, find it an excellent approach to Manly, Narrabeen and Newport, the roadway being In good condition and suitable for motors of all descriptions. Four miles from Pymble Is Hassall Park, a small reserved area set apart for public recreation, and well patronised by the young people of the district, though still in its primitive state. 

There is little doubt that St. Ives would have been a much more popular centre had it been granted train or tram connections with its neighbors. Some time ago the councillors of the Kuring-gai and Warringah Shires met and discussed the necessity of making the place accessible. As a result, an agitation was started In favor of establishing a line of railway from Pymble Station, on the Milson’s Point line, to Broken Bay, the cost of which was set down at about £500.000. This movement met with no success, the Government of the day turning the proposal down. Then a tramway connection was proposed, but with like result. There is small doubt in the local mind that a tramway would prove a profitable venture, as, besides opening up a beautiful country, it would be a great convenience to those at present settled in the district. 
It is held that It could be constructed at a small cost, and would Immediately become productive In a monetary sense, especially if after passing through St. Ives, it were carried through French's Forest to Narrabeen. By this means a pretty alternative route to Narrabeen would be provided for the thousands of excursionists who already have availed themselves of the facilities offered by the Manly-Narrabeen tram. ST. IVES. (1913, February 19). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117931563 

Gordon Railway Station ca.1917. Shows a view of Gordon Railway Station looking towards Killara. The Station platforms, waiting shed, gardens and gas lamps can be seen. Gordon Station was opened on January 1, 1890 when the North Shore Line began operating from St Leonards to Hornsby.


On Saturday Mr. J. Estell, Minister for Works, inspected the route of a proposed railway line from Gordon, on the North Shore line, to the coast near Narrabeen. The Minister was accompanied on his tour by Messrs. Bavin and Greig, Ms.L.A., Mr. W. R. Fitzsimons (president of the Kuring-gai Shire Council), and councillors, and by Mr. J. Hughes and members of the St. Ives Rail-way League.

The route suggested, of which an exploration survey has been made by Mr. Scott Griffiths, is 11 1/2 miles in length. From Gordon station it follows the line of Stoney Creek to Pratten Hill, and thence along the west side of High Ridge to St. Ives. After passing Cowan-road the route passes through orchard land of an easy grade to First Rocks, on the boundary of Kuring-gai and Warringah shires. From that point it follows closely the ridge traversed by the Pittwater-Ryde road, and by a wide sweep drops down under the declivity of Tumbledown Dick. Then, skirting Sugarloaf Hill, it runs along the valley to Narrabeen. The general grade through-out is 1 in 96.

The tour most effectively demonstrated that an immense district suitable both for fruit-growing and the settlement of a very large suburban population would be available close to the metropolis if the proposed line were constructed. Easy access would be given to the beaches north of Manly, and Kuring-gai Chase. 60,000 acres in extent, the great national playground of the people, would be brought close to their doors. From a scenic point of view the line would rival some of the famous sections of the State railways; the views of rugged wooded country, and alluring coastline obtainable from many points being probably unequalled in Australia.

At St. Ives the inspecting party visited the orchards of Messrs. Russel, Hensman, and Symington, and obtained first-hand knowledge of the capabilities of the district. The rows of orange and mandarin trees heavily laden with golden fruit, grown on the rich loam on Mr. Russel's property, and the luscious fruit produced by the heavily fertilised sandy soil on Mr. Symington's holding deeply impressed the visitors. Though the soils differed the quality of the fruit was superb in both cases. Mr. Symington informed tho party that he had taken 3500 cases of oranges and mandarins off seven acres in one year. The railway route lies through 8000 acres of Crown land, similar to Mr. Symington's.

At a luncheon provided by the St. Ives Rail-way League Mr. J. Hughes, the president, stated that the proposed line would traverse about three miles of private property ; the rest was Crown land, suitable for fruit-growing. The increase in land values, apart from passenger receipts, would pay for the con-of the line. The land now lay idle.

Mr. Estell pointed out the necessity for de-centralisation. There were two lines of railway running north from Sydney, yet there were no connections with the coast ports. Congestion in Sydney should be prevented, and men enabled to go to that district and take up 1 1/2 acre, and establish comfortable homes. In New South Wales there were public works to cost 14 millions still uncompleted. When some were completed he hoped to take new work in hand. He saw one of the finest parts of the country in that district, and he would promise to have a trial survey made from Gordon to the coast. Then he would ask the Commissioners to prepare a report for sub-mission to Parliament. Messrs. Bavin and Greig urged the construction of the line, and emphasised the relief it would give to congested city areas. Mr. Fitzsimons gave valuable Information as to the growth of the district and its potentialities. After lunch the remainder of the route was inspected. On arrival at Mona Vale the visitors were received by Mr. A. G. Parr, president, and councillors of Warringah shire, and a desire was expressed to co-operate with the people of Kuring-gai shire in securing the construction of the railway.
PROPOSED NEW RAILWAY. (1921, June 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15958623

While Inspecting the route for a proposed railway from Gordon to Narrabeen on Saturday, Mr. Estell (Minister for Works) was shown a site on the Crown lands near First Rocks, on the Pittwater-Ryde road, which the Kuring-gai Shire Council is desirous of securing as a park and showground for St. Ives and district. Forty to sixty acres set aside now, said the shire president Mr. W. R. Fitzsimons, would make provision for the future. The Minister promised to favourably recommend the request to his colleague, Mr. Loughlin. PARK FOR ST. IVES. (1921, June 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15958692

Mona Vale views: Mona Vale, Call Number Government Printing Office 1 – 15675, courtesy of the State Library of NSW.

Extras And References

1. TROVE. National Library of Australia.

2. PROFILES  OF  THE  PIONEERS IN MANLY,  WARRINGAH  AND  PITTWATER. by Shelagh Champion, OAM, B.A.(Lib.Sc.) and George Champion, OAM, Dip.Ed.Admin. 1996

3. Edwards, Zeny, Pymble, Dictionary of Sydney, 2010, http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/pymble

4. Ku-ring-gai Historical Society Inc



BY a notice published in the Government Gazette on the 11th of last month, it appears that ferries have been established on the new line of road from Sydney to Maitland by way of Brisbane Water. We are informed that about ten days ago an officer of the Government passed over the Wollombi to examine a line of road, for the opening of which the in-habitants of the Wollombi district had for-warded a memorial to the Government. This road commences at a point on the North Shore of Port Jackson, exactly opposite the north end of Macquarie-street, whence it passes through St. Leonard's, and along what is called the Lane Cove Road, to a farm belonging to Mr. Aaron Pearce, where it branches off, keeping the range between Berowra and Cowan Creeks by a well beaten road, leaving a small farm called the "Old Man's Valley" on the left to a tree known in the neighbourhood as the Cowan tree - the word "COWAN" being engraved on its bark. Within a few yards of the Cowan tree a beautiful avenue has been opened through a forest of tall straight trees for about a mile and a half, where gnarled gumtrees, honeysuckles, and stunted scrub, present themselves, growing on the wild sandstone range. About five miles beyond the Cowantree, a small open flat sprinkled with oak trees occurs. The road continues thence along the division of the waters of Berowra and Cowan, showing deep gulleys on each side, with high mountains in the distance to the left, the short lateral spurs exhibiting such rugged features as to prevent the possibility of deviating from the leading ridge, which, at about six miles from Pearce's, becomes very level, and at the seventh declines into a saddle-back, where are the remains of a camp. The remains consist of a horse trough formed of the hollow trunk of a tree, a little beyond which, and close to a rocky water hole is a rude bark hut. Three miles further the ground breaks towards the Hawkesbury and coast, and some engineering is requisite to case the ascent of a steepish hill. About half a mile beyond this is another saddle back, short and sharp, but which may be eased by working round. Thence to the Hawkesbury (where a succession of beautiful views present them-selves) the road, which has been cleared, merely requires trimming. The descent to the river continues along a narrow rocky feature, until a sharp turn round a rock leads over a piece of masonry constructed to clear a deep and rugged gully. The road then passes at the foot of a wall of rock upwards of a hundred feet high, and reaches by a very gradual descent the ferry at Kangaroo Point.

The ferryboat belonging to Mr. Peat (an old settler whose house stands on the opposite bank of the river) is capable of taking six horses.

A long narrow neck of mountain ground between Mooney Mooney and Papran Creeks, is the commencement of the line from the Hawkesbury to Wollombi. The ascent up this neck is the chief labour required in the formation of the road, there being no difficulties on any part of the line. From the top of the hill above Peat's, the direction of the wood is defined by the course of the range, which (though somewhat tortuous) it keeps for about fifteen miles, where it passes over a bluff mass of rock, which re-quires to be reduced by blasting. About two miles beyond this point, and at a low, tame, feature, in a thick scrub, a tree is marked on a part bared of its bark WATER with RM and anchor under, denoting thereby, that a safe place of anchorage is near. From this point the ground ascends gradually towards two remarkable rocky knolls reminding one of "Los dos Aripiles," of the celebrated battle field of Salamanca, and which are as important as a key to the road as those of Spain were to the military position. Keeping close under these remark-able points, the road leads over a small water course dropping towards Papran, then passes through a thick scrub to the crest of the range, which soon becomes very open-commanding extensive views on both sides. To the north-east, Warrawolong towers over all the subor-dinate ranges heading the Wollombi Brook, To the north-west Yengo occasionally shows the whole of its form through the foliage, and serves as a guide in selecting the track by which to keep the leading range. There are, however, some delusive patches of open ground; the temptation to follow these must be resisted, as they almost invariably lead into gullies; it must therefore ever be borne in mind that the range is the road.

At about six miles beyond the Aripilcs is a singular out-crop of trap from among the sandstone country: the land which rests upon it is of the richest description, thickly clothed with grass, and with standing timber, of girth, height, and straightness, rarely to be met with in this part of the country. The extent of this rich land is however very limited, and the road continues as before, along the top of the same range, which near the trap country (Warre Warren) throws off the waters eastward to Aurimbah Creek, and thence to Tuggurah Beach Lagoon-those on the west side falling into Mangrove Creek. Following the range between the heads of those creeks and the Wollombi, (the general bearing of Warrawolong and Yengo, being nearly as before, making allowance for distance,) the line strikes the road from Wise-man's (Lower Portland Head) to Wollombi, at a small stone bridge about four miles on the Sydney side of McDonald's Flat. Fifteen miles of the best part of the Wollombi Road completes the distance.

Several gentlemen have travelled the line referred to, and represent it to be free from any serious difficulties. A road party was a short time ago employed upon the first part of it, but suddenly withdrawn. Why this was done we are at a loss to imagine, for it opens a direct road from Sydney to a most important district. NEW NORTH ROAD. (1848, March 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12898008

This nickname was borne by Richard Cromwell, second Protector of England, who died in 1712. Son of Oliver Cromwell, he reigned for only nine months after his father's death.
He had led a gay youth, loved field sports, and even drunk King Charles' health with Cavaliers, but when the Army made him leave Whitehall he said to adherents, 'I will not have a drop of blood spilt in the preservation of my greatness, which is a burden to me," and went unresistingly into oblivion, taking with him an old hair trunk of documents. He was £29,000 to debt, due partly to his father's funeral, and he had been in great danger of arrest, but, prudently “Shut himself up in his cabinet" and went to France, where he lived in retirement as John Clarke, reading and painting landscapes.
"TUMBLEDOWN DICK" (1942, October 28). The Armidale Express and New England General Advertiser (NSW : 1856 - 1861; 1863 - 1889; 1891 - 1954), , p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article193188654

Old witch flying on a kitchen chair,
Cat on her shoulder, tail In the air
Man in the moon goes shivery all over.
Calls to his little dog, "At them, Rover!"
Cat starts mialling,
Dog bow-wowing,
Moon gets terrified and tips right over;
Man comes tumbling down into a motor.
"Hey!" says the taxi-man, "where shall I go ter?"
"Take me to Norwich,
They've hot pease-porridge,
That's what I want, for I'm shivery all over;
I can't find my way there without little Rover!"
TUMBLEDOWN DICK. (1926, May 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16295334


This beautiful stretch of country is the gift of Mr. V. Roinel and Mr. and Mrs. Danvers Power, to the Boy Scout movement of New South Wales, for a training camp for officers and rovers, similar to the well known establishment at Gillwell Park in England. The cleared space In the picture indicates the site of the actual camp itself. The estate, which is now the splendid domain of the Boy Scout movement, is known as Korman Hurst, and is at the foot of Tumbledown Dick Hill, between Pymble and Narrabeen. Mr. Kelso King has provided the funds for fitting out the camp, which will be opened on March 7 by the Governor-General (Lord Forster). The estate, eminently fitted, li. is considered, for tho work of the movement, includes three structures, one of which a three-roomed cottage will be used as a clubroom and library. The two other buildings will be used for Red Cross purposes and for stores and offices. An Honourable Charge has been Issued by the Chief Scout (Major-Gcneral Sir Robert Baden-Powell) to Mr. Hartley MacAlllster, Deputy Commissioner, authorising him to act as a Deputy Camp Chief at the now camp. Accompanying this document were the little badge beads of office.TRAINING CAMP FOR BOY SCOUT OFFICERS. (1925, January 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 13. Retrieved fromhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16187662

The NRMA recently approached the Lands Department with a suggestion that two areas on Tumbledown Dick Hill on the road between St Ives and Mona Vale, French's Forest be acquired as public reserves The Department has advised the association that the site on the southern side of the road is on freehold land, and it considers that the entailed resumption would not be warranted Regarding the area on the northern side however a comprehensive design for future disposal of a large area of Crown land in this locallty is, being prepared and an appropriate area will be set aside for public recreation when the scheme is finalised.  TUMBLEDOWN DICK RESERVE. (1939, April 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), , p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17592512 

Early Settlers Along The Ways

Daniel Deering Mathew


In The Supreme Court.

Campbell Jun. v. Daniel Deering Mathew.

BY Virtue of a Writ of Fieri Faeias to me directed in the above-named Cause, I will Put up and Sell by Public Auction, at my-Office, in Hunter-street, Sydney on Friday 25th Day of October instant, at the Hour of 11 O'clock, A. M. A FARM, containing 400 Acres of land, situate at Lane Cove, the Property of the Defendant; unless the Execution thereon be previously discharged. No title (1822, October 18). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2181386 

PROVOST MAKSHAL'S OFFICE, OCT. 10, 1822. "NOTICE.- Having received a Communication from Mr. Secretary GOULBURN, under Date of the 7th Instant conveying certain Instructions from his EXCELLENCY the GOVERNOR, for my Guidance in the Discharge of one of the Duties of my Department, as Provost Marshal of the Territory, I hereby give Notice to all whom it may concern, that the following is a Copy of the Communication with which I have been so honored.

J. T. CAMPBELL, Provost Marshall



" The Attention of the GOVERNOR has been arrested by some Advertisements from your Office, tendering in Public Sale; certain Grants, very recently executed by the late Governor (MACQUARIE); the Purchasers of those Estates will undoubtedly take them, with all the risks attendant on the Conditions of their Grants being either unperformed or violated :-I am accordingly directed to have the honor to request, that, at the Time of Sale, this Circumstance be duly noticed to the Public by you, Sir, as a high and public fairer, enjoying the peculiar Prerogative to promote His Majesty's Profit in all Things that belong to your Office, as far as you legally can or may truly to preserve the King's Rights, and all that belongeth to the Crown not to consent to decrease, lessen, or conceal the King's Rights, or the Rights of His Franchises:-whensoever you shall have Knowledge that the Rights of the Crown are concealed or withdrawn, be it in Lands, Rents, Franchises, Suits, or Services, or in any other Matter or Thing, to do your utmost to make them " to be restored to the Crown again i-and if you " may not do it yourself, to certify and inform the " King thereof, or some of His Judges."

I have the honor to be. Sir,
your most obedient humble Servant,
F. GOULBURN, Colonial Secretary/' 
John Thomas Campbell, "Esq.

Provost Marshal of New South Wales. No title (1822, October 18). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2181386 


THE PUBLIC are hereby cautioned against employing THOMAS WHITMORE, a Prisoner, he having left my employment before the time of his Agreement was completed ; and a REWARD of TWO POUNDS will be paid by me to any person giving information where the said THOMAS WHIT'EMORE may be at work, after this Notice immediately return to his work, he will be apprehended and prosecuted, agreeable to the Act of Council in such case may be provided.


Rosedale, Lane Cove, 2nd April, 1834.

Advertising (1834, May 10). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 1 (MORNING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32146255 


THE UNDERSIGNED having given a PROMISSORY NOTE at three' months for .£24 155. Od., to Mr. EDWIN BOOKER, upon certain conditions which he has not performed. I hereby CAUTION the PUBLIC ~not to receive this NOTE in payment, as I have received no value for-the same.

Rosedale, lane Cove, 1
13th Oct., 1836.

Advertising (1836, October 24). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 1 (EVENING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32152568 

To the Editors of the Sydney Morning Herald.

GENTLEMEN,-As a regularly educated physician who has studied and practised physic as well as all the branches of natural philosophy for nearly fifty years, I am going to relate a fact, of which I had ocular demonstration, of phosphorus in an active state being found in the internal membrane of the gizzard or stomach of a domesticated fowl. One of my fowls was ill, apparently from fighting, it was killed, and upon opening it two or three hours after, the internal membrane of the stomach, which contained nothing but the seeds of the rose canina, commonly called the sweet briar, I found upon the least pressure with the knife volumes of smoke were emitted, the smell was decidedly phosphoric , the membrane I kept until dark, when it was as luminous as a stick of phosphorus rubbed upon a wall. Now every medical man and natural philosopher knows that phosphorus in a combined state is contained in the bones and some of the secretions of all animals, and it is distinctly visible in fishes after a partial decomposition. I shall be much obliged to any scientific gentleman to solve this problem. From what little knowledge I have obtained from books study, and experiment

I am now completely in the dark. I

DANIEL DERING MATHEW, (sic.) [Matthew]
Cali. : Coll. Cantab. 

PHENOMENON EXTRAORDINARY. (1843, May 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12426679 

To the Editors of the Sydney Morning Herald,

GENTLEMEN,—It has been supposed that the bite of a centipede is generally attended with either the loss of limb, paralysis, or sometimes death, in all hot countries, particularly the East and West Indies, and other countries within the tropics ; but in this colony, for the information of medical practitioners, as well as the public at large, I will give a short account of a very dangerous case of a sawyer bit by a centipede.

This man came to me on the 14th February of the present year, with his arm swollen to three times its natural size, the heat of which was nearly equal to boiling water, the  poison having been retained so long in the arm as to affect the whole system, so much so that he was in a very high fever. The patient did not know what was the matter with his arm, and therefore neglected it ; but upon examination I found two small punctures made by the forceps of the insect, after the cicatrix was removed, being very near the elbow. I have attended this man nearly six weeks, and am now happy to say that he is perfectly cured, and that he has the complete use of his arm, and can work at his trade as well as he could before he was bitten.

There is another insect in hot countries called a scorpion, which is also considered venomous. Above twenty years ago, one of my men came to me and said he was stung by a scorpion. I at first did not believe him, but he persisted in saying he saw the insect on his hand, and killed it, after it had stung him. This happened about the middle of summer; and upon examining his hand with a micro-scope I discovered the place. I made him wash and keep wet the part with a saturated solution of muriate of ammonia, and in a few minutes the pain was allayed, and the hand never swelled, nor was it in any way affected afterwards. As this application was made momentarily, as an experiment, I cannot say it is a specific ; but it is to be observed, the man came to me in less than two minutes after he was stung, so that no absorption of the poison could have extended far : and I am of

opinion that, until active inflammation is produced, by the incision of the teeth, fangs, claws, forceps, proboscis, or sting, no absorption can take place of the poison of any reptile; but that the venom of some animals is more active, and is imbibed sooner into the system,   than others, I will admit.

Collegii Socius Cati Coll. Cantab.
Rosedale, March 25. 

THE BITE OF A CENTIPEDE. (1845, March 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12878312 

DIED. On the 13th instant, at his residence, Rosedale, Lane Cove, Daniel Dering Mathew, Esq., in the 71st year of his ageFamily Notices (1856, June 18). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60249445 

DEATHS. On the 13th instant, at his residence, Rosedale, Lane Cove, Daniel Dering Mathew, Esq., in the 71st year of his age.  Family Notices (1856, June 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12977845 

THIS DAY, half-past 12 o'clock. At. Rosedale, Lane Cove. In the Estate of the late Daniel Dering Mathews, of Rosedale, Lane Cove.  Household Furniture. Horses, Gig-, Harness, Poultry, Blacksmiths' Tools, Lathe, and Effects, &c, &c

BOWDEN and THRELKELD have received instructions from the Executor of the estate of the late Daniel Dering Mathews, to sell by auction, at his late residence, Rosedale, Lane Cove, THIS DAY, Monday, 23rd June, at half-past 12 o'clock prompt, Household furniture and effects. Horse, gig, and harness. Cart. Poultry. Blacksmiths' tools. Turning lathe, &c,, &c, &c. Terms at sale.

Advertising (1856, June 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12977598 

In the Insolvent Estate of John Pearson.

By order of the Official Assignee, RICHARDS0N & WRENCH have received instructions from F. W. Perry, Esq.. Official Assignee, to sell by public auction, at the rooms, Pitt-street, on Monday, 11th February, at 11 o'clock, all his right, title, and interest in and to the following properties in the above Estate—

Lot 27 of the Rosedale Estate, Lane Cove, containing 15 acres 2 roods and 20 perches, fronting Stoney Creek Road, being portion of D. D. Matthews' grant.

Allotment No. 4 of section 2, Village of St. Peter's, having about 30 feet frontage to the Cook's River Road, with a depth of about 99 feet.

Plans at the rooms.


RICHARDSON & WRENCH have received instructions from F. W. Perry, Esq., Official Assignee, (1861, February 5). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 364. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230060154 


- APPLICATIONS having been made to bring the Lauds-hereunder described .under the provisions of The  Real Properly Act, Certificates of indefeasible title will secure, unless Caveats be lodged in form of the said Act, on or before the dates named opposite of each case respectively. 

NO. 713, Lane Cove, Parish of Gordon 60 acres, being part of the Rosedale Estate, as originally granted to the late Daniel Dering Mathews. Applicant – George Thorne, Sydney March 31. Advertising (1865, February 18). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60566123 

George Mudie

George Mudie a sawyer age 60 died Apr 29 1866 at Lane Cove. Cause of death marasmus, Born 1805.
Son of James Mudie a watchmaker and jeweller and Margaret Smith. Informant Robert Mudie, brother of Lane Cove.

Assisted immigrants who arrived in NSW aboard the ship John Barry in Jul 1837. The indent recorded:
Mudie, George, a native of Stanley Perthshire, age 29, married, Presbyterian, could read and write, blacksmith, no rleatives in the colony
Mudie, Ann, a native of Luncarty Perthshire, age 27, married, Presbyterian, could read and write
Mudie, Frances, 7, native place Glasgow
Mudie, Margaret, 5, native place Aberdeen

Buried May 1 1866 at Sydney, Robert Mudie undertaker
Born Perthshire Scotland, 29 years in colony
Married (1) Stanley Perthshire Scotland to Ann Cook
Married (2) not known
Children of marriage:
Fanny (Lane) about 36
Margaret (Miles) 34
George 26
Agnes (Veilly) about 22

George Mudie, senior, of the North Shore, was brought before the Court charged with having neglected to register the death of his child. Defendant's child had been treated by Dr. Rutter, in October last and died on the 20th of that month, when Dr. Rutter gave defendant's wife the necessary cer-tificate, telling her to take it to Dr. Ward, the district registrar. Defendant on the 20th October did take the certificate to Dr. Ward, but after office hours, and as the document did not contain all the information required, he was told that be must call again within thirty days. Defendant never called again, and thus in fact no registry was made. Defendant pleaded ignorance in the matter, and the Bench not being unanimous as to the proof of the offence, made no order in the case. WATER POLICE COURT. (1859, February 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13021553

A man named George Mudie, aged 62 years, died at his brother's residence, Lane Cove, on Sunday last. The City Coroner received the following notes, the first being an enclosure of the second:— "Sydney, April 30th, 1866. I certify that George Mudie, aged 60, died from marasmus, on 29th instant J. Anderson, M.D." This was addressed to Dr. Ward, district registrar, St Leonards, who wrote to the Coroner—"My dear sir, I have received the accompanying certificate, signed J. Anderson, M.D. As the name is unknown to me, and as I do not believe in such a disease as marasmus causing the death of a man of 60, and, as the certificate does not state when the deceased was last seen, I have deferred registering till I hear from you. There is in the medical directory a Dr W. J. Anderson, who is a qualified man, but no Dr. J. Anderson. Please let me hear from you as soon as possible. Believe me, &c., R. D. Ward." The Coroner made inquiries and found deceased had been ailing for several months, and though the body had been removed to the Union Inn, North Shore, declined to hold an inquest being satisfied that such was unnecessary. On reference to tho Nosological Index, pub-lished by Government in 1863, page 9, marasmus is defined as emaciation, atrophy, debility. Surely a man of 60 can die of marasmus.  ADELAIDE. (1866, May 3). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60595683

William Henry McKeown


Sir-It will appear to persons unacquainted with St. Leonards and the above named road, that Mr. Tunks, in his reply to my letter of the 29th May, has made a crushing defence against the charge of selfishness and neglect of duty preferred by me.

Persons travelling from Sydney to Pennant Hills will be able to give a true verdict, that, while the road through parts of St Leonards and Willoughby is almost impassable, that portion (viz., 13 miles) kept by the Minor Roads grant is in good repair.

I now see that in my letter I left a loophole, and that Mr. Tunks has availed himself of it.

I should have said-that portion of road north of St. Leonards township.

Mr Tunks states that the Borrough has spent from six to seven hundred pounds on the main road, and I have no reason to doubt the correctness of this statement. The street has been kerbed and guttered, and the road made level and good up to and a little past Mr. Berry's gate, and on this I ground my charge of selfishness and injustice, by keeping the road good to gentlemen's residence, and stopping there.

Now, did Mr. Berry live a mile further on, we should have no reason to complain of the state of the road. There are no gentlemen's residences beyond his in the borough, and in consequence that part of the road is neglected

Also, on the fact referred to by Mr Tunks, that the inhabitants of St. Leonards are contributing to the public revenue through the Custom-house by the same rule we contribute to the revenue from which the municipalities receive their endowment. Again, if the municipalities were not in existence we would have the "minor roads grant," of which we have been deprived.

When East St. Leonards was proclaimed, ten or eleven years since, the grant to this road was reduced by £50 per annum. When Willoughby was proclaimed a further reduction of £125 was made, thus making it very clear that the duty of repairing the road was thrown upon the boroughs through which it passes. Mr. Tunks refreshes my memory with reference to the state of the road past Mr. Muston's about two years since; if I should live for a hundred years I could not forget that. I contributed to lay down a road of saplings on the footpath, to enable carts to get along. I now take the liberty of refreshing Mr. Tunks's memory, and ask him if that state of things was not brought about by two end half years' neglect on the part of the Borough Council of St Leonards, which came into existence some four or five years previously. He cannot saddle the trustees with the bad state of the road two years since. I will not discuss this matter farther, publicly, with Mr. Tunks. As our representative in Parliament and Mayor of St Leonards we have a right to look to him to have the present state of things remedied in some way.

Yours, &c.,
Rosedale, Lane Cove, 6th June.

LANE COVE ROAD. (1872, June 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13258915 


By order of the Trustees in the Assigned Estate of Mr. William Henry M'Keown.

T. W. BOWDEN is instructed by the trustees to sell by auction, at the Land Sale Rooms, 154, Pitt-street, on THURSDAY, the 24th January, at 11 o'clock,

A farm of 98 acres, purchased from the Crown by Mr. M'Keown, situated in the parish of Gordon, Lane Cove, commencing at the north-east comer of John Ayre's 326 acres ; bounded on the north, by a road one chain wide ; on the east, by a road, one chain wide ; on the south, by the northern boundary of a farm 99 acres, being a line west, 64 chains 92 links ; and on the west, by a part of the eastern boundary line of John Ayre's 320 acres, being a line bearing; north 15 chains 44 links, exclusive of a road one chain wide, from Parramatta to Pittwater, passing through this grant in a northerly direction.

Also a farm of 47 acres, in the same parish, commencing on a road, one chain wide, at the south-west corner of a measured portion of 47 acres ; and bounded on the north by the southern boundary of that land, being a line bearing east 30 chains ; on the east, by a line bearing south, 15 chains 72 links; on the south, by a northern boundary, of a measured portion of 47 acres, being a line bearing west 30 chama ; and on the weet, by the aforesaid rood, dividing it from part of S. Morley's 60 acres, bearing north 15 chains 72 links, to the south-west corner of the 47 acres aforesaid.

These farms were selected by Mr. M'Keown as suitable for orchards, and purchased by him from the Government for that purpose. Terms at sale.  Advertising (1867, January 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13138990 

HCA4 is the location of the second subdivision (1892) known as Roseville Estate, by the orchardist William McKeown. Church Street, Mona Vale Road and Orana Avenue mark the boundaries of the subdivision. Orana Avenue also marks the driveway entrance to a second McKeown house located at no25 Orana Avenue. The conservation area records the historical layer of subdivision of rural land used for orchards for the development of suburbs of Ku-ring-gai. Though the subdivision dates from 1892, the development of the site and did not occur until the inter-War period. This is a record of the economic shifts of boom and bust when larger properties in Ku-ring-gai were subdivided and development delayed until the economy recovered. The impetus for these subdivisions was the planning of the railway with its staged development from 1887 and eventual link from St Leonards to Hornsby in 1890.

HCA4 is built predominantly Inter-War and immediate post war houses which provides a consistency of style, scale and materials. The setbacks from the street and between neighbouring houses allow for mature gardens and trees which creates a consistent suburban context that typifies Ku-ring-gai’s suburbs. These elements in combination with street trees, a high tree canopy and the relief and..

The HCA4 is located to the wet of Mona Vale Road and includes Church Street, Orana Avenue and Kywong Avenue. The layout of this area to the west of Mona Vale Road has been determined by the historical subdivision of orchards in 1892. This area was developed in the Inter-War period and includes a number of houses of this period and immediate Post War houses. The area of Kywong Avenue includes some 1950s and 1980s houses and follow the creek line and that forms and densely vegetated riparian landscape.

The second McKeown House is located at the north-western bend of Orana Avenue. The house is hidden from view by the new houses resulting rom then subdivision of front garden.

Orana Avenue was originally the entrance drive to the McKeown house and retains a driveway form with unformed kerb and gutter, informal street tree planting to edge of street and no footpaths.

Lane Cove Orange Groves.

MR. W. H. M'KEOWN, J.P.,

The subject of our-illustration, is a pioneer fruitgrower of the Lane Cove or Gordon district. He emigrated from Waringtown, county Down, Ireland, to this country, in the year 1841. He arrived as a single man, and without capital. He was, however, possessed of something more precious than gold-a robust constitution, a determined and persevering spirit, and an industrious and economical disposition, Endowed with these sterling characteristics, he has been successful, and has amassed property. Mr. M'Keown settled in the Gordon district over forty years ago, as overseer for Mr. Richard Hill, then the owner of the greater portion of the land which Mr. M'Keown now owns. Having served Mr. Hill for three years, he purchased 40 acres of land from that gentleman, and planted a fruit orchard on it, and he has prosecuted that industry with energy and success ever since. He now possesses about 150 acres of land, about 60 of which are planted to citrus and deciduous fruit trees.

His comfortable homestead of Roseville is pleasantly situated near the crown of a gentle hill, from which views of the Blue Mountains, Petersham, Botany Bay, Woollarri, and Port Jackson Heads, and the ocean may be obtained. A public road runs past the door, and luxuriant orchards of oranges, lemons, apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, &c, and vines line each side of the road. The aspect of the country is rolling hill and dales; some portions of the soil being rather poor, and passing into stiff clay; while other portions are of a finely pulverized loam. The older part of the orchard, which was purchased from Mr. Hill, has never been as proliño as the newer portion. About fourteen years ago a terrific hailstorm swept over and wrecked the greater part of the old orchard, and in about 10 minutes destroyed about £1500 worth of fruit The effects of the storm may be seen in the orchard to-day, by the irregularity of the trees.

Mr, M'Keown believes in good and proper cultivation, and manuring, and in using insecticides for the preservation of his trees. All the muck and litter which accumulate in the bush, consisting of bark, leaves, and ferns, &c., are raked up and spread around the trees, and form a kind of a mulch, from which they derive much benefit, Bone dust is also applied to the land, first as a top dressing, and then ploughed under. Mr. M'Keown does not believe in superphosphates. The bone dust, he thinks, by this method is too much decomposed ; and the trees assimilate its ammonia and phosphate all at once, and leave nothing for next year; whereas by applying the bones, run through a mill, or broken as finely as possible, a constant and gradual decay ensues, and of course a gradual assimilation of the fertilising ingredients contained in the bones. This, he says, he knows is clean against scientific teaching and theories ; but it is his experience. He is not an advocate of draining where the soil slopes and the subsoil is moderately loose. Surface drains in such localities as his, he thinks, are sufficient to carry off the water. True, he has lost many trees from root rot; but other people who had their orchards sub soil drained, lost their trees from the same cause.

Speaking of the profits of fruit growing, Mr. M'Keown estimates that an orchard in moderate bearing, is worth all round £350 an acre per annum. Portions of orchards or very highly cultivated small orchard may be worth more; but taking such an orchards as his, he thinks £850 a fair average. From £83 to £9 will pay all the expenses of cultivating and manuring. So, we see, there is still a handsome margin left for profit. In reference to the question how a capable man may succeed in Australia, Mr. M'Keown says there are over a dozen settlers in his vicinity who own orchards, and are all comfortable and prosperous, and whom he hired off emigrant ships as farm laborers. One man has been in his service over twenty years, and, he thinks, is worth over £1000. And, as far as the chances of success of a working man in this country are concerned, they are better to-day than when he started, as there is no such hard fighting to get on now as there was then.

Mr. M'Keown has about one acre and a quarter of fine healthy vines, mostly planted to table grapes. £50 worth of grapes was taken off half an acre of three-years-old vines last year. The Alexandra muscat vines grow very well, and give promise of most abundant yields. A young nursery of orange trees adorns one of the hillsides, and looks healthy and flourishing. Lisbon lemons also bear wonderfully well-BO well, indeed, that the trees exhaust themselves in a few years. Navel oranges are also grown in the orchard ; but here, as elsewhere in the district, they prove very why hearers, and are not a profitable crop. 

In addition to the orchard, Mr. W. M'Keown possesses a number of fancy poultry of pure breed.

As an insecticide for seales and blight, a solution of three parts of lime and one part of sulphur is said i and no difficulty has ever been experienced in keeping pests under. Borers made their appearance a few years ago, but have disappeared again:

Since Mr. M'Keown's advent into the district he has been a prominent member of the Wesleyan Church. He was a member of the first church of that denomination erected in the district. Five other churches, a parsonage, and a schoolhouse have been built since, to all of which he has lent a helping hand. Quite recently the members of the various churches in the circuit united in presenting Mr. M Keown with a handsome illuminated address, detailing in glowing terms his services to the church of which he has been a member for over forty years. Mr, M'Keown is the father of ten living children, several of whom are engaged in various industries and callings in his neighborhood.

There are various other large and prosperous fruit growers in the district.

Until recently property continued low in the district. But the opening of the railway, to Hornsby, and the anticipation that the line from Pearce’s corner, on the Homebush-Waratah line, to St. Leonards would be begun shortly, have given land a "boom" and now £100 and even £200 per acre are asked and obtained for good unimproved fruit land. Improved orchard is worth- from £200 to £300 per acre. The district has suffered muon from neglect and the inconveniences of the transportation of the produce to market. It costs now for cartage and ferry about 9d per case of fruit (gin cases), so that although Gordon is only some fourteen miles from the fruit market, yet fruit might be sent just as cheaply from Albury, or Dubbo, to the Sydney markets as from Gordon. When this portion of the colony is intersected by railways and tramways, it will make a most desirable place for suburban residences. In the meantime there is room for hundreds of families to make comfortable homes for themselves as fruit growers. Chinamen are potting hold of some of the best orchards in the district and their orchards look as well, and are as clean and healthy, as any in the neighborhood. 

We shall always be glad to avail ourselves of material furnished to us by correspondents throughout these colonies for the publication of biographies of self-made men like Mr. M'Keown. Lane Cove Orange Groves. (1887, February 5). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 21. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71684308 


It was not a matter of surprise when it was announced that Mr. W.H. McKeown had passed away on Sunday morning last. He had attained the goodly age of 91 years, and was gathered at last as a shock of corn fully ripe. He was a real father in our Methodist Israel, and his story deserves to be more fully told. He was buried on Tuesday last in the Waverley Cemetery. For the present we content ourselves with a journalist's tribute as it appeared in the 'Daily Telegraph' of Tuesday, June 11th.


In the death of Mr. William Henry McKeown, sen., there has passed away one of the oldest colonists of  the State, and one of the pioneers of the North Sydney district. His reminiscences of the early days in what was then called the Lane Cove district were always interesting, and the contribution he made to the material and moral welfare of the neighbourhood such as to deserve honourable mention.

THE LATE MR. W. H. McKEOWN. [photo]

Mr. McKeown arrived in Sydney early in the year 1840, being then a lad of 19 years of age. He came from Ireland, and brought with him the sturdy qualities of the typical North of Ireland stock. His early attempts at finding a footing in Australia were  associated with the care of 'Government men,' an employment from which he shrank, and which he speedily gave up. One temporary job succeeded another, in which his self-reliance and power of adaptation were tested and developed. 

About the year 1845 he accepted an engagement in connection with a newly-planted orangery in what is now called Pymble, and thither, with his young wife, he removed. Crossing from Sydney to the northside of the harbour, he found there was no made road to what was then the distant bush. He had to find his way through a dense forest, simply following dray tracks through the bush. A few bark huts at intervals along the way, the abodes of sawyers and wood getters, were the only signs of occupation of the territory where now stand the thriving suburbs of North Sydney, Chatswood, Roseville, Lindfield, and Gordon. Arrived at Pymble, there was a house licensed to sell beer only, an old wooden church, which served also as a school, and a public-house, where all sorts of drink, were sold. A gang or two of 'Government men' were employed hereabout, and timber-getting as the principal occupation. Orcharding on a small scale was also being attempted. 

For over half a century Mr. McKeown lived in the district, and witnessed its emergence from the primitive conditions in which he found it to one of the most popular and thriving of all the environs of the  city of Sydney. The record of his personal struggles interesting enough to form the subject of a popular autobiography. The path of the early settler was beset with many difficulties. Droughts were interspersed with terrific hailstorms, the latter of which occasionally stripped the orchards and rendered them comparatively unproductive for years. Labour troubles even then in evidence although unions and strikes had not been invented. The discovery of gold caused a stampede to the west of the Blue Mountains, labourers, clerks, shop-keepers, and even lawyers  forsook their wonted employ to find their El Dorado at the Turon and Tambaroora. Mr. McKeown sufficiently caught the fever to take two trips across the  mountains, but it was rather as a chartered driver in charge of organised parties, under contract for a consideration, than as a gold-seeker on his own account. He never believed in sudden roads to wealth, and never found one for himself. From the first Mr. McKeown was interested in the religious welfare of the district, and laboured personally earnestly to promote it. 

An old stone building stands on the Gordon-road, in Gordon, now as a store, which was the first substantial edifice for public worship erected north of North Sydney. It was built in the early fifties, at a cost of £850, and  served also as a schoolroom, with master's quarters attached. For many years this was known as "Lane Cove" Chapel, and was served by ministers from the York-street Methodist Church, and by local preachers, of whom Mr. McKeown soon became one. The  debt on it fell principally on its promoter's shoulders, and quaint are the tales he used to tell of the devices resorted to to meet the interest and reduce the debt. Zeal and self-denial eventually overcame all difficulties. 'Revivals' were frequent, and delighted the heart of the earnest man who was set upon the spiritual welfare of his neighbours. As population increased and spread, other 'chapels' were built at Willoughby, Hornsby, Pittwater, and other places, these being the pioneer places of worship in their respective neighbourhoods. 

As long as strength lasted Mr. McKeown continued his voluntary labours as a lay preacher, and at the time of his death he was probably the oldest local preacher in Methodism in Australia. Apart from his special interest in Church matters, Mr. McKeown was a good citizen in respect of the interest lie took in the social and material welfare of the district. He introduced new and improved methods of fruit culture. As a poultry-raiser he showed what could be done by special strains adapted for egg-production or for table use. He set a high standard of commercial morality, and when on one occasion he assigned his estate — mainly through the failure of others to meet their engagements to him — he subsequently paid most of his creditors in full, although under no legal obligation to do so. He was an ardent politician, and took a keen interest in public affairs right up to the last. In the, days when candidates were openly nominated on nomination day, he was frequently chosen to 'propose' a candidate from the hustings, and. his local influence was such that his candidate usually topped the poll. For a period he served as an alderman in the City Council, when he was carrying on business as a wood and coal and fruit merchant in Sydney. More than once he was asked to stand for' Parliament, but he could never be persuaded to become a candidate. His house was ever a 'centre' of kindly hospitality, and the record of those who have sat at his table or slept under his roof at Roseville, Pymble, where he resided for over half a  century, would be interesting as including ecclesiastics of all Churches, politicians of all hues, and commercial men from all the States and from over the seas. Since 1880 the North Sydney district has witnessed a wonderful development, and has become one of the most popular of all the residential areas of the metropolis. The Milson's Point-Hornsby railway line, has been the principal factor in bringing this about, and in securing the construction of the line Mr. McKeown took a leading part. Public meetings and deputations were organised by him, in conjunction with a few others, and successive Ministries were importuned until the work was put in hand, and at length carried to completion by the extension right to Milson's Point. With this the veteran's public work seemed to come to an end, and shortly after attaining his80th year he removed from the scene of his half century's labour to reside in quietude at Summer-hill. On leaving, he was made the recipient of several demonstrations evincing the esteem and appreciation entertained for him and his wife (who survives him)by the residents among whom they had lived so long and usefully. A family of 10 children and between 50 and 60 grandchildren, with several great-grandchildren, is the best legacy the venerable pioneer has left to the State. His sons are Rev. R. McKeown, of Waverley; Mr. G. M. McKeown, of Wagga Wagga Experiment Farm; Mr. J. McKeown, of the Civil Ambulance  Corps; Mr. W. H. McKeown, of Ashfield; and Mr. E. McKeown, of Belford. His sons-in-law are Rev. G.M'Intosh, of Chatswood; Mr. J. G. Edwards, of Kil-ara; Mr. W. Benson, of Waverley; Rev. J. E. Carruthers of Lindfield; and Mr. H. Hazlett, of Summer-hill. THE LATE W.H. McKEOWN. (1912, June 15). The Methodist(Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155458683

Church Point. The same year, a probationer in his third year, the Rev. Edward J. Rodd was beginning his two years' term at St. Leonard. His circuit extended to Pittwater, and that year the Church Point Church was erected at a cost of £60. The erection of the church was accomplished through the efforts of Messrs. Geo. McIntosh and Wm. Henry McKeown, who conducted services at Bayview under a tree. Mr. William Oliver gave the site. In many early records it is spoken of as Chapel Point Church. For several years it was used as a public school, and Sir Henry Parkes' signature appears in the old visitor's book. Where is that book now? Diamond Jubilee. (1932, December 17). The Methodist(Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155292368 

James Harris French 1817 - 1893
James Harris French was a prominent citizen in the founding of the Municipality of North Willoughby on 23 October 1865. He was born in Dorset, England, to James and Mary French in 1817. James junior arrived in Sydney on the Alfred in January 1841 as the age of 23 and he married Mary Tiffin, the daughter of the prominent Jamaican Billy Blue on 10 August 1842. 

By 1844 he was a trustee of the Presbyterian Schoolhouse at St Leonards and in June 1851 he was sworn in as a Special Constable and Ranger of Crown Lands under Simon Pearce, the Crown Lands Bailiff. James and his family lived in the fine home Paradise, situated in 40 acres of land adjoining Alpha Road in Willoughby and the road which led up to his home was subsequently named Frenchs Road. Together with land on Tenilba Road in today’s Northbridge, he owned 100 acres in Willoughby. 
In 1851, James Harris French built a house named Paradise on part of his original purchase of 50 acres (20.2 hectares) on the eastern side of what is now Alpha Road, Northbridge.

Willoughby Council
During 1865, the residents of Willoughby organised a petition to be sent to Sir John Young, the Governor of New South Wales, requesting him to issues a decree for the area to become a borough with its own council. 
The meeting to organise the petition was held at James Harris French’s home, Paradise, and he would play a significant role in the establishment of the council. Some 67 local residents signed the petition and the Municipality of North Willoughby was formally proclaimed by the Governor in the Government Gazette of 25 October 1865. It was the first local government to be incorporated on the North Shore, but just 400 people lived within its borders. 

The election for aldermen was held on 16 December 1865 and the first council meeting was on 1 January 1866 in a ‘barely furnished slab hut’ located behind a cottage on the corner of today’s Penshurst and Penkivil Streets. The prominent land holder J W Bligh was elected as the first chairman, with his fellow aldermen being John Bryson, James Harris French, Thomas McClelland, James Reid and George Trickett. 

The French Family
James’ younger brother, Henry (born in 1819), followed his brother to Australia a few years after James, settling at Spring Creek in South Australia. He married Ellen Riordan in February 1851 and they had five children: Catherine (1851), Michael (1853), Mary (1854) Caroline (1855) and Henry (1859). Tragically Henry died in May 1859 when he was thrown from his horse on the way home from work. When he didn’t return home, Ellen went looking for him, but she had poor eyesight and did not see him lying injured near a fence. He caught a chill and died a few days later. 
Ellen stayed on in South Australia for several years, but her failing sight caused her to contact her brother-in-law in Sydney. She travelled to Sydney by boat with her three surviving children (Michael, Mary and Henry) and met up with James Harris French at Willoughby. Ellen and her youngest son Henry subsequently moved up the coast to Coolongolook near Taree. Ellen married George Tompsett in 1870. 

James Harris French died at his home Paradise in Alpha Road on 3 March 1893 at the age of 76. He was buried at the Wesleyan Church on the corner of Lane Cove Road (now Pacific Highway) and Mowbray Road. His will stipulated that the land be sold and the proceeds used to purchase land in Frenchs Road for the building of church and also covered the cost of building materials. The will also provided £100 [$16,000 in 2014 terms] each to James’ sister-in-law Ellen French, niece Mary French and nephews Michael and Henry French. 
French died in 1893 and bequeathed more than 20 acres (8.1 hectares) to North Shore Cottage Hospital. The hospital at first leased the land to the King family for market gardens but in 1916 sold the property to Shore School. This land became Shore's War Memorial Playing Fields in Northbridge.

Shore School Memorial Playing Fields, corner Sailors Bay and Alpha Rds 
In 1887, Royal North Shore Hospital was bequeathed more than 20 acres of land in Sailors Bay Rd by James Harris French, an alderman on Willoughby City Council for many years, who died in 1893. In 1916 the hospital sold the undeveloped land to Shore School. The grounds were opened in 1919 as a memorial to the 880 Shore Old Boys who served and the 122 who died in World War I. The area now contains a Primary School, six full-sized ovals and several tennis courts. A new grandstand was opened in 2008.

Mary French married Robert William Carr and they built a brick house with their inheritance at 54 High Street (later renumbered 48) around 1895. As Mary suffered bad varicose veins in her legs, there were no steps in the new house. It had a large backyard garden with numerous fruit trees. 

Robert Carr worked at Willoughby Council, initially as a labourer and then as overseer. And his projects included strengthening Flat Rock Bridge for trams in the 1890s. Robert (or Bob) subsequently built the boatshed at Castlecrag which is still in use today. 
Ellen French died at Coolonglonk in 1915 and her son Henry French died there in December 1915. Her son Michael died at the Royal North Shore Hospital in April 1922, and her daughter Mary Carr died at Willoughby in September 1939. Mary and Michael are buried at Roockwood Cemetery. Robert William Carrr died at Willoughby in January 1942. He is buried at Northern Suburbs Cemetery with his youngest daughter, Rosemary O’Toole, who died in 1941. His second youngest, Caroline Myrtle Carr died at the Castlecrag Private Hospital in July 1977. She was cremated at the Northern Suburbs Crematorium and her ashes were scattered in the garden of the family home. 

The French and Carr families made significant contributions to the Municipality (now City) of Willoughby, with Frenchs Road being named after James French. The family of Robert and Mary Carr mostly lived and worked in Willoughby in the tanning, shoe repair and building trades. 

Their grandchildren, great grandchildren and great great grandchildren acknowledged James’ contribution to Willoughby on the 100th anniversary of his death in March 1993. 

The Willoughby Park Conservation Area is situated on crown grants to Edward Henry Herring (1858), James Harris French (1857), James William Bligh (1857). James Forsyth set up “Rosewall Tannery”, Willoughby’s first tannery in Stan Street Willoughby in 1869. The site was suitable as there was a wattle grove where tanners where able to source wattlebark for their industry and creek providing water. James left the business to his sons Robert and Thomas in 1882. Robert and Thomas bought up the land in the vicinity of their tannery in the 1880’s, and leased much of it to Chinese market gardeners, who cultivated the land along Sugarloaf Creek. The creek now runs in concrete pipes. The Forsyth family sold the tannery to Broomham Brothers in 1907. The NSW Government resumed the site in 1957 for use as a bus depot.

The first municipal election 
The first election, for six Aldermen and two Auditors, was in December 1865 and the polling place was “a house (called Paradise) sometimes used as a Sunday School on the land of James Harris French near North Sydney facing Alpha Road between Edinburgh Road and Sailors Bay Road” - quite a trek on unmade roads for people living in outlying areas. On New Year’s Day 1866, James William Bligh was elected the first Chairman and his younger brother, Henry Hocken Bligh, was appointed Clerk of the Council. Henry lived in Sailors Bay Road and was one of the first recorded residents of Northbridge. At its first meeting, the new Aldermen applied to the Government for a Surveyor to mark out public roads, and the stumping and clearing of Flat Rock Road (now Willoughby Road) and the bridge at Flat Rock Creek were priorities. About £200 was raised in rates for the first year. Many landowners did not live on their land and it was almost impossible to find them to collect the rates. At first, Council meetings were held either in a private house or on site and by June 1866 the Aldermen agreed to make the important purchases of one chair, two long stools for strangers to sit on, three glasses, one jug, and a bucket and a rope for “the accommodation of the Aldermen”. The Great Northern Hotel opened in 1870 and timber cutting, tanning, market gardening, farming and orange growing were the main occupations, although it was reported that sly grog selling was rife. Many dairies were scattered through the area, and strawberries, peaches, apples and plums provided cash crops. Later, the Chinamen’s market gardens became familiar sights. In 1863 Willoughby Public School was opened as North Sydney National Public School and in the 1870s churches were built, Willoughby Post Office was opened and a School of Arts was built in Mowbray Road (later Council Chambers). Horse buses ran along Willoughby Road. 

Collection of tolls 
The collection of tolls on the Lane Cove Road (now the Pacific Highway) was contentious and there was some angst between the eastern and western areas of North Willoughby (with Lane Cove Road the dividing line) until 1895, when the Borough of Lane Cove was proclaimed a separate municipality. Council Seals were changed over the years to reflect the name changes, from the Municipality of North Willoughby, to the Borough of North Willoughby in 1872, the Borough of Willoughby in 1890 and the Municipality of Willoughby in 1907. For the first 20 or so years, Council meetings were primarily concerned with road works and transportation, and we are fortunate that land for recreation purposes was also a priority. The population grew slowly because of the lack of good public transport. It was not until the mid-1880s when the population had reached 1,000 that Council meetings began to discuss more domestic issues like the removal of night soil and digging of pits in recreation reserves for this purpose; registration of the many dairies scattered around the area; and a dog tax. In the 1890s, railways and tramways carried passengers to Willoughby and beyond; the Suspension Bridge was built; and the area began to develop rapidly. - Courtesy Willoughby Council Historic Records

Deaths. FRENCH.—March 2, 1893, at his residence, Alpha-road, North Willoughby,  James Harris French, aged 74 years. Family Notices (1893, March 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13899650 

The Friends of the late JAMES HARRIS FRENCH are respectfully invited to attend his funeral to move from his late residence, Alpha-road, North Willoughby, TOMORROW, (Saturday) MORNING at 10am and proceed to Wesleyan Cemetery, Chatswood. Higley, Undertaker, Miller-street, St. Leonards.

The Friends of Mrs MARY FRENCH are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of her deceased HUSBAND, the late James Harris French; to move from his residence, Alpha-road, North Willoughby, TOMORROW, (Saturday) MORNING, at 10 am and proceed to Wesleyan Cemetery, Lane Cove Road. Family Notices (1893, March 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13899730 

Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 30th May, 1865.

IN pursuance of the Act of the Colonial Parliament, 22 Victoria, No. 13, His Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council, has directed the publication of the substance of a Petition addressed to His Excellency, as hereinafter set forth, signed by sixty-seven householders, resident in the rural District of Willoughby, praying for the erection of their locality into a Municipality.


The Petitioners state that the number of inhabitants of the rural District hereinafter defined, amounts to four hundred, and that it is desirable that the said District should be declared a Municipality, by the name of " North Willoughby,"— the boundaries of which are as follows : —

Commencing in Long Bay, Middle Harbor, parish of Willoughby, County of Cumberland, at the junction of a fresh water creek, at the eastern point of James Yates' 5| acres and James William Bligh's 3| acres; and bounded on the south-west by that creek to the south-west corner of Archibald Mossman's 34 acres; thence by a line bearing south-west to the source of a creek dividing Wright's 29 acres and Woolstoncroft's 525 acres; thence by that creek to a bay, and by the bay and the waters of Port Jackson running westerly, and by Lane Cove Creek to the head of Blue Gum Creek; and thence by the dividing boundary line of the parishes of Willoughby and Gordon to Middle Harbor; thence by the waters of Middle Harbor to the point of commencement.

And the Petitioners pray as follows, viz.:—" That "your Excellency will be pleased to declare the said rural District, within the limits and boundaries hereinbefore set forth, to be a Municipality, " by the name of ' North Willoughby.' "

T. C. Ludowice James Medlyn William Smith John Collins John Boyle Andrew Smith Thomas M'Clelend William Martin Albert Batke G. H. Chalk James Reid James Bereyen Edwin Rannard Henry Russell James Snow ( John Scholfield William Pollard William Donnelly Richard Horsley T. T. Allard George Woolland George Jones Hugh Haron Peter Corkin Alexander Casher James Mills Francis Bellman David Etherington George Trickett Alexander Wallace John Jones Smith Bennet Michael Smith B. Carnett Thomas Adamson Joseph Cox Richard Johnson John Cropley Jacob Holland Donald Carmichael Thomas Foote, senior Joane Howard Thomas Foote, junior John Williams Francis Stack George Green William Purnell Heinrich Kulman H. H. Bligh John Rogers Emuel Dew Edward Anderson William Watts Thomas Connelly Jethro John Pearse Charles Andie William Reynolds Connell Linsley John M’Millan James Cook John Armitage Edward Lee Edward Carr Matthew Simpson Timothy Cuick James French James Welch

SYDNEY: Printed and published by Thomas Richards, Government Printer, Phillip-street, 30th May, 1865. PETITION UNDER THE MUNICIPAL ACT. (1865, May 30). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1161. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article225851571 


NOTICE is hereby given, that James Peter Best and James Harris French have been duly elected Aldermen, and John Silvester Ryan and William Cochran, Auditors, for the above Borough.


14th February, 1871. Returning Officer. BOROUGH OF NORTH WILLOUGHBY. (1871, February 21). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 409. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224330622 

North Shore Hospital. — The monthly meeting of the committee of this hospital was held last evening at MTntyre and Homing's rooms, Walker-street. Mr. A. W. Green presided, and there were also present Mrs. Mordnunt Clarke, Dr. D. Clarke, Messrs. J. Harding, Carter, J. Crowley, F. W. Syor (Hon, sec.), and F. Smith (hon, treas.). 

A letter was received from Mr Doyle, head master of Mosman public school, enclosing the sum of £1 6s, being the proceeds of a dolls' bazaar held by several little girls at Mosman's Bay. Mr. J. H. Clayton solicitor, forwarded a copy of the will of the late James Harris French, by which the testator devised his farm at Willoughby,  consisting of about 20a., to his trustees upon trust to permit his (testator's) wife to have the use thereof for her life, and after her death upon trust to sell the land, and, after payment of all expenses, to pay the proceeds to the treasurer of the hospital for the use of the hospital.

The treasurer reported that the receipts since last meeting amounted to £17 8s, and expenditure to £126 15s, there being now a credit balance of £311 16s. The matron's report showed that at date of last meeting there were 10 in the hospital, since admitted 16, left hospital 12, died 1, now under treatment 13. Mesdames Partridge and Dibbs, and Messrs. J. Crowley and T. E. Cresswell, were appointed a visiting committee for the coming two months. LADY JERSEY "AT HOME." (1893, August 11). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article236030760 

and closed by James French, an old Government ranger, the original holder of 'French's Forest,' who lived then at 'Paradise.' on part of what Is now known as Northbrldge. The old residence is still standing just off French 's-road. WILLOUGHBY'S JUBILEE (1915, October 23). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115269384 


At the Water Police Court, yesterday, before Mr. Marsh, P.M., and Captain Edwards, six persons, named respectively Harry Waterhouse, Thomas Waterhouse, Richard Green, Peter Wallace, John Simpson, and Edward Brezer, wore summoned to answer a complaint of forcibly entering upon and taking possession of certain lands known as the Artoman Estate, situated in the parish of Willoughby, North Shore, in the possession of Mr. Alexander Stuart, M.L.A.

Mr. William Roberts appeared on behalf of Mr. Stuart, and Mr. Pilcher (instructed by Mr. W. H. Way) appeared for the defendants.

Mr. Roberts having briefly opened the case, the following evidence was adduced for the prosecution :-

Henry Pike deposed that he was in the service of Mr. Alexander Stuart on the 3rd December on the Artoman Estate, situate at North Willoughby ; there was a house on the land, and the land was enclosed by a two-rail fence ; he had been in charge of the property on behalf of Mr. Stuart for nearly three years ; put a man named Smith Bennett to reside in the house ; did not give any of the defendants possession or permission to enter on the land on the above date ; on the morning of the 3rd December, witness, Lawrence Dwyer, James Neagle, and Smith Bennett were all present on the property, in the interest of Mr. Stuart ; there were other men cutting timber on the enclosed ground for Mr. Stuart ; whilst witness and the other three servants of Mr. Stuart were at breakfast in the house that morning, the defendant Richard Green made his appearance within the enclosure, and close to the house ; witness asked Green what he wanted, to which the latter replied-"If you wait awhile you will see some sport." 

After the lapse of half an hour, the remainder of the defendants, with others, came on the ground ; did not say anything to them, as he was alarmed; Thomas Waterhouse ordered him off the ground, saying, "I won't lead you off, I will kick you off : don't let me see you here any more." Witness walked to the fence, fearing that he might be roughly handled; the intruders, numbering 10 or 12, then proceeded to one corner of the house, and Green, with four others, tried to lift it from its foundations, the house being a wooden one ; they tried to lift it so that they could remove one of the supports and let it down bodily, with the man Smith Bennett, the caretaker, inside . Smith Bennett had locked the door from the inside, and was in bed at the time ; before they interfered with the house at all, Thomas Waterhouse said to Smith Bennett, " If you don't come out we will smoke you out ; " failing to raise the house the defendant Henry Waterhouse commenced pulling down the walls assisted by three of the others ; as soon as they got two boards off they went inside and knocked the house completely down, Smith Bennett "being inside at the time, and even until the roof fell; four of the defendants carried Smith Bennett out on his bed on to an adjoining land the defendants took the materials of the house away-: they did not seem to be under the direction of any one, but they were all acting together; it was impossible for the servants on the ground to prevent them ; had seem them on the land on several previous occassions ; five or six days previously- there were 16 or 17 of them present ; on that occasion Thomas Waterhouse threatened him ; and he heard him tell the others that "if they found him on the ground again, to chop his legs off;" two or three days afterwards he was subjected to personal violence at the hands of two men employed by Thomas Waterhouse: he said to Waterhouse, -'Are you going to allow this?" Waterhouse answered, " Yes, give it him ; " he was roughly handled, and had black eyes tor a week afterwards ; Mr. Wilson, a relative of Mr. Stuart, was also assaulted on the ground ; as soon as witness got clear of them he ran away, as he was afraid he would be killed; there were six altogether in the interest of Mr. Stuart, but three of them ran away at once ; the Artoman estate formed the subject of an action in the Supreme Court recently.

To Mr. Pilcher : Did not hear Waterhouse say on the 3rd December that he was there in the assertion of a right, and that no one would be hurt : when the house was pulled down, Waterhouse said they were Barayene's men, Barayene being an agent or tenant of Mr. Thomas Broughton.

William Edward Wilson deposed that he did not give any any of the defendants permission to enter on the land; about a week previous to the 3rd December he asked Thomas Waterhouse if he had any authority from Mr. Broughton to come there ; Waterhouse said, " No ; that he had brought his dray there to cut some poles ; " on the 1st December a lot of "men appeared on the ground, led by Thomas Waterhouse ; the men surrounded the dray, and pulled the timber off the dray-; the horse started, and witness was thrown off the dray; he was subjected to personal violence ; he was there to take the names of the intruders, and warned them that it was against the Act to enter upon enclosed lands.

The main facts, as given above, were corroborated by Smith Bennett, and Joseph Dwyer.

Alexander Stuart deposed that he was a merchant; Edward Wilson acted as his agent for the property known as Artoman, lately in the occupation of Smith Bennett ; the property was fenced in, about the year 1877, and continued to be, up to the present time; the cottage which was knocked down, was built at his expense in 1877 ; he came into possession in May, 1877 ; at the time of the building . of the cottage and the fence being put up, he did not meet with any interruption from anyone ; he had Pike in possession "before the fencing was completed or the cottage built ; Pike was his servant ; Mr. Mackenzie occupied the cottage some time during the present year ; Smith Bennett occupied it after Mackenzie ; he was in possession for him, and on his behalf; Edward Wilson was the authorised agent for him in the management and in the letting of the property ; he did not give the defendants or any other person permission to enter upon the property or to knock down the cottage.

To Mr. Pilcher : The original grant of Artoman was to William Gore; William Bligh Gore was son of William Gore; Gore's Farm, or Gore's Hill, was a different property to Artoman; he believed both William Gore, the grantee, and William Bligh Gore, the son, were in possession of Artoman ; the fence was built in 1877 and cut down by Barayene in 1879 ; he brought an action about that; it was tried on the l5th, 16th, and 17th November last, and the verdict was for defendant ; he had given notice of a new trial.

James Barayene deposed that he had known Artoman for about twenty-three years ; he had the estate twelve or thirteen years ago, and had been in possession up to the present time ; held it from Mr. French till his death, six years ago, and then took it from Mr. Broughton ; had held it from Mr. Broughton up to the present time ; had undisturbed possession until Mr. Stuart came in 1877, when Mr. Stuart had him carried off by six men daily; the defendants were his men; he engaged them, and paid them to prevent Mr. Stuart's men stealing his wood and axes ; he told the men to pull down the shanty on the 3rd December, and also before that ; he said that it must go down.

Thomas Broughton, who gave evidence for the defence, deposed that Artoman was 150 acres in extent, comprised in what is called the Gore estate ; he lent James Naimby Shuttleworth £2000 in 1856 : a few days afterwards, he (Broughton) became the mortgagee in posession of the Gore estate, including Artoman : placed William Bligh Gore in possession of the estate as his agent, and for his trouble in taking care of the estate he was to have the privilege of cut-ting and selling wood; shortly afterwards, Mr. James Naimby Shuttleworth became insolvent ; Mr. John Morris was appointed his official assignee : in the year 1861 he purchased from the official assignee the whole of the assets in the estate of James Naimby Shuttleworth ; in January, 1862, he went over the estate in company with Bligh Gore and James Kingcott; Bligh Gore still continued in possession of Artoman as his agent, and at that time there was no residence of any- kind on the Artoman Estate ; in the year 1863 Mr. Bligh Gore died, and James Barayene became his tenant; James Barayene accounted to Mr. French, as his agent, for the rent ; Mr. French was agent for him (Broughton) after the death of his uncle, Wm. Bligh Gore ; in the year 1864 his attention was called to a conveyance from John Boyle to Patrick Freehill, in the office " of Allen, Bowden, and Allen. In consequence of seeing that conveyance, he went over to the Artoman Estate, in company with Alderman Charlish and his son to see if there were any persons trespassing on Artoman ; he found Owen Boyle, brother of John Boyle, there ; Boyle said he was there on his own account; Barayene had been acting for him (Broughton) ever since he conveyed some small farms on Gore's estate to French, and had been his tenant for 17 years; he had been in sole possession, by himself or through his agents, since 1858 ; he never conveyed away any portion of the Artoman estate ; he had the Crown grant for Artoman in his possession for 24 years, having received it, with other documents, from Sir. Robert John-ston, attorney for Mr. Shuttleworth, at the time he took the mortgage ; had never heard of a registered conveyance to Boyle ; he heard there was a lease from French to Barrayene ; he claimed Artoman under Wm. Bligh Gore.

Several other witnesses having been called for the defence, to prove that when they went on the property they were put off by force.

Mr. Pilcher briefly addressed the Bench, and pointed out that anything the defendants did on the property could not be held to be forcible entry, inasmuch as Mr. Broughton, through his agents or servants, was in possession of the estate. Mr. Stuart was not, either in statute or at common law, seized in fee, and consequently, in erecting the house on the land or putting up the fencing, he was a trespasser.

Mr. Roberts, on the other hand, contended that Mr, Stuart was in peaceable possession and occupation of the property at the time of the forcible entry. He also urged that it was immaterial whether the estate was a property belonging to the prosecutor by right or by wrong, for even if the defendants had a right of entry, the mere fact ot their asserting that right with a strong hand or with a number of people, was equally an offence as if they had not that right.

The Bench decided that the case was one for the higher Court, and accordingly committed the defendants one and all to take their trial at the next Criminal Sessions, to beholden in February.

The defendants were allowed, and obtained, bail. CASE of FORCIBLE ENTRY on DISPUTED PROPERTY. (1880, December 24). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13479742 

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.


In the will of James French, late of Granchester, near Mundoorau, in the Colony of New South Wales, farmer, deceased.

APPLICATION will be made, after fourteen days from the publication hereof, that probate of the last will of the above named deceased, may be granted to George French and Mary French, the executor and executrix respectively named in the said will.


Proctor for the Applicants,

33y his Agent.—R. B. Asher, Coonabarabran.

17,0'Connell-street, Sydney. PROBATE JURISDICTION. (1896, December 22). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 9199. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222832111 

Motions, etc.— Exparte William Milson, mandamus; exparte Rowland Baldwin, prohibition; exparte John Hourn, mandamus; In re the bill of costs of Elliott Meyer, gent., one, etc., exparte John Thomson and another, for review of taxation. Special case — In re J. II. Clayton and T. T. Forsyth (executors of Mary French,  deceased) and the Stamp Duties Acts of 1880, 188- . and 1894. LAW NOTICES. (1896, July 30). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238592491 

Mary Blue Age: 831812–1895
Name Mary Blue
Given names Mary
Surname Blue
Married Name Mary Tiffin
Married Name Mary French
Married Name Mary Tifffen
 Birth 1812 64
 Sydney City, Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Source:  Ancestry.com. Australia Birth Index, 1788-1922 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. 

Text: Name: Mary Blue
Birth Date: 1812
Father's name: William Blue
Mother's name: Elizabeth
Birth Place: New South Wales
Registration Year: 1812
Registration Place: Sydney, New South Wales
Volume Number: V18122725 1A
Marriage Robert Tiffin - View family 1830 (Age 18)
 , , New South Wales, Australia
Source:  Ancestry.com. Australia Marriage Index, 1788-1950 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. 
Text: Name: Robert Tiffin
Spouse Name: Mary Blue
Marriage Date: 1830
Marriage Place: New South Wales

Marriage James Harris French - View family 1842 (Age 30)
Sydney City, Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

FRENCH.- March 27, at the residence of Mr. G. Montgomery, Christie-street, Willoughby, Mary French, aged 85 years.  Family Notices (1895, March 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14000553 

George Montgomery 

THE RELATIVES and FRIENDS of the late Mrs. MARY FRENCH are kindly invited to attend her Funeral, which will leave the residence of Mr. G. Montgomery, Christie-street, Willoughby, near St. Leonards station, THIS (Thursday) AFTERNOON, at a quarter past 3 o'clock, for St. Thomas' Cemetery, St. Leonards. WOOD and COMPANY, Telephone No., 726. Undertakers and Embalmers. 

THE FRIENDS of Mrs. S. SCHOFIELD are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of her beloved AUNT, Mrs. Mary French ; to move from her late residence, Christie-street, St. Leonards, THIS (Thursday) AFTERNOON, at 3.30, to St. Thomas' Cemetery. WOOD AND COMPANY, UNDERTAKERS and EMBALMERS, Sydney (799 Geo.-st.), Balmain, Petersham, St. Leonards, and Pyrmont, Telephones : 726 Sydney, 5 B'main. 22 P'sham. 9 N. Syd. Family Notices (1895, March 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14000633 


BEFORE Mr. H. H. VOSS, Mr. J. B. Smithers, and Mr. A. Thompson.
James H. French, charged with using threatening words to Mary French, his wife, was ordered to find sureties to keep the peace for six months. WATER POLICE COURT. (1868, December 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13178009 

Family with parents
William "Billy" Blue 1748–1834
Mother Elizabeth Williams ?–1824
Elder Sister  Susannah Blue 1805–1861
Elder Brother William Blue 1807–1841
Elder Sister Elizabeth Blue 1809–?
Herself Mary Blue 1812–1895
Younger Brother Robert Blue 1814–1872
Younger Brother John Blue 1815–1891

FUNERAL.-The Friends of Mr. W. CHUTER are respectfully invited to attend the Funeral of his late departed Wife, SUSANNAH, to move from her late residence, Billy Blue Inn, North Shore, on FRIDAY AFTERNOON, at 3 o'clock. No circulars will be issued. THOMAS DIXON, undertaker. Family Notices (1861, February 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13052296 

William "Billy" Blue
Born about 1748
Immigration 14 December 1801 (Age 53)
Sydney Cove, Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Source:  State Library of Queensland. Convict Transportation Registers Database 1787-1867 [database on-line]. 
Citation details: Australian Joint Copying Project. Microfilm Roll 87, Class and Piece Number HO11/1, Page Number 291 (145)
Text: William Blue, one of 297 convicts transported on the Nile, Canada and the ship Minorca, June 1801.
Sentence details: Convicted at Kent Quarter Sessions for a term of 7 years on 04 October 1796.
Vessel: Nile, Canada and Minorca.
Date of Departure: June 1801.
Place of Arrival: New South Wales.
Source:  Bateson, Charles. The convict ships 1787-1868. 2nd ed. Glasgow : Brown, Son & Ferguson Ltd., 1985 ie 1969 
Citation details: p. 338
Text: The ship Minorca arrived in NSW 14 Dec 1801
Marriage Elizabeth Williams - View family 1805 (Age 57)
 Sydney City, Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - On 27 April 1805, they were married at the old St. Philip's Anglican church in Sydney, where 5 of their 6 children were later christened. Source:  Ancestry.com. Australia Marriage Index, 1788-1950 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. 

Text: Name: Elizabeth Williams
Spouse Name: William Blew
Marriage Date: 1805
Marriage Place: New South Wales
Registration Place: Sydney, New South Wales
Registration Year: 1805
Volume Number: V A

Census November 1828 (Age 80)  Seven Hills, Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Source:  Census of New South Wales November 1828, ed. by Malcolm R. Sainty and Keith A. Johnson. Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1985 ie. 1980 

Text: Blue, Robert, 16, born in the colony, Protestant, weaver for Simeon Lord, Botany

Blue, John, 13, born in the colony, Protestant, weaver for Simeon Lord, Botany

Blue, William, 80, free by servitude, Minorca, 7 years, Protestant, landholder, Hunters Hill

Blue, William, 21, born in the colony, Protestant

"Blues Point" Blues Point, Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Source:  Website - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

Text: Blues Point was named after Billy Blue, a convict who arrived in Sydney on the Minorca on 14 December 1801, transported for stealing a bag of sugar. Physically imposing, he was described as a "strapping Jamaican Negro 'a very Hercules in proportion' with a bright eye and a jocular wit". 

He claimed to have served with the British Army in the American War of Independence. When he arrived in 1801 he only had two years of his sentence left and he was soon working on the harbour with boats and selling oysters. His friendly manner and humorous conversation made him popular and he became a notable local character. 

He married English-born convict Elizabeth Williams in 1805, and in 1807, was the only person licensed to ply a ferry across the harbour. Governor Macquarie named him "The Old Commodore" and he ran his ferry dressed in a blue naval officers coat and top hat. His ferry service grew to a fleet of 11 vessels, and in 1817, Governor Macquarie granted Billy Blue 80 acres (320,000 m2) at what is now Blues Point. He died in 1834 at his North Sydney home.

Billy Blue's Cottage & the Harbour W. Moffitt sculp. Iteme00350_0068_m (77) ,from album 'Photographs Illustrating the Earliest Times of New South Wales' ca. 1880-1889 (copy photoprints of earlier works, 1770+), courtesy Dixson Library, State Library of New South Wales

Text: Elizabeth Williams, one of 338 convicts transported on the Coromandel and ship Experiment, November 1803.
Sentence details: Convicted at Hants. Quarter Sessions for a term of 7 years on 11 July 1803.
Vessel: Coromandel and Experiment.
Date of Departure: November 1803.
Place of Arrival: New South Wales.
Source:  Bateson, Charles. The convict ships 1787-1868. 2nd ed. Glasgow : Brown, Son & Ferguson Ltd., 1985 ie 1969 
Citation details: p. 338
Text: The ship Experiment I arrived in NSW 24 Jun 1804

William (Billy) Blue (c.1767?-1834), convict, settler and ferryman, was born possibly in Jamaica, New York City. As he later claimed to have served with the British army in the American war of independence, he may have been a freed African-American slave from colonial New York. By 1796, however, he was living at Deptford, London, and working as a chocolate-maker and a lumper (labourer) in ships in the River Thames. On 4 October that year at Maidstone, Kent, Blue was convicted of stealing raw sugar—presumably intended for confectionery making—and sentenced to seven years transportation. After over four years in convict hulks, he was transported to Botany Bay in the Minorca. He was described in convict records as 'a Jamaican Negro sailor', aged 29 in 1796.

Reaching Sydney on 14 December 1801, Blue had less than two years of his sentence to serve. By July 1804 he was living at The Rocks with Elizabeth Williams, a 30-year-old, English-born convict, who had arrived from Hampshire the previous month. They married on 27 April 1805 at St Philip's Church of England and were to have six children. Billy worked as a waterman and collected and sold oysters and other items. He found favour with both government officials and the public, to whom he endeared himself with his whimsical style and banter.

In 1808 his name was included in a list of citizens who supported the arrest of Governor Bligh. Blue was appointed harbour watchman and constable by Governor Macquarie in 1811. These titles enabled him to acquire a new home overlooking Sydney Harbour, which became a local landmark known as 'Billy Blue's Cottage'. Macquarie was a regular user of the ferry services; he reported in his diary in 1817 that his wife and son were taken up the river to Parramatta in Blue's boat. That year Blue was granted a farm of eighty acres (32.4 ha), which he called Northampton, at the southernmost tip of the north shore of Port Jackson. The headland became known as Billy Blue's Point. As a landowner on the north side of the harbour, he saw the potential for operating a boat service to the site and quickly built up a 'fleet of ferries'. Macquarie light-heartedly dubbed him 'Commodore'; Blue became known as 'The Old Commodore'.

The location and business offered opportunities to participate in smuggling. In October 1818, arrested for possessing two casks of rum, he claimed that he had found them floating and lashed them to his boat to return them to the shore. Encouraged by Deputy-Judge-Advocate Wylde to plead guilty and name his accomplices, Blue refused, lost his position as harbour watchman and constable and was imprisoned for a year.

In 1823 Edward Wollstonecraft and William Gore, both landholders on the north shore with vested interests in harbour trade, attempted to oust Blue from his land and ferrying service, alleging that he was a law-breaker who regularly smuggled goods and harboured escaped prisoners. In response Blue petitioned Sir Thomas Brisbane that, in view of his long and trusted service for the government, he should be granted 'in his old age the peaceable enjoyment of his premises and ferry'. The governor found in his favour, authorizing him to 'have the Use and Occupation of his ferry, which he formerly occupied between his farm in Northampton and Sydney'.

Elizabeth died in 1824. In the 1828 census Blue gave his age as 80. Described by (Sir) James Dowling as 'an eccentric, loquacious character', he took to donning a travesty of a naval uniform, with a top hat, and would board newly berthed vessels as 'commodore' to welcome the officers to Sydney. Brushes with the law continued. He was found guilty of harbouring an escaped convict and of manslaughter—when he threw a stone at a boy who was tormenting him and the youth later died—but avoided prison. By 1833 he and his family were reported as keeping a ferryboat and cultivating vegetables and fruit for the Sydney market.

Blue died on 7 May 1834 at his North Sydney home. His will, which he signed with a mark, left his property to his surviving three sons, including William junior, and two daughters. Streets in North Sydney were named after him and the site of his northern ferry terminus remained known as Blues Point. The Mitchell Library, Sydney, holds several portraits of him, including an etching by Charles Rodius, a lithograph of 'The Old Commodore' by John Carmichael and an oil painting by J. B. East.

DIED, On Tuesday last, at his residence, North Shore, WILLIAM BLUE, aged 97. Family Notices (1834, May 8 - Thursday). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2216083 


I knew him well, Horatio; a fellow of excellent wit—

Where now be they flashes of merriment which were wont to set the [old hands] in a roar?

Quite, quite chop-fallen! - Hamlet

So the gallant "Old Commodore" has for ever laid aside his truncheon of command. He died at his Villa, on the North Shore, on Tuesday. The reign of Billy is coeval with the foundation of the Colony, and the remembrance of the whimsicality of character which grew with him as he advanced to the end of his earthly pilgrimage, will be long treasured in the minds of the present generation, when the minions of ambition are forgotten in the dust. Billy's public avocations were not always such as to bring him under the particular observation of the illustrious Officers who have from time to time administered the Government ; but what his talents in business would probably have for ever denied to him, was procured by his singular humour and excellent disposition. When the "high and mighty" aristocrat was spurned for profligacy and ambition from the threshhold of Government house by the lion-hearted and injured Macquarie, poor Billy found there a welcome. As a public functionary, Billy had not the fortune to evade, like his betters, the informers of the day, or enrich himself by the profits of his avocation ; for at that time ever official was a trader, a retailer of rum, tobacco, and lolly-pops. Billy did his best to smuggle—but some-how or other he was detected, and forfeited his situation in the domain. His hilarity was but little abated, however, by a circumstance which would have weighed down the good humour of most people. He still walked about, noticed by and noticing every one, and woe-betide the man or woman, high or low, who did not honour the "Commodore" with a proper salute. The good old Governor (Macquarie), never long withdrew his countenance from the sable veteran ; and when he did so, from a high sense of public duty, Bdly still found a steady friend in his peerless lady, who by obtaining even a distant smile from the Governor, to the disgraced smuggler, brought back to his heart that joy which he must have previously abandoned. 

Seeing him at length likely to be without a shelter for his head, and anxious to give the children a home, Macquarie settled the Commodore on a point of ground on the northern shore of Port Jackson, which was given under, we believe, certain conditions depriving him or his family of the right to sell it. It was in fact a sort of entailed estate for his descendants. Here Billy was not exempt from the "iron hand of adversity," for he was incarcerated through a runaway prisoner of the crown being discovered in his house, and became only restored to liberty by the liberality of the late Mr. Pitman, who discharged the fine. Who ever saw the Commodore out of humour? 

He might have purveyed for an army. And who ever saw him return home with an empty bag? Fish, flesh, fowl, cheese, butter, wine, porter, and ale, might be there seen in glorious confusion, borne on the shoulders of the humorous old Billy, to whom even the very urchins lifted their caps in token of respect. "No rows!" " Go—go, my child—true blue for ever," now and then found utterance as the obsequious citizens struck their ensigns to the Commodore; and if they did not (and the eye of Billy was always at work), the whole street would ring with his screams and abuse. "You brute—you long-legged brute—forget the Commodore !" and his stick would ring upon the stones in cadence to the melodious sound of his sweet voice, invoking vengeance on the recreant. But Billy's nature changed the general levity of his manner on Sunday. Though the same respect was shown to him by men of all ranks and degrees, his voice would not on that day be heard beyond a whisper "We are all going down, remember the worship of God my child," was the homely serious caution of one who, with all his bantering, never forgot the duties of a good christian ; and who on that holy day seldom, health and weather permitting, absented himself from Divine worship.—Requiescat ! "We may never look upon his like again."

BILLY BLUE. (1834, May 8). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2216088

A portrait of 'The Old Commodore', Billy Blue, ca. 1834 / drawn from life and on stone by John Carmichael, Item 88010600, courtesy State Library of NSW

In 'Old Sydney,' 24/12/11, I was in error respecting the parentage of Mrs. Chuter, who died in the first sixties. Mrs. Susannah Chuter was a daughter, not a granddaughter, of the original William Blue, and was born, if 54 years of age at her death, in 1807. This would be in Governor ' Bligh's time. She married George Lavender, the boatswain of the Phoenix Hulk, ' which lay in 'Hulk' Bay, now known as Lavender Bay.

On Lavender's death she married William Chuter, who kept the Billy Blue Inn on Blue's Point-road. On January 24, 1817, Governor Macquarie granted 'unto William Blue, his heirs and assigns, to have and to hold for ever, eighty acres of land lying and situated in the district of Hunter's Hill, bounded on the north by a line cast thirteen degrees, south forty chains, commencing at the mouth of a small run at the bottom of a bay on the north 6ide of Port Jackson Harbor, on the east by a south line of three chains fifteen links to the harbor, and on all other sides by the harbor, reserving the right of watering to shipping.' This was to be held by William Blue, his heirs -and assigns, free from all taxes, quit rents, and other acknowledgments, for the space of five years from the date thereof. There was a proviso against alienation during the said period of five years, and for the cultivation of eighteen acres within the said term, otherwise the land would revert to the Crown. The Government reserved the right of making a road and taking timber. After the said term of five years William Blue and his heirs, &c., were to pay an annual quit rent at two shillings. 

By his last will and testament, dated May 2, 1834, William Blue, among other diviees, gave and devised to his son, Robert Blue, 'that portion of his, the said testator's, estate allotted out for him, commencing on the south at William Blue's land, and extending in a north-easterly direction to a Government road, together with the house built thereon, provided that Robert Blue, on taking possession, engaged not to ply a boat for hire as therein mentioned. A desire was expressed in the will that no portion of the land given to William, Robert, Mary, Susannah, and John Blue should either be sold or mortgaged, otherwise to be divided in equal parts among testator's surviving children, share and share alike. William Blue, jun., was appointed executor.

By indenture of demise, dated 1st July, 1836, between the said Robert Blue, of the first part, the said William Blue, Robert Tiffin, and Mary, his wife, George Lavender, and Susannah, his wife, and John Blue (which said William Blue was the eldest son, and the said Mary Tiffin, Susannah Lavender, and John Blue, were three other children of the said William Blue, deceased), of the second part, and Henry Croasdaile Wilson, of the third part, under this indenture, for a sum, as bonus, of £25 to William Blue, and an annual rent of £20, paid quarterly, Wilson (who was third police magistrate, and lived at Miller's Point) got all that piece or parcel of land, situated on the north side of Port Jackson Harbor, in the district of Hunter's Hill, aforesaid, containing thirteen acres, more or less, and bounded on the east by the waters of Port Jackson, aforesaid, on the south by the allotment of the said William Blue, on the north by a creek, and on the west by the Lane Cove-road, on a fifty years' lease. Out of it, however, was reserved an acre adjoining William Blue's allotment, extending from the water to Lane Cove-road (now known as Blue's Point road). 

In 1839 Colonel Wilson sold the residue of his lease to Hutchinson Hothersall Browne, who was Immigration Agent, and had other lucrative billets. Mr. Browne was, of course, to continue the payment of £20 per annum to the Blue family, in addition, he gave Colonel Wilson £1000 — one -thousand pounds — as bonus. After being three months 'in occupation Mr. H. H. Browne mortgaged his lease to Mary Ann Ridge, for £600. That was on January 1, 1840. (Ridge-street, North Sydney, is named after the family of this lady. There were several of the name on the Hawkesbury, and at Campbelltown, in the twenties of last century). Mr. Browne had power to pay off this sum on giving six months' notice. This he did on February 27, 1845; and it appears, from a document in front of me, that Mr. Browne at the same time got the fee simple for £100 — that is to say, the sum named, cash down, was considered by the Blue family as a more convenient mode of dealing with the thirteen acres, than waiting until the year 1886 for the expiration of the lease granted to Colonel Wilson. It seems a poor bargain for the Blues, but so it reads. In 1844 John Nepean Mcintosh appears to come in, I think, as a trustee. This gentleman was Admitted a solicitor in 1840, and for a time practised in Sydney, but for many years he was the leading solicitor in Bathurst, and died there at a good old age. And from Mr. Mcintosh's time, up to the present, the original 80 acres grant of Billy Blue has undergone' many, and mighty changes, but the whole story of its alienation, its mortgages and releases, its owners and occupiers, would , take up more space than I can afford to have the whole story in print. OLD SYDNEY. (1912, January 28). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168743164 

MELANCHOLY SUICIDE.—It is our painful task to record the suicide of  Mr. George Lavender, of Blue's Point, North Shore, which occurred at his residence about half-past six o'clock last evening. The particulars of this tragical event, as they have come to our knowledge, are as follow :—

Our informant was at Mr. Lavender's house at three o'clock yesterday afternoon, when the deceased was getting his dinner in his usual health and spirits. He talked freely, and eat a hearty meal. During the remainder of the day he engaged in his regular business about the house, without his conduct in any respect attracting particular notice in his family. About half-past six in the evening Mrs. Lavender was alarmed by the report of a gun at the rear of the house, and on running out she discovered the body of her unfortunate husband, with his forehead literally blown in, lying on his back in an out-house, and struggling in the agonies of death. The shrieks of Mrs. Lavender brought a plasterer, who was at work in an upper room of the house, immediately to her assistance, but only in time to witness the breath of life pass away from the mangled form of her husband.

The deceased appears to have taken the gun from the house unobserved ; and no reason can be assigned for the perpetration of the dreadful act. He was an old colonist, possessing considerable property and enjoying a large share of respect. His widow is left, we believe, with one child. No title (1851, February 21). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60032868  

Coroner's Court.

An inquest was held yesterday afternoon, at the Macquarie Inn, Blue's Point, North Shore, on the body of John George Lavender, there dying dead. The deceased had been suffering, under mental depression for several weeks, and had been known to threaten the commission of this deadly act, yet as no marked symptom of aberration it could be traced, little dread was apprehended that, ht deeply resolved upon so dreadful a project. Upon the jury being sworn-Susan Ann Lavender, a child of about 10 years old, deposed that, between the hour of five and six on the evening of Thursday last, she was startled by the report of a gun, and running "out in the direction whence it had proceeded she found her late father stretched upon the ground in a shed at the side of the dwelling-she immediately alarmed her mother-Susannah, wife of the deceased, corroborated the daughters testimony-her screams brought constable Thompson and others to the spot-Mr. Benson, a surgeon, alarmed that having been called to the deceased, he found him quite dead-with a gun-shot wound in the left eye-the organ itself protruding over the cheek-portions of the brain had also been forced down-the scalp had been riddled as if by shot, and the skull consequently penetrated-death resulted from these injuries-A verdict of suicide, whilst labouring under temporary insanity was returned. The gun was found by the side of the deceased with the ramrod out of its socket, and it is imagined that having placed the weapon in position, he touched the trigger with the ramrod, and so discharged the piece. Coroner's Court. (1851, February 22).Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60032920 

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.


In the goods of George John Lavender, late of St. Leonards, in the Colony of New South Wales, innkeeper, deceased.

NOTICE is hereby given, that Susannah Lavender, of St. Leonards aforesaid, the widow of the abovenamed deceased, intends at the expiration of fourteen days from the publication of this notice, to apply to this Honorable Court, in its Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, that letters of administration to all and singular the goods, chattels, credits, and effects of the said George John Lavender, be granted to her.—Dated this twenty-seventh day of February, a. d., 1851.


Proctors for the said Susannah Lavender, 190, Elizabeth-street, Sydney. ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1851, February 28). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 370. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230691868 

French's Forest : Its History and Romance — Remarkable Aboriginal Carvings
By Maude Kearney-Morgan

THE very mention of a forest conjures up visions of romance, and in some respects there can be no spot in Australia that holds so much that has affected so diverse shades of human life as French's Forest — the magnificent stretch of country, with wonderful panoramic views, situated between Middle Harbour (Sydney) and the coast. Historical records tell how Governor Phillip and his staff explored this region and were favourably impressed by it. 

The first white man to think of settling here was Mr. Simeon H. Pearce, who in the early fifties was appointed Commissioner for Crown Lands for the District of Sydney, but his wife would not entertain the idea of living in so wild a place. 

Mr. James French, who was special constable and ranger of Crown lands, acquired the two hundred acres. He was a shrewd and unusual man. At that time he lived in the vicinity of Willoughby, in the road that has been named after him. Through French's second wife he came into possession of a good deal of McMahon's Point and Blue's Point. After he left the Government service Mr. French went to live in the forest, and it was ever after called French's Forest. There he had the command of thousands of pounds' worth of timber, stringybark and red gum mostly. The trees were about one hundred feet high and two feet thick, and were needed to supply the settlers on the harbour front with posts and rails for fencing. When split the timber was carted to Bantry Bay, and thence shipped by cutters to any part of the harbour. 

An aboriginal carving — probably an eel (14ft long).

Traces of the First Inhabitants 

LONG before the timber-getters went to the forest it was inhabited by a race of people who have left, carved upon the rocks, a record of their existence. Nearly three miles from Manly, and almost three hundred feet above Curl Curl Lagoon, is an eminence that commands a vast panoramic view of the coast. It is known as Flat Rocks. Upon the sandstone surface are carvings executed by aborigines. The first drawing reached is apparently intended to represent a whale. It is twenty-four feet long and fifteen high. Then there are fish, kangaroos, wallabies, and human figures. What first occurs to the consideration of the beholder is the crudity of the drawings. When you have examined the set on the French's Forest road near Bantry Bay, and noted that the figures are similar to those at Flat Rocks and have the same type of crudities, one ponders, and the thought comes that perhaps the crudities themselves have a special significance. 

THE Bantry Bay carvings are on a plateau of flat rocks, and this site commands a panoramic view inland, as does the other over the ocean. The two most striking figures here are a whale or a shark, sixteen feet long and seven feet high. Close to it is what looks like an eel; or perhaps it is a sea-serpent, for he certainly has a wily look in his eye. There are fish, kangaroos, wallabies, shields, boomerangs, and several human figures from five to seven feet tall. One is holding a large shield and facing another who has a boomerang close to his right hand. One has the arms outstretched horizontally, but most, as on Flat Rocks, have the arms thrown above the head. The feet are generally depicted in the attitude of executing the corroboree dance. None of the faces have any features, the necks are so thick that they are out of all proportion, the knees are angular, and the fingers spiked. Undoubtedly the carvings were intended as symbols of something more than can be read by the uninitiated. Dr. A. Carroll explains that "they are totemic of the tribal myths and laws of a people who have left little else to mark their long occupation of this island continent. . . . Observation has proved that every turn in their lives was guided by a code of native laws regarding not only the action of the individual, but of the families and tribes.

The Forest Mystery 

OF a very different nature are the relics left mouldering in a hidden gorge by a modern man of great intellectual achievements. To reach the location, take the turning to the left across Narrabeen Lake. Climb up, up, until you stand high above the tops of the trees in the valley, and the ocean far below looks like a sheet of blue glass studded with emeralds glinting in the sunlight. A little farther on rears the iron gateway of what was once the picturesque residence of Baron von Bieren. Flights of stone steps, flagged courtyards, stone columns — two of these bearing carvings of gunpowder kegs and inscribed 'Advance Australia,' and the two on the opposite side the inscription C. v B. 1884 A.D.— are all that remain of this palatial home built in the wilderness and occupied by a remarkable chemist, who made charcoal from which he extracted gunpowder, and got varnish and gum from the Australian grass-tree. Those who remember 'Ingleside House' in the days when its cultured founder entertained on a lavish scale tell that it resembled a Swiss chalet, having a steeple and an octagonal tower.

The largest carving of the group at Bantry Bay. It is 16ft 6in by 7ft, and is probably intended to represent a shark. 

TO-DAY there are only ruins for passing motorists to wonder about. None of these motorists guess that a few hundred yards away, hidden in a secret gorge, is a building of considerable size that represents a mystery to the present generation. One has to see the gorge to have any comprehension of how completely is hidden the large two-story building of nine chambers that are more like halls of entertainment than ordinary rooms. In the year 1924 a sensational article appeared in a Sydney newspaper telling how von Bieren, a German spy, had built in a hidden gorge a mysterious building that was to have been used in the designed capture of Australia. Old residents of these parts treat that story with scorn. They will tell that they knew Baron von Bieren and his wife as Dutch-Americans, and that the lady put £5000 of her own money into the company that was floated by her husband as the Australian Gun-powder and Explosive Manufacturing Com-pany, in which many prominent citizens of Sydney took shares. Perhaps one reason why the company failed was that the Government of the day condemned the works because the cylinders were of iron instead of copper. Von Bieren was ulti-mately sentenced as a fraudulent bank0 rupt to two years and ten months' imprisonment, and died before the expiration of the sentence. Products and Industries 

THE forest has been the scene of various industries. As well as timber getting and grass-tree exporting was the making of bricks and potteryware from the local clay deposits. In the early days fish leases were granted by the Government, and tons of fish were taken annually from Narrabeen Lakes and marketed. At Newport a family named Farrell extracted salt from sea-water. In 1888 Mr. Kelly took up a thousand acres on a mineral lease and prospected for coal. He spent £2000, went to a depth of two thousand feet, and did not find coal. Mr. John Coghlan put down a diamond drill, and vegetable gas was found. For six months the works cottage was brilliantly lighted, gas being supplied also for cooking. A company was started, but did not continue, probably because it was reported that where natural gas was used the cost to the consumer amounted to about twopence for each burner, and sevenpence for a cooking stove, per month. The gas company would hardly make a fortune. Warriewood might be termed a city of glass with its hundred glass-houses, each one hundred feet long and holding (at such times as tomatoes soar to a price prohibitive for the general purchaser) rows of heavily laden vines. 


FRENCH'S FOREST became a place of notoriety when the bushranger known as Thunderbolt escaped, with his mate, from Cockatoo. Nearly famished with hunger, they arrived at the hut of some men working for French. The police did not capture them until some years afterwards. Tragedy is associated with Narrabeen. It derived its name from a half-caste girl. Convicts murdered the Ramsay family. Narrabeen tramped to Parramatta, to where in 1818 the police were stationed. By the time she got to the police and they arrived at Mount Ramsay a week had elapsed. The murderers were still there, stupefied with rum, of which they had found a quantity on the premises.

Carving of a wallaby at Flat Rocks, two and a quarter miles north-west of Manly, and 272ft above Curl Curl Lagoon.


FROM Tumble-Down Dick, the name given to the top ridge of the forest, one looks down hundreds of feet upon a riot of dense vegetation. Sunlight tips the trees, but in the depths rest unprobed mysteries. Sylvan beauty you can find if you take a boat at Narrabeen and cross the lake when it is a dazzle of golden sunlight. It connects with several enticing waterways fed by waterfalls, and here, intermingled with the green of trees and ferns, are touches of brilliant colours, for wildflowers, native berries, birds, and butterflies abound. Return in the evening, when the soft tones of blue, violet, and purple that the mountains in the background and their reflections in the water take enchant you. Land when the lake is a glory of silver splendour in the moon-light, and you will feel that you have been in touch with the romance of the universe. I wish to acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. James Wheeler in giving me much of the historical data for this article. Mr. Wheeler is one of the oldest residents of the district, his grandfather having been one of the pioneers. French's Forest : (1937, April 7). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 15. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160501939 

Billy Blue was a convict who was transported to Sydney for stealing sugar in London. The convict records of 1796 state that he was ‘a Jamaican negro sailor’ aged about 29, so he was born about 1767. However Billy Blue said that he fought in the American War of Independence (1776) and in an 1828 census claimed he was 80 years of age; this would mean he was born around 1748 and in America.

Whatever the truth of his origins and age, Billy Blue arrived in Sydney in 1801 and completed his sentence in 1803. In 1805, living in a house at The Rocks, he married the English convict Elizabeth Williams and they had six children.

Contemporary sources tell us that Billy had a genial and entertaining nature. He gained the favour of Governor Macquarie, who appointed him harbour watchman in 1811. One of the perks of the job was the provision of a stone hexagonal (six-sided) watch house overlooking the harbour, on the eastern side of Circular Quay. The house soon became known as Billy Blue’s cottage.

In 1817 Governor Macquarie granted Billy Blue 80 acres of land on the north shore. He moved there with his family and the promontory soon became known as Blues Point. Billy was also appointed the official ferryman for the north shore and he would row soldiers from Dawes Point across to Blues Point to cut grass for their horses. Macquarie often used Billy’s ferry service and mentions in his diary about Billy taking Macquarie’s wife and son up to the Governor’s house in Parramatta.

A track (now known as Blues Point Road) soon led from the Blues Point wharf up to St Leonards, and Billy Blue’s ferry service became the first and major transport link that helped open up the north shore for settlers. In fact within a short time Billy owned so many small ferry boats that Macquarie joked that with such a fleet he should be called Commodore (a high ranking naval officer). The nickname stuck and from that day on Billy Blue became known as The Old Commodore.

Like so many other ex-convicts of his time, Billy also took the opportunity to make money in other ways, and in 1818 was arrested for smuggling rum. He lost his job as watchman, but still ran the ferry service.

In 1822 Billy’s benefactor, Governor Macquarie, returned to his native land and business rivals were temporarily successful in shutting down Billy’s ferry service through various allegations. He regained the right to run it again in 1825.

Elizabeth Blue died in 1827 and Billy became increasingly eccentric. Wearing a battered coat, top hat and cane he would often be seen in George Street or would board ships in the harbour, demanding people acknowledge him as ‘the Commodore’, and abusing them if they did not. In 1829 Billy was again gaoled for sheltering a run-away convict but was released on paying a fine.

Billy Blue died in 1834 and newspapers of the time wrote obituaries that praised his humour, honoured his connections with the origins of the colony, and said regretfully that ‘We may never look upon his like again’. A portrait of him painted by J B East was exhibited soon after Billy’s death to general praise.

The legacy of the convict pioneer, Billy Blue, was the opening up of the north shore with his ferry service, and his endearment to Sydneysiders as a character. In 1850 his son John Blue went on to build the Old Commodore Hotel and his daughter Susannah owned the Billy Blue Inn, both near Blues Point. Various streets in the area are named after him and his children.

Billy Blue’s ‘voice’

As an illiterate convict you would expect that Billy Blue’s voice in history would be barely heard. All that you would know about him would be through what others chose to record. However, Billy Blue was involved in a number of court cases in which his testimony was reported both as a witness for the prosecution and for the defence. He also paid an amanuensis (a clerk or secretary who takes dictation) to write down his version of his life story as part of a petition to the Governor to restore the ferry service to him. Billy Blue’s inability to read and write did not prevent him from engaging in the life of the colony and being well-loved and well-remembered. But who knows what we would have discovered if he had been able to keep his own journal.

Note: The Mitchell Library's punchbowl, made in about 1820, is one of the most spectacular mementoes of a time only 30 years after its foundation, when Sydney had already become a multi-national port and destination on Asian and Pacific sea trade routes.

Black Commodore Billy Blue

THE plan to build a block of 250 flats, housing 1,000 workers, at Milson's Point, and other flats in Lavender Street, McMahon's Point, has aroused a new interest in two of Sydney s oldest suburbs.

James Milson, accepted pioneer of the North Shore arrived in Sydney Cove in 1804. His house, Brisbane Cottage, was the first to be built at Milson's Point, and one of the earliest on the North Shore. Milson was a man of education and of note, and has not lacked biographers.

Lavender Street is linked with a story as old as Milson's, less clear but no less colourful. The street and the adjacent Lavender Bay were named after George Lavender, boatswain of the hulk Phoenix. This vessel was moored in the bay as a temporary gaol for convicts who had been again convicted after their landing in the colony. The bay originally called Quiperee, was then known as Hulk Bay.

In 1828 its beauty and possibilities so impressed the Surveyor General, Major (later Sir Thomas) Mitchell, that he suggested that the highest part of the foreshores might be adorned with crescents of buildings and terraces of flowers. This was considered "a sub-lime idea but too vast."

Only the names of East Crescent and West Crescent Streets, McMahon's Point, now remain of this suggestion.

Mitchell also recommended Hulk Bay as a suitable site for a naval base, and foresaw quarters and docks there for the British squadrons in India and China—"nowhere in the world were to be found such natural ad-vantages." This idea also came to nothing.

In the "incomparable" bay convicts were held on board the Phoenix until a sufficient number were assembled for transportation to the cruel remoteness of Newcastle, Port Macquarie or Moreton Bay.

George Lavender, the boatswain, later became a ferryman, and lived ashore. When his cottage was burnt down in 1838, public subscriptions were invited to build him a new one.

The earnings of an industrious couple being consumed and themselves penniless. He sold his second house some ten years later, and went to live at the Old Commodore Hotel, in Blue's Point Road, at the head of Lavender Street.

THE Old Commodore himself, Billy Blue (whose daughter George Lavender married)—laughing, friendly and irrepressible, a legend in his own life time and black as the Ace of Spades—may claim equally with Milson if you are no snob, to have initiated the development of the whole North Shore.

Blue was a Jamaican or American negro, who is said to have come out as a sailor in one of the early ships, and elected to stay in Sydney. As with all ancient heroes, some confusion has grown around his story.

Some say that because he was a powerfully built man, he was made caretaker of the Octagon Provision Store built by Governor Phillip to keep provisions in at Circular Quay. Later, he is recorded as keeper of the magazine in the Domain, from which position he was dismissed, apparently through detection in attempted smuggling.

The Governor and Mrs. Macquarie, according to a copy of "The Sydney Gazette" published just after Blue's death, could not stand by and see Billy Blue without a roof over his head, and his children homeless. So, in 1817, Macquarie gave Blue, then 83 years old, a grant of 80 acres on the North Shore, including Blue's Point and the western side of Lavender Bay.

Here, undaunted, the old man grew vegetables for the Sydney market, and used his skill as a boatman (which had given happy hours in earlier days to Macquarie s delicate son) to build up a small fleet of clumsy boats.

In these he and his sons ferried travellers across from Dawes Point to Miller's Point or Blue's Point and back.

Macquarie, crossing one day, perhaps as host to one of the parties which shot parrots, ducks, and kangaroos in the North Shore bush, laughingly said to Blue "that as he had such a fleet of boats, he should be called commodore of his fleet." Thereafter Blue was always "The Commodore."

His first passengers were mainly soldiers cutting grass on the North Shore either for their horses, or for thatching Sydney's roofs. But a track, blazed by Lieut. Ball, R.N., of H.M.S. Supply, ran from nearby Ball's Head promontory to Middle Harbour. A track from Blue's Point wharf joined it, and Billy Blue's ferry provided the first invaluable transport link which opened up the North Shore for travellers and settlers. As always, development followed the provision of lines of communication.

Blue built a house some little distance from the Point itself. Here, out of kindness of heart and a reasonable disinclination for making enemies, he would sometimes give food and a pot of tea to runaway assigned servants, headed for Sydney rum and beauty, or to escaped twice-convicted men from the Phoenix, afterwards rowing them across to Sydney at nightfall.

In 1829 (when the older settlers still told tales of "shooting parrots, to make pies of, in the middle of George Street, then a crowded wood") Blue was gaoled for sheltering a run-away prisoner, but was released on payment of a fine.

Other homes had begun to spring up. At Blue's Point itself a Captain Norrie built a house, on a shelf blasted out of the solid rock, and called the house "Gibraltar." Only a wide, friendly verandah, looking over to Dawes Point, and some great scattered blocks of stone, remain of "Gibraltar," which afterwards boasted a cannon for defence, and a later tenant who kept pet monkeys.

The old way to it was by steps at the point cut out of solid stone. These are still there though access to them is unofficial. Sydney Ferries, Ltd., own a caretaker's cottage further in-land, just behind the old house, and have marked the main entrance gate "Strictly No Admittance".

Billy Blue died in 1834, aged 100 years. Of his house also, only tumbled convict-hewn blocks of stone remain though if you go there at dusk you may be prompted to look behind you. But there is never anything there, except a queer sense of pleased amusement, as though some-body had chuckled silently, "Wot, looking for the Commodore's house, after all this time?"

In his day, Billy Blue was one of the best-known figures in Sydney. He was daily to be seen in George Street.

His contemporaries writing of him said: "Who ever saw the Commodore out of humour?" "Scarcely a day passes but Billy Blue, an octogenarian makes more than half the faces he meets look happier. Many a one smiles or laughs at him and nothing else." "Even the urchins doff their hats to him." "The Sydney Gazette" mourned his death and wrote several hundred words on his life.

Few of those who live on his 80 acre grant could tell you Blue's story now. About 1864 Mr. McMahon, a brush and comb manufacturer, built a house on the small headland just east of Blue's Point, and the suburb gradually became known as McMahon's Point.

Local history leaves many questions unanswered.

Why did George Lavender shoot himself in the Old Commodore Hotel in 1851, leaving his widow, Blue's daughter, to marry again soon after-wards? And where was Jack Buckley's house in Lavender Street, where he lived for many years? (In later days he went to Samoa, was a friend of Robert Louis Stevenson, and died from an explosion caused "by examining a cask of gunpowder while smoking a cigar.") And where in McMahon's Point did Henry Lawson live? Down in the old ruin by the present ferry, or up in William Street, where heavy blocks of stone from a forgotten house lie haphazardly among the saplings?

There is no answer now in McMahon's Point to such queries. There are only old trees, old worn steps going down to the water, old houses dreaming as they look out towards Quiperee, Dawes Point, or Berry's Bay. Black Commodore Billy Blue (1947, May 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18024537

Patrick Duffy

Patrick Duffy (1786–1854) was a labourer until he enlisted in the British Army 3rd Regiment of Foot (known as the Buffs) for unlimited service at Sligo on 14 Sep 1805, aged 19. He served as a private for 5 years, 203 days, as a Corporal for 6 years 37 days, and as a Sergeant for 10 years 197 days. After his enlistment, Patrick went to the Isle of Wight and then to Bexhill, Sussex where he joined the 1st Battalion of the Buffs on 17 Mar 1806. The regiment then marched to Liverpool and crossed to Dublin early in 1807.

He married Bridget Conlan, of sligo, in 1810. After his marriage, Patrick went to Spain again with the regiment to fight in the Peninsular War and was described as a brave soldier. He was wounded by a musket ball in the left thigh at Albuera, Spain in 16 May 1811 in a particularly fierce battle led by Marshal Beresford against Marshal Soult.

He was also wounded in the right thigh by a musket ball at 'Hillette, France' on 2 Mar 1814. This action was known as the 'combat of Aire' in the south eastern region of France and occurred during Wellignton's pursuits of Marshal Soult during the closing stages of the Peninsular War. Records of the battle and local ordinance maps show the battle to have occurred at 'Houriellet', transcribed as 'Hillette' in the despatches to London. Patrick, then a corporal, had his wife with him during the whole of the campaign and their second son was born in France in 1814. Another son, John Francis, according to his obituary in 1894, claimed that he had been born off the coast of France in 1818. The Duffy family embarked at Deptford, Kent, England on 15 Jul 1822 and sailed on the ship 'Eliza' on the 20th, landing in Sydney on 22 November 1822.

Patrick was appointed Superintendent of the convict barrack at Parramatta. He was instructed to 'immediately report yourself'.On 21 Jul the Government Gazette reported that he was to be appointed Constable at Parramatta in the room of John Murphy, deceased.

Note: In 1824 he was detached to Liverpool and then to Hobart. In August 1825 he was back in Sydney. Patrick was discharged in Sydney on 24 Nov 1827 on the order of Lt General Ralph Darling 'being worn out for length of service'. He had served for over 22 years. On discharge he was about 42 years old.

On 3 Feb 1830, Patrick signed a long petition to the Governor applying for a grant of land. He stated that he had been left in New South Wales when the Buffs went to India, on the recommendation of Colonel Stewart. He had been 'discharged in consequence of ...length of service and large family...was a non commissioned officer in the Buffs nearly 18 years during which time and the whole of his service Petitioner maintained an unblemished character' and '...is now labouring under very sever attacks of Rheumatism and other bodily debilities occasioned by the fatigues and wounds indured during the peninsula campaign...'

One hundred acres were granted and Patrick began to clear the land. A dispute arose with neighbours who claimed that portions of the land had been allocated to them. After the Surveyor General admitted an error had been made, Patrick was authorised to select another plot on 6 Sep 1831 and this time, took possession of 100 acres at South Colah (now Thornleigh).

On 23 Sep 1832, James Milson, who held land near Duffy, wrote to the Surveyor General concerning the making of the road 'Duffy's Lane'...'since that time a complaint had been made by Patrick Duffy and one Sweeney, holding a ticket of leave, that the road which was originally marked out by Mr Abbott is inconvenient to them and insist on having a new line on road...as these persons are every day threatening and interrupting my men in their work. I shall feel obliged to your finally settling the point of dispute'. The road along the top of the ridge was then marked and confirmed. It exists today (2009) as Duffy Avenue, Thornleigh, running from Pennant Hills Road to Westleigh.

Edward Muldowney per Earl Grey, which arrived on 31 Dec 1836, was assigned to Patrick and recorded with him a year later.

It was not until 30 Nov 1839 that a notice appeared in the Government Gazette announcing that deeds for the frant would be issued to Patrick and asking if any other party had any claim. Patrick's son Peter Joseph wrote and claimed that his father had given him 14 acres, but Patrick wrote that he wanted the Deed for the whole property, which he had called 'Inglewood', issued in his name alone. This was done on 13 May 1840.

Patrick's three eldest sons had by this time left home, but each is recorded in his own right as a householder living nearby, probably on portions of their father's original grant.

The Sydney Morning Herald of 13 Apr 1854 recorded the death of Patrick; 'At his residence, Pennant Hills on the 11th inst. in the 68th year of hisa ge, Patrick Duffy, late Sergeant of His Majesty's 3rd Buffs and father of P.J. Duffy of the firm Duffy and Mitchell, Timber Dealers, leaving a large family to deplore their loss'.

He had died only 7 weeks after his wife Bridget.

Source:  Hornsby Shire Historical Society (comp). Pioneers of Hornsby Shire, 1788-1906 : a history / compiled by the Research Committee of the Hornsby Shire Historical Society. Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1979

Source:  Spurway, John, ed. Australian Biographical and Genealogical Record. Series 1, 1788-1841, with series 2 supplement, 1842-1899. Sydney: A.B.G.R., 1992

Duffy Family:
Patrick Duffy 1786–1854
Wife Bridget Conlan 1788–1854
Son William Duffy 1811–1885
Son Peter Joseph Duffy 1814–1878
Son John Francis Duffy 1817–1894
Daughter Esther Duffy 1823–1841
Son Patrick Michael Duffy 1825–1897
Daughter Elizabeth "Eliza" Duffy 1828–1880
Daughter Mary Anne Duffy 1830–1864

About Frank Walker. F.R.A.H.S

One of the Founders of the Royal Australian Historical Society.
Mr. Frank Walker was born at South Yarra, Victoria, in 1861, and came to reside permanently in Sydney in 1885. He always showed a keen interest in history, and made an early start in the collection of Australian historical data, which now is of immense value to him. Feeling that Australians in general should know more of their own country, he, in company with other kindred spirits, set about the formation of an Australian Historical Society, which after several ups and downs at last came into being in the year 1901. He became a member of its first Council, and for a period of ten years held the position of honorary treasurer. He was elected president in the year 1912, and the following year was again returned to office. In the latter year he was appointed president of the Blue Mountains Centenary Committee, which later on carried out to a successful conclusion the celebration of the first centenary of the first crossing of the Blue Mountains by Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth. This was practically the first centenary celebration in Australia, and showed the way to many similar functions in the succeeding years.

An ardent cyclist and photographer, Mr. Walker toured the greater part of New South Wales and Tasmania, collecting photographs and information concerning many of the then existing relics of the past which has been carefully tabulated and indexed for reference. 
In 1918, His Majesty the King was pleased to grant permission for the Society to use the prefix "Royal," and under this title it has since been known. Mr. Walker has been a prolific contributor to the press of articles on Australian history, and by means of lantern slides, of which he possesses some thousands, he has sought to spread further knowledge by public lectures in this and the neighboring States.

Always keenly interested in the development of Australia, commercially and other-wise, he has watched the growth and progress of the Federal Capital, Canberra, the site of which over twenty-four years ago he visited on the wheel, when there was nothing to indicate that this beautiful and well favored district would achieve the distinction which later years have brought it.

A very few of the original founders of the Historical Society, of which Mr. Walker is one, are left, the rest having crossed "The Great Divide," but their memory and the influence they exerted in the past still remain. Mr. Walker is still a member of the present Council, and hopes to be of much service yet to the Society before his time comes to make way for the rising generation.
From National Review, London, 1904. 
MR. FRANK WALKER, J P., F.R.A.H.S. (1927, January 17). The Federal Capital Pioneer Magazine (Canberra, ACT : 1926 - 1927), p. 27. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article66350942 

The Great North Road: An Historic Highway
By Frank Walker.
ALTHOUGH a span of nearly fifteen years separates the making of the Great North-road from that of the two other main highways, the western and southern, the completion of an alternative route to Newcastle other than by sea marked an important epoch in the history of New South Wales. It served two purposes; the first, in providing travellers with a means of access to the Hunter River district, without the consequent tedious sea journey that had hitherto been necessary, and the second, in opening up and drawing attention to the large areas of magnificent country so eminently suitable for cultivation, which lay along the route chosen. A considerable degree of uncertainty has existed with regard to the first and original route. '



The early New South Wales calendars, which, as a rule, contain itineraries of the various important roads of the then colony, either surveyed or open for traffic, present the information, in a manner, which, to our modern ideas, seems particularly confusing. The constant notices and references to side tracks, and the occasional abrupt termination of the descriptions of main routes, which start off again at the point they left off several pages farther on, is apt to tangle the present day seeker after knowledge in a hopeless maze, which he is lucky to emerge from and preserve his reason. Only by careful study and comparison, step by step, is order evolved out of chaos, and it is interesting at this lapse of time to try to imagine how strangers who took the calendar for their guide, philosopher, and friend, managed eventually to reach the point they were bound for, and escape the numberless perils and dangers which the interior of the country contained in these days. This is particularly the case with the route under notice, which, prior to 1823, was a veritable 'terra incognita,' beyond the settled districts to the north of Sydney. The country, too, for the most part, was wild and desolate. Even now, in the less inhabited regions, there .are wild and rugged precipices, dark and dismal ravines, where even the foot of a blackfellow has never trodden, and densely wooded heights, almost as inaccessible as the most desolate part of the Blue Mountains. Here, in the season, waratahs bloom unseen, and the gigantic lily luxuriates in the sandy crevices of the rocks. This wonderful plant grows in these localities to a height of 16 or 18 feet, and is of a rich crimson colour, some of the blooms measuring three or four feet in circumference. It is, however, becoming scarce, owing to the spread of population, but may still be met with in the more secluded parts of the ranges. 

WHEN, therefore, it was proposed to open up communication between the metropolis and the growing settlement at Maitland by means of a road, speculation was rife as to what this mysterious tract of country contained. The first overland journey from Newcastle to Sydney was made by Major Morrisett, 48th Regiment, on April 25, 1823. This officer was for some years commandant at Newcastle, and the severity of his rule and strict attention to discipline are matters of history. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel at a later period, and was once in charge of the settlement at Norfolk Island. After retiring from the ranks, he took up his residence at Bathurst, and, dying in 1852, was buried in the graveyard adjoining the Old Kelso Church, near Bathurst. No officer was better known in the western district. He had seen much service, and bore upon his face the traces of a wound received in action. At the time of his memorable journey in 1823. he was in the prime of life, and well suited to stand the fatigues of what proved a most arduous undertaking. Nine days were occupied in reaching Windsor, the country being described as excessively mountainous and wild, the distance traversed being 169 miles. Major Mitchell was ordered by Governor Darling to survey this track, and the first section, which reached to within six miles of Parramatta ferry, was opened in 1829. This route, via Pitt Town, is the one now traversed by the coaches from Windsor to Wiseman's Ferry. In 1832 another means of communication with the northern districts was opened by the formation of a road, which branched off the Parramatta-road at six and a quarter miles from Sydney, crossed the river by a punt, where Abbotsford now is, and, passing behind the site of Gladesville Asylum, continued on through Ryde and Pennant Hills, and eventually joined the first track at the twenty-fifth mile-post, the distance from Sydney to this point being 21 ¼ miles, thus effecting a saving in mileage. 


Still another track was formed a year or two later, which proves the antiquity of the highway on the northern side of the harbour, now known as the Gordon-road. The track commenced from Blue's Point (to-day the present road for some distance of its length is termed the Lane Coveroad), to which place there was communication by water from Dawe's Point, and generally followed about the same course as the present road. Crow's Nest Cottage is spoken of in the early calendars, and the residence of Provost-Marshal Gore, at Gore Hill, is mentioned, as, likewise, a grant of land belonging to Mr. Gore, which he named Artarmon. The present station on the Milson's Point line of railway perpetuates this name. A track leading to Pittwater, described as a pathway, occurs at eight and a quarter miles, which is exactly the distance of the present road to that locality. At 15.5 miles from the city what is described as the 'New North-road by the punt at Concord is reached.' The word 'Concord' is somewhat misleading, and is either a misprint or the present locality, now known as Abbotsfield, where the punt really was, may have been included in the district called by that name. Three miles further on the 'Great Northroad' is reached, thus giving an alternative route to and from Sydney, without passing through Parramatta or touching the Western road. 

THE original road, now known as the Glenorie-road, is not used except at rare intervals. He would be a courageous man who, knowing what lay before him after passing the village of Glenorie, would essay the task of driving over the 20 odd miles of deep sand, rough boulders, and cavernous ruts which now characterise this route. Tbe writer, not possessing the requisite knowledge at the time of the condition of the road, was venturesome enough to propel, or, rather, endeavour to propel, a bicycle over its forbidding surface, with the result that the greater portion of the distance had to be negotiated on foot willy-nilly. Five miles from Wiseman's Ferry this road junctions with the coach route, and the remainder of the distance to the river is all that could be desired. At the junction the attention of the traveller is drawn to a picturesque ruin, locally known as the 'haunted house.' Originally built of neatly squared courses of masonry, this habitation dates from the very earliest days, and was erected for the accommodation of a section of the military in charge of road gangs. THE present-day traveller over this route cannot fail to accord a note of admiration for the old road-makers when his eye takes in the stupendous work performed on the fashioning of the pass down the mountain to the village at Wiseman's Ferry. Splendidly graded, and of faultless surface, this section of roadway is at once an object-lesson 10 municipal and shire councils, and although in extenuation of local government failings the question of cheap and abundant labour bulks largely in any comparison of old and new methods, there are still profitable lessons to be learnt from these early-day achievements, and we should not be diffident in taking full advantage of them. 


The great stone embankments, which hold the road in position, as it were, between heaven and earth, extend far down into the valley, and though upwards of 80 years have elapsed since these stones were cut and placed in position, there is not the slightest sign of subsidence, and the work remains as firm and intact as the day it was completed. On the shoulder of the mountain, many feet above the road, a cleared space in the bush, covered with remains of stone buildings, mark the site of one of the numerous stockades that are scattered all over the district, and a natural cave, embellished with stone seats and a flight of steps leading up from the road, once served as a temporary "courthouse," in the days when buildings were scarce. From the platform of this cave a magnificent panorama of river and mountain scenery lies at the feet of the beholder, and the eye never tires of the beautiful prospect that opens out to the view. This particular scene should be one of our most treasured beauty spots. 

THE village of Wiseman's consists of about a score of buildings, but the Hawkesbury Inn— the original home of the celebrated Solomon Wiseman — dominates all others in point of size and historical interest. It is a strong, substantial building, constructed entirely of stone, and its oldfashioned, low-ceilinged rooms, queer, crooked stairways, and solid cedar appointments carry one instantly back Into the past. There are unexplored recesses, damp, dark, and mysterious beneath the building which have a tale of their own. An old stone stable, still wearing its ancient shingle roof, and half hidden by a gigantic Moreton Bay fig tree, is eloquent of the passing years, and hard-by a still older dwelling, now little more than a tumbled heap of stones, lies stranded on the 'shores of Time.' The grounds, which cover about an acre, are entirely surrounded by a stone and rubble wall, which, in itself, must have found work for 'unwilling hands extending over some considerable period. The road continues to the river a further half-mile, where a modern punt replaces the old wherry which did duty here for so many uneventful years. Again consulting the calendar we find that the original crossing was some considerable distance down stream, but the steep and dangerous grades rendered it unsafe, and in the early thirties the present track, which ascends to the summit of the range, some 4000 feet was made by a series of traverses on an easy grade, and effects a saving of nearly three miles. Here, again, the stone-work surface of roadway, the numerous culverts, and huge stone buttresses are a lasting monument to the skill of the early road engineers. Prom the top of the mountain there is a descent of some miles until the M'Donald River is reached, transit across being obtained by means of a punt. On the left side of the road near the river is a ruined stone church, open to the sky, and with window spaces, innocent of glass or frames. It stands a mute object of decay and ruin, and has remained in this condition for a great number of years. The road now follows the course of Mogo Creek for nearly nine miles, practically level, winding its serpentine way through a deep valley, the mountains here being densely wooded with steep, precipitous sides. The early itinerary of this road speaks of an inn kept by Mr. Richard Wiseman, at 858 miles from Sydney, or 354 from Wiseman's Ferry. There is now no habitation in this neighbourhood, all being wild bush, and what remained of the building has evidently been covered with undergrowth. With regard to Mogo Creek, which, as mentioned before, the road closely hugs, the original name was Sugarloaf Creek, but, as a matter of fact, the stream is properly speaking the Wollombi River, though at this point, and for several miles of its course, it could hardly be dignified by any other name than that of creek. At 964 miles from Sydney, 47 from the ferry, is the village of Wollombi. The calendar places this at 93 1/2 miles, but this reckoning is evidently made over the then new route. 


WOLLOMBI is a pleasantly situated township, surrounded by mountains on every side, but the one the road approaches, though some considerable hill-climbing is necessary, some miles distant, ere the more level ground is reached. A road branches off in a north-easterly direction, passing through the township of Broke to the present town of Singleton. This road was in existence prior to 1834, as the calendar refers to it in this wise: — ' . . . the great north road continues down the valley of the Wollombi, reaching the reserve of Broke, where the road, after following this romantic valley nearly twenty miles, at length reaches the open country watered by the Hunter.' 

One of the Blaxland family possessed a sheep and cattle station near this road, but some miles beyond Wollombi; and the Rev. Richard Hill, a noted clergyman, whose name is closely identified with the early history of New South Wales, also owned an estate, which was named Milbro Dale, in this locality. Continuing the main route to West Maitland, an ideal road is met with, of excellent surface almost the whole distance. The country adjacent is still mountainous, and in the early days provided large quantities of cedar, rosewood, etc., many of the former trees being of magnificent growth. The pasturage even now Is luxuriant beyond belief, and prosperous homesteads are met with every few miles. At 72 miles from the ferry the comparatively young but vigorous township of Cessnock, a busy mining centre, has sprung into existence, and, judging by the strides it has made during a two years' absence the writer was surprised to see what a number of buildings had been added in that time. It bids fair to become one of the more important northern towns of the future. The road now continues in a north-easterly direction, passing through several old settlements, and joins the Maitland-Singleton road near the former township. The area of flat country on each side of the Hunter River in this locality was originally known as Wallis Plains, after Captain Wallis, who was commandant at Newcastle in the year 1818. This officer is credited with the founding of Christ Church, Newcastle, in which he held services when the incumbent was absent, a matter of frequent occurrence, since there were so few clergymen at that time in New South Wales. On these plains the towns of East and West Maitland were built, the first buildings dating from about the year 1827. In 1833 the entire population of the Hunter River district was about 2000, and in this year 16 or 17 cases on one occasion were awaiting trial at the assizes, plainly indicating the lawless state of the times, and the severity of rule that held sway. Many of the early pioneers — men who have left their mark on the records of ,this State, were closely identified with the town and district, and the numerous old-fashioned country residences in this neighbourhood, where they resided and founded families, and whose sons are still carrying on the work their fathers begun— are landmarks, whose importance cannot be questioned. The remaining distance to Newcastle, 20 miles, is now, more or less, thickly populated along the route which runs from Maitland in a south-easterly direction, and, approaching the Hunter River at Hexham, follows the right bank of that stream, until It finally enters the thriving and prosperous city of Newcastle, the total distance from Sydney, following the route described, being 149 ¼  miles. 

The Great North Road: An Historic Highway. (1911, December 20). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 35. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164330841 

attractive display

The Northern Suburbs A. and H. Association opened its sixth annual exhibition yesterday on the new showground in Pittwater Road, St. Ives. The committee prepared a ring, and the whole area of seven acres was cleared by voluntary labor. As yet there are no buildings on the ground, and large marquees accommodate the exhibits.

The entries exceeded last year's, and the generally high quality of the exhibits make an attractive display. Following are tho chief awards:— RING EVENTS. Pony, 12 hds. or under. M'Cauley 1, Green 2; do., 22.2 to 13.2, M'WIlliams 1, Lawson 'I', lady's or gent's hackney (novice), Miss Lawson 1, Miss Thompson 2; open gent's hackney, Mr. King's Tom 1', Mr. Lawson's Jack 2; gent's hackney (locally-owned), C. Gumming 1, Mrs Molly Lance's Michael 2; lady's hackney. Miss Thompson's Lady 1, Mr. C. Cumming's Tricolor 2. (In this latter event Miss Nancy Mann, who whs ridlug Lady, sustained a nasty fall, and was taken to the North Shore Hospital.) Lady's hackney (local), Miss Thompson's Lady 1, Miss Lance's Michael 2; sulky pony (not over 14 hands), A. Campbell's Romulus 1, — Spackmin 2 ; sulky horse, Mrs. G. Flanagan's Prince Ivusoff 1. — Page 2; lady rider (local), Miss Mollie Lance on Michael 1, Miss Brown on Ginger 2; girl rider, under 25, Ppggy Thompson (Turramurra) 1, Mollie Thompson 2, Betty Thompson 3 girl rider, under 11, Jessie Clune and Kathleen Clover divided first prize, Eileen M'Cauley and Edna Venters divided second prize. FRUIT. Oranges.— Navel, R. Shinfleld; White Slletta,..., J. Porter 1, G, Gnnkrodger 2; Valencies for export, W. Russell 1, G. Gankrodger 2. Emperor mandarins. W. Russell 1 and 2. Lisbon lemons, W. Dorrlngton 1, \V. Russell 2; Eureka lemons, W. Russell 1 and 2; collection of citrus fruit, W. Russell ; best-packed case of oranges, W. Russell 1, V. Shlnfield 2; case of lemons, W. Jtussell. Apples.— Jonathans, Fchofleld 1, W. Chase 2; M'lntosh Red, G. S. Pierce 1, W. Bourke 2; Red Carringtons, G. S. Pierce 1, R, .Shin-field 2; Striped Carringtons, J. M'Carthy; Trivett Seedlings, J. M'Carthy; any variety, J. M'Carthy; Granny Smith, IV. Chase; Mobbs Royal, G. S. Pierce; Nelson, G. S. Pierce; best collection, II . Britton. Pears.— s-Wiillams, H. Britton; China, W. H. Jones; Keslers, G. S. Pierce; best collection, H. Britton. Peaches.— Elbertn, W. Dorrington; Mountain Rose, Mrs. J. Reid; Wiggin, R. Shinfield; any variety, J. Fagan. Plums. — President, H. Shinfleld; Burbank, K. Shinfleld; Narrabeen Seedling, W. Oliver; Sat-suinn, G. S. Pierce; Upright Blood, J. Fagan; Wickson, IV. Hcusmau: any variety, J. Fagan; best collection, G. S. Pierce. Nectarines.— W. Dorrington. Passionfruit,— W. Foster. Collection of Fruit.— W. Hensmah. VEGETABLES. Early Rose Potatoes, It. Britton 1 and 2; Satisfaction, R, Shinfield; Brownells, H. Britton; Manhattan, R. Shinfield; Up-to-date, H. Britton ; collection of potatoes, H. Britton 3, R. Shinfleld 2. .Cabbage, K. Shinfield: Spanish onions, W. Chase; Swede turnips, R. Shinfield; parsnips, J. Fagan ; French beans, W. Dorrintgton; vegetable morrows. It. Shinfield; squashes, H. Britton; Inbie pumpkins, C. Stevens; apple cucumbers, H. Britton; cucumbers, S. W. Fagan : rhubarb, R. Shinfleld ; beetroot, R. Martin; silvcrbect, J. Fagan; collection of xegot-ables, R. Shinfield; tomatoes, J. Porter; herbs J. Shinfleld; root vegetables, R. Shinfield; green maize, V. Shinfield; sorghum, J. Shinfield: barley hay, J. Shinfield; oaten hay, R. Shinfield; wheaten hay, It. Shinfield; green lucerne, B. Smith; sweet corn, H. Britton; single farm exhibit, R. Shinfield. To-day's programme will Include ring events and the judging of cattle, also the official opening ceremony.
ST. IVES SHOW (1926, January 16). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245853259

Less Than an Hour from the G.P.O.
Sydney Beauty Spots for Afternoon Picnics

In the height of summer the beaches close lo the metropolis naturally make the strongest appeal to those motorists who have a few hours to spend on pleasure, but the fact is sometimes overlooked that within a few miles of the centre of the city there are many delightful resorts where, seen in the middle of winter, a happy afternoon can be passed in most pleasant and secluded surroundings. By 'Spotlight. '
Above Fuller's Bridge 
LET us set a liberal outward time limit of an hour and talk of some of the scenic charms which still, so far as a majority of motoring bushlovers are concerned, bush unseen within a few miles of the G.P.O. The toll at the Harbour Bridge is the last commercial transaction to mar the mellow afternoon; shops, old cottages, and bijou residences with 'every mod. conv.' flit by as we hasten to Chatswood, and a few hundred yards beyond its large Public school turn to the left into Fuller's-road. Within a minute or two suburbia begins to merge with the woodlands of the Upper Lane Cove, the picturesque rifle range runs almost parallel with the road on the right, and soon we reach Fuller's Bridge. A sorry itinerary, you might say, knowing that a cemetery and crematorium are the next points of interest on this route. But bear right-handed with us just before the approach to the bridge, and be confident that there are better things in store. A quarter of a mile of careful driving beside a picturesque tidal creek dotted with mangroves and bordered with she-oaks works a mighty transformation. We have buried the jangling city, and a world (albeit a very small one) of valley and forest is our oyster, to be opened leisurely along with the picnic hamper. Looking back, we feel but for the lack of a mountain nip in the air that we might be hundreds of miles from the city and traffic courts. There is an undulating sweep of green fields; in the background is a tree -clustered, sharp hill. Shapely old pear trees dot the foreground, and to complete the picture is a little homestead, whose steeply-sloped roof might have been designed to throw off the snows of the Monaro or the chill lakelands of Tasmania. Here, doubtless, the psychologist would tell us, is the ideal point at which to manipulate our mental circuits, and with a dwindling recollection of the roar of trams and crowded counters say 'good-bye to all that.' At least, the experiment is worth a trial. 
Lady game Drive 
THEN the road, the Lady Game Drive, meet souvenir of one who took the keenest pleasure in the beauties of our country, bears to the left, and, crossing a culvert, begins to climb uphill. Through a winding avenue of trees and native shrubs it threads its uneven way, and the driver will perforce at times drop down to a crawl when deep gutters and pot-holes loom ahead; but the short trip is well worth such small discomforts, and before we have had time to worry about the bumps we come out from the woods on to the open slopes, where, to the south-west, is a panorama reminiscent of England, and so throw off the spell of remoteness, and speeding up Fidden's Wharf-road rejoin the Pacific Highway at Killara. But the afternoon is still young, and before striking off towards the coast there is ample time to make a few more promising deviations from the beaten paths. So, taking our due place in the Saturday afternoon procession, we plod along the main highway as far as Turramurra, and then, at the first turning left after crossing the railway bridge, take a silent farewell of fellow-motorists who are confirmed lovers of concrete and bitumen and branch off downhill into Kissing Point-road. Several legends are extant as to the reasons for the name bestowed on that road, but historical research is no part of a cheerful, forgetful drive, and we are content to know that after two and a half miles of easy descent we shall reach a deadend, where the hills with their overhanging sandstone rocks and caves gather together, and below us the many small tree-clad creeks which feed the headwaters of the Lane Cove River have banded together in a cool, silent gully to form a constant stream with deep pools and rocks that invite the sunbaker. Well might one spend half an hour in wandering in this wilderness where flannel flowers and other bush plants have escaped the hands of marauders, and all is peace. 
A Forest and a Bush Road 
BUT if the itch to travel is persistent and time begins to hang heavy, we can make tracks back through Turramurra to St. Ives, turning into Telegraph -road, which is on the left at the crest of the hill above Pymble Railway Station. In less than a mile that street debouches on to the Pittwater-road, and before reaching St. Ives, which lies about another mile beyond, the Dalrymple-Hay Forest looms up on the right. The glades of that preserve are inviting on a hot day, and from the near-by lookout is a magnificent view of parts of French's Forest and the Heads, with, to the right, a glimpse of the Harbour Bridge to remind us that town and black care still 'sit on the crupper.' And so St. Ives, with its avenue of sombre pines and its worked-out and well-tilled orchards. 
The hours have flown by on winged feet, but there is still time to probe the arterial road from that township to Gordon, a pretty, winding route, beloved of equestrians Sydney Beauty Spots for A her noon Picnics (Concluded from Opposite Page.) Here, if energy triumphs over sloth, the car can be parked at some wide bend, and a short 'hike' will take the wanderer through rough country to shady valleys or lofty vantage points, and once again he will have succeeded, in the best sense, in burying himself for a brief space. But those who shrink from such exertions and want to 'do' as many places as possible, can round off the day by a trip to the Oxford Palls, in French's Forest. An easy approach is through Roseville to the bridge over Middle Harbour, in Roseville Chase, and thence up hill to the crossroads, where the right-hand branch is taken. Within a minute or two turn left, and do not follow the better road straight ahead, which leads past the brickworks. Continuing for about a mile and a half, a signboard 'Oxford Falls,' will be seen on the left, and here we turn off, and pursuing a rather bumpy downhill track reach the falls, near which are several small holdings, in less than two miles. Here we must 'call it a day,' and leave the tourist to find his own way home wards, with the suggestion that a dip in the surf at Manly might be a good tonic for dinner, and with the hope that by this shallow scratching of a wide field of beauty spots busy and fatigued motorists who seek complete relaxation will be encouraged to appreciate the less spectacular, but delightful, scenery which lies at their thresholds, and in so doing find an escape from the humdrum round of life.
Motoring (1935, March 6). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 44. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166110179 

Speeding in the Wake of Governor Phillip
By ' Spotlight '
THERE is bustle along the coastline of golden beaches and grassy headlands; a chatter of excited  aborigines. Even the black swans on Deewhy Lagoon sense that something is amiss and raise their long necks from probing the tempting shallows. Off-shore, dancing along in a following breeze, are two small open boats, and at the tiller of one is a man of enterprise, who has left his mark on the map of Australia. There at the helm sits Phillip, first Governor of the new colony, a real pioneer, who does not let his high office and the dictatorial power which he commands in an outpost of Empire restrain his innate energy to be up and doing and to see things for himself. Nearly a score of years before Cook had marked on the charts to the north of Port Jackson 'broken land, which appeared to form a bay.' Now Phillip, With the duties of office heavy upon him, and but a few weeks after he had, on his own responsibility moved the First Fleet from Botany Bay to what is to-day Sydney, has founded the infant colony, set everything in good running order, and, without breathing space, undertaken a reconnaissance by sea that few yachtsmen would envy. No decked, ocean-going launch or pleasure schooner for him. A long-boat and a cutter clear the Heads and venture north into the blue. 

MARCH 2; 1788, is the day logged as the start of this exploit, and that night the party slept in the boats, in the lee of a rocky point, 'as the natives, though friendly, appeared to be numerous.' One can picture the pow-pows round many a seashore fire while shellfish roast in the embers. The natives are fretful. 'Who are these intruders? What do they seek?' At dawn Phillip sailed on. He found the scenic glories of the Hawkesbury estuary, named one of its finest reaches after William Pitt the younger, and 'returned in safety to enjoy the blessings of the land.' Pittwater became a name on the chart. Another haven in a new, rich land had been discovered, and there we may leave this energetic first representative of the Throne in these latitudes with the grateful recollection of one whose spontaneous energy had a share in the revealing of a lovely stretch of playground at the threshold of the city. In that tract beaches, golf , links, still bays, and surviving patches of virgin bush now beckon the jaded toiler of the town. Phillip has gone, but his name lives in the archives, and the natives flustered at his coming have left a message for the new race in the weathered rock carvings and kitchen middens which the hurrying motorist might often forget when speeding to the allurements of Manly, Newport, Palm Beach, or the fastnesses of French's Forest. The original inhabitants have been spared the shattering of their peace by an endless stream of cars, the 'improvement' of their lands, and the new 'Spooner' costumes which next season are to make the beaches safer for democracy. Peace be with them! 

THE light fades, the endless film of history flicks through the years. Switching on at the 'sixties,' Barrenjoey, aforetime 'Barrenjuey,' is cast on the screen. There is no lighthouse as yet, but Phillip's verdict on that sequestered port has been appreciated by his successors. The Customs House nestling in the shelter of the abrupt headland which overtops the sandy isthmus is mute testimony that rumrunners and others have found the Hawkesbury a convenient, if not official, port of entry. Nowadays those who walk, sometimes optimistically carrying fishing-rods, from the end of the golf links road to the headland can capture something of the good old days, although the fish elude their wiles. They can see in the sandhills at the feet of the dark, timbered cliffs buildings which once housed the revenue-men. It is a thin slice of Cornwall in its heyday cast to the other side of the globe.

Picture, too, the pilgrimages of those travellers whose vessels, forced to shelter in Pittwater, preferred, as history records, to tramp through the bush to Middle Harbour rather than await the relenting of the elements. Barrenjoey is a highlight of colonial -history in that the old days still seem to linger there. When the nor'-easter blows in summer and the well-fed tourist takes his after-dinner nap in the warm hollow of a sheltering sandhill he might in his dreams see sudden alarums and excursions, the quick manning of the revenue cutter, a few shots at random, and perhaps the sail of a successful smuggler fading into the evening. If, as some romantics have said, all places are redolent of their history, the half-waking dreamer will glimpse the venerable lighthouse, now 'automatic,' and in his reveries hark back to the day in 1880 when a light 'of the second order dioptric' first shed its beams over that little patch of the Pacific. He will see the life of the early keepers of the lamp, the death by lightning of one whose tombstone on the scene of his labours bears an epitaph concluding: — 'I, too, in haste was called away; Repent; repent without delay!' 
'Three o'clock; time for another round.' 

A heartless friend breaks the spell, and reluctantly we are astir, and stroll back to the short, but picturesque, Palm Beach course. TO those whose week-ends are sometimes so strenuous that they welcome Monday's toil we would say, 'Give the round trip to Barrenjoey a trial.' There are temptations all along the route; some of them are indicated in the accompanying map, and few, if any, cities could boast of such a glorious variety of unspoilt scenery within a few miles of its hub. The itinerary illustrated is offered as a quick tonic. The chart might be amplified by a few explanations. Between Avalon and Palm Beach is a deviation coastwards to the Hole in the Wall. The car can be driven on the billowy turf to the very edge of the cliffs, and thence is a rough, formidable track which might have been made by mountain goats to the seaward cave. The cliffs overhang menacingly; there are signs of many a landslide, and with a quick scramble the narrow entrance to the wide and sombre cavern is reached. Running at brisk speed over the return route we turn off inquisitively to the ruined powder works. (See map.) Summer or winter, here is a warm, sheltered spot for picnickers. Pine trees flanked by a high natural hedge of 'bottle-brushes,' mellowed stonework, gill birds (a most palatable food en casserole) by the dozens, chortling, as it seems, 'This country is an animal sanctuary,' and with it all still the pervading spirit of the days that have been. IT was very proper that an establishment where high explosives were to be manufactured should be far removed from peopled districts. Its sponsor felt, doubtless, that at any minute it might go into smoke, even as he is said to have done. Carl von Beiren was pursued by the Law and was accused of fraudulent practices, but his virtues and demerits have no place here. Suffice it to say that in French's Forest he has left, a stone-throw from the main road between St. Ives and Mona Vale, and a little east of the turn-off to Elanora golf links, a still enduring monument to his efforts. There it is graven that in 1884 he set out to build Ingleside House, now a razed ruin, and a neatly chiselled powder cask surmounting the inscription, 'Advance Australia,' proclaims his good intentions. The sun is sinking; the western glare has gone. A fine day closes — and so to Sydney. 
MOTORING Speeding in the Wake of Governor Phillip (1935, August 21).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 49. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article160500014 

A TREE SANCTUARY! In the Dalrymple Hay Forest Reserve, Pymble. Community Quilts (1933, December 27).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 48. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165961981 

Ald. W. Creswell O'Reilly will preside at a meeting In the Killara Memorial Hall next Thursday, when an appeal will be made for contributions to preserve portion of the Dalrymple-Hay forest at Pymble, which is to be subdivided. This forest is the last remaining portion of the original Cumberland forest. Crossed cheques made payable to the Dalrymple-Hay: Forest Preservation Fund may be sent to the Rangers' League, Box 3607S., G.P.O., Sydney, or Mr. Chas. R. Barton, Barton and Co., 7 Macquarie-place, Sydney. The total area of the forest is 50 acres. The southern section, of 26½ acres, was resumed in 1925 by the Government as a State forest, while the now privately owned northern section comprises 29½ acres. FOREST RESERVE WANTED (1934, March 11). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230547085 

Mrs. A. F. Wyatt and Mr. F. T. Berman (joint hon. secretaries of the Dalrymple-Hay Forest Preservation Committee) write:— The committee wishes to express its appreciation of your valuable paper's assistance in giving such splendid publicity to the movement to save the Pymble (Brown's) Forest or so much of it as is available to our committee under an option to purchase. Unfortunately, though the whole area of 56 acres was resumed by the Crown in 1925 and dedicated as a State forest reserve, half of it was allowed to revert to the owners in 1931. If this unique belt of natural forest is to be saved for all time, funds must be speedily forthcoming. The Wild Life Preservation Society gave outright 25 guineas, but also guaranteed a similar amount in addition, should It prove necessary, rather than see the area lost to the public. Donations may be forwarded to the hon. treasurers, care of Mr. Chas. R. Barton (the organiser of the present movement), 5 Macquarie-place, Sydney. A BUNDLE OF LETTERS (1934, May 11).The Sun(Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 11 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229202395 

Dalrymple-Hay Forest
The Dalrymple-Hay forest, Pittwater-road, Pymble, is now open to the public. This 11 ½ acres, with the adjoining 26 acres held by the Forestry Commission, is now a forest reserve. Arrangements are now in hand for a scheme of joint management, for the removal of certain noxious growths from the areas and for the erecting of notice boards. OPEN TO PUBLIC (1934, September 12).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 16 (LAST RACE EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230325887 

Forest Reserve Near Pymble
THE Dalrymple-Hay forest reserve, beside the Pittwater road between Pymble and St. Ives, is now open to the public. Cars may be parked inside the entrance. It is very gratifying that after many difficulties this fine area of native timber should have been secured for the enjoyment of the public, and motorists who have not visited the forest will be astonished at the beauty of the surroundings and the peace and quiet of this delightful spot, which is within half an hour's run of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. Forest Reserve Near Pymble (1934, September 19). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 44. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166108124 

WILD FLOWERS AND NATIVE PLANTS PROTECTION ACT, 1927. Appointment of Honorary Rangers. THE undermentioned persons have been appointed as Honorary Hangers in pursuance of the provision of the Wild Flowers and Native Plants Protection Act, 1927: - 
Ivor Bertie Wyatt, Esq., 26 Park-avenue, Gordon. Mrs. Annie Forsyth Wyatt, 26 Park-avenue, Gordon. (L.G. 1934-S. 3,915)… WILD FLOWERS AND NATIVE PLANTS PROTECTION ACT, 1927. (1934, October 12). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3698. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223066411 

Mona Vale Public School Plants 140 Trees In Three Streets

ONE hundred and forty Bottle Brush trees were planted at Mona Vale on August 11, when Arbor Day was celebrated at Mona Vale School.

The trees were planted in Narrabeen, Waratah and Park streets, which surround the school, at which 148 students have become tree wardens.

The tree planting was arranged by the schoolmaster, Mr. Daly with the co-operation of the Parents and Citizens' Association. ;

- The P. &. C. and school children bought most of the treelings from the Forestry Department, the Department giving the remainder. 

Mr. Daly addressed the gathering of children, parents and visitors, after which Mr., Austin, inspector of schools, Mr. Asian; M.L.A., and Mr. Watson, of the Naturalist: Society, addressed the large gathering.

All spoke of the great value of trees to the individual, the community, and the nation, and urged the growing, care, and protection of trees.

Trees were living things of beauty and great usefulness, and every effort should be made to save them from damage and destruction, the speakers said. 

The young trees were distributed among the visitors, children and members of the Parents and Citizens' Association who moved to positions in the three streets where the treelings were planted.

Other visitors included members of the N.S.W. Town Planning Association (Mr. and Mrs. B. W. Ford), the president of Warringah Shire Council(Mr. R. Kent),- a member of the Forestry Advisory Committee (Mr.Turner), the secretary of Pittwater R.S.L. (Mr. Bimsan), Mrs. Ingleton, representing the Mona Vale Community League, and Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Collins.

The president of the P. and C. Association (Mrs. K. Batten) assisted by the secretary (Mrs. O. Anderson)entertained the visitors at lunch, while the school children provided a bright concert programme, which included Master Ted Budge's vocal solo, "Trees."

Visitors paid tributes to the school staff, P. and C. members, and all who assisted in the tree planting and entertainment. MONA VALVE SCHOOL PLANTS 140 TREES IN 3 STREETS. (1950, August 25). The Land (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article105713567

Warringah Shire Council: Proposed Resumption of Land at Mona Vale
HIS Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council and in pursuance of the Local Government Act, 1919, has approved of the Warringah Shire Council's causing a notice of resumption of the land described in the Schedule hereto, together with a description of such land, to be published in the Government Gazette and in a newspaper circulating in the area in which the land is located, such land being required by the Warringah Shire Council for the purpose of widening a public road. (S. 58-2,803)
J. B. RENSHAW, Minister for Local Government. Department of Local Government, Sydney, 5th December, 1958.
All that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen and county of Cumberland, being that part of lot 24, section B, Deposited Plan 6,195, shown in plan annexed to dealing D931,105,—having an area of perches or thereabouts, said to be in the possession of Anthony Irwin Ormsby, and shown on plan with the Department of Local (government, Sydney. 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT, 1919 (1958, December 5). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3726. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220266509 

Warringah Shire Council: Proposed Resumption of Land at Mona Vale
HIS Excellency the Governor, with the advice of the Executive Council and in pursuance of the Local Government Act, 1919, has approved of the Warringah Shire Council's causing a notice of resumption of the land described in the Schedule hereto, together with a description of such land, to be published in the Government Gazette and in a newspaper circulating in the area in which the land is located, such land being required by the Warringah Shire Council for the purpose of widening a public road. (S. 59-900)
J. B. RENSHAW, Minister for Local Government. Department of Local Government, Sydney, 28th October, 1959.

All that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, parish of Narrabeen and county of Cumberland, being part of lot 22, section B, deposited plan 6,195: Commencing on the north-eastern side of Bassett-street at the southwestern corner of the said lot 22; and bounded thence on the north-west by part of the north-western, boundary of that lot bearing 19 degrees 56 minutes 15 feet 5 inch; on the northeast by a line bearing 96 degrees 54 minutes 51 feet 4 inches to the south-eastern boundary of the said lot 22; on the southeast by part of that boundary bearing 199 degrees 56 minutes 14 feet 8 ½  inches to the said north-eastern side, of Bassett street; and on the south-west by that side of that street bearing 276 degrees 29 minutes 30 seconds 51 feet 5 1/2 inches to the point of commencement,—having an area of 2 1/2 perches or thereabouts said to be in the possession of The Public Trustee, and shown on plan with the Department of Local Government, Sydney. 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT, 1919 (1959, October 30). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3280. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220308934 

Acquisition of Land at Mona Vale in the Shire of Warringah
(l.s.) A. R. CUTLER, Governor.
I, Sir Arthur Roden Cutler, Governor of the State of New South Wales and its Dependencies, with the advice of the Executive Council and on the application of The Commissioner for Main Roads, made by virtue of the powers conferred in him by the Transport (Division of Functions) Act, 1932, do, in pursuance of the provisions of the Main Roads Act, 1924, by this my Proclamation, declare that so much of the land hereunder described as is Crown land is hereby appropriated and so much thereof as is private property is hereby resumed under the provisions of the Public Works Act, 1912, for the purposes of the Main Roads Act, 1924, and that the land hereunder described is hereby vested in The Commissioner for Main Roads; and I hereby further declare the land hereunder described to be a public road and, in accordance with a recommendation of The Commissioner for Main Roads made as aforesaid, the said land is hereby placed under the control of the Council of the Shire of Warringah.
Signed and sealed at Sydney, this 19th day of October, 1977.
By His Excellency's Command,
PETER COX, Minister for Transport and Highways.

Description of the Land Referred to Schedule
All those pieces or parcels of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, Parish of Narrabeen and County of Cumberland, being lots 1 and 2, Deposited Plan 585817, which is also numbered 0164.479.SS.0576 at the Department of Main Roads. The land is said to be in the possession of the Council of the Shire of Warringah and the Crown.
(D.M.R. Papers 479.11508) MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924.—PROCLAMATION (1977, October 28).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 4689. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220125344 

Acquisition of Land at Mona Vale in the Shire of Warringah
(l.s.) A. R. CUTLER, Governor.
I, Sir Arthur Roden Cutler, Governor of the State of New South Wales and its Dependencies, with the advice of the Executive Council and on the application of The Commissioner for Main Roads, made by virtue of the powers conferred in him by the Transport (Division of Functions) Act, 1932, do, in pursuance of the provisions of the Main Roads Act, 1924, by this my Proclamation, declare that so much of the land hereunder described in Schedules 1 and 2 as is Crown land is hereby appropriated and so much thereof as is private property is hereby resumed under the provisions of the Public Works Act, 1912, for the purposes of the Main Roads Act, 1924, and that the land described in Schedules 1 and 2 hereunder is hereby vested in The Commissioner for Main Roads; and I hereby further declare the land described in Schedule 1 hereunder to be a public road and, in accordance with a recommendation of The Commissioner for Main Roads made as aforesaid, the said land described in the said Schedule 1 is hereby placed under the control of the Council of the Shire of Warringah.
Signed and sealed at Sydney, this 2nd day of August, 1978.
By His Excellency's Command, PETER COX, Minister for Transport and Highways.

Description of the Land Referred to
Schedule 1
All those pieces or parcels of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, Parish of Narrabeen and County of Cumberland, being Lots 13 to 17 inclusive. Deposited Plan 255709, which is also numbered O164.479.SS.0577 at the Department of Main Roads. The land is said to be in the possession of the Commissioner for Main Roads, the Council of the Shire of Warringah and the Crown.
Schedule 2
All those pieces or parcels of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, Parish of Narrabeen and County of Cumberland, being Lot 10. Deposited Plan 255709 which is also numbered O164.479.SS.0577 at the Department of Main Roads. The land is said to be in the possession of the Commissioner for Main Roads, the Council of the Shire of Warringah and the Crown. 
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924.—PROCLAMATION (1978, August 11).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 3324. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article219957200 

Acquisition of Land at Mona Vale in the Shire of Warringah
(L.S.) J. A. ROWLAND, Governor.
I, Air Marshal Sir James Anthony Rowland, Governor of the State of New South Wales, with the advice of the Executive Council and on the application of The Commissioner for Main Roads, made by virtue of the powers conferred in him by the Transport (Division of Functions) Act, 1932, do, in pursuance of the provisions of the Main Roads Act, 1924, by this my Proclamation, declare that so much of the land hereunder described as is Crown land is hereby appropriated and so much thereof as is private property is hereby resumed under the provisions of the Public Works Act, 1912, for the purposes of the Main Roads Act, 1924, and that the land described hereunder is hereby vested in The Commissioner for Main Roads and I hereby further declare the land hereunder described to be a public road and, in accordance with a recommendation of The Commissioner for Main Roads made as aforesaid, the said land is hereby placed under the control of the Council of the Shire of Warringah.
Signed and sealed at Sydney, this 20th day of March, 1985.
By His Excellency's Command,
L. BRERETON, Minister for Roads. GOD SAVE THE QUEEN!

Description of the Land Referred to Schedule
All that piece or parcel of land situate in the Shire of Warringah, Parish of Narrabeen and County of Cumberland, being parts of the land comprised within Certificates of Title, Register volume 12217, folio 34, volume 6139, folio 111, and volume 6139, folio 110, and shown as lot 32, Deposited Plan 708072, which is also numbered 0164.479.SS.0609 at the Department of Main Roads. The land is in the possession of The Commissioner for Main Roads.
(D.M.R. Papers 479.1593) 
MAIN ROADS ACT, 1924.—PROCLAMATION (1985, March 29).Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 1426. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231880575 

Terrey Hills
Terrey Hills owes its name to the two original land holders Samuel Hills and Obediah James Terrey. Obediah Terrey acquired 640 acres (2.6 km2) in 1881 and Samuel Hills owned 100 acres (0.40 km2) nearby.

The area was used by Aborigines prior to European settlement, and rock carvings exist in some places. One set of carvings is located near Larool Road and depicts hunting scenes with kangaroos, human figures and footprints. 

Aboriginal rock carving, Larool Road - photo by Sardaka

For the older (geological) history, Terrey Hills is noted as the "laterite capital" of the Sydney Basin for those interested in how laterite forms (which has commonly been taken as indicator of climate change, and signalling former hotter and wetter conditions). The laterite of Terrey Hills was used for early road-making and also has been used for rock wall coastal defence at Collaroy Beach. It is the only place in New South Wales where fossils (meagre plant fibres) have been noted in laterite. The main laterite quarry (now the Terrey Hills playing field), and a smaller one at Tumbledown Dick, are on the National Estate (a Commonwealth heritage listing) and also have been nominated to the NSW Government local-significance heritage listing which in this area is administered by the Northern Rivers Council.

A small struggle has been ongoing for years to better protect the laterite exposure at Tumbledown Dick from the announced effects of Mona Vale road widening plans. The laterite was worked during the Great Depression when Australia had one third of the workforce out of work. The Warringah Shire Quarry or 'gravel pit' at Terrey Hills was an important place for the distribution of government relief work funding. Gai Halstead in 1988 wrote a bicentennial compilation which was sponsored by Dick Smith's "Australian Geographical" organisation which was then headquartered at Terrey Hills - "The story of Terry Hills and Duffys Forest".

In this it is noted that married men were given work at the rate of two weeks on and one off, whereas the single men worked at the 'gravel pit' at the rate of one week on and two off. Apart from this work there was little other work available at the time and Ms Halstead recorded the people at Terrey Hills were generally impoverished. For a week's work digging laterite gravel with pick and shovel there was received £1. To be paid that, they had to walk to the 'relief office' at Narrabeen. Besides digging the laterite, the relief workers based at Terrey Hills also built or improved the roads from Terrey Hills to Mona Vale, Cottage Point and Coal and Candle Creek. The area is generally poor in fossils and the only further thing of note is that a member of the local volunteer bush fire brigade found a fossil footprint in stone fallen from the bank of McCarr's Creek near the Duck Hole. 

The name was applied in 1934.
Wikipedia contributors. Terrey Hills, New South Wales. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Terrey_Hills,_New_South_Wales&oldid=852895770

In the 1830s Terrey Hills was a high ridge of bush through which timber getters drove their bullock teams, pulling enormous logs along the track from Pittwater to Mona Vale Road. The name Terrey Hills is a combination of two pioneers: Obadiah (James' - son) Terrey and Samuel Hills. It was named Terrey Hills in 1934.

1880: Mona Vale Road was a dirt track. Terrey grazed sheep on his property which was also an overnight stopping place for sheep being driven from Parramatta to the abattoirs at Manly. The west side of Mona Vale Road was a railway reserve.

1907: The Railway Reserve was released for closer settlement. Blocks were 5 acres. By about 1930, forty families had settled into the area developing vegetable, flower and poultry farms, before the Depression.

1934: The Progress Association was formed; and Terrey Hills Public School was established in 1938 thanks to the persistence of local residents. Progress pushed for the provision of telephones in 1946 and electricity in 1948.

1942: The Volunteer Bush Fire Brigade was formed and has a proud record of bushfire fighting over the years. Terrey Hills History

Shortly after the war, the population grew with the demand for land for returned soldiers.

1955: First residential blocks were released. 1957 a library was established, thanks to the consistent effort of a local family.

1960: A number of blocks were dedicated for public reserves, recreation, churches and future public requirements.

In 1966 land was released by the State Planning Authority for residential purposes. Development was made possible by the extension of the Metropolitan Water Supply to the area in 1967. Land was also set aside for light industry.

From a small settlement, Terrey Hills has now become a thriving outer suburb of Sydney, surrounded by bushland and a haven for horses and contented families.

(Information taken from: History of Terrey Hills by Suzanne Hills)

James Terrey

James Terrey formerly Terry
Born about 1822 in Berkshire, England 
Son of James Terry and Mary (Jones) Terry
Brother of Stephen Terry, William (Terry) Terrey, Mary Terry and Mark Terry
Husband of Margaret Robertson — married 19 Dec 1848
Father of Ann (Terry) Fox, James Terrey, Kezia Terrey, Caleb Terrey, Joshua Terrey, Keziah Terrey, Obadiah Terrey, Millicent Terrey, Alexander Terrey, Amos Terrey, Ethel (Terrey) Archbold, Hedley Terrey and Arthur Terrey
Died 28 May 1899 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Arrived in NSW in 1842.

Margaret Robertson
Born about 1827 in Scotland
Died TERREY MARGARET  3431/1905 father: ALEXANDER recorded at: WAVERLEY

FOX—TERREY—Sept. 12, at the residence of the bride's parents, Rosedale, Lane Cove, by the Rev. J. G. Middleton, the Rev. E. Fox, Newington College, Parramatta River, to Anne, eldest daughter of Mr. J. Terrey.
Family Notices (1876, November 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13383590

The death of Mrs. Annie Fox, wife of the Rev. E. Fox, occurred at the Presbyterian Manse, Wynnum South on 4th instant. at the age of 76 years. The late Mrs Fox was the oldest daughter of the late Mr. James Terrey of Sydney and a sister of the late Dr Caleb Terrey, of Sydney. Five sons and one daughter of the late Mrs. Fox are at present practising the medical profession - Dr Arthur at Charleville, Dr Hedley at Sydney, Dr Harold in the United Kingdom, Dr Norman at Ardlethan (New South Wales), Dr. Otho at Ariah Park (New South Wales) and Dr Millicent in England. Another daughter, Dr Edith Fox, died at Toogoolawah some 18 months ago. Another daughter is Mrs Bowler of Sydney.
Prior to the departure of the cortege for the Bulimba Cemetery on Saturday afternoon a service was conducted at the Wynnum and Manly Presbyterian Church by the Rev James Gibson M.A. (of Norman Park Church) The Moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly (the Rev M. Henderson, M.A. ) in an impressive address alluded to the many sterling qualities of the late Mrs Fox. In the ten years he had known Mrs Fox, he said, many opportunities occurred to convince him of the splendid helpmate she had been to her husband in his church work for 49½years. Mrs Fox had been a good wife and a splendid mother to the children, who had grown up and made a place at the top of the tree. The Rev James Muir also took part in the service. The pall bearers were Messrs W. Cartshore, Allan Hunter, W H Brown, C. N. Ferris and W. Bell. At the graveside the service was conducted by the Rev Gibson and the Rev A. MacKillop, while other ministers present were the Revs W. C. Radcliffe, B.A., D. Brown, James Walker, M.A., B. D., A. Duff and G. Parker. The church elders were represented by Messrs W. Bell, Cartshore and Hunter and the committee of management by Messrs C. N Ferris, W. H. Brown, R. W. Rae-burn, R. Allison, J. Crichton, H. V. Adams, J Antill, sen., and J. F. Seib.
Letters and telegrams of sympathy were received from Mr Lance Bowler (Sydney), Arthur Terrey (Charleville), Mrs Ethel Bowler (Sydney), Dr Norman Fox, Mr and Mrs McKenzie (Sydney), the Stevenson family (New Farm), Dr Hedley Fox, Mr Alex Terrey (Sydney), Mr and Mrs F. Barton, Mr C. Dunlop, the Revs R. Millar, M. Henderson and H. Robertson.
At the conclusion of the service the grave was covered with many beautiful floral tributes, the senders including Dr Arthur and Mrs Fox, Dr Harold and Mrs Fox, office bearers and congregation Wynnum and Manly Presbyterian Church Women's Guild, Choir, Superintendent and teachers Wynnum South Sunday School, Young Men's Club Wynnum North Presbyterian Church and Sunday School, members of the British Israel Association, Mr and Mrs W. H. Barnes. Mr and Mrs Beck-man and family, Mr and Mrs Bell, Mr and Mrs C. Dunlop and family, Mr E. E. and Miss Dulcie Sneyd, Mr and Mrs Allan Hunter, Mr and Mrs W. J. Gil- bert, Mr and Mrs Edmunds, Mr and Mrs T. A. Jackson, Mr and Mrs Mathie and family. The funeral arrangements were conducted by J. B. Lewis' motor service at Wynnum South. THE LATE MRS. E. FOX. (1926, February 8). The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article21005298 

REV. E. FOX RETIRES nine years at Wynnum
"I feel that I want to rest; I think I have earned it.” were the concluding remarks of Rev. E. Fox, of the Wynnum and Manly Presbyterian Church in an interview with a "Daily Mall" representative.
Mr. Fox was referring to his pending retirement from active church work. He has tendered his resignation, which will take effect this week. Coincident with his retirement, Mr. Fox will have completed 50 years' continuous service. With advancing years, long and close application to his duties, and the recent death of his wife, Mr. Fox is feeling the strain of his active ministry. Born in Bradford, Yorkshire, in 1852, the son of a tradesman, Mr. Ebenezer Fox came to Australia with his parents when he was only four years of age. He therefore looks on himself us a good Australian.
Educated at a Sydney public school and subsequently at Newington College, Mr. Fox decided to enter the Church and in 1876 he was ordained as a Wesleyan minister. His first appointment was as a missionary at the Friendly Islands, but he stayed there only two years owing to his wife's health being seriously affected by the climate. He was then appointed to Molong, in New South Wales, and later filled the stations at Hay, Macleay River, Coutamundra, Balmain, and other places. After being associated with the Wesleyan Church 31 years Mr. Fox decided to join the Presbyterian ministry. He was minister at Narrnmino and Blackheath before coming to Wynnum, about nine years ago. When he arrived there the Presbyterian congregation met in a small church in Chestnut-street. This building was subsequently purchased by the Roman Catholic Church, and is now a part of some of the buildings on the land occupied by the convcent. A block of land was under offer to the Presbyterians on Bay-terrace, almost, opposite the School of Arts. The purchasing price was £360, and the congregation had only £34 to its credit. Mr. Fox called his people together, and as a result of his appeal sufficient money was promised at the meeting to close the deal. Since then a large hall, used ns a temporary church, and recently added to for evening classes and a manse, have been erected. In addition land has been purchased, and a small church erected at Wynnum North. Over £3000 has been spent in laud and church buildings during, Mr. Fox's ministry. The church also owns a fine block of land on the opposite corner to the School of Arts. This laud was presented by Mr. W. R. Black. The church will be erected here. 
Mr. Fox, in 1876 was married to Miss Annie Terrey daughter of Mr. James Terrey, of Sydney. Five sons and three daughters were the issue of the marriage. All the sons and two daughters adopted the medical profession and are practising in different parts, with the exception of one daughter, who died. The third daughter became a trained nurse and now lives in Sydney. It is with her Mr. For hopes to spend a six months' rest, when possibly he will visit England to see one of his sons. With Mrs. Fox he visited the Wembley Exhibition. While in England Mrs. Fox contracted influenza, and suffering a relapse was an invalid for over 12 months. She died on February 4 of this year. As a preacher and administrator, Mr. Fox had very definite views, and did not hesitate to give expression to them at , whatever cost. Yet he has always retained the confidence and affection of his people. "It is a strain, he said to "The Daily Mail" representative, "to leave them, and my message to them, is one of love and gratitude for the support they have been to me, co-operating heartily and at considerable sacrifice to I themselves whenever the call was made."

AFTER FIFTY YEARS (1926, March 30).The Daily Mail (Brisbane, Qld. : 1903 - 1926), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220644310

TERREY - WATSON.- March 7. at Isloornasay, Waverley, the residence of the bride, by the Rev C. Terrey, brother of the bridegroom. James, eldest son of J. Terrey, of Lane Cove, to Isabella Robinson, second daughter of the late Robert Robinson Watsonof Sydney.
Family Notices (1878, April 12). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107934725

WATSON—April 20th, at his residence, Sussex-street, near Druitt-street, Mr. Robert Robertson Watsonin the 35th year of his age, leaving an affectionate wife and family to lament his loss. 
Family Notices (1859, May 13). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13024824

WATSON  ROBERT R 7632/1859 V18597632 122B

Flora remarries:

£3000-Mr. James Terrey, jun. Strathfield, block of land, having an area of 3a. lr. 12p., fronting railivay, Clarendon-street, and another road, PROPERTY SALES. (1887, October 15). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13675230

TERREY.--March 2, at the residence of his brother, Dr. C. Terrey, Kiama, Obadiah Terreyfourth son of James Terrey, of Mamhead, Bondi, aged 29. Family Notices (1892, March 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13854759

TERREY.—May 28, at his late residence, Mamhead, Old South Head-road, Bondi, James Terrey, in his 78th year, for many years a resident of Rosedale, Pymble (late Lane Cove). Family Notices (1899, May 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14216163

TERREY.— May 28, at his late residence, Mamhead, Old South Head-road, Bondi, James Terrey, aged 77 yearsFamily Notices (1899, June 3). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1317. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article163690616

OBITUARY The many friends of Drs. Caleb and Halley Terrey will learn with regret of the death of their father, James Terrey, Esq., aged 77. The sad event took place on Sunday, May 28th, at his late residence, " Mainhead," Old South Head road, Bondi.
OBITUARY (1899, June 7). The Kiama Reporter and Illawarra Journal (NSW : 1899 - 1947), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article102775077

the marriage took place on January 22, at the Waverley Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. John Macauley, of Charles Gordon, fourth' son of Mr. James Terrey, to Winifred Agnes, younger daughter of Mr. John Scott Kerr, of 'Roseville,' Bondi. The bride, given away by , her father, wore soft white Liberty satin, made in the, new druped style, and having a fish train, and trimmed with silk shadow lace and pearls: A wreath of orange blossom and lace veil were worn. The bride carried a shower bouquet, which was a gift from the. bridegroom together with a necklet of aquamarine and blister pearls. The bridesmaids were Miss Jessie Kerr (bride's sister), who wore flesh-pink crepe-de-chine, draped and finished with silk lace, black Panne velvet hat with cream lace and pale pink roses under the brim, and carried a bouquet of pale pink roses, and wore a pair of bracelets (the bridegroom's gifts) ;' and Miss Terrey (bridegroom's sister), who wore pale blue crepe-de-chtne, with black velvet hat trimmed with pink roses The bridegroom gave her a pale pink bouquet and a gold bangle. Mr. Harry Drew was best man, and Mr. Fred Terrey groomsman. 
A wedding breakfast was held at. . Baumann's, where about 80 guests were entertained, Mrs. Scott Kerr. wearing a handsome Paris gown of palest pink floral ninon-de-soie over point-de-gaze lace, and a black hat.. Mrs. James Terrey wore- black satin with jet ornaments. The guests included Mr. and Mrs John T Kerr, jun., Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Empson and Miss Empson, Mrs. and Miss Muir (Lawson, Mr and Mrs. Arthur Weld, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Haynes Mr. and Mrs. James. Austin. Mr. and Mrs Alex Terrey, Mr. and Mrs.. James Terrey, Mr and Mrs. Reg. Terrey, Mr. and Mrs. Ewart Terrey Mr. and Mrs.. Bill Terrey, Dr. and Miss Graham', Mr. and Mrs. Fred Sutcliffe, Mr. and Mrs. Jack McPhcrson, Mr. and Mrs. Jimmy Hill, Rev. Macauley, Miss Esther Nash, Miss Bee Bainley, Miss Jean Bailie,. Miss Sophie Thompson, Mrs. Eric Lorigton (Blackheath), Mr. and Miss Pat rick, Mrs. and Miss Paton, the Misses Ethel and Lizzie Hughes, Miss Mabel Batchelor, Miss Alice Batchelor, Miss Violet Grover,.Miss Cullen-Ward, Miss Amy Cutler, Miss Kathleen DurackMiss Fanny Durack, Miss Mary Durack, Mr. W. A. Kerr, Mrs. and Miss Annie Brown, Mr. Geo. Hill, Mr. Keith Voyness, Miss Kitty Dolling, Mr. and Mrs. George Gunter, Mr and Mrs. W. Doyle, Miss Lilla Duff, Miss Doris Bamfield, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Cohen, Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Gibb, the Misses King, Mr. Geo. W. Lawson. The bridal couple left for Mulgoa in a motor, the bride wearing a smart check costume and a cerise hat. TERREY—KERR. (1914, February 8).Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120362969 

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales. (11,317)
Re Joshua Terrey, of Lower Hawkesbury.
NOTICE is hereby given that a Sequestration Order has this day been made against the abovenamed bankrupt, on the petition of the Union Bank of Australia (Limited).—Dated at Sydney, this 2nd day of October, a,d. 1896.
Registrar in Bankruptcy. IN BANKRUPTCY. (1896, October 9). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 7159. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222368574 

Fruitgrowers of the Huon will be grieved to learn of the death on Wednesday, 15th August, of Mr Joshua Terrey, founder of the well known fruit firm that bears his name in the Sydney markets. Mr. Terrey was 81 years of age, and was a highly respected member of the fruit trade. He came from an honored old Australian family, and was a member of the New South Wales Chamber of Fruit and Vegetable Industries. The firm of Joshua Terrey has been managed by the son, Mr. Earle Terrey, for a number of years. The funeral took place on Friday last. OBITUARY (1939, August 24). Huon and Derwent Times (Tas. : 1933 - 1942), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136025348 

THE announcement of the death of Dr. Caleb Terrey on Sunday last at his residence, "Edgecliff House," Edgecliffe, was received in this district with' sincere regret, and much sympathy expressed for Mrs. Terrey and his son, Mr. Lisle Terrey, in their sad bereavement The interment took place at Waverley cemetery on Monday afternoon, and many relatives and friends were present. Though Dr. Terrey had severed his connection with Kiama for about ten years (he having relinquished his practice to his brother, Dr. Hedley Terrey, who was succeeded. by his nephew, Dr. H. E. Fox), his memory as a doctor and a man is green in the hears of many who honored him for the sterling worth and the skill that was his. 

Though Dr. Terrey never took a prominent part in the public administration of affairs, he was connected with each one of them from the time he took over the practice of the late Dr. Lacey (in 1887) to the day he left, for his practical and liberal sup. port was always generously given to progressive movements, and especially. in the cause of charity. In the movement to secure the water supply he took an active and influential pert, and had a warm interest in hospital affairs. His skill and practical help in sickness was often given to the poor and needy with no little sacrifice of time and self in many instances, and in such instances he had a strong objection to publicity. Kindly and sympathetic in the sick room, his presence even seemed to have a therapeutic power, and never a physician in the district had greater popularity or success, due no doubt to the fact that-in the call of sickness he neither spared himself or his horses. 

Dr. Terry practised his profession for some time in Sydney after leaving Kiama, but discontinued it in other interests of a wider nature which returned to him phenomenal financial success. His successful land speculations won him admiration for his business acumen and capacity, in the strenuous life of the city, no doubt envy as well. In the regret that remains that he should be cut off in the prime of life, at the age of 56, the memories that linger away in quiet country corners of affectionate remembrance in grateful hearts for the man he was in times of sickness, and the trouble that death brings will live longer than those of material things.' DEATHS. (1912, October 23). The Kiama Independent, and Shoalhaven Advertiser (NSW : 1863 - 1947), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article102135127 

The Mosman Church has lost, through death, one of its most faithful members. Alexander Terrey, who died on Sunday, January 13th, aged 79, was a member of the Terrey family well-known in the Waverley Circuit. He married a daughter of Mr. John Corbett one time manager of the Methodist Book Depot. For 38 years he was attached to the Mosman Church and in every way loyally supported the work. The Quarterly Meeting of the Mosman Circuit expressed sympathy with the members of the family by a standing vote, and incorporated in the minutes the following resolution: —

"This Quarterly Meeting records with deepest sympathy the death of Alexander Terrey which occurred on January 13th, 1946, and resolves to place in the Minutes the following tribute to him who was so deeply loved. "

Alexander Terrey was an active member of this Church for thirty-eight years and during that period served in almost every office, being best known in his position as Steward on the North Door, where he was to be found each Sunday with an unfailing regularity. There he met and came to know almost every worshipper. As the executive body of the Church we recall and place on record the many years of happy association we have been privileged to have had with him, and it is our desire that the immeasurable value of his long and faithful service to this Church and congregation, shall be recorded herein and stand as a permanent memorial to him who would have desired no other tribute than the knowledge of work well done. 

"To his bereaved family we tender our sincere and deepest sympathy, knowing that the impact of the loss they and we suffer is tempered by the fragrance of his life and personality." 

The funeral service was held at the Mosman Church on Tuesday, January 15. The great esteem and affection in which Mr. Terrey was held by all sections of the community was evidenced by the large congregation which assembled. The Rev. G. E. Johnson conducted the service and was assisted by the Rev. P. O. Davis. The address was delivered by the Rev. R. J. Williams, who bore eloquent testimony to the excellent Christian character and the widespread influence, exercised so consistently by Mr. Terrey all his life. MR. ALEXANDER TERREY. (1946, March 2). The Methodist (Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155616741 

There are a certain few of whom all a reputable people speak well men of high grade and character. William B Arthur Terrey, of our Gordon Methodist Church, enjoyed that distinction. In all his family, social, business and religious relationships he was of the utmost graciousness, integrity, and honour. Nothing of the spectacular about him, but ever straightforward, reliable and kindly. For forty-five years he held positions as a trusted employee in a city wholesale grocery firm whose clientele everywhere welcomed his understanding sympathy and his advisory words in the harassing circumstances of modern retail business.

In his church associations Mr. Terrey was steadfast and true. As communion steward and regular attendant in the congregation he was a joy to the minister and an inspiration to his fellow worshippers. Shunning limelight, he quietly contributed and witnessed effectively for his Lord. Like his father, with whom I was intimately associated thirty years ago at Bondi Church, he was every constructive in his activity, tractable and non-critical in his mental attitude, steady and constant in his unselfish service, a potent force in our Christian society. He found his recreation on the golf links, which sport gave him further opportunity to develop and further satisfy that desire for comradeship which is characteristic of every true sportsman. On Thanksgiving Sunday (26th November) he was particularly buoyant. But the following day he collapsed while engaged in his business at North Sydney, and in a few hours was quietly 'laid on sleep.' We rejoice in his consistent witness, for his pervasive influence and for all sweet memories of him. — E.C.T. WILLIAM ARTHUR TERREY (1944, December 30). The Methodist (Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155477429 

Mr Terrey, 1870-1875, Home and Away – 41012  a2823491h, courtesy Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales

The death is announced of Mr. James Watson, an old colonist, which took place at his residence, Isleornsay, Waverley-road, Bondi Junction, on Thursday evening. The late Mr. Watson's father was a weaver in the town of Paisley, Scotland, where the deceased was born in the year 1825. Fourteen years later he, with his parents and the rest of the family, arrived in Sydney, and for a time resided near Windsor, where he completed his early education. Subsequently the deceased gentleman engaged in commercial pursuits, and finally settled in Sydney as a carcase and retail butcher. He conducted his business with considerable success for a period of 16 years when he retired and removed to Waverley. The deceased gentleman, who was possessed of considerable property, was a man of unassuming disposition, and took no active part in municipal or political affairs. Church work occupied a considerable part of his time. Whilst residing in Sydney he was a prominent member of the Scots Church, Church-hill, during the pastorate of the late Rev. Dr. Lang. After his removal to Waverley the late Rev. John Macneil established a Presbyterian Church at Charing Cross, in the building now used as a school. The late Mr. Watson became identified with the church, and for many years filled important offices. When the question of erecting a new church adjoining the school hall was decided upon (under the pastorate of the Rev. John Macaulay, M.A.) the deceased was appointed treasurer of the building fund. He was also a trustee and the chairman of the church committee of management at the time of his death. The deceased, who married some 43 years ago, leaves a widow and four grown up daughters. The daughters, who are all married, include Mrs. D. Wachsman, Mrs. James Terrey, Mrs. Richard Cooke (all of Waverley), and Mrs. J. B. Watson (Victoria). The funeral will take place at Waverley to-day.
DEATH OF MR. JAMES WATSON. (1901, November 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14421552

In the Probate Court yesterday Mr. Justice Walter had before him a suit in which the plain tiffs were the Perpetual Trustee Co., Ltd., and the defendants Flora Watson and Jemima Cook. Plaintiffs set out in their statement of claim that James Watson, late of Waverley, was at the time of his death, which took place on November 7, 1901, possessed of certain goods, chattels, etc. On October 3, 1901, being of sound -and disposing mind: the testator executed his last will, and appointed the plaintiffs executors thereof. On No vember 14, 1901, plaintiffs gave notice of their intention to apply for probate of the will, and, on November 21, the defendant Flora Watson, and a few days iater the defendant Jemima Cook, each entered a caveat against such probate being granted to plaintiffs. Plaintiffs prayed that pro bate of the will be granted to them as executors. In their statements of defence, Jemima Cook and Flora Watson set out that the document dated October 3, 1901, and alleged by plaintiffs to be the last will of the testator, had not been duly executed, as required by law; that the testator at the time of the alleged will of October 3, 1901, was not of sound mind, memory, and understanding; and that at the time of the execution of the alleged will testator did not know and approve of its contents. 

The estate is said to be worth be tween £40,000 and £50,000
By his last will the testator bequeathed to his executors, the Perpetual Trustee Company, Limited, the whole of his real and personal property, upon trust to sell, dispose of, and convert at their discretion into money, and to stand pos sessed of the proceeds arising from such sale and conversion, and to pay therefrom £200 to his wife, Flora Watson. He declared that in directing that sum only to be paid to his wife, he considered that she had already been provided for. The trustees were directed to invest the proceeds of the real and personal estate, and to pay the income arising, from the investments of £1000 to Mrs. Jemima Cook, wife of Richard Cook, of Waverley, clerk, for life. On the death of Mrs. Cook the sum of £1000 was to be divided equally amongst her children. Testator also bequeathed the sum of £200 to Mrs. Cook. The remainder of the estate was bequeathed to testator's daughter, Flora Katie Watson, wife of John Boyd Watson, of Victoria.
A DISPUTED WILL. (1902, February 12). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113867212

The matter of the will of James Watson, in which Richard Cooke was the plaintiff, and Flora Watson and Flora Kate Watson, the defendants, was before Mr. Justice Walker. Probate Judge, yesterday morning. The statement of claim set forth that James Watson, of Waverley, was at the date of his death seized of lands, &c. On June 15, 1901. the said James Watson being of sound disposing mind and memory and understan ding duly made and executed his last will and testament,, which was duly signed and attested. He thereby appointed the plaintiff together with John M'Cauley and Willoughby Douglas Shrader to be executors and trustees. 
James Watson died on November 7, 1901, without having made any valid alteration in or revocation of his will. On March 28, 1902, the plaintiff, by his authorised proctor, caused to be inserted In the press notice of his Intention to apply for probate of the said will, with leave reserved for the other executors named in the will to come in and prove should they be so advised. On the 3rd of April, 1902, the defendant, Flora Watson, entered a caveat, against probate being granted to the plaintiff. The plaintiff prayed that probate, of the said will be grant ed to him as executor, with leave to the other executors to come in and prove should they be so advised; and that the defendants may be ordered to pay costs of and incidental to this suit. The statement of defence was to the effect that James Watson at the time of his making his will was not of sound and disposing mind and understanding; that the will and testarnent of the deceased was not duly executed, according to the provisions of the Wills Probate and "Administration Act, 1898; and that the said James Watson, at the time and execution of the alleged will, did not know and approve of its contents. Dr. Sly, together with Messrs. Leverrier and Waddell, appeared for plaintiff, Richard Cooke; and Messrs. Gordon, Strand and Kelynaelc, for the defendant. Flora Watson, widow of testatorand Mr. Broomfield, for defendant, Mrs. J. B. Watson. The case stands part heard.
WATSON WILL CASE. (1902, June 5). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229082133

Alleged Eccentric Testator. Mrs. Watson Recalled
The matter of the will of James Watson, in which Richard Cooke was the plaintiff, and Flora Watson and Flora Kate Watson, the defendants, was again before Mr. Justice Walker, Probate Judge, yesterday afternoon. Dr. ,Sly, with him Mr. Leverrier and Mr. Waddell,..dhstrueted by'; Messrs. King and Schrader, appealed for the plaintiff, Richard Cooke; Mr. Gordon, with him Mr. Snand and Mr. Kelynack, Instructed by Mr. T. J. Dickson, appeared for the defendant, Flora  Watson; Mr. Broomfleld, Instructed by Mr; J. R;' Baxter Brucp, appeared for the defendant, Flora Kate Watson. 
Mrs. Watson, wife of testator, who was recalled this morning, was further examined by Dr. Sly this afternoon. She said she had worked for the money amassed by testator as hard as he had, and was entitled to her share. Witness did not mind testator having a valuation made of the property. She would not, however, have liked him to sell it. Testator and herself opened each other's letters. Her husband had never accused her of tampering with his papers; but he had accused her of tolling the deeds of Hunter's property. Dr. Sly. (to witness): Can you read, Mrs.. Watson ? — That's too bad. Can you read or write? I do not think, there Is anything Insulting. In that. Witness declined to answer, Dr. Sly: Very well, Mrs. Cooke. Witness: Don't call me Mrs. Cooke;. Dr. Sly: I beg your pardon — Mrs. Watson. Further examined by Dr, Sly Mrs. Watson said that Mrs. Waxman always , endorsed the cheques when her husband did not: Testator was always. "Informed when Mrs. Waxman endorsed. the cheques.
To Mr. Gordon Witness used to 'fill ' the whisky bottle— when testator was drinking— with water. On one occasion testator said to her, "This Is very weak, but I don't blame son." ..... The evidence having concluded Dr. Sly proceeded to address the court. Dr. Sly submitted that the' testator's transactions with his solicitor, Mr. Dickson, were sufficient to dissipate the Idea, that the testator suffered from any mental delusions. As regards the testator's general capacity for doing business transactions; he carried .them out In a most Intelligent way. Old men— especially, men over 70 years, of age-were given to obstinacy. The reading of the papers and the spying allegations were in the same category, and the question In connection with them was as to whether there were any delusions. When the court adjourned— the further ' consideration of the case being set down for Wednesday next— Dr. Sly had not concluded his address.
THE WATSON WILL CASE. (1902, June 17). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229061006

Alleged Eccentric testator. Addresses of Counsel
The matter of the will of James Watson, in which Richard Cooke was the plaintiff, and Flora Watson and Flora Kate Watson the defendants, was again before Mr. Justice Walker, Probate Judge, yesterday, afternoon. Mr. Gordon, continuing his address, submitted that the testator had said many extraordinary things which pointed to delusions, especially with regard to those who had taken care of him. Mr. Gordon concluded his address shortly after 3 o'clock, and Dr. Sly replied. His Honor, Dr. Sly submitted, would have to find that when he (the testator) made this will he had the necessary testamentary capacity. Counsel's addresses having concluded, his Honor (at 10 minutes to 4 o'clock) said that he would not now give judgment. The judgment, he said, might be a written one.
WATSON WILL CASE. (1902, June 20). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229072158

Judgment was delivered by Mr. Justice Walker yesterday afternoon, in tho Probate Court. in the suit of Cooke v. Watson, the hearing of evidence in connection with which occupied a fortnight.
His Honor said that the testator, James Watson, married Flora Watson, the widow of his deceased brother, Thomas Watson, and at the date of his marriage had no property at all. The business which his wife brought to him, and which she assisted in managing, was the nucleus of his own fortune, which, on his death, amounted to about £30,000. The evidence in the case proved conclusively that until two or three years before his death, which occurred on November 7th. 1901, the testator lived on terms of confidence and affection with his wife and all the members of his family. Between October, 1880, and October, 1898, the testator executed seven wills, and in all of these his wife, step-daughter, and her three children all took a substantial interest. It was shown that the testator became addicted to drink, and drank heavily for a year or more, but broke himself off this habit in November, 1900. After that he began to be suspicious of those around him, and displayed a nervous anxiety about the custody of documents and papers In his possession. On June 15th, 1901. the testator made a will, which was the will now in dispute, which seriously departed from the scheme of testamentary disposition of his property which had characterised his former wills. In this he left his wife merely the furniture and effects in his residence. £500 to his daughter, Mrs. J B. Watson. £25 to Mrs. Waxman, and the residue to Mrs. Cooke and her children, and he appointed Mr. Cooke. Mr. Schrader, and Mr. Maeaulny executors, and Mr. Cooke was now applying for probate of that will. On a later date, October 3rd, 1901, he made yet another will, in which he gave his wife £200, Mrs. Cooke £1000, and the residue to Mrs. J. B. Watson, and appointed the Perpetual Trustee Company executors. That will was also contested before the Court, and it was propounded for probate by the Perpetual Trustee Company, but as it turned out, the company was merely acting for Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Watson. and the granting of probate was opposed on the ground that Watson was not of testamentary capacity. The Court set aside that will on the ground that the testator was suffering from delusions which deprived him of testamentary capacity, and therefore Invalidated the will. Mrs. Cooke entered a caveat against the first will, alleging that the testator had not testamentary capacity. As to the general testamentary capacity of the testator, he, had expressed an opinion in the former case, and that was that testator's capacity was of a fluctuating capacity, he was unable to accept the extremes in either case. The evidence In this was the same as in the previous case, and produced a similar effect on his mind. He found that when the testator made the will in question, he was under delusions, that he was therefore deprived at his testamentary capacity, and accordingly held that the will must be set aside, with costs.
LAW. (1902, June 27). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article237623306 

On the application of Messrs. King and Schrader, solicitors, of Hoffnung's Chambers, Pittstreet, Sydney, probate of the will (executed on October 10. 1898) of the late Mr. James Watson, of Waverley, who died on November 7, 1901, was, on Thursday last, granted to Flora Watson, widow of the deceased, and Richard Cooke, stepson, who were appointed executors and trustees of the estate. The matter had been before the Probate Judge (Mr. Justice Walker) on two previous occasions, when applications were made for probate of wills made by the testator to be granted to persons other than those above mentioned, against which applications caveats had been lodged, his Honour deciding in favour of the caveators. After making some bequests to members of his family, the deceased, by his will of October 10, 1898, bequeathed practically the whole of his estate to his widow for life, and at her death to his daughter (Mrs. J. B. Watson, of Melbourne) and his four stepdaughters during their livesMrs. Watson to have two-sixths of the income, and the step-daughters one-sixth each. On the death of Mrs. J. B. Watson and her four stepsisters, the corpus of the estate is to be divided among their children. The estate for probate purposes was valued at over £32,000.
THE LATE MR. J. WATSON. (1902, August 7). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article112783952

WATSON.—June 2, 1911, at Isleornsay, Bondi Junction, Flora Watson, relict of the late James Watson, in her 83rd year.
Family Notices (1911, June 3). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15239847

WATSON.— The Funeral of the late Mrs. FLORA WATSON will leave Isleornasy, Bondi Junction, THIS AFTERNOON, at 3.30 o'clock, for Waverley Cemetery. WOOD and COMPANY,Funeral Directors, Sydney and Suburbs.
Family Notices (1911, June 3). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1883 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239094505

The marriage took place on January- 22, at the Waverley Presbyterian Church, by the Rev. John Macauley, of Charles Gordon, fourth son of Mr. James Terrey, to Winifred Agnes, younger daughter of Mr. John Scott Kerr, of 'Roseville,' Bondi. The bride, given away by , her father, wore soft white Liberty satin, made in the, new druped style, and having a fish train, and trimmed with silk shadow lace and pearls: A wreath of orange blossom and lace veil were worn. The bride carried a shower bouquet, which was a gift from the. bridegroom together with a necklet of aquamarine and blis ter pearls. The bridesmaids were Miss Jessie Kerr (bride's sister), who wore flesh-pink crepe-de-chine, draped arnd finished with silk lace, black Panne velvet hat with cream lace and pale pink roses under the brim, and carried a bouquet of pale pink roses, and wore a pair of bracelets (the bridegroom's gifts) ;' and Miss Terrey (bridegroom's sister), who wore pale blue crepe-de-chine, with black velvet hat trimmed with pink roses The bridegroom gavo her a pale pink bouquet and a gold bangle. Mr. Harry Drew was best man, and Mr. Fred Terrey groomsman. A wedding breakfast was held at. . Baumann's, where about 80 guests were entertained, Mrs. Scott Kerr. wearing a handsome Paris gown of palest pink floral ninon-de-soie over point-de-gaze lace, and a black hat.

Mrs. James Terrey wore- black satin with jet ornaments. The guests included Mr. and Mrs John t Kerr, jun., Mr. and Mrs. E. L. Empson and Miss Empson, Mrs. and Miss Muir (Lawson, Mr and Mrs. Arthur Weld, Mr. and Mrs. Robert Haynes Mr. and Mrs. James. Austin. Mr. and Mrs Alex Terrey, Mr. and Mrs. James Terrey, Mr and Mrs. Reg. Terrey, Mr. and Mrs. Ewart Terrey Mr. and Mrs.. Bill Terrey, Dr. and Miss Graham', Mr. and Mrs. Fred Sutcliffe, Mr. and Mrs. Jack McPherson, Mr. and Mrs. Jimmy Hill, Rev. Macauley, Miss Esther Nash, Miss Bee Eai-nley, I Miss Jean Bailie,. Miss Sophie Thompson, Mrs. Eric Lorigton (Blackheath), Mr. and Miss Pat rick, Mrs. and Miss Paton, the Misses Ethel and Lizzie Hughes, Miss Mabel Batchelor, Miss Alice Batchelor, Miss Violet Grover,.Miss Cul len-Ward, Miss Amy Cutler, Miss Kathleen Du rack, Miss Fanny Durack, Miss Mary Durack, Mr. W. A. Kerr, Mrs. and Miss Annie Brown, Mr. Geo. Hill, Mr. Keith Voyness, Miss Kitty Dolling, Mr. and Mrs. George Gunter, Mr and Mrs. \V. Doyle, Miss Lilla Duff, Miss Doris Bam ficld, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Cohen, Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Gibb, the Misses King, Mr. Geo. W. Lawson. The bridal couple left for Mulgoa in' a motor, the bride wearing a smart check costume and a cerise hat.
TERREY—KERR. (1914, February 8). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120362969

Isabella Robertson Watson was born in Sydney seventy-one years ago. Her parents were Presbyterians, but she was a scholar in the old York Street Sunday School for some time. On the removal of her people to Waverley, the family became identified with the Methodist Church, so that practically all her life she was associated with our Church, and the greater part with the Waverley Methodist Church. On March 7, 1878, she was married to Mr. James Terrey, than whom there is no more devoted servant of the Great Master and of the Church in the Waverley Circuit. Forty years of happy married life was interrupted for a little while by the call of the Master on Friday, August 15, and after some months of weariness, Mrs. Terrey fell asleep in Christ. 

Practically the whole of their married life was spent at Waverley, and though the care of the family was regarded by her as her first work, she found time to take and interest in the work of the church and a practical part in such work as the 4 ladies of the church were' engaged in for the furtherance of the cause throughout the circuit. Mrs. Terrey was a fine Christian, and an ideal wife and mother. Her faith was untroubled by any misgiving as to the goodness of God, and the real and abiding presence of Christ. She was gentle in disposition, of winsome, kindly manner, and spiritual attractiveness. For many years she was afflicted with deafness, and it meant much to her that she was not able to follow the order of public worship, but a fine patience and cheeriness characterised her attitude to  this affliction, and when one went to see her and talk with her on those great themes she loved so well, one felt that the benediction radiated , from her. She always did us good. She maintained a keen interest in the work of the church right up to the last. Her large sympathies never failed to attract the children, and she was never happier than when the grandchildren were romping through her home, and many a spiritual seed was sown in those little lives by hands as playful as theirs. The Rev J. W. Dains conducted the service at the grave in the Northern Suburbs Cemetery, and paid a warm tribute of respect to and affection for the late Mrs. Terrey on behalf of the people of Bondi Church, where Mr. and Mrs. Terrey had been worshippers for many years.
ISABELLA TERREY. (1924, September 13). The Methodist (Sydney, NSW : 1892 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article155279128

TERREY  ISABELLA R 12098/1924 Parents: ROBERT R FLORA Registered at: WOOLLAHRA


LEADING SIGNALMAN ARTHUR WATSON TERREY, R.A.N., of H.M.A.S. Quickmatch, and his bride, formerly Nancy Donnelley, at the reception at the Pickwick Club after their wedding last night at All Saints', Woollahra. 
RECEPTION AT PICKWICK CLUB (1946, February 27). The Daily Telegraph (Sydney, NSW : 1931 - 1954), p. 18. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article248468981

IN the Supreme Court of New South Wales.—Probate Jurisdiction.—In the will of JAMES TERREY, late of Bondi, in the State of New South Wales, gentleman, deceased.—Probate granted by the Supreme Court of New South Wales on 12th December, 1899.—Pursuant to the Wills, Probate and Administration Act, 1898-1954, Testator's Family Maintenance and Guardianship of Infants Act, 1916-1954, and Trustee Act, 1925-1942, William Arthur Terrey and John Hughes, trustees of the will of James Terrey, who died on 28th May, 1899, hereby give notice that creditors and others having any claim against or to the estate of the said deceased are required to send particulars of their claims to the trustees at the office of Messrs. E. H. Tebbutt & Sons, Solicitors, 28 Martin-place, Sydney, on or before 15th November, 1961, at the expiration of which time the said trustees will distribute the assets of the said deceased to the persons entitled thereto, having regard only to the claims of which they then have notice.— dated 30th August, 1961. E. H. TEBBUTT & SONS, Proctors for the Trustees, 28 Martin-place, Sydney. 3608—£1 5s.
IN the Supreme Court of New South Wales.—Probate Jurisdiction.—In the will of JAMES TERREY, late of Bondi, in (1961, September 8). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 2836. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220284156


Along The Lane Cove Road (Now Pacific Highway) To Willoughby, Lane Cove, Linfield, Roseville, Killara,Gordon, Pymble, St Ives And Then Onto Mona Vale


BY a notice published in the Government Gazette on the 11th of last month, it appears that ferries have been established on the new line of road from Sydney to Maitland by way of Brisbane Water. We are informed that about ten days ago an officer of the Government passed over the Wollombi to examine a line of road, for the opening of which the inhabitants of the Wollombi district had forwarded a memorial to the Government. 

This road commences at a point on the North Shore of Port Jackson, exactly opposite the north end of Macquarie-street, whence it passes through St. Leonard's, and along what is called the Lane Cove Road, to a farm belonging to Mr. Aaron Pearce, where it branches off, keeping the range between Berowra and Cowan Creeks by a well beaten road, leaving a small farm called the "Old Man's Valley" on the left to a tree known in the neighbourhood as the Cowan tree - the word "COWAN" being engraved on its bark. Within a few yards of the Cowan tree a beautiful avenue has been opened through a forest of tall straight trees for about a mile and a half, where gnarled gumtrees, honeysuckles, and stunted scrub, present themselves, growing on the wild sandstone range. About five miles beyond the Cowan-tree, a small open flat sprinkled with oak trees occurs. The road continues thence along the division of the waters of Berowra and Cowan, showing deep gulleys on each side, with high mountains in the distance to the left, the short lateral spurs exhibiting such rugged features as to prevent the possibility of deviating from the leading ridge, which, at about six miles from Pearce's, becomes very level, and at the seventh declines into a saddle-back, where are the remains of a camp. The remains consist of a horse trough formed of the hollow trunk of a tree, a little beyond which, and close to a rocky water hole is a rude bark hut. Three miles further the ground breaks towards the Hawkesbury and coast, and some engineering is requisite to case the ascent of a steepish hill. About half a mile beyond this is another saddle back, short and sharp, but which may be eased by working round. Thence to the Hawkesbury (where a succession of beautiful views present them-selves) the road, which has been cleared, merely requires trimming. The descent to the river continues along a narrow rocky fea-ture, until a sharp turn round a rock leads over a piece of masonry constructed to clear a deep and rugged gully. The road then passes at the foot of a wall of rock upwards of a hundred feet high, and reaches by a very gradual descent the ferry at Kangaroo Point.

The ferryboat belonging to Mr. Peat (an old settler whose house stands on the opposite bank of the river) is capable of taking six horses.

A long narrow neck of mountain ground between Mooney Mooney and Papran Creeks, is the commencement of the line from the Hawkesbury to Wollombi. The ascent up this neck is the chief labour required in the formation of the road, there being no difficulties on any part of the line. From the top of the hill above Peat's, the direction of the wood is defined by the course of the range, which (though somewhat tortuous) it keeps for about fifteen miles, where it passes over a bluff mass of rock, which re-quires to be reduced by blasting. About two miles beyond this point, and at a low, tame, feature, in a thick scrub, a tree is marked on a part bared of its bark WATER with RM and anchor under, denoting thereby, that a safe place of anchorage is near. From this point the ground ascends gradually towards two remarkable rocky knolls reminding one of "Los dos Aripiles," of the celebrated battle field of Salamanca, and which are as important as a key to the road as those of Spain were to the military position. Keeping close under these remarkable points, the road leads over a small water course dropping towards Papran, then passes through a thick scrub to the crest of the range, which soon becomes very open-commanding extensive views on both sides. To the north-east, Warrawolong towers over all the subordinate ranges heading the Wollombi Brook. To the north-west Yengo occasionally shows the whole of its form through the foliage, and serves as a guide in selecting the track by which to keep the leading range. There are, however, some delusive patches of open ground; the temptation to follow these must be resisted, as they almost invariably lead into gullies; it must therefore ever be borne in mind that the range is the road.

At about six miles beyond the Aripiles is a singular out-crop of trap from among the sandstone country: the land which rests upon it is of the richest description, thickly clothed with grass, and with standing timber, of girth, height, and straightness, rarely to be met with in this part of the country. The extent of this rich land is however very limited, and the road continues as before, along the top of the same range, which near the trap country (Warre Warren) throws off the waters eastward to Aurimbah Creek, and thence to Tuggurah Beach Lagoon-those on the west side falling into Mangrove Creek. Following the range between the heads of those creeks and the Wollombi, (the general bearing of Warrawolong and Yengo, being nearly as before, making allowance for distance,) the line strikes the road from Wise-man's (Lower Portland Head) to Wollombi, at a small stone bridge about four miles on the Sydney side of McDonald's Flat. Fifteen miles of the best part of the Wollombi Road completes the distance.

Several gentlemen have travelled the line referred to, and represent it to be free from any serious difficulties. A road party was a short time ago employed upon the first part of it, but suddenly withdrawn. Why this was done we are at a loss to imagine, for it opens a direct road from Sydney to a most important district. NEW NORTH ROAD. (1848, March 8). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12898008 



Sir,--I desire, through the medium of your columns, to draw public attention to the hardships now endured by the residents of the North Willoughby and Lane Cove districts through the disgraceful state of the main road within the municipality of St. Leonards. At the present time, the road from the point known as the Crow's Nest to the School of Arts is in a most dangerous state-indeed it is in matter of fact that, without driving on the (so called) footpaths, it is impossible to get along. Nothing, however, is done in the way of repair to the road, save by throwing largo boulders of stone into the holes and leaving them to be broken up by the cartwheels passing over them, then by causing danger to life and limb. The poor people of the Lane Cove district are put to serious loss by the existing state of things-those who come from the remoter parts having to start at 1 or 2 o'olock in the morning with wood or fruit to enable them to be in Sydney in the early part of the day ; they are subjected to the annoyance of having to pay two tolls on the one rood, and than not be able to travel without danger. Only yesterday I heard of a case where a horse and cart had to be dug out of the mud. I do think it is time that something was done towards remedy-ing this state of affairs. The main road from Milson's Point should be taken over by the Government, and a Road Trust appointed to manage it. I consider the several Municipalities concerned should not have taken the road over in the first instance. I do hope the Mayor and Corporation of the Borough of St. Leonards, who are the persons most to blame, will set to work at once towards doing something to help the poor hard-working residents of the above districts, by giving them a road fit to travel upon. 


THE LANE COVE ROAD. (1874, July 29).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13341666 


Introduced by Mr. Withers, M L A , a deputation consisting of Mr. B O Holtermann, M LA, and Messrs. Edward, Knapp, and Harris waited on the Hon the Minister for Mines yesterday, to ask that the Government would contribute £100 for the resumption of land for a road on the Lane Cove Road, and running eastward through what is known as Clayton’s ground. It was represented that this £100 was only half the value of the land in question and that the present owner, Mr Mackintosh, was willing to forgo the other £100. The road would connect two roads already in existence and would give people egress and ingress to lands which were now practically locked up. Mr. J. P. Abbott, in reply, said that he had already called for a report in regard to this road, and that it had not yet been sent in. He was inclined to meet the wish of the deputation, but he could not speak positively until he saw the report, and so he could only say that he would communicate his decision to them in a week or 10 days. The deputation thanked him and withdrew. ROAD AT NORTH SHORE. (1883, March 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13530449 

The North Shore Bridge.

The correspondence with Mr. Garbett, which Mr. Lackey promised to give, has been furnished by his successor. The late Ministry while they undoubtedly encouraged the concessionaire, did not in any way commit the country to the venture. They committed themselves, and certainly would have been bound in honour to support the project when it came before Parliament, and we are left to conjecture how far they would have used their political influence to back up the scheme. When we remember what they did to force the Milburn Creek vote through the House, we are justified in feeling that we have had a lucky escape. The first thing to be said about a bridge to North Shore is to discuss whether it is a proper work to be undertaken at all. It would be a very gigantic work, something like the bridge between Brooklyn and New York, though perhaps with more difficulty about foundations. We have seen in the cases of the Iron Cove and Parramatta River bridges, how very uncertain the rock bottom of our harbour is, and what great difficulty there is in getting to a trustworthy foundation. The borings show that we shall have still greater difficulties to deal with in the Hawkesbury River, and we may have some trouble with the George's River. What the bottom is between Dawes' Point and North Shore nobody knows, for no attempts have been made to ascertain, and to attempt to fix the cost of a bridge till this is known is all gueBs work. Mr. Bennett, the Commissioner for Roads and Bridges, thinks that there would be great objections to putting piers in the fairway even if there should be no trouble about the foundations, and says that if there is to be a bridge at all the least objectionable plan would be to have a clear span. But this would necessitate a wire suspension bridge, which is not a very desirable kind to carry a railway. The Brooklyn bridge, which is 100 feet longer than ours need be, will cost nearly two millions. It has been seven years in hand, and is not finished yet, and from recent advices it has already been complained of as 10 feet too low. Mr. Bennett's opinion is that such a bridge would be unsightly, would j be liable to injury from an enemy or an earthquake, and would only partially supersede an effective ferry service, while its cost of maintenance would be quite equal to that of keeping up an effective ferry. Looking at the question all round, therefore, the Government professional adviser strongly condemned the project. From no quarter did the Government receive any favourable advice from its professional subordinates, and under such circumstances the proper course would have been to have taken borings and sent the whole question to England or America, to be submitted to competent engineers, who could advise on the subject, and who might, perhaps, have overruled the opinions of the local engineers. But nothing of the sort was done, Mr. Garbett makes an offer, which is provisionally accepted. There is no proof asked or offered that he is in connection with competent capitalists or engineers. What he was to get was a sort of sporting concession, which he could carry in his pocket to England, and hawk about amongst speculative contractors. We can hardly imagine that Parliament, if not put under pressure, would have given its approval to any such bill as it would have been necessary to pass. But it is impossible to say how easy Parliament might have been under Ministerial blandishment. It has been disclosed that a reputable firm in England has offered- to make a bridge for far less than the sum named by Mr. Gasbett. This is sufficient to show that competition is to be had if it is sought in the right way. If it comes without asking, it is sure to come if asked for properly, and the benefit 6f such competition should belong to the colony, and not be thrown away on a concessionaire. But there is nothing at present to show that English firms, who may be willing to tender, know anything at all of the real conditions of the enterprise, or what it involves ; and in no case does it include the cost of the purchase of land, which would, be considerable. Offers are little more than rough estimates, till engineers have had time to examine and calculate. In the proper order of things, a careful engineer first examines, and the contractor calculates on the basis of his report. If there is no preliminary survey, then a corresponding margin has to be put on to cover unexpected contingencies, and this is a thriftless method of going to work, which no careful Government would encourage. As to contractors, it may be said, what does it matter to us what risks they run and what money they lose so long as the Government only pays for successful and completed work ? It matters a good deal. In the first place it is not to our interest that capitalists should sink money out here in unproductive enterprises. It is better for our finance and our credit that they should make money, and that Australia should have the reputation of being a good harvest field and not a grave for investment. And, in the second place, if the enterprise should break down in the middle the Government is sure to be dragged into it. There is but one possible buyer for an uncompleted work of that kind, and the country would have to take over a failure. No undertaking of this magnitude should be commenced or allowed to be commenced until it has been thoroughly studied and its successful execution has been made almost a certainty. At present the whole thing is clearly premature. Better communication with North Shore is badly wanted, but a steam ferry on the pattern of that at Brooklyn would more than answer immediate wants. The delay there is scarcely more than that of crossing a bridge with a toll, while it is quite as easy to drive any conveyance on to those capacious ferry boats as to drive under any porch or into any stable yard. The Government might fairly establish such a ferry as part of the Great North Road, and indeed it is open to question whether such a ferry would not be sufficient at present for crossing the Hawkesbury, and whether the half-million which the railway bridge there will cost could not be more advantageously spent elsewhere ? The North Shore Bridge. (1883, January 27). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 176. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162081433 


A deputation of gentlemen representing the districts of Manly, East St. Leonards, South St. Leonards, Victoria and North Willoughby waited upon the Minister for Works yesterday, with respect to the desirableness of providing better means of communication than at present exist between North Shore and Manly. The deputation was accompanied by Mr. B O Holtermann, MLA, who explained the object of the deputation

Mr C H HAYES, Mayor of Manly, said he had been requested by various boroughs to present a petition setting forth the desires of the inhabitants of North Shore and Manly. He then read the petition, which was signed by a large number of inhabitants of the districts already named.

It was stated that the population of Manly was about 1327, that of East St Leonards 2320, that of South St Leonards, 2647, that of Victoria, 2182 and that of North Willoughby 1411, so that the total population of those districts was nearly 10 000 It was pointed out that there was no direct means of communication between the North Shore municipalities and the ocean at Manly by any easily practicable land route, that there are in the district of Manly and between Manly Bridge and Broken Bay many thousands of acres of Crown lands undisposed of, the value of which would be greatly enhanced by more direct communication, that the inhabitants of Manly have no means of getting to Sydney in stormy weather except by steamer, failing which by way of the road by Balgowlah and the ferries at Middle Harbour and St Leonards, and that great inconvenience frequently arises from the want of direct means of communication. It was also pointed out in the petition that great benefit would arise to all the boroughs previously mentioned, were easy access to Manly Beach and the ocean afforded without the people being compelled in stormy weather to cross the harbor in steamers, and that what was required could be accomplished by the construction of a tramway carried by a bridge over Middle Harbour at some convenient point accessible from St. Leonards and the other municipalities on the North Shore. It was further stated that if such a means of communication were provided, it would afford a most desirable outlet for the people of Sydney and North Shore on holiday occasions, and could help to prevent the tendency to dangerous crowding in the steamers which was found to prevail on all public holidays.

Mr. COPELAND said that he saw from a memorandum which had been obtained from Mr. Bennett that preliminary surveys had been made, but satisfactory progress did not appear to have been made with the work. He (Mr. Copeland) thought that the work recommended by the deputation was a desirable one to carry out, provided the expense did not prove too great.

Mr. Bennett had estimated the cost of a bridge at £45 000, and had stated that if it was to be a swing bridge an additional sum of £5000 would be required, making the total cost £50,000. He was not sure whether any cheaper bridge could be constructed than that. Then there would be the cost of the tramway to be taken into consideration. He would promise the deputation that a thorough examination would be made, and if it could be found that a cheaper and serviceable bridge could be constructed the mutter would receive very favourable consideration. He was quite in sympathy with the desire of the deputation to get a bridge across to Manly, and thought that it was a very desireable work, but he did not think that at present he would be justified in asking Parliament to vote £50,000 for that bridge.

In reply to Mr Hayes, Mr Copeland said that in the event of its being found that a bridge would be too costly to construct at present, the Government would, after the proposed cable tramway at St Leonards had been constructed and found to work satisfactorily, consider the desirableness of constructing a cable tramway on the other side of North Shore, and of providing a steam ferry

Mr HAYES said that at present there was a small punt, but it was unreliable, and the approach to it was very steep. DEPUTATIONS. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN NORTH SHORE AND MANLY. (1883, March 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13530446 

Road up from Milson's Point, 31 Dec 1880. Image 15344_a044_000013, courtesy State Records of NSW



Sir, — If all who enter through the strait gate and walk in the narrow way are off to " the Eden above." then of the North Shore people there shall not a ‘'hoof be left behind." From the Steam Ferry Company's wharf at Milson's Point to though main road, leading through St. Leonards to districts beyond, the passage is so narrow that only one vehicle can pass at the time. A single gate, and that of ordinary size, suffices to close the whole thoroughfare, so that the width cannot be over 10 feet. The roads and streets of the districts to the north converge towards the portion under notice. 

The wood carts and fruit carts from Hornsby, Lane Cove, Willoughby, North Shore, together with the 'buse's, private carriages, horses, carts, buggies, drays, waggons, hearses, mourning-coaches, and wheelbarrows of the North Shore, one by one wriggle through a passage scarcely wide enough for an entrance to a coal-yard. Can anything be more ridiculous than the whole population of 80 square miles having no other access to the harbour and the city than by a way in width not a sixth of that required for a bush road 600 miles from the capital. 

At about 1 o'clock in the afternoon the scene near the ferry is one of sweet confusion, as the zealous aspirants struggle for the narrow way. Whips crack, naves and spokes rattle, while Smith, Brown, and Jones strive for the track with all the Christian energy and zeal of. a captain in the Salvation Army. Here a coroner might spend all his time, provided the road was twice its present width; but as things are an accident seldom occurs, horses and people being be closely huddled together that there is no room for a kick or hit, or forcible collision. Now, sir, is there any need for such inconvenience? Patience is a virtue ; and they, who suffer without complaining, when suffering cannot be obviated, or when some good end is to be served, are worthy of the highest commendation. But where annoyance, loss of time, pain and danger are endured to no advantage, it is time to ask if the penury of the country is such that the resumption of 100 square yards of land in the neighbourhood of Milson's Point dare not be undertaken. If the thing is necessary and possible, and must be done some day, and can only be performed hereafter at greater expense, it should be undertaken without delay. 

Yours &c


NORTH SHORE ARE THE STRAIT GATE. (1883, July 6). The Sydney Daily Telegraph (NSW : 1879 -1883), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article239274832 

Our Metropolitan Suburbs: North Shore.

FAMED alike for the beauty of its scenery and for the historical interest attaching to it, North Shore is, with-out doubt, one of the most charming of our metropolitan suburbs. Both as a place of residence and as a holiday resort, ' The Shore,' as it is familiarly called,, grows more popular year by year, although it is questionable whether even one per


cent, of the thousands of holiday-makers who flock to it during the summer months in search of the picturesque, give a thought to the days that are gone, or to the strange scenes that have been enacted on ground now covered with bricks and mortar, or cut up into desirable building sites.

And yet to know something of the history of a place is to feel a new interest in it ; to view it with new eyes. Standing here in front of East St. Leonards Town Hall, amid these busy shops and with crowded tramcars passing to and fro, let us construct a retrospective tableau of past years. These 'points,' or promontories, at which the ferryboats now call every few minutes throughout the day, are covered with dense scrub. Dotted about here and there are a few bark huts and tents, each in its clearing away up there on what is now known as Berry's Estate the blackfellows are camped. To-night they are going to hold a great corobboree, and their dusky skins, fantastically striped with red, white, and yellow clay, will glisten in the ruddy glow of their huge camp fire. The hills and dales all around us are covered with bush giant trees and matted undergrowth. Shall we, with an eye to the future, secure some of this wilderness while we have the chance? A little money will go a long way invested in land now, or, with a little skilful manoeuvring, a little manipulation of the wires, or some trifling service rendered to the State, we may perhaps get a Crown grant assured to us, and to our heirs and assigns 1 for ever ! Some day, perhaps, this land may be worth having. We will take a few thousand acres * on spec.'

And now- What's that? ' Beg par-don, sir, but I must ask you to move on ; you are obstructing the footpath.' We awake from our day dream, rub our eyes, and look up. Scrub and blackfellows and bark huts all fade away as if by magic. We are back again in 1889, and this is a police-man, and he has asked us-politely, indeed, but firmly - to 'move on.'

North Shore is divided into four boroughs: St. Leonards, East St. Leonards, Victoria, and North Willoughby. It is not every place that can boast of four mayors, but we do not know that ' The Shore' is to be congratulated on this account. On the contrary, indeed, the arrangement appears to us a very absurd one. Union is strength. One big corporation ought to possess more influence and carry more weight than four small ones, and the time cannot be very far distant now when an amalgamation must take place, and North Shore be known as ' North Sydney.' So far, indeed, has the Shore progressed towards this desirable end tnhat in three of the boroughs -namely, Victoria, St. Leo-nards, and East St. Leo-nards - the principle of amalgamation has been affirmed, and the matter has been placed in the hands of the members for the electorate, Messrs. Cullen and Burns, to bring forward in the Assembly. As things stand at present, the suburb suffers for want of funds to carry out such schemes as would materially advance its interests ; such important matters, for instance, as drainage, gas, and water. With an amalgamated Council, and with the golden prospects now before it, of which we shall have more to say, there should, be but little difficult}1 in floating a substantial loan on the English market, and in a few years rendering it the Brooklyn of Sydney ; of as great importance and with as flourishing a trade as that possessed by the more advanced suburbs across the water.

East St. Leonards Town Hall, a brick building, more useful than ornamental, is within four or five minutes' walk of the ferry landing at Milson's Point. The borough, covering an area of between 500 and 600 acres, contains 1,099 houses, and a population of about 5,250. It was incorporated in 1860. The first Council consisted of Aldermen William Tucker (Mayor), Mil-son, Lord, Dind, Loxton, and Erith. Death has played sad havoc with that Council!


The present Mayor is Mr. J. W. Manford, builder and contractor, of Arthur-street. The total annual value of ratable property within the borough is £88,794 16s. 10d., the capital value being £1,330,000. The Council Clerk is Mr. P. A. Temple, who has occupied that important position for the past six years.

East St. Leonards is not particularly well off for public buildings, but between Milson's Point and Kirribilli Point are some of the prettiest private residences to be found in or around Sydney. At Kirribilli Point, by the way, is the residence of the Rear-Admiral, which was purchased by the Government from Mr. Thos. Cadell for some £30,000. The house stands in about five acres of ground, it is somewhat remarkable that while East St. Leonards is rich in water frontage, not one yard of that frontage has been reserved for the use of the public as a park or recreation ground. The first Government decreed that one hundred feet of

land, from high-water mark, should be reserved all around the harbour pro bono publico, but the law seems to have remained in this respect the deadest of dead letters. At Cremorne, formerly known as Robertson's Point, there remains about a mile and a half of the once-extensive water frontage still available. At the Council's instigation, Government intend to hold on to this poor little strip of land, in the interests of the North Shore public.


The borough of St. Leonards, which adjoins that of East St. Leonards, is six square miles in extent, possesses 1597 houses, and a population, roughly speaking, of close on 8000. St. Leonards was incorporated in 1867. The Mayor is Mr. E. Bunch, and he appears to be very popular with the burgesses. The Clerk to the Council is Mr. W. B. Smith, who has acted in that capacity for the past four years. Choice building sites in St. Leonards are worth about £14 per foot, although one section, at the junction of Miller-street and Lane Cove-road, is valued at between £50 and £60 per foot, but this is on account of its exceptional position. There are three large public reserves in St. Leonards, one facing the Council Chambers, of some forty acres in extent, being remarkable for the beautiful scenery which it commands.

Victoria is an off-shoot of St. Leonards. It is two hundred acres in extent. The Mayor is Mr. "William "Waterhouse, this being his second year of office, and the Council Clerk is Mr. Walter George Millington, who has filled that position since Victoria Ward became a borough, in 1871. Victoria contains 779 houses, and a population of between 3000 and 4000.

North Willoughby, the remaining North Shore borough, covers an area of thirteen square miles. The population is about 1600, and there are just 550 houses within the Borough. Mr. James Simpson is the Mayor, and Mr. Jas. Anderson is Clerk to the Council. This is Mr. Simpson's second term of office, which is a sufficient proof of his popularity with the ratepayers. North Willoughby became a borough in 1865. Choice building sites in the main thorough-fare are worth from £4 to £5 a foot, and owners evince a decided inclination to ' hold on' for the rise in values which they are certain is coming. Certainly when the line now in course of construction between Hornsby and Milson's Point is opened for traffic, which will probably be in about a couple of years' time, North Willoughby, through which it passes, ought to ' look up.'

The North Shore water supply scheme, now on the point of completion, should prove a boon to the residents. At present the place is dependent for its water on a nine-inch pipe, which, passing under the harbour, connects with Crown-street reservoir. Were this pipe to burst there would be a ' water famine ' at North Shore, but this calamity will not threaten much longer for the new supply will shortly be available.

North Shore, Manly, and Pittwater form one electorate, and return three members to Parliament.

One of the most notable of North Shore identities is Mr. William Dind, who has resided in the place for something like forty years. Mr. Dind is, to use his own phrase, ' no chicken,' but he is nevertheless in the enjoyment of excellent health, and possessed of a physique which many a man twenty years his junior might envy; Mr. Dind knows much that is interesting about North Shore. He was formerly Mayor of East St. Leonards, and is very popular with* his fellow-townsmen. To show how land has increased in value at Milson’s Point, it is only necessary to mention that thirty-five years ago Mr. Dind purchased the site occupied by his hotel for £1 per foot. The same land is now worth £40 per foot, and indeed choice building sites are very difficult to get at all at North Shore.

The oldest resident of Milson's Point is. Mr. J. Milson, a cheery old gentleman of about seventy years of age, who has lived on the Point which bears his family name since he was four years old. The Point, by the way, was called after the late Mr. Jas. Milson, who held a Crown gran!; of some fifty acres or thereabouts early in the century. Messrs. James and John Milson, his sons, are the only surviving members of the family. Mr. John remembers a time when hordes of black fellows frequented North Shore, and he has watched many a corobboree danced where shops and stores now stand, and 'buses and cabs ply for hire. Mr. Milson can recall the days of Bungaree, when, that dusky monarch, accompanied "by Queen Gooseberry, held his Court under the rocks in one of the bays or beneath the trees on the Point itself.

Bungaree, be it known to the reader, despite his name, which, like that of his queen, the fair Gooseberry, smacks somewhat of comic opera, was a noted chief or king in his day, and a mighty warrior. Culliban, another celebrated chief, Mr. Milson also remembers well. At that time North Shore was teeming with kangaroos and wallabies, while birds of all kinds were found in the bush, including the beautiful bronze-wing pigeon, and myriads of gaily-plumaged parrots and paroquets. 

' The Shore ' was a favourite camping-ground of the blacks in those early days, and round about Milson's Point was their principal fishing ground. ' Bungaree died in a hut over at William Macleay's place, in Elizabeth Bay,' said Mr. Milson to the writer ; ' I remember his death well-it took place about forty years ago.'

It appears his Majesty was much addicted to the fire-water of the pale-faces, and he used to get very drunk, so helpless, in fact, that he was covered with scars caused by his continually falling into the camp-fire and getting burned while 'under the influence.' His love of liquor probably hastened his end.

Hundreds of blackfellows were buried at Milson's Point, and Mr. John Milson has quite an extensive collection of stone knives, tomahawks and axes, clubs and spears, etc., dug up on the Point. Such relics of the original owners of the soil are still found occasionally; probably an enthusiastic curio-hunter would easily fill a waggon with such things were he to visit the former camping grounds of the blacks at North Shore and other suburbs of Sydney.

The blacks on Milson's Point, by the way, had a queer method of making things un-pleasant for those of their number who offended against the laws laid down by the king for their general guidance. The offender would be made to toe a certain mark, nude, and with only a shield, sometimes of wood, sometimes of thin bark merely (it depended on the nature of his offence), to defend r himself with. Then a number of expert spearsmen would be told off for spear-throwing, the unhappy prisoner being the target. ''? The culprit was generally placed on low ; ground, the spearsmen standing on a hill : about seventy yards away.

At a given signal the fun would commence, the King, Queen, and the rest of the royal family manifesting a lively interest in the proceedings. If the prisoner knew how to use his shield he would pass through the ordeal without a scratch ; if he did not understand the use of the shield he would stand a pretty good chance of providing a funeral for the same day. Instances were common enough of half-a-dozen spears piercing shield and body at the same moment.

Mr. Milson remembers when Lavender Bay bore a less euphonious title. It was Hulk Bay once, so called from the fact that the convict hulk was moored in it. That is upwards of forty years ago. The old black hulk, together with most of its inmates, has long since ceased to exist ; but it was a great institution ' once upon a time,' and boats were constantly travelling between the hulk and the shore. In those days free labour was almost unknown, and convicts were assigned to the settlers and did ail their work for them in return for food and clothing.

Gerrard Brothers established the first North Shore ferry. That was forty years ago. Instead of the splendid service of penny steamers, which now run every quarter of an hour between Circular Quay and Milson's Point, two very indifferent steam craft carried passengers between Blue's Point and "Windmill-street. As these vessels also did the towing for the port, communication was extremely irregular, and the only alternative was to obtain a water-man's skiff - if one were procurable. Gerrard's Ferry, as it was called, subsequently became Milson's Ferry Company, the Gerrards disposing of their interest in the concern to Mr. John Milson and some others, who in their turn sold out to the present company.


There are some enterprising business men at North Shore. Of these, Messrs. J. Forsyth and Sons, tanners and carriers, merchants and importers, are amongst the most prominent. They own the North Willoughby Tannery, their city warehouse being situated at 29 and 31 George-street West The success attending the operations of this important firm goes to show what pluck, perseverance, and energy can accomplish. Less than a quarter of a century ago they started business at North Willoughby, their capital being just £20. Mr. Jas. Forsyth, senior, the founder of the firm, retired from it nine years ago, having realised a fortune. His two sons, who now carry on the business -Messrs. Thos. Todd and Robert Forsyth are following rapidly in their father's foot-steps. Their tannery is one of the best equipped in the colony, and the goods they turn out have won an intercolonial reputation.

Messrs. Clarke and McIntyre (formerly carrying on business in Walker - street, as Auctioneers, Land, Estate and Financial Agents, have been established for several years, and represent many leading capitalists who have property in the St. Leonards district. Mr. Gr. T. Clarke's name is identified with many important subdivision sales. As a land salesman, he is recognised as one who thoroughly understands his business. The firm are agents for leading insurance and financial houses. The premises occupied by the firm were specially erected by them for the conduct of their business. In addition to the public- office are spacious auction rooms, managers' and private offices, also board rooms.

The St Leonards Land, Building, and Investment Company, Limited, are also doing a large business. The above company was established in the year 1886, and from its inception has proved a success. The capital of the company is * steadily increasing; on the other hand business in loans is so satisfactory that within three years the assets of the company amounted to over' £22,000. W. H. Tulloch, Esq, J.P., is the chairman, a gentleman well known in commercial circles and highly respected by the residents of St. Leonards. Messrs. Joseph Monday, A. Armstrong, J.P., j. T. Atchison, and John W. Eaton are the Directors, all of whom are local gentlemen, occupying prominent positions in the district. Mr. G-. T. Clarke, J.P, is the manager.

Perhaps the most enterprising retail tradesman at the North Shore is Mr. W. H. Stephenson, whose ' drapery ' in Miller street is as well known as the Town Hall. Six years ago Mr. Stephenson commenced business in Lane Cove Road, and was so suc-cessful that he very soon had to add another shop to his already large premises. In November, 1888, he purchased his present business, the premises being much more commodious than his old ones, and the site a very much superior one to that in Lane Cove Road. Mr. Stephenson subsequently effected extensive alterations to the shops he now occupies, and he considers that the money paid away for this purpose was well spent. He started six years ago with two hands ; he now employs ten, and his carts go all over the Shore. Mr. Stephenson attributes his success to his unflagging attention to business; he never misses an opportunity, and is an adept at the art of making hay while the sun shines.

(To be continued in next issue.) MESSRS. W. H. STEPHENSON& CO.'S PREMISES. Our Metropolitan Suburbs: North Shore. (1889, August 22). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63621956 

Our Metropolitan Suburbs: North Shore.
(Continued from last issue.)

TERE are no very remarkable houses at North Shore. ' The Ranges,' at Mossman's Bay, is a very old house, but the oldest house is generally allowed to be the late Mr. Alex-ander Berry's residence, Lane ,Cove-road, and which is known as ' The Crow's Nest.' Mr. Edward Woolstonecroft built this house in 1820, the site it occupies being part of a grant received by Mr. Berry from Governor Bligh. Mr. Berry came out to Sydney as commander and owner of a trading vessel in 1808, and it was after the deposition of Governor Bligh that he made arrangements with the then existing Government to trans-port in his own ship the convicts from Norfolk Island to Derwent Island, Van Dieman's Land, which contract he successfully carried out. Mr. David Berry, of Shoalhaven, is the sole surviving member of the Berry family.


Mr. Michael McMahon, whose portrait we give in this issue, is one of the oldest residents of the North Shore, and has probably done more for that locality than any one connected with it. Apart from the vigorous execution of his municipal duties as mayor of tho Borough of Victoria, he has exerted himself as a good citizen in many matters of local improvements, and was mainly instrumental in starting the steam ferry. In the early days his perception of the value of the materials to be found in the colonies led him to establish a brush-making industry, in which an article was produced never excelled before nor since in the history of Australian manufacture. His property at the Point named after him, which we describe later on, is one of the most exquisite sites in the city of Sydney, and on the beautifying of it the proprietor has spent much of his leisure, transforming it, with the best of taste and no little skill, from a waste into a place of shade and pleasant vistas, a spot on which the eye rests with delight. Amongst the many matters of importance in which Mr. McMahon has figured, he was the leader of the agitation for the North Shore bridge, a bill for the construction of which was to have been introduced when the Government went out; he was also prime mover in an attempt to obtain steam punts for the Shore, and £40,000 was actually placed on the Estimates when a somewhat similar catastrophe occurred ; latterly he has devoted himself to securing the Railway to Milson's Point, in which he has been successful, although his efforts have cost him a considerable sum in actual cash. It is by no means improbable that Mr. McMahon will yet live to see the two former measures become accomplished facts.


We give on this page a portrait of the Council Clerk of North Willoughby, Mr. James Anderson. He is an old army man, and was through the Crimea in the Royal Engineers. After serving his country faith-fully for a number of years, Quarter-master Sergeant Anderson was discharged in 1870, at his own request, but, as he says, he is 'fit for service yet.' He holds the silver medal for the Crimea, with clasps for Inker-man and Sebastopol, the Sultan's medal for the Crimea, and medal and highest gratuity for long service and good conduct. This is a record of which any man might be proud In the past thirteen and a-half years Mr Anderson has held the position of Town Clerk, which he now occupies, and has won for himself the respect and esteem of his fellow-townsmen.

Council Clerk, North Willoughby.

The sketch we give of St. Augustine's Church shows the building erected for the purpose of holding divine service by the English Church community at Neutral Bay. The Rev. Gr. North Ashe is rector of the parish.


The oldest resident at North Shore is Mr. W. G. Matthews, who has lived at Berry's Bay for nearly sixty years. Mr Matthews is agent for the Berry Estate, and is still as active as a young man, while his memory is as vigorous as ever. He is a most genial and entertaining companion, and a really admirable raconteur. Mr. Matthews is unquestionably the best living authority on all matters connected with North Shore, and his reminiscences are full of interest. He is possessed of a very keen sense of humour, and relates some of his experiences with inimitable drollery. He landed in Sydney in 1834, at which time the upset price of land at North Shore was five shillings per acre. Governor Darling allowed the settlers to build houses around the Shore, and such of these persons as chose to send in a claim subsequently for the land they occupied invariably had such claim allowed. Oh for the good old days over again !


Berry's Bay, so Mr. Matthews informed the writer, was originally called Woolstonecroft Bay, after Edward "Woolstonecroft, who, by the way, was once offered a Crown grant by Governor Macquarie, comprising the entire site occupied by what is now known as "Woolloomooloo. This offer Woolstonecroft declined, preferring North Shore, where he subsequently settled on an extensive grant which he received from the Crown. New South Wales Governors had a right royal way in those days of giving acres, or even hundreds of acres, away almost for the asking.

Mr. Matthews remembers when bushrangers used to frequent North Shore, and was upon one occasion accosted by the redoubtable "Possum Jack ' himself, as infamous a rascal probably as ever . set foot in the colony, which is saying a good deal. Mr. Matthews was shooting birds in the bush at the time, when suddenly a gruff ' Hello ! What yer doin' here?' caused him to turn round, and he found himself standing face to face with Mr. 'Possum Jack. ' And pray what are you doing here ? ' replied Mr. Matthews, instantly covering his interviewer 
with, his gun. Jack, who was armed to the teeth, smiled grimly as he toyed with a revolver of decidedly formidable appearance. 'What's yer name?' was his next question. ' Matthews.' ' Matthews, hey ? Oh, you're all right; I've heard about you,' and off stalked Mr. Jack without another word. That was the day of assigned convict servants, and some masters didn't treat these men well. The convicts could not retaliate themselves, but they generally contrived to summon out-side assistance to their aid when necessary, and it was to pay off old scores on his friends' behalf that 'Possum Jack visited North Shore on the occasion in question. Mr. Matthews' reputation as a kind 'boss' and good fellow probably saved his life.

Convicts were frequently flogged by their masters' orders in those days, and 'Possum Jack, an escaped convict himself, delighted to get hold of some tyrannical ' boss ' and say to the grinning 'hands,' ' Here, tie him up and give him fifty lashes, and let's see how he likes it himself.'

Amongst the ti-tree on Berry's Estate, and not very far from Lane Cove-road, may still be seen carved on a large flat rock the outline of a shark. Within the shark is the figure of a man. The shark is rudely drawn, but the representation of the fish is nevertheless a very faithful one. This carving was done by the blacks, not even Mr. .Matthews can say how many years ago. But it was a tribal mark, and served to define the bounadry separating the Northern blacks from the Southern ones. Such drawings or carvings were very common at the North Shore, but time-and the irrepressible larrikin-have effaced nearly all of them now.

The illustration we give of Mr. Matthews' late and present residence are interesting in so far as they demonstrate the style, in No. 1, of the ' bad old times ' when houses were built by convict labour, and, in No. 2, of the peaceful, homelike cottage of the present day when architecture itself has cast off its rigid rule which adhered strictly to the necessary and now embraces the conveniences and beauties unknown in the old barbaric days.


Leaving old memories behind us of daysmany of which were best forgotten, except as illustrating the truth of the maxim that 'out of evil cometh good'-let us turn more particularly to North Shore of to-day, and mark the many evidences of a fast approaching period of great prosperity.


In the first instance the value of property will, at an early date, he materially increased by the great improvements which are now being elected in the means of commutation First of all, the branch line from Pearce's corner to North Shore, which had its terminus at Gore's Hill, is now being extended, its route crossing the Lane Cove-road just beyond the Crow's Nest, from whence it will run through the Berry Estate and thence by the shores of Lavender Bay to Milson's Point. This will prove of substantial benefit to the trade of North ¡Shore, although the most culpable delay has been caused by reason of the failure on the part of the Government to call for tenders for the third and final section, the second, of twenty-seven chains, ending in the most idiotic manner in a spot in the bush, where it will be of use to no one. Following the old-fashioned custom of colonial Governments, the most elementary business principles have been neglected, and the interest for money expended will be lost to the country until the completion of the final section.

The next improvements in communication will be the extension of the tram service to Falcon-street, and that portion of the Berry Estate which was last subdivided, on which, by the way, are now built some of the prettiest cottages to be found about Sydney. This will require, we are told, no extension of plant, as the  power to embrace the additional district ; thirdly, a tram service, owned by a syndicate, and authorised by Act of Parliament, is already being laid to the Spit and Manly, so that very shortly the evil from which the public has so long suffered will be entirely remedied.

Whilst upon the subject of trams, we must congratulate North Shore in possessing in the cable method, the only proper description of motive power in the city of Sydney. It is a positive relief for one accustomed to the locomotion provided in South Sydney to seat himself in the clean, comfortable carriages of the North Shore service. No dirt, no noise, and, above all, no danger to human life The primary cost is, doubtless, great, but we hold that with the means at hand to remedy this evil, which blights the southern suburbs, the Government have no right to I neglect them, and they are equally, if not more, responsible for the death of innocent ft men, women, and children than are the !'? guards and engineers connected with them.

The indescribably awful accidents which have occurred are sufficient to make any but long-suffering English rise in rebellion, and those who could remove this evil, but will not, may rest assured that the curse of many a widow and orphan will follow them to their graves.


There is a very large proportion of the population of Sydney who are utterly unaware of the many beauties to be found about North Shore. Taking the route to Lane Cove, one arrives, within a very few miles of Milson's Point, at virgin bush, growing on the Berry Estate, through which the road passes, a dusky remnant of the past, with its dark recesses apparently as solitary as when occupied by the blacks. Now and again, through the trees, one can catch exquisite glimpses of blue distance and still bluer bays, into which wooded points slope gently, whilst many a pretty villa nestles amidst the surrounding greenery. Stand, for instance, at the junction of the Lane Cove and Greenwich Roads, three hundred feet above sea level, and note the glorious prospect that stretches out before you. There are Lane Cove, Hunter s Hill, Five Dock, Ashfield, Burwood, Summer Hill in fact, the whole western portion of the 'city, in one splendid panorama, with the harbour waters all dotted with shipping, and away in the far distance the Blue Mountains, delicately traced against the sky. The air here is a very different thing to that which we inhale in the crowded streets of the city, although the smoke or haze which overhangs the distant suburbs lends, from our point of vantage, an air of mystery which hides from us the unartistic realism of bricks and mortar. One looks upon it as on some exquisitely painted drop scene, and one wonders idly, as if it were a matter of no moment to us, but merely part of a pleasant dream, as to what manner of people they mi«;ht be why inhabit all the distant city which is placed there evidently for our gratification.

Not a quarter of a mile from this point, following the road which leads along the heights, and which presents everywhere the most exquisite views we come upon the Gore's Hill Estate, with Mr. G. K. Whiting's beautiful house and grounds situated in one corner, affording ample proof of the quality of the soil, and the possibilities of the combination of taste and money, with the advantage of position. This estate, which is the property of the Land Company of Australasia-whose well-known business-premises ' occupy the corner of Pitt and Bridge streets, 
City-extends along the road for a distance of over half a mile, every foot of it commanding the scene which we have already described. For villa sites we can conceive nothing finer. Nor is one isolated, as might be supposed, for 'buses ply along the Lane Cove Road, and the railway line is within easy walking distance, yet not so close as to thrust itself into objectionable notice.

On another part of this estate we hare an industry in full work-one of which the Shore may be justly proud-the Gore's Hill brick works, destined in the future, doubt-less, to be the potteries of New South Wales. Underlying the whole estate is a bed of capital blue shale, with pipeclay immediately above it, and at these works which, by the way, are the largest in the colony-are manufactured those splendid, yellow - coloured, double - pressed bricks, of a consistency like flint, so compact are they, which one sees in the building now being rapidly erected by Mr. Dean - 'The Australia' hotel in Castlereagh-street. 

A visit to these works, of which we give an illustration, is most interesting. The shale is excavated from a pit about four chains square and about forty feet deep, where it is tempered with water, mixed, and then drawn up, by steam, in trucks to the works. Here it descends by a hopper, and is passed through a double set of rollers, which render it finer than the finest sand. From this process it emerges in a solid cake, and is passed through the wire cutter, which separates each brick, or forms them into those shapes which are used for sewerage work, the facing of house fronts, and all descriptions of fancy work. From here the embryo bricks pass to the sheds, where they undergo double pressing in a hand machine, and they are then stacked until completely dry. Their next journey is to the kiln-and such a kiln. Not the square, smoky, ugly mass with which we are all acquainted, but one known as the Hoffman kiln, an oval building two hundred feet in length, from the centre of which tapers a chimney stack a hundred and thirty-six feet high. Inside the building are sixteen chambers, to any or all of which heat mav be ap-plied. Each of these is capable of burning twenty-two thousand bricks. Above the chambers is the feeding room, extending the whole length of the building, and through the perforations in the floor the fire in the various chambers is fed with tar or exceed-ingly tine coal, the draft below carrying the heat in such a manner that the bricks are red-hot for a distance of some thirty feet from where these materials are supplied.

We have here briefly described the making of what is known as the double pressed plastic brick, as the most finished article known in the trade. In addition the works turn out thousands of the ordinary dry pressed bricks hourly, besides the ordinary wire-cut plastic and semi-plastic article.

The extraordinary demand for the excel-lent work turned out-the Company having now in hand huge contracts for nearly nine million ordinary bricks and half a million double pressed-have deterred them from paying attention to the more elegant articles of pottery and tile ware, such as are employed for roofing and flooring, but without a doubt this will all come m time. The materials at hand are of the very best and choicest, and as the manager, Mr A. H. Collings whose whole heart seems to be in his work, remarked, they are fitted to make anything, even being sought alter by amateur and professional sculptors.

The works seem to he going on without a single hitch, and are a credit to the management and all connected with them.

(Continued on page 20.) Our Metropolitan Suburbs: North Shore. (1889, September 5). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63621962

St Leonards, Engraving - Lithograph, circa 1890 - Sydney Illustrated News

The North Shore, Sydney.

(See illustrations on this page and page 26.)


St. Leonards Railway Station, North Shore, on the St. Leonards-Hornsby Branch of the Sydney to Newcastle Railway. (See letterpress on this page.)

How great events from little causes spring" was forcibly illustrated in the founding of the mother city of Australasia. In the first rough exploration of Port Jackson, the largest and most permanent-looking fresh-water supply to be found was the Tank Stream. This stream has long ago disappeared, and is almost forgotten. But, small as it was, it was sufficient to determine the site for the city. Had fresh water been found in larger quantities at Manly or North Shore, or any other place in the harbor, the first settlement might have been there. However, the advantages of the many charming sites on the North Shore of Port Jackson were speedily recognised; and many residences were established there. At first these were only to be reached by watermen's skiffs and private rowing boats. But these were by no means sufficient for the requirements; and at an early date a steamer known as the Fairy Queen was introduced; and shortly afterward a sister boat, the Gypsy Queen, was obtained. These were among THE FIRST STEAMSHIPS, plying in the harbor; and compared with the fine ferry boats,now in use, they were queer look-ing little things. At first the service was very irregular; the boats only starting when there was a load for them. Mr. Milson, however, with four or five other gentlemen, formed a company to organise regular steam communica-tion; and the steamer Kirribilli was added to the fleet. The boats started at what would now be considered very long intervals; but the service was a great improvement on the intermittent service previously in force. In 1877 this com-pany was bought out by the present NORTH SHORE STEAM FERRY COMPANY; and as the population of "the Shore" in-creased fresh boats were added to the fleet; and the intervals between the times for starting were shortened. The company showed much enterprise; but it was not left entirely without opposition. More than once opposition companies were started; and these ran for a time. But they were unable to compete with the old company, and therefore died out. The effect of these oppositions was, however, to induce the company to lower the fares from time to time; and, finally, in 1888 it was resolved that a uniform charge of ONE PENNY PER TRIP should be made. This resolution came into effect on July 1 of that year. At the present time the company has no less than fourteen steamers running to Milson's and MacMahon's points, Lavender, Neutral, and Mosman's bays, and other portions of North Shore.

AT MILSON'S POINT, the principal landing place, a handsome arcade and waiting-room have been erected; a number of shops being let. The tower is a conspicuous object in the trip from Circular Quay to North Shore. On passing through the arcade the ground, formerly very rough and rocky, has been cut down and levelled, and a capital asphalt footpath leads from the arcade to the town. The cable tram-way starts from Milson's Point, and runs to the St. Leonards recreation ground, known as Tunks Park. About three miles from Milson's Point, and about one mile froth the tram terminus in Miller-street, is the terminus of the branch railway line from St. Leonards to Hornsby Junction, on the Homebush-Waratah railway line. The length of the branch line is 10 miles 42 chains. At Hornsby Junction the line is 592ft above high water mark, and at the ST. LEONARDS STATION 238ft, showing a drop of 354ft over the whole dis-tance. There are 39 gradients, varying from 1 in 50 to 1 in 440. There are 14 curves, varying from 15 to 160 chains radius; about 6 miles being straight. The cuttings were very heavy; no less than 693,000 cubic yards of earth having been removed from cuttings to embankments, or an average of 66,000 cubic yards per mile. Nearly the whole of the land required for the railway was resumed. There are eight stations or platforms between Hornsby and the St. Leonards terminus. 

The St. Leonards rail-way station (see our illustration) is situated close to the Lane Cove-road, which crosses the line on an overhead bridge a few feet from the water tank. The tank has a capacity of 10,000 gallons, and is supplied from the main on the Lane Cove road. The platform is 264ft long by from 12ft to 15ft wide. The buildings are substantially built of brick, and comprise a lamp and store room, a ticket office, a general waiting-room, and a ladies' waiting-room, with lavatory and other conveniences. A wide verandah runs along the principal portion of the building. At the rear a pathway has been formed fronting the road which runs from the station to the Lane Cove road. Near the tank, and facing the Lane Cove road, is a comfortable five-roomed cottage occupied by Mr. F. Willis (the stationmaster) and his wife. The contractor for the station, stationmaster's house, &c., was Mr. William Refschauge, who appears to have carried out his work in a most substantial man-ner. At the present time the buildings are being painted, and have a glaring, brand-new appear-ance. There are four trains running along the line per day; and the average number of pas-sengers booked at St. Leonards is said to be twenty-two. The North Shore, Sydney. (1890, February 15). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 27. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71107995

Along the Lane Cove Road (now Pacific Highway) to Gordon, Pymble, St Ives and then onto Mona Vale - a few extras:

Aptly designated 'Universal Providers' for all one's requirements are stocked in (his up-to-date establishment. Glancing at the magnitude of the premises a wrong impression that the store is somewhat premature for the district might easily be conjectured. On the contrary, although of such large proportions, .Messrs. Hamilton Brothers find the floor space inadequate for their large and increasing business. The building is a two-storied structure of brick, with large plate-glass windows, and has the latest improvements for facilitating the speedy handling of a big retail trade. Their carts deliver daily front Lindfield to Hornshy, and i In* (inn claim to be in this department right abreast of lite times, careful packers and drivers tire only employed, and disappointment to customers is unknown. The following are a few of the principle departments, of which large and varied stocks are carried (viz.). drapery, tools and shoes, grocery, crockery, ironmongery, and gardening implements, also produce. .Messrs. Hamilton Brothers have been established for lite past.... years, and it would he hard to predict what their colossal business will heroine within the next few years. They well deserve the popularity attained for they are courteous, obliging, and sell all their wares at Sydney prices.



HAMILTON BROTHERS PYMBLE. (1904, December 21). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1570. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164905627

Orchard Life Near Sydney.

(By "A City Cousin.")
(See illustrations on page 19.)

Sydney is for ever pushing out in all directions, elbowing all kinds of pleasant rural belongings out of the road, and replacing them with, villas, cottages, terraces, shops, etc. Yet the heart of the citizen turns longingly towards the country. He (talla 'himself that there peace da to be found, and possibly conjures up some pleasant dream of at length being able to sit under his own olive and fig, secure from the hurry and worry of the city, and tortured no more by its multitudinous noises. Sometimes the dream is realised in part, but. yaw true citizen, comes to find that his rural paradise is best when so situated that he can drop, without trouble or much delay, into the troublous city by the sea. How pleasant, then, must be the lot, I mused, of those whose lines are cast in such pleasant places. Think of the wide extent of orchard country near Sydney - only a matter of minutes' distance by rail from the heart of the city. And so I deter-mined to pay a visit to one of these spots-the one I selected as a type being on the North Shore line, which runs from Milson's Point on the harbor to Hornsby on the Northern line, 13 miles, but rising over 600ft in that distance.

The line from Milson's Point creeps round the picturesque bays and points, under the tunnels and bridges, continually giving glimpses of charming scenery, wide, sparkling water, distant, stately Sydney, moving ships, and panoramas of curving inlets and rugged headlands. On the train speeds, past new townships, with their fringe of tent dwellers and patched shanties, on to reaches of real bush, where luxuriant trees line the way, and scent the air with their sweet, aromatic leaves. Every few miles the red roofs of modern life glint through the trees, and old white cottages, half hidden in creepers, gleam through their wide orchards, some of them so old that they are moss-grown and broken down. About twelve miles from the Point the country becomes really sylvan, orchards crown the hills, and slope into the valleys, their golden, green, and ruddy fruit shining like jewels amid the varied verdure. Pymble possesses a fine situation, over 300ft above sea level, also a grand view over the vales and undulating hills to distant Sydney and outlying districts. A great advantage of this district is its nearness to the city, for the fruit gets only one handling. All this country side is very prolific, and there should be a great future for it.

The three-mile walk to Vernon Park, St. Ives, is pleasant enough, passing by quaint little cottages, tempting fruit trees leaning over the fencer, shady trees and gullies, and friendly people who greet the stranger pleasantly. The red dust and mosquitoes are to the fore, but the fresh, bracing air makes you forget such inconveniences. The creeper-clad homestead soon comes into view, lying behind an avenue of fine fir trees, tossing their tassels in the breeze, and surrounded by many acres of fine orchard. It is a pleasant situation, facing the east, receiving all the benefit of the early sun. It was a busy day when I arrived, but Mrs. X., who lives here, was glad to show her orchard. The 'summer fruit was in season, and the trees were laden, but not borne down to the ground. "You see," said the manager, "we are willing to throw away half the green fruit, if by so doing we can get a crop of extra fine fruit. See," and he plucked off many of what I thought, good peaches and threw them away, leaving a few dozen on the young tree in place of many.

The trees in this orchard are very well looked after, carefully manured with modern compounds, and the soil always kept just as they like it.

"Only seventeen years ago," said my friend, "this was a howling wilderness of big bush trees, but we grubbed them up, and loosened the soil 18in deep, and planted our oranges, etc., a little later. I have tried all kinds of experiments, some good and some bad, but now they are repaying me admirably, and go on giving, like the goose that laid the golden egg-I hope they will go on for ever, even if the other trees die."

"How many oranges does a tree bear on an average?"

"Well, on an average, about four cases a piece; of course, I have some trees which have given me about ten cases each. They bear nothing good until they are six years old, and in their old age they are better than ever," 

"When picking the oranges and lemons, do you scrub them to clean them for market?"

"Never, now; that is the old way. The sprayer does all that work."

I saw the sprayer at work-a simple thing, but it saves an infinite amount of trouble, for scrubbing a box of oranges is by no means a quick job. The lemon and orange trees suffer : from scale, Maori, and black spot; apples from Codlin moth and, aphis; pears from Codlin moth; peach trees from aphis; nectarines, from aphis; while plums and figs are almost free from pests. I looked at the strawberries, and thought they ought to pay well. It looks a nice easy crop to grow, but it needs à very great amount , of care and experience. I noticed there were many varieties of the one kind of fruit; the manager,'told me that it was the best plan to have forty trees of the same fruit, so that, in the sorting you -could, be sure of filling so many: cases with equal sizes. "Windfalls and small fruit ;bring in a fair sum; they sell easily and cheaply. 

" I should think, an orchard like this ought to bring in a good profit?"

"Well, we have a margin, that is all, a fair margin. For the first ten years it is give, give, and after that the margin increases a trifle every year, till about now it is fair, very fair indeed; but working expenses are great, and storms an 1 rain do a lot of harm, while careless packing and picking also lessen profits. An apricot tree takes seven years to mature, and then gives about 180 dozen fruit; a peach tree takes three years to grow up, and at five years, when thinned, bears of big peaches two half-cases, about 14 dozen; plum trees take five years to produce a good crop, about 180 dozen; pears are not worth having-until seven years old, when a good tree gives 120 pears; apples at five .years of age give of . baking apples 66 dozen, of eating apples 192 dozen; nectarine ¡trees average about double the crop of peaches; lemon trees the same as oranges. A favorite fruit is the persimmon.

I spent a pleasant day- fruit-picking. Early in the day, when the birds began to sing, as the sun rose over the dewy garden land, we went into the orchard, with wide hats like baby tents, and deep hoods to keep the Inquisitive sun in, his place, and baskets, not to mention big aprons to hold the fruit in as it was plucked. I wonder why apples, etc., never taste so good as _when you pick them yourself, even four hours later at market they taste stale. It was a pretty picture, standing under the trees, watching the fruit being gathered and thrown into wide aprons, and the boys clambering like monkeys from branch to branch, while the sunlight flickered on the red cheeked apples. The fruit is carried up on a hand-barrow, so that it is not shaken and bruised, for the least touch bruises it unmercifully. The hand-barrow is Just like a stretcher, and. looks primitive, but nothing modern is more effective.

I wondered at so much unripe fruit being picked, but was told that the birds destroy it, even when nets are provided, and sudden storms are very destructive; also if ripe fruit is packed it often rots at once. Persimmons are always picked before they are quite ripe, and take, about a fortnight to ripen. I spent a few hours in the packing room, watching the work. The amount of sorting:, grading, and packing makes you wonder fruit is so cheap. There are partitions where the fruit is sorted into equal sizes, and very carefully looked over to see that they, are perfect. The moth is a curse, for it leaves no external sign, and many perfect specimens are "rotten at the core." At last the work is done, the boxes are corded and stencilled, the cart is laden, and ere daybreak will wend it-3 picturesque but weary three-hour drive to the Darling Harbor market.

Pure-bred or high-grade stock, if given good care and feed, respond by making an extra growth, while scrub stock has not been bred with a view to quick maturity, and will not grow beyond a certain point,.no matter how well-kept.

In breeding the motto, "Six good, thrifty pigs to a sow are better than a dozen-half of which are runts," is a good one to follow. Every sow is not a good mother, aud does not prove a good milker; There is just as much difference as there is in cows. Little pigs must be fed well to grow fast; a slow growth brings poor returns.

1. Picking fruit in the orchard. 2. A city cousin lends a helping hand. 3. Wheeling the fruit to the packing-house. 4. Ploughing the orchard. 5. Spraying the trees. 6. Carrying the fruit on a hand-barrow. 7. Scarifying the ground between the trees. 8. A view of the homestead.

(See letterpress In the Cultivator page 23.) Orchard Life Near Sydney. (1898, March 26). Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 19. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71284603

Lane Cove Road at Turramurra ca.1910. Broadhurst postcard, courtesy State Library of NSW


Proposal to Declare a portion of the Shire of Ku-ring-gai to be a Residential District.

IT is hereby notified that the Ku-ring-gai Shire Council has applied to the Governor (a) to declare the portion of the Shire described in the Schedule hereto to be a Residential District, and to prohibit in such district (1) the erection of any building for use for the purposes of any trade, industry, manufacture, shop, or place of public amusement; (2} the use of any building for any such purposes; and (3) the erection or use of advertisement hoardings; and (b) to abolish the Residential Districts proclaimed by Proclamations in Government Gazettes Nos. 155 and 20 of 3rd November, 1922, and, 16th February, 1923, respectively.

Any person interested may, within one month from the date of this notice, make representations to the Minister in favour of or against the proposal, [L-G. 1924-134-717-196]



Department of Local Government,

Sydney, 8th February, 1924.


The whole of the Shire of Ku-ring-gai with the exception of the following lands: —

(a) The public park known as "Ku-ring-gai Chase."

(b) Public reserves under the Council's control as owner or trustee, viz.:—

Roseville Chase; Davidson Park; Roseville Park; West Roseville Park; Children's Playground. Roseville; Lindfiold Park; Killara Park; Gordon Recreation Ground; East Gordon Park; Pymble Park; Soldiers' Memorial Park, Pymble; Hassall Park, St. Ives; Turramurra Park; Turramurra Look-out; and Wahroonga Park.

(c) Those lands having frontage to the following roads: — 


Lane Cove road—South-westerly side." From Corona-avenue to Shirley-road, and shop

at corner of Grosvenor-road. Northeasterly ' side, from Boundary-street to Clanville-road.

Hill-street—North-easterly side, from Bancroft-avenue to Roseville-avenue, to a depth generally as far as the depth from Hill-street to Roberts-lane. Clive-street—Both sides.

Archbold-road—North-easterly side. From Carnarvon-road to Woodlands-road.

Middle Harbour—Lots 113 to 120 inclusive in Austin Chapman's subdivision, Lindfield'—

Lane Cove road—South-westerly side, from Gladstone-parade to Fidden's Wharf road, North-easterly side, from Middle Harbour road to Wolseley-road. Lindfield-avenue—North-easterly side, from Tryon-road to Woodside-a venue. Tryon-road—South-easterly side, from Lane Cove road to railway. Sydney-road—-North-easterly tide, from Brisbane-avenue "to Tryon-road.

Killara— .

Lane Cove road—Existing shops on lot 10, Killara Estate, lot 4, sec. 2, Taranna Estate, lots* 1 and 2, resubdivision of lot ]. Teranna Estate. Lots 8 and 9 and 10, sec. 1, Great Northern Township Estate. Marian-street Existing shops on north-westerly side—Lots 31 and 32, sec. 2, Springdale Estate. South-easterly side—lot 27, sec. 2, Springdale Estate.

Telita-avenue—-South-westerly side, from Marian-street to Lorne-avenue. Gordon—

Lane Cove road—North-easterly side, Greengate Hotel, North-easterly side, from Fox-street to Pittwater-road. South westerly side, from St. John's road to Ryde-road.

Fox-street—Both sides. Henry-street—South-westerly side, from Fox street to Pridham's (inclusive), John-street—North-easterly side from Khartoum-avenue to Gordon Recreation Ground.


Lane Cove road—South-westerly side, from Livingstone-avenue to Pymble Hotel (in/ elusive). North-easterly side, from Post Office to Bannockburn-road. Grandview-road—North-easterly side, from Station-street to Post Office street. 

St. Ives—

Pittwater-road—North-westerly side, from Cowan-road lo Rosedale-road. Southeasterly side, from Rosedale-road to Stanley-street.


Lane Cove road—Southern side, from Railway Bridge to Duff-street. Northern side, from Ku-ring-gai Chase avenue to and including corner block (lot 7, Arcadia Estate) on west side of Ray-street. Rohini-street—North-easterly side, from Lane Cove road to Eastern-road. Bay-street—East side, from Lane Cove road to William-street. Eastern-road—East side, from Alice-street to bridge opposite Gordon-lane. William-street—South-westerly side, from Lane Cove road to Rav-street. Ku-ring-gai Chase road—Both sides for 5

chains each way from King-street. 

Warrawee— ,

Fox Valley road—North-westerly side, from Strone-avenue to Sanitarium. Portions 29 and 30. Lane Cove road—South-westerly side, from Marshall-avenue to approximately 3 chains south from Blytheswood-avenue. 


Lane Cove road—North side, from Coonanbarra-road- to Isis-street. Coonanbarra-road -East side, from Lane Cove road to Railway. West side, from Millewa-avenue to Woniorn-avenue. Railway-avenue—Both sides, from Coonan barra-road to Railway Bridge. Stuart-street—South side—one existing shop at corner of Railway-avenue.

Warwilla-avenue—South-westerly side, from Coonanbarra-road to Neringah-avenue.

Gladvs-avenue—Both sides, from Hampden avenue to Westbrow-avenue. 1[4494]

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT, 1919. (1924, February 8). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 900. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223594240 


THE WORK IN PROGRESS NEAR THE GORE HILL CEMETERY. The road will be widened between St. Leonards Station and Longueville.

A STRIP OF LAND 18FT WIDE HAS BEEN ACQUIRED. The width of the new roadway will be increased to 58ft

WIDENING AND RECONSTRUCTING THE LANE COVE-ROAD. (1927, June 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16383865 


1. On the Narrabeen Lagoon. 2. View from Sheepstation Hill, looking south. 3. Bay View. 4. a dip in the surf at Narrabeen. 5. Near Long Reef. 6. Approaching Narrabeen. 7. One of the creeks.

The distance from Manly to Bay View is about 15 miles. The road is by the Narrabeen-road past Rocklily. A proposal to put down a tram line is now being considered, and a member of the ministry was recently driven over the country, which in many parts is remarkably picturesque.

1. On the Narrabeen Lagoon. 

2. View from Sheepstation Hill, looking south. 

3. Bay View. 

4. A dip in the surf at Narrabeen. 

5. Near Long Reef. 

6. Approaching Narrabeen. 

7. One of the creeks.

MANLY TO BAY VIEW—A POPULAR EASTER RESORT BY ROAD. (1900, April 14). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 878. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165297416

Image No.: c071950005 Box 17, Albums of William Joseph Macpherson - Bay View, courtesy State Library of NSW and Macpherson Family.

NB: these are photographs by William Joseph Macpherson (Wharriewood - Warriewood) - visit:  The Macphersons of Wharriewood and Narrabeen: the photo albums of William Joseph Macpherson

That's right Readers - Roads IN Pittwater are next!

Roads To Pittwater: The Mona Vale Road - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2018, modified 2024