April 23 - 29, 2017: Issue 309

Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space and of many captains

Panorama of Clifton Gardens, Mosman, New South Wales [picture] / EB Studios - Created/Published between 1917 and 1946 - nla.obj-162267250-1
And enlarged sections of to show detail:
Just two days after the First Fleet anchored in Sydney Cove, Captain Hunter, in a longboat, commenced a survey of the harbour, going first at what was to become known as Mosman (Mossman's) Bay. 

At the landing place known by the name of Koree by the original inhabitants, later Chowder Bay, Lieutenant William Bradley recorded:
"...We observed some women at the place the men came down from, they would not come near us, but peep'd from behind the rocks and trees. when the Boats put off, the Men began dancing and laughing and when we were far enough off to bring the place the Women were in sight, they held their arms extended over their heads, got on their legs and danced until we were some distance, then followed us upon the rocks as far as the boats went along that shore."

The name 'Chowder' for the bay is attributed both to American whalers using the place in the early 1800's and to Captain Edmund Cliffe who brought the name with him from India:

No. 12. Chowder Bay

A few years ago the name of Chowder Bay brought to one's mind a vision of bell-bottomed trousers and ladies who were called "donahs," The "Chowder Dip", could only be seen at its best when these ladies and gentlemen disported themselves there on holidays, and the fact that the day inevitably ended in a free fight added only a spice to the holiday. But these glories have all departed, and under its new name of Clifton Gardens the district is the home of respectability. Various reasons have been assigned for the name ma of the bay, the most popular being that it is derived from that American delicacy called "chowder," but this is not correct. In 1832 an estate on the foreshores was bought by E. H. Cliffe, who had made six voyages between Port Jackson and the East Indies as chief officer of a Vessel. Writing from the estate, he gave his address as "Chouder Bay ". “Chouder " has a breath of the Indies in it and probably it was associated with some place or incident in Mr. Cliffe's East Indian career. Advertising (1925, August 7). The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 8 (FINAL EXTRA). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223733287 

The salubrious qualities of the valley were recognised by Thomas Graham in 1928. Graham, a Scottish free settler employed by Government Botanist Charles Fraser as an assistant, was granted land where he set up a fishery and orchard:

A vineyard is likely to be established at  Sirius Cove, we understand, on the Cape of Good Hope plan. 
Mr. Graham, who holds land at Chouder Bay, has established a small fishery there, which at present meets his most sanguine expectations. 
We are informed that the harmless Cricket Club, recently got up in Sydney, have been civilly ejected from the Govt.  paddock on t'other side of the turnpike,  by a letter missive from a certain subject "dressed in a little brief authority," requesting the cricketters would not make that field the arena of their amusements, Pitiful - pitiful. No title (1829, October 21). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36866472 

Sydney News.
Mr. Graham's fishery, at Chowder Bay, appears to justify the most sanguine  expectations of the proprietor. A lad may be observed every morning with a basket full of fine fresh fish, hooked at Chowder, which brings in the ready penny. Sydney News. (1830, March 5). Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8644947 

Chowder Bay has been very tastefully fitted up by the proprietor, Mr. Graham, and is well worth a trip to inspect it. Domestic Intelligence. (1831, June 20).The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12843174 

DIED.—Suddenly at Parramatta, on the 22nd Inst. Mr. Charles Frazer, for many years Superintendent of the Government Garden, Sydney. Family Notices (1831, December 26). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12843880

DEATH. The friends of Mr. Frazer have transmitted us the following notice of his death :—
On the 22nd instant departed this life Charles Frazer, Esq. Colonial Botanist. This gentleman arrived in these Colonies many years since, a private in His Majesty's 73rd Regiment, and rose rapidly through his scientific acquirements, self-attained, the urbanity of his manners, and his universal and unremitting benevolence not only to the respectable post which he held at the time of his decease, but to a possession of the full esteem and regard of every individual of his extensive connection of friends and acquaintance. 
He advanced the cause of science by numerous discoveries in his profession, and his extensive scientific correspondence has left behind him a lasting monument of his talents and taste in the beautiful gardens, for which, from their extensive utility, the whole Australian Public are indebted, but the Public of Sydney in a particular manner: not to mention the roads and walks of the Domain, the last work of his planning, and which might vie in every respect, with almost any other work of a similar description. Family Notices (1831, December 31). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (AFTERNOON). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32076587

Within weeks of Thomas Graham succeeding to Mr. Frazer's position the property was offered for sale, seemingly to satisfy a creditor. The sale notice grants us an insight into what had been established on the acreage and perhaps why it was:

We understand that Mr. Graham, of Chowder Bay, who was formerly attached for some years to the Government Garden, has been appointed Botanist, in the room of the deceased Charles Frazier, Esq. DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. (1832, January 9). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12843922 

CHOUDER BAY. Fifteen Acres of Land, within three quarters of an hour's drive of Sydney ; or four miles by Water Carriage. Choice Garden. House and Cellars. Huts &c. now let to a respectable tenant at £42 per annum. BY MR.. BODENHAM, ON THURSDAY the 16th Instant, at One o'clock precisely, opposite POLACKS London Tavern. MR. BODENHAM respectfully begs leave to notify, that he is instructed to sell without reserve, all that beautifully situated property called, CHOUDER BAY, which for the beauties of Marine scenery, health, and the purpose of sea air and bathing, cannot be surpassed. 
The selection of this particular Estate was made by Mr. GRAHAM, Assistant Botanical Gardener with the late Mr. FRASER, for the purpose of forming an Establishment as an Hotel, for the reception of persons as Invalids, or others desirous of pursuing the pleasures of sporting or fishing, and to prosecute his own particular study in Botanical pursuits ; for which purpose, from four to five Acres have been brought into a high state of cultivation, and an immense variety of the undermentioned choice fruit trees have been carefully selected, pruned, and cultivated ; to say ; the green gage, citron, nectarine, apple, pear, cherry, mulberry, plum, olive, apricot, and peach, with a variety of others ; also a young Nursery has been begun. 
The buildings at present erected, consist of a sitting room and bed room, with under-ground cellars, huts, and detached out-offices. Persons who are acquainted with the delights of a party at "Chouder, " will not require any recommendation to purchase this Property, provided they have a spare Capital. There is also a never failing supply of the purest water. The views of Point Piper, Vaucluse, and other objects of interest, render this abode at all times cheerful and agreeable. The Purchaser to pay his own conveyance. TERMS OF PAYMENT - -£250 may remain upon mortgage for such a period as may be agreed upon. The residue of the purchase money, except a deposit of 10 per Cent upon the whole purchase-money, to be paid in Cash; at 6, and 9 months without interest, upon approved endorsed bills. Capitalists and others would find this an agreeable trip of inspection. Advertising (1832, February 1). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (AFTERNOON). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32076821 

In the Supreme Court.
Sheriff's Office, May 30, 1832.
Jenkins v. Graham.
ON Thursday, the 7th June, (this day), at One o'Clock, in George-street, the Sheriff will cause to be sold, all the right, title, interest, and estate of Defendant, in and to all that piece of parcel of land situated at Chouder Bay, on the North Shore, about 7 miles from Sydney. This property has been divided into seven allotments to suit purchasers ; and a plan it to be seen at the Sheriff's Office; unless this execution be previously satisfied in the Supreme Court. Advertising (1832, June 7). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12844658 

The Chowder Bay Estate will be brought to the hammer in seven allotments. DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. (1832, May 28). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12844574 

The property sold for £326 to Captain Edmund Harrison Cliffe and in this gentleman's exploits, as the owner of the whaler Lady Wellington, and having convicts assigned to him, we touch upon the toughness of life for those who were transported in the first fifty years to the colony surrounding Port Jackson and also the wholesale slaughter of whales that was taking place. He had been coming and going to the port for a while. NB: Spelling of 'Cliffe' as 'Cliff' on some occasions. It would also be good to take into account this gentleman was born in 1797 when looking at what he was doing at his age. It is also good to note that he arrived days prior to this property being sold, with his first wife Jane Cliffe aboard the Lady Wellington in April 1832:

MR. EDMUND CLIFFE, First Officer of the Brig Haldane, leaving the Colony in said Vessel, desires Claims to be immediately presented.Classified Advertising (1820, April 8). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2179376

MR. EDMUND CLIFF, Chief Officer of the Brig Haldane, leaving the Colony in said Vessel, requests that all Claims may be presented. Classified Advertising (1821, January 20). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2180018

CAPTAIN ORMAN, of the Ship John Bull, leaving the Colony, requests all Claims to be presented.  Mr. E. H. CLIFFE, First Officer of the Ship John Bull, leaving the Colony, requests all Claims to be presented. Classified Advertising (1822, January 25). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2180772

CAPTAIN CLIFFE, of the Brig Phoenix, leaving the Colony in said Vessel, Claims to be presented at Mr. A. B. Spark's, No. 11,George-street. Classified Advertising (1824, May 13). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2182879

Captain Cliffe, described when he passed away as an upstanding Christian gentleman, was also a large and rapid acquirer of lands and land grants - including extensive runs in Molonglo. Coming to Australia bringing goods to sell on speculation and soon afterwards becoming quite well off land-wise, shows how quickly those who were brave enough to put to sea could benefit from making the perilous journeys required.

The early history of Chowder Bay by these sea-faring men also shows a run of captains and relationships between these that overlap in ownership and custodianship as well as some links, through these Masters of Vessels, with Pittwater.

When the brig Argo left the Isle of France, The Industry, consigned to Cooper and Lovey, together with the Guide, Captain Ashmore, and another brig, commanded by Captain Cliff, all laden with sugar, the two last on speculation, were about to sail for this port. ADVANCE AUSTRALIA SYDNEY GAZETTE AND NEW SOUTH WALES ADVERTISER. (1830, April 6). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2194842 

On Friday, the 14th Instant, 'at 11 o'.Clock, without Reserve, at the Residence of Mrs. HARWOOD, Underwood’s Buildings, George-street, near the King's Wharf, the Property of Captain CLIFF, 
A great Variety of bandanas; silk, satin, white, and coloured gauze dresses, variegated and other scarfs, silk-and other handkerchiefs, parasol handles, bundles, of sewing silk, bone dice, bundles of silk windows, fans, driving books, boxes of colours, glass beads, bundles of rouge, combs, umbrellas, black saranot, iiguied silks of colours, camblet, silk stockings, chocked, white silk, and other coloured handkerchiefs, white and blue grass cloth, blue nankeens, blue and white nankeen trowsers, lute-strings, men’s and ladies' shoes, spices, &c. etc. f ,  Terms made known at the Time of Sale. Classified Advertising (1830, May 11). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2195102 

COLONIAL SALT MEAT.—Good news pours in upon us so rapidly, that we are in some danger of becoming " daft."
Our readers will remember, that Captain CLIFF, supercargo of the Roslyn Castle, took to the Isle of France, some months ago, a large adventure of colonial produce, consisting chiefly of cheese and salt meat. A letter has just been received on the subject, from a gentleman of high respectability at that Island, who, having no interest whatever in that branch of trade, but possessing the best opportunities of forming a correct judgment, may be relied upon as a sure authority. 
The following is an extract :—
" You will become one of the great store-houses of nature in this hemisphere, if you continue in such rapid progress. Already your beef, and cheese, and bacon BEAT ALL OTHER OUT OF OUR MARKET. The Cape and Madagascar cannot compete with you at all for quality. If you continue such supplies, and I see nothing to prevent it, we shall have a more constant intercourse than has yet prevailed."
This is capital—just what we wanted. It has arrived, too, at the right moment to stir up our holders of stock to prepare for the approaching salting season. They must all be busy—as busy as bees. Let them begin immediately to provide them-selves with casks—good salt—and everything necessary for curing on a large and systematic scale. They may depend upon it they will find a market for all the meat they can cure, and if they do them- selves justice, their property will rise in value, and the provision-trade become an important branch of Australian commerce. MORE GOOD NEWS AGAIN. (1831, February 24). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2199236 

Jane Cliffe returns aboard the Lady Wellington, stopping in Hobart Town before proceeding north:
Arrived, on Thursday, the 25th instant, the brig Lady Wellington, 196 tons. Capt.Cliffe, from London 6th January, with a general cargo. Passengers; Mrs. Cliffe, Mr. Ludgator, Mr. and Mrs. Palmer, Mr. Parker. Van Diemen's Land News. (1832, May 12). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2206515

Passengers per Lady Wellington, Captain Cliffe, Mrs. Cliffe, Mr. and Mrs. Webb, Miss Catherine Gorman, Messrs. G. Wilson, S. Jackson, G. S.Davidson, and W. Clarence. SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE. (1832, May 28). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12844575

Jane Cliffe (nee Forbes) passed away in 1932, aged 32, born 1899. A child is listed in New South Wales Births, Deaths, Marriages records as a 'Jane A Cliffe' - infant, who someone lost in 1824 - whether this was a daughter of the couple is uncertain. A 'Mr. and Mrs. Cliffe wishing to settle outstanding debts due to 'leaving the colony at earliest instance' also appears among the 1820 listings for Cliffe's leaving via ships though - in 1923.

NSW State Records list her as a convict and her date of death as the 12th of September, 1932. Reverend R Hill, Richard Hill, who would be the gentleman officiating at Captain Cliffe's second marriage, St. James church, Sydney, registered her death.

On July 30th and again in August 1832 Captain Cliffe's crew are part of a Regatta and whaleboat rowing contest - see under 'Extras'.

732. Chandler Mary, Burrell, farm-house servant, to E. H. Cliffe, Sydney. LIST OF FEMALE CONVICTS ASSIGNED DURING THE MONTH OF MAY, 1832. (1832, October 24). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 358. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230389216

2746. Dickenson Daniel, Lady Harewood, stock-man, to E. H. Cliffe, Chouder Bay. NEW SOUTH WALES. (1832, November 28). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 421. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230389363

On Wednesday night Capt. Cliff was thrown from his horse on the South Head, but without sustaining any injury. The animal took to the bush and has not since been found. SAVING'S BANK. (1832, December 10). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12845881

4527. Dunn Patrick, Dunvegan Cattle, farm labourer, to E. H. Cliffe, Sydney NEW SOUTH WALES. (1832, December 19). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 471. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230389500

On THURSDAY, the 24th instant, at One o’clock, at the London Tavern,
George-street, Sydney.
 AN excellent and very extensive ALLOTMENT of GROUND, situate in the Surry Hills, adjoining the properties of Mesrs. Chisholm , Cooper, and Captain Cliffe.
This allotment admeasures 82 feet in front, and 318 in depth, thus affording ample room for a large house, yard, and out-houses, with a spacious garden in the rear ; the soil is well calculated for brickmaking, and for one stool only is worth £30 per annum ; water is found in abundance at a short depth.
TERMS OFL PAYMENT-'Twenty. Five per cent. deposit ; and 3 and 6 months' bills for the residue. Advertising (1833, January 16). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (AFTERNOON). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32142896 

The Lady Wellington as soon as she has completed her discharge, will again proceed to the sperm fishery, under the command of her owner, Captain Cliff. DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. (1833, August 1). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12847383 

SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE.--The brig Lady Wellington, Captain Cliff, has completed her Stores and water, and will sail for the whaling grounds in the course of the week.
The colonial-built whaler Governor Bourke, Captain Powell, has hauled into the stream, preparatory to her proceeding on her first trip. The Tamar, Captain Northwood, has also nearly completed her stores, and will sail for the fishery in the course of the week.   ADVANCE AUSTRALIA Sydney Gazette. (1833, September 10). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2213818 

James Ward and Benjamin Grimshaw, in the service of Captain Cliff, at Chowder Bay, were put to the bar under the following circumstances :
—Captain Cliff deposed, that having occasion to visit Sydney he secured the house, leaving the prisoner Grimshaw in charge of the kitchen; the prisoner Ward was employed in the garden, having charge of two other assigned servants, who were working under his directions. On his return in the evening, he discovered that the bed-room window was open, the sash being supported by a piece of wood, and suspecting that something wrong had been going forward, he hastened to the kitchen and found the two prisoners lying drunk; on asking the old man Grimshaw how the window was thrown up, he said the dog must have done it. On examining the house everything appeared in the greatest confusion, the drawers, trunks, &c. had been forced open as if the strictest search had been made for money. Witness immediately sent a message to Colonel Wilson, who dispatched Constable Orr. On examining the prisoner Ward, a variety of articles were found on his person which were identified by Captain Cliff, and in the kitchen two bottles of rum were found secreted. The prisoners were remanded for the evidence of a free carpenter, who was employed on the premises, and who saw the prisoner Grimshaw force an entry into the cellar. During the investigation, Grimshaw who is very far advanced in years fainted at the bar and was carried out into the air, where in a few minutes he recovered. 
This gentleman was robbed to a very considerable amount a short time ago, no doubt by the agency of his servants. The parties were again brought up on Friday, last and committed for trial. POLICE INCIDENTS. (1835, March 9). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12851640 

SUPREME COURT, Criminal Side.
(Before His Honor Mr. Justice Dowling, and a Civil Jury.)
John Ward and William Grimshaw stood charged with robbing one Edmund Harrison Cliffe, residing at Chowder Bay, of one one-pound note, a gold ring, a silver pencil-case, and a quantity of silver money and other articles.
Captain Cliffe deposed that that he left his house on the 2d of March, for the purpose of proceeding to Sydney, and left the prisoners in charge of his house; that when he returned he found the house broken open, and a variety of spirits and other things stolen therefrom, and the two prisoners drunk ; that when he went away he secured his house and left the prisoners in the kitchen; he found, on his return, a window broken open, and evidently an entry had been made, as he found his chest of drawers open, and a variety of articles stolen therefrom, many of which articles were found in the prisoners' hut ; the value of the property stolen was about £10.
Conductor O'Dowd deposed that he went over to Chowder Bay, where he found the prisoners locked up in a cellar; he searched them, and found a one-pound note, some silver, and other articles in their possession, the property of Captain Cliffe.
Charles Evans, a carpenter, deposed that he was a carpenter working at Captain Cliffe's on the 2d March; I went into the kitchen, about one o'clock, and saw the prisoners there; shortly afterwards I saw Grimshaw coming out of the cellar with a jug which seemed to have something in it ; Ward asked me to have some grog ; he was in the kitchen;
Grimshaw was standing alongside of him; I had some grog with them; Ward showed me some silver and a pound note, which he pulled out of his pocket, and asked me if that was good money ; I told him it was ; I got nothing from them but the rum, which I supposed came out of the cellar, as I saw Grimshaw coming from there; I remained in their company till dinner time, which was about three o'clock ; we were drinking nearly all the time, and were very jolly ; I then left them ; Grimshaw was in the kitchen when I went away; when Mr. Cliffe came home the two prisoners were in the kitchen; he asked me if I knew where the men had got the liquor from; I told him all I knew about the circumstance, except my drinking with them; I did not tell him that.
Richard Smith sworn—I am assigned to Mr. Castles of George-street ; I remember the 2d of March last; I was then at work in the garden at Chowder Bay; I was lent to Mr. Cliffe, and had my dinner in the kitchen; before I had my dinner Grimshaw gave me a glass of hot grog ; the cook said he must have some wood, as the captain was going to have some friends to dinner that day ; I was ordered to get some wood, and had another glass of rum given me to fetch it; when captain Cliffe came home he sent for a constable, and in the mean time I found two bottles of rum in the cook's range, in a copper, covered up; in searching Grimshaw's small bag I found two silver tea-spoons, which I gave to captain Cliffe, who claimed them as his property; on a shelf in the kitchen, where the dishes were, I found two more silver spoons, which I gave to captain Cliffe.
Cross-examined by Ward—I remember the day you were working with me in the garden; when I returned I do not remember saying any thing to you about grog; you did not leave the garden till I went home to dinner with you; Grimshaw gave me the grog ; I do not know any thing more, as you ordered me to go and fetch some wood.
This closed the case for the prosecution.
Captain Cliffe was put into the box at the request of the prisoner, Ward, and gave him a most unexceptionable character; and stated that he considered Ward was led into the robbery at the instigation of Grimshaw, who gave him the liquor.
This closed the case.
The learned Judge then summed up the evidence, and left it in the hands of the Jury, who returned a verdict of Guilty against both the prisoners.
His Honor then ordered sentence of death to be recorded against the prisoners. SUPREME COURT, Criminal Side. (1835, May 5). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2198058 

James Ward and Benjamin Grimshaw, stood indicted for stealing in the dwelling house of E. H. Cliff, Esq.; of Chowder Bay on the 6th of March last. The prisoners were in the service of Mr. Cliff, and took; advantage of his absence to Sydney, to plunder the house. The jury found them both guilty, sentence of death recorded against them. LAW INTELLIGENCE. (1835, May 5). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42004773 

From where we stand and live such grim pronouncements are appalling, especially if you take into account all those others hanged in 1835 for murder or assault or even murdering people while bushrangering. A reading of those hanged in Sydney during the period from 1788 to 1835 shows many were hanged for stealing, just as many had been transported for stealing - sometimes for seemingly frivolous things such as lace or a scrap of material, sometimes for things as necessary as bread. 

The first person hanged, Thomas Barrett, on 27 February 1788, was publicly hanged at Sydney Cove for stealing or conspiring to steal from government stores. In fact it is October 16th 1794 before anyone is hanged for anything other than theft and on this occasion John Hill was hanged at Sydney for murder in the course of robbery. He had fatally stabbed Simon Burn in the left side of the chest at Parramatta. Given the then law, why would anyone steal? - They were bound to be caught, being convicts restricted to one place, and must have known something about all those who had already been executed for theft.

The judgment seems surreal in view of this announcement, published both here and in London, although clearly the gentleman wished for all that many want from living a life:

On the 12th instant, by special license at St. James's Church, by the Reverend Richard Hill, Captain E. H. Cliffe, of Chouder [Chowder] Bay, to Miss Julia Talbut, only daughter of William Talbut, Esq., Old Broad-street, London. Family Notices (1835, May 14). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12852150 

Captain Cliffe stayed ashore after this marriage, partly perhaps, as we soon find out, he was rather ill and bent on building up his resources while he could:

Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 19th May, 1834.
AT Eleven o'Clock of Wednesday, the 9th day of September next, the Collector of Internal Revenue will put up to Auction, at the George-street Market Building, Letter C, the undermentioned PORTIONS of LAND, on the condition authorised by Government.
Further information respecting the Allotments may be obtained from the Surveyor-General, and respecting the conditions, from the Collector of Internal Revenue.
4 Cumberland, Lane Cove, near the Fig Tree, Thirty acres. Applied for by E. H. Cliffe. Price 10s per acre
5 Cumberland, Lane Cove, near the Fig Tree Thirty acres. Applied for by E. H. Cliffe, Price 10 s per acre
6. Cumberland, Lane Cove, near the Fig Tree, Thirty acres. Applied for by E. H Cliffe. Price 10s per acre  
Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney,19th May, 1834. 
SALE OF LAND. (1835, May 23). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2198279 

Sale of Land ….Cumberland.-60 acres, by E. H. Cliffe and W. Duncan. Advertising (1835, May 28). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31716545 

ONE or more HOUSES situate in Cumberland Street. Immediately behind the Custom House, commanding an extensive view of the Harbour and Government Domain. Those Houses contain Four Rooms, independent of Kitchen and Store Room, with back entrance to each, and are all well supplied with water. Apply to Robert Anderson, Esq., George Street, or to  E. H. CLIFFE. Sydney. June 18, 1835. Advertising (1835, July 2). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31716659 

In the race last week between Captain Finnis's gig, ' Challenger' and Capt. Cliffe's whale-boat, Black Diamond, the former was the winner by between two and three hundred yards; the vanquished is however, it is said, about to take up the cudgels once more with a different crew. Domestic and Miscellaneous Intelligence. (1835, November 27). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36854264 

"Reports from the 23rd. to the 30th ult. inclusive.
January 25-LADY WELLINGTON, (brig) 196 tons, Cooper, master, from the Sperm FisheryCaptain Cliffe, agent; 700 barrels sperm oil, Capt. Cliffe.  SYDNEY GENERAL TRADE LIST. (1836, February 3). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 2 (MORNING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32150654 

This volume of 'sperm oil', from sperm whales, equates to around 35 whales per statistics that state the whalers garnered 20 to 45 barrels of oil from each whale. What needs to be taken into account here though is they were hunting sperm whales for the spermaceti oil in the mammals head and in that equation the range drops to around 6 to 8 barrels of oil per whale or 88 whole whales. The blubber was collected too but was considered of a lesser quality than that taken from the mammals head. [1]

The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), or cachalot, is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter, and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia.

From the early eighteenth century through the late 20th, the species was a prime target of whalers. The head of the whale contains a liquid wax called spermaceti, from which the whale derives its name. Spermaceti was used in lubricants, oil lamps, and candles. Ambergris, a waste product from its digestive system, is still used as a fixative in perfumes. Occasionally the sperm whale's great size allowed it to defend itself effectively against whalers. The species is now protected by a whaling moratorium, and is currently listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).

A mother sperm whale and her calf off the coast of Mauritius. Photo courtesy Gabriel Barathieu

Mature males average 16 metres (52 ft) in length but some may reach 20.5 metres (67 ft), with the head representing up to one-third of the animal's length. Plunging to 2,250 metres (7,382 ft), it is the second deepest diving mammal, following only the Cuvier's beaked whale. The sperm whale's clicking vocalization, a form of echolocation and communication, may be as loud as 230 decibels underwater. It has the largest brain of any animal on Earth, more than five times heavier than a human's. Sperm whales can live for more than 60 years. [2]

When you take into account conservative estimates state 8000 whales were slaughtered in 1853 alone, and that this continued until the wholesale depletion of many species of whales, this factor shutting down many whalers, and the development and introduction of kerosene (from petroleum) it is a wonder the world had any whales left to save by banning whaling in this century - 1930's for here in Australia. 

In 1831 Archibald Mosman established a whaling station at Sirius Cove (Mosman's Bay). This establishment continued under the gentleman the suburb is now named for until 1838 when he sold a part interest. This may have added to the appeal of Chowder Bay for Captain Cliffe, despite remaining ashore past his wedding.

Whaling Station, Mosmans Bay, Sydney - Image No.: a1528054, courtesy of the State Library of NSW, gift of Sir Wiliam Dixson, which notes: "C. Martens" -- at lower right -- "This is not painted by Martens but is most probably painted by H. Grant Lloyd, of Tasmania, who was a pupil of Martens. W.D. whaling station Mosman's Bay, Sydney" -- on reverse, in pencil, in Sir W. Dixson's hand. Despite the Martens signature and some similarities with the artist's work, Sir William Dixson's theory that the work is by a pupil of Martens, is accepted.

All that remains of that past (a little more under 'Extras'):


The historic building, recently acquired as the headquarters of the Mosman Boy Scouts, was originally part of Archibald Mosman's whaling station, and was built in 1831. MOSMAN "BARN," NOW A BOY SCOUTS' HALL. (1928, April 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16457380

Captain Cliffe became part of the place he had chosen to live in, supporting social aspects of the fast growing colony. Included in the Regatta report are a few other items, just so our Readers of today can wonder about Readers of the past and all they were experiencing:

IMPORTS1 case China, Captain Cliffe ; Sydney General Trade List. (1836, March 8). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36855526 

Sydney Regatta. THURSDAY, 18th FEB. 1836.
FIRST Class Sailing Boats of 18 feet
Keel and upwards
Entrance 2 Guineas.
4 Boats to be entered or no Race
1st Prize 5 Guineas. 2nd Ditto 2 ditto.
The Boats are to muster at the Flag Boat off Dawes' Battery, at Half-past 10 o'clock, and start as soon after as possible, proceeding round the Sow and Pigs, passing it on the starboard hand, and back to
the Starting Boat.
Whale Boats— Entrance One Guinea.
5 boats to be entered or no Race.
1st Prize 5 Guineas-2nd Prize 2 Guineas.
To start immediately after the 1st Class Sailing Boats have rounded Bradley's Head, pulling round the Flag boat moored off Bradley's Head, passing it on the starboard side, and back to the Starting Boat.
2nd Class Sailing Boats, under 18 feet Keel.
Entrance One Guinea.
5 Boats to be entered or no Race.
1st Prize 3 Guineas-2nd Prize 2 Guineas-3rd Boat to receive back her entrance Money.
To start immediately after the two first matches are decided proceeding round Shark Island, passing it on the starboard hand, and back to the Starting Boat.
Wherries pulling 2 Oars-Entrance One Guinea.
3 Boats to be entered or no Race
The 1st Boat receives 2 Guineas-2nd Boat receives
back her Entrance' Money.
These Boats start immediately after the 2nd Class Sailing Boats have passed Pinchgut, pulling round Pinchgut Island and the Starting Boat twice, passing the Island on the starboard, and the Flag Boat on the larboard side.
4 Oared Gigs-Entrance 2 Guineas.
3 Boats to be entered or no Race.
Winning Boat receives 5 Guineas. ,
To start from the Flag Boat, proceeding ion ml the Flag Boat moored off Bradley s Head, passing it on the starboard, and back to the Starting Boat.
4 Oared Jolly Boats-Entrance One Guinea.
5 Boats to be entered or no Race.
1st Prize 4 Guinea's-2nd Prize 2 Guineas- 3rd Boat receives back her Entrance Money.
To start from the Boat off Dawes Battery, pulling round Pinchgut Island and the Starting Boat twice, passing the Island on the starboard and the Flag
Boat on the larboard side. ' .
No Boat to be allowed to heave any ballast over board after starting.
No Gangway deck 'boats will be allowed to run in the sailing match.
Boats on the larboard tack to behr up for those on the starboard tack ! Boats fouling to be considered distanced.
All Boats must be entered for the Various Matches before 9 o’clock on the Morning of tile Race's Money to be paid on entering.
Entry List lies at the Harbour Master's Office, at which place lists of boats entered elsewhere will have to be given in on the Morning of the Regatta, and the Money handed over to the Secretary.
UMPIRES— Captain COLLINS, and Captain CLIFFE.
REFEREE— Captain NICHOLSON. Classified Advertising (1836, February 16).The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2202791 

Thursday was the day appointed for the above aquatic entertainment, and, from the delightful weather, a more propitious day could not have been chosen. The harbour of Port Jackson was never half so gay as upon this occasion; the whole of the shipping in port were dressed in their gayest colors, every boat that could be obtained was put into requisition, and filled with some hundreds of the Sydney "Cockneys," with their belles,-all the Forts were crowded with spectators, that of Dawes' Battery having tents erected, with the Band of the 17th regiment in attendance,- the Australia, and Experiment steam-packets, (the latter having on board the 28th Band), were also in requisition for the day, with large parties of ladies and gentlemen. 
The John Barry (containing the Regatta Head Quarters) was moored off Dawes' Battery, having on board another large party-the umpires, getters-up, and their friends. At about ten o'clock, the scene was quite panoramic : an innumerable host of boats of all descriptions had congregated at the mouth of the Cove ; both Bands commenced operations ; and to fill up the scene, several ships, brigs, and schooners leaving the port, were also in full sail.
The following was the order in which the Races proceeded -,
FIRST RACE, by first class sailing boats; first prize, £5 5s. ; second prize £2 2s. ; to start from Dawes' Battery round the Sow and Pigs, and back. For this race only three boats were entered-Major Luckyer's Ranger, Mr. Tegg's Wanderer, and Captain Collins' Australia; several other boats also started with the racers. The Australia took the lead for some distance, but lost it beyond Bradley's Head, and allowed the Ranger to push a-head, which she maintained during the whole of the race, the Wanderer coming in a few boat's lengths after her, and the Australia last.
SECOND RACE, between the whaleboats, prizes same as preceding race, four boats entered-Mr. Redgrave's Blue-fish, Mr. Irwin's Australian, Captain Cliff's Lady Wellington, and Mr. Brown's Red Rose; at starting, Blue-fish broke an oar, which allowed the others to get a-head, but she soon recovered herself, and gained the lead during the whole of the race.
THIRD RACE.-Between second-class sailing-boats, first prize £3 3s, second prize £2 2s., third prize £L Is., to sail round Shark Island and back. Ten boats wore entered for this race-Nautilus, belonging to Mr. Ritchie, Eliza Agnes, (Captain Chalmers), Cornstalk, Nautilus, belonging to Mr. Clark, Emma, Athol Ranger, Camp-cove Packet, Ann, and a sailing-boat belonging to Mr. Jobson the boats started beautifully together, but owing to some mistake in the order of» the race, several of the boats went round the wrung side of Shark (sand ; this of course led to a dispute, and the victors re-main unknown. Mr. Ritchie's Nautilus came in first, followed by Eliza Agnes.
FOURTH RACE, between jolly-boats ; first prize, £4 4s. ; second ditto, £2 2s. ; third ditto, £1 Is. ; to pull round Pinchgut and back. Only two boats were entered for this race ; the Black Joke, belonging to Mr. Sergeant, and Captain Hopton's Sally. The boat Typo also presented itself upon this occasion, but was refused admittance to the race, on account of her being of an improper description of boat. This match was well contested, and won in style by Black Joke.
We have just learned, upon good authority, that His Honor Francis Forbes, Chief Justice of New South Wales, takes his departure from this Colony, by the first ship for England. The respectable emigrant Colonists will congratulate themselves, and we here congratulate them, on this most auspicious event; satisfied as we are that not one-no, not one-of that body of Colonists will ever desire to see His Honor's face here again. They, and we, are quite willing that he shall he made Lord Chancellor of England, as it is well known His Honor believes he might have been, " had not circumstances induced him to serve His Majesty in the colonies " (!); but we all set our faces against his return" as Chief Justice of New South Wales. It is also to be hoped, that a "reform " Ministry will take care, in any future appointment, to "reform" that unnatural and unconstitutional alliance which has hitherto existed in this Colony between the Legislative and Judicial functions.

NOVELTY.-- By an advertisement we perceive that Mr. Tegg, of George-street, offers to fit gentlemen with complete suits of india-rubber clothing, caps, cloaks, gaiters, boots, &c.; this is a stretch of invention indeed. The clothes are said to be the latest fashion -- even the ladies may suit themselves !
The gang of Argyle Bushrangers arrived at the Sydney Gaol on Saturday last, under a strong escort. When such desperate characters as these are at Head Quarters, we should think a stronger Military Guard would be necessary at the Gaol.

John Maloney, convicted during the present sessions of bigamy, and in whose case a point had been reserved on the trial, as to the applicability of the English marriage act to this colony, was brought up for judgment on Friday last, and the argument in his behalf again gone into at considerable length by Mr. Foster. The Court postponed its judgment, and directed the prisoner to he remanded.

On Wednesday last, three bakers appeared at the Police Office, on the complaint of Mr. Jicks, for having in their possession a quantity of bread short of weight. The case against two of the defendants was dismissed, on the ground that the bread was what is called "fancy bread," for which no specific weight is prov'ded by the Act of Council. The other defendant-a baker named Wilkie was fined in the stun of twenty -seven pounds sterling, and the forfeiture of eighty loaves.

The new vessel, to he moored off the Sow and Pigs, as a "floating light," is nearly completed. She is building by Mr. Andrew Sommerville, Darling Harbour, and will be of about forty tons burden. SYDNEY REGATTA. (1836, February 22).The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12853896 

Our readers will see with regret that our worthy ex-Sheriff Mr. Mackaness, really at last intends returning to old England, his valuable property at the Race Course, being now advertised for positive sale on Monday, 28th November. We wish him many years of health, and hope that his property will fetch him full £20,000.

The principal purchasers were Messrs. Ireland, Jones, Graham, Thompson, Cliffe, Wentworth, Merrett, Hardie, Poole, and Poole.
Mr. Joseph Roberts was shot at by three bushrangers on Thursday last, near Bargo Brush ; but fortunately the ruffians missed their aim. About one hour afterwards the nephew of Dr. Bland was desired to stop by three armed men, near the same spot, which he refused, put spurs to his horse, and effected his escape. One of the men who fired at Mr. Roberts was on horseback, but had no saddle. Information was then given to the Mounted Police, who immediately went in pursuit. No title (1836, November 1). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36854813 

Thomas Jones, assigned to Captain Cliff, was charged by Constable Monagan with attempting to rescue a female from his custody, whom he was taking to the watch-house for disorderly conduct. The prisoner said that he did not attempt to rescue the  woman, but merely informed him, Monaghan, that she was a fellow servant of his, and proposed to convey her home if the constable would permit him.  The constable, when cross-examined, reiterated his charge, and the prisoner was sentenced to receive Twenty-five lashes.  POLICE. (1836, November 18). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 2 (EVENING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32152811 

Sale of Land
120 .CUMBERLAND 51acres, more or less, parish of Willoughby, at Chowder Bay ; bounded on the south by Taylor's Bay, on the west by James King's purchase of 150 acres ; on the north by a road one chain wide, dividing it from Thomas Graham's 15 acres; and on the east by a road one chain wide, bearing south to Taylor's Bay, dividing it from lots 121 and 122. Price 5s per acre.
121 Same place, 15 acres, more or less, parish of Willoughby, at Chowder Bay ; bounded on the south by a road one chain wide, dividing it from lot 122 : on the west by a road one chain wide, dividing it from lot 120; on the north by a road dividing it from Thomas Graham's 15 acres; and on the east by Chowder Bay. Price 5s per acre. a
122 Same place; 15 acres, more or less, parish of Willoughby, at Chowder Bay ; bounded on the south by Taylor's Bay ; on the west by a road one chain wide; dividing it by lot 120; on the north by a road one chain wide, dividing it from :16t 124; and on the east by a Reserve. Price 5s.. per acre.  Advertising (1836, December 14). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 4 (EVENING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32154214 

Commissioner of Claims' Office
Bent-street, 7th January, 1837.
NOTICE is hereby given, that the following CLAIMS for DEEDS of GRANT of Land and Town Allotments, will be ready for examination by the Commissioners appointed for that purpose, under the Act of Council 5 Win, IV. No. 21. at the expiration of two months from this date, before which day, any caveat or counter claim must be entered at this Office. Due notice will be given of the days appointed for the hearings.
Case No. 62.—Edmund Harrison Cliffe, 15 acres, County of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby North, off Bradley's Head ; bounded on the south by a line commencing 100 feet above highwater mark; on the south by Chouder Bay running due west twenty chains, thence by a line running due north (6|) six and one half chains to a water course, thence by the said water course 24 chains 5 links to the north side of Chouder Bay, and thence by a line south 26 degrees west 9 chains 80 links to the place of beginning. Government Gazette Notices (1837, January 25). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 81. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230669280 

Cliffe E. H., Murray, 1 carpenter Government Gazette Notices (1837, April 19). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 314. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230669771 

LEFT at Simmons', in the new township of Goulburn, under the pillow of the bed, A SILVER HUNTING WATCH, engine turned, with the initials E H. C. on the outside, and H. Gootch, maker, inside, No. 5883. Whoever will return the same to E. H. Cliffe, Castlereagh-street, Sydney, will receive the above reward. There is no lunette to the said watch.
E. H. Cliffe.
Castlereagh-street, Sydney, 5th May, 1837. Advertising (1837, May 15). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12860758 

56 Edmund Harrison Cliffe, Two thousand five hundred and sixty acres, parish unnamed, at Yaralamla, commencing at a large Oak tree at the Molonglo River, and bounded on the south by a line nest 381 chains. 
Promised by sir Richard Bourke, on 14th May, 1836, in pursuance of instructions from the Right Honourable the Secretary of State for the Colonies, and possession given 27th August thereafter, as a primary grant. Quit rent £21 6s 8d sterling per annum, commencing 1st January, 1844. Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, 7th August, 1837. GRANTS OF LAND. (1837, August 12). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2212393 

Cliffe E. H. Murray, 1 blacksmith Government Gazette Notices (1837, October 4). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 726. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230670761

These land grants of 41 acres, added to the 15 acres, made a total of 56 acres owned by Captain Cliffe at Chowder Bay:

Deeds dated 16th June, 1837. 
142. Edmund Harrison Cliffe, 20 acres, Cumberland, lot 120. 
143. Ditto, 8 ditto, ditto, lot 121. 
144. Ditto, 13 ditto, ditto, lot 122. 
Advertisement of 31st January, 1837.  TITLE DEEDS. (1837, October 11). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 747. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230670805 

Unfortunately the gentleman passed away at an age we would consider still young - please note some records list his age on passing as 40:

On the 18th inst, at his residence upper Castlereagh-street in the 41st year of his age, Captain E. H. Cliffe, after a lingering illness which he bore with Christian fortitude. 
Captain Cliffe was for several years an active and enterprising trader between this Colony and India, and enjoyed the reputation of a strictly upright Man. Family Notices (1837, November 20). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (EVENING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32158074 

His widow, Julia, was soon to marry again and have children. This listing shortly prior to her second marriage show us the extent of Captain Cliffe's holdings and that everything was to be sold. Among those whom he left his property in trust of is Captain Ashmore.

FALCON COTTAGE. ——o—— MR. AND MRS. BELL, from Edinburgh, beg to intimate to the Public of New South Wales, that they have opened an Establishment for the Board and Education of a limited number of Young Ladies in that commodious cottage in Castlereagh-street south, recently in the occupation of the late Captain Cliffe. Mr. and Mrs. B. feel confident, from their long experience in tuition, that they will be enabled to give satisfaction to such Parents as may entrust their Children to their care. Strict attention will be paid to the personal comfort, moral deportment, and religious welfare of the Pupils. References as to character and ability, may be made in Sydney, to the Rev. Dr. Lang. For Terms, &c., apply to Mrs. Bell, Castlereagh-street south. Printed and Published at the Australian College Buildings, by JAMES SPILSBURY, Jamison-street, Sydney, for the Editor and Proprietor, JAMES M'EACHERN, of the aforesaid street. Advertising (1838, March 7). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31720551

In the Estate of the late Captain E. H. Cliffe. 
At his Rooms, in George-street, on TUESDAY,  the 17th day of April proximo, at eleven for twelve o'clock precisely.
TW. SMART begs to announce that he has received the most unreserved instructions from the Executors of the late E. H. Cliffe, Esq., to submit and sell by Public Auction on the above-named day, the whole of the Landed Property, Sheep, Cattle, and Homes belonging to the Estate, and which will proceed in the following order.
1 - Dwelling-houses in Cumberland-street, being four genteel brick-built Cottage Tenements, conveniently situated at the northern extremity of Cumberland-street, and known as Union place, commanding a splendid view of the harbour and shipping, and being within a short distance of many of the- mercantile wharfs. They are particularly eligible for respectable mechanics, or others whose avocations call them to that part of the Town. Each House has a frontage to Cumberland-street of fourteen feet, with a depth of twenty-four feet, and contains four rooms, with kitchen and cellar underneath, and compact yards at the back, also two wells containing an abundance of water. Two of them are at present occupied by tenants at will, and immediate possession of the other two will be given to the purchaser,
2-An Allotment of Land on the Surry Hills; bounded towards the NNW by a reserved road two hundred and ninety-seven feet; towards the NE by Robert Cooper’s Land two hundred and seventy feet; towards the SSE by Mrs. Ranclaud's and Robert Cooper's Lands four hundred and ten feet at the commencing point, being in the very centre of the habitable part of the Hills, and contiguous to the principal brick-kilns, where earth for brick-making is becoming scarce, and difficult to obtain.
3-Chowder Bay. This pretty little Property was purchased by the late proprietor, and improved so as to render it as complete a Marine Residence as a respectable family could possibly desire to occupy ; and from its commanding situation, its diversified and uninterrupted views of the Harbour, the Heads, the numberless steam-boats and sailing vessels daily passing, the romantic scenery with which the estate abounds, its adaptation for sea bathing, and its convenient distance from town, all combine to justify the assertion that it stands unrivalled as a residence amongst the many villas with which our harbour is studded. There is altogether in the grant fifty-six acres, a considerable portion has been cleared and improved. The Garden, which is extensive and well stocked, was originally laid out by Mr. Graham, who selected the spot, and commenced as a Florist and Horticulturist. The Cottage contains … rooms, and is substantially built of stone, and the out-buildings are compact and comfortable. The Bay abounds with all kinds of fish, and the property is abundantly supplied with water from a cascade close to the house.
4-Craven. This splendid and valuable Estate, on the Molonglo River, County of Murray, consists of four thousand two hundred acres of the- best sheep pasturage in that country-it has several miles of frontage to the river, and on which is erected a comfortable Cottage Residence, store-house, wool shed, men's dwelling huts, stock-yards, garden, wheat paddock, &c. &c , and is surrounded, and opposite to the pastures of Messrs Walker, Mowatt, Mcpher-son, Johnston, Weston, Macquoid, G T. Palmer. R. Campbell, M. C, and others, forming one of the most compact and complete Establishments for the lucrative business of Sheep Farming in the southern district. There is a large quantity of Farming Implements, Drays, Working Oxen and Horses, that will be sold at a valuation, if the purchaser chooses.
Lot I - Five hundred and thirty-five Ewes of mixed ages
Lot 2-Five hundred ditto ditto
Lot 3-Sixty.four Ewe and Wether Lambs
Lot 4-Five hundred and two Wethers of ages Lot 5-Eight Rams
TERMS-For the Sheep-Ten per cent, cash deposit; approved endorsed Hills at three, six, and nine months for the remainder. For the Landed Property-Ten per cent, cash deposit j ten per cent, by approved endorsed Bills each at three, six, nine, and twelve months; the remainder may remain for five years, with security on the property, and bearing ten per cent interest.
15,000 Sheep-A Mixed Herd of Homed Cattle-and 58 Working Bullocks. Advertising (1838, March 8). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12859930 

In the Estate of the late Captain E. H.. Cliffe.
To be sold by auction 
By T. W. Smart,
At his Rooms, George-street, on TUESDAY, the
17th instant, at Twelve o'clock precisely.
THIRTY SHARES in the Union: Assurance Company . :
A superior Silver Pocket: Chronometer by Earnshaw
An elegant and well-finished Pentagraph and a very handsome superior built six oared Gig, complete, which can be seen at Chowder Bay. Terms declared at time of Sale. Advertising (1838, April 14). The Colonist (Sydney, NSW : 1835 - 1840), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31720770 

At Sydney, on Thursday last, by Special License, by the Rev. John McGarvie, Kenneth Mackenzie, Esq , Shoalhaven, to Mrs. Cliffe, of Sydney. Family Notices (1838, July 9). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12858983 

Marriages. By Special License. on the 5th instant, by the Rev. Mr. M'Garvie, Kenneth Mackenzie Esquire, L.R.C.S., of Edinburgh, to Julia, relict of the late E. H. Cliffe. Family Notices (1838, July 13). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (MORNING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32160650 

Four thousand two hundred Acres. Of Land on the Molonglo River, to be Let for a Lease of Two Years.
On THURSDAY, the 16th of August proximo at Noon precisely,
FOUR thousand two hundred Acres of Land, situated on the Molonglo River, county Murray, and known as the Craven Estate; possessing several miles of frontage to the River, and consists of the best sheep pasturage in that country; upon it is erected a comfortable cottage, store-house, wool shed, men's huts, and stock-yard, with a garden, wheat paddock, &c.; and it is in the immediate neighbourhood of the pastures of Messrs. Walker, Mowatt, M'Pherson, Johnston, Weston, Macquold, G. T. Palmer, R. Campbell, M.C., and others, forming the most complete sheep establishment in the southern district. For further particulars apply at the Estate and Land Agency Rooms of T. W. SMART, Auctioneer. Advertising (1838, August 8). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 4 (MORNING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32160904 

Case No. 863.—William Walker, Thomas Walker, and Samuel Ashmore, by their Solicitor, David Poole, Esq. 
Two thousand five hundred and sixty acres, County of Murray, parish unnamed, at Yarralumla ; commencing at a large Oak Tree on the  Molonglo River ; and bounded on the south by a line west 381 chains ; on the west by a line north 60 chains ; on the north by a line east 250 chains to the Molonglo River; and on the east by that River, to the large Oak Tree aforesaid. 
This land was located on an order of Governor Bourke, dated 14th May, 1836, in favour of Edmund Harrison Cliffe, deceased, who, it is alleged, devised to Claimants in trust. 
Case No. 864.—William Walker, Thomas Walker,  and Samuel Ashmore, by their Solicitor, David  Poole, Esq. 
Seven hundred and fifty acres, County of Murray, parish unnamed, near Yarralumla; commencing at the north-west corner of E. H. Cliffe's 2560 acres grant; and bounded on the south by that grant, being a line west 80 chains ; on the east by a measured portion of 890 acres, being a line north 85 chains to the Molonglo River; on the north by that River downwards, to a marked oak tree ; and on the west by a measured portion of 1070 acres, being a line south 110 chains, to the north-west corner of E. H. Cliffe's 2560 acres  aforesaid. 
Also,—  Eight hundred and ninety acres, County of  Murray, parish unnamed, near Yarralumla; commencing at the Molonglo River, at the north-east  corner of E. H. Clifte's 2560 acres grant; and bounded on the south by that grant, being a line west 170 chains; on the west by a measured portion of 750 acres, being a line north 85 chains, to the Molonglo River ; and on the north and east by that River, to the north-east corner of E. H.Cliffe's grant of 2560 acres aforesaid. 
These Lands were purchased of the Crown, at the Sale of 9th August, 1837, by Edward Harrison Cliffe, deceased, who it is alleged, has devised them to Claimant, in trust. 
By direction of the Commissioners. 
Court of Claims Office, Bent-street, 26th Dec., 1840. COURT OF CLAIMS. (1841, January 15).New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 66. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230105742 

The Chowder Bay property didn't sell - Captain Samuel Ashmore, for whom Ashmore's Reef is named, is the holder of the until he passes away in 1858. A series of people appear to have leased the property, judging by what records can be found.

THAT pleasantly situated VILLA in Chouder Bay, known a the residence of the late Captain E. H. Cliffe, has lately-undergone an extensive repair and much improved; a good garden has been laid out and well stocked with fruit trees. Apply to Mr. Ashmore, Kent street nearly opposite the Gas Works. Advertising (1841, October 11). The Sydney Monitor and Commercial Advertiser (NSW : 1838 - 1841), p. 3 (MORNING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32190971 

THE HOUSE and Ground at  the corner of the Race Course, lately in the occupation of Doctor Whittell, Cliffeton Cottage, situated in Chouder Bay; the residence of the late Captain Cliffe.  The Cottage in Kent-street, nearly opposite the Gas Works, adjoining, on the north side, the residence of Captain Ashmore, where enquire for further particulars. Advertising (1844, March 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28650674 

Another inquest was held on the same day, in the Wellington Inn, George-street, on the body of Peter Rush, then lying dead at the Benevolent Asylum. Peter Thompson; Constable in the Sydney Police deposed, that he had known the deceased for some years past, during which time he (deceased) had been in the service of Captain Ashmore. On Saturday last witness met him on the road leading from Blue's Point to his home at Chowder Bay he was quite sober at the time. On the following morning witness received information that the body of the deceased had been found in a creek near Mossman's Bay. Witness, immediately preceded there, and having found the body as described he had it removed to the Asylum. Deceased at the time of his death was about 70 years of age. 
His coat and stick were found on the road within three yards of the spot where he (deceased) was discovered in the creek. Robert R. Morris, surgeon, deposed that he examined the body of the deceased, the immediate cause of whose death was the rupture of a blood vessel within the cranium. Finding — Died by the visitation of God. BAZAAR FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE SISTERS OF CHARITY. (1853, December 31). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114832290 

BEFORE the Water Police Magistrate, and Mr. McLean, J.P.
James Irvin and James Derry were charged with having assaulted John Quinlan, at Chowder Bay, North Shore. It appeared that defendants were trespassing in the orchard of Captain Ashmore, at Chowder Bay, and complainant, who was employed by that gentleman as caretaker at that place, ordered defendants off, who thereupon assaulted him and ducked him in the water. They were each fined 40s,, and costs 4s. 11d. WATER POLICE COURT. (1857, February 11). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12992131 

Later in 1857 every harbour beach was touched by the tragedy that was the wreck of the Dunbar at The Gap on the night of Thursday, August 20th, 1857. Debris and those who were lost, 121 of the total 122 aboard, was brought onto the shores for weeks and in some cases, months and years afterwards - small items like bibles with names inscribed inside, a child's toy, a rag of clothing. Chowder Bay was no exception and was strewn with parts of the Dunbar (under 'Extras'), clothing and more. In many cases those who were lost became disfigured by sharks drawn in as much as time and tide pull - would-be rescuers, on the scene of the wreck that morning, reporting at that time sharks were attacking any trying to recover the bodies of those lost:

Mr J. De Courcy Brernor, Tide Surveyor of Her Majesty's Customs, went down the Harbor yesterday in the steamer Premier, for the purpose of recovering such of the cargo of the Dunbar as could be obtained. In Chowder Bay, Richard Harvey, in charge of Mr Ashmore's property, gave up the body of a boy about four years of age, as mentioned above ; but the features were so much mutilated as to render identification a matter… THE WRECK OF THE DUNBAR. (1857, September 2). The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article154836016 

A little of what the papers of his day had to say for Captain Samuel Ashmore on his passing:

On 31st March, at the residence of R.J. Hopkins, Esq Vile's-buildings Kent-street, in his 71st year, Captain Samuel Ashmore, for many years a resident in this colony.. Family Notices (1858, April 1). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60427369 

There are few of our readers, none who are old colonists, who will not join with us in regret in reading in our obituary the venerable and respected name of Samuel Ashmore. Although, on the whole, the career of Captain Ashmore has been a tranquil one, he has taken his part in the play of colonial life, and he has filled it honourably and well. Full of years and of honours, if the respect of all who knew him must honour, has he been gathered from amongst us, after a residence, slightly interrupted at intervals, of upwards of fifty years. 

Captain Ashmore was highly reputed in the mercantile marine, and even in the scientific world - as an experienced and successful navigator, and the fact of his having largely assisted the celebrated Horsburgh in the compilation of his charts and descriptions of the navigation of the Southern and Eastern Seas is sufficient to give to his name weight and authority in this respect. Whilst engaged in the duties and dangers of a maritime life, Captain Ashmore was a careful observer of its difficulties, and in his communications to the Nautical Magazine and other publications, rendered valuable service to his compeers and those who came after him. 

For many years past, however, Captain Ashmore had retired from the profession of the sea and had followed that of marine surveyor. He was not appointed one of Lloyd's surveyors, but he was constantly employed by Lloyd's agents here in that capacity, and always gave the most entire satisfaction. He was the recognised surveyor of the Australian General Assurance Company, and on his retirement from the office in July last, the company unanimously awarded him a pension for life in consideration of his services. There is no merchant in Sydney who will refuse his tribute of respect to Captain Ashmore in all the relations of his professional life. His surveys were seldom even disputed ; none ever questioned the equity and honour in which they were made. At home and abroad his name was received with respect, and by seamen who had visited this port, and had known him, with affection. 

On the news of his death being made public, the flags of all the vessels in harbour, and of the consulate officers were hoisted half-mast. The funeral of the lamented and venerable gentleman took place on Thursday afternoon, April 1st, and was attended by the representatives of most of the mercantile firms in the city, the captains of vessels, and by a large number of sincerely sorrowing friends. THE LATE CAPTAIN ASHMORE. (1858, April 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13008599 

The late Captain Samuel Ashmore. 
The Sydney Empire gives the following memoir of an old colonist recently deceased :-Capt. Ashmore was born at Dublin on the 5th day of August, 1787, and was consequently in his 71st year. For more than fifty years he was connected with the maritime interests of this colony. He commanded a vessel through Torres Straits to India very early in the present century, and his remarks and observations in that then but little known and much feared passage were of the utmost service to succeeding navigators; in fact, Horsburgh's charts of the latest date indicate discoveries made by this excellent navigator, the positions of which have always been found strictly correct. As a friend of the world-renowned Horsburgh, he contributed hugely and valuably to the charts and works of that hydro grapher, having had a long experience in the Indian seas, more especially about Sumatra, Java, and the Dutch East Indies generally. 

Captain Ashmore was an indefatigable and accurate observer of all which pertained to his profession, and omitted no opportu-nity of making new discoveries in unknown or little frequented localities, or of correctly ascertaining and establishing the positon of dangers previously doubtful, so far as these duties could be performed compatibly with the service in which he was engaged. 

Since Captain Ashmore retired from the sea he has been principally employed as marine surveyor in this port, for the last twenty years in the service of the Australian General Assurance Company, by which Company he was so highly esteemed that on his resignation last July, in consequence of ill health, he was awarded a very handsome pension for the remainder of his life ; but unfortunately he has not been permitted to enjoy this fruit of his labours very long. As a tribute to his memory, the flags of all the ships in harbour, foreign consuls, &c, were hoisted half-mast as soon as his death became known ; and so widely spread is his reputation, and so general the respect in which he was held by all who knew him, that we feel there are few ports in the world this brief notice will reach, where some mariner will be found to whom the announcement will cause a feeling of sorrow and regret. MUSIC FOR THE MILLION. (1858, April 12).The Courier (Hobart, Tas. : 1840 - 1859), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2462237 

In the Supreme Court of New South Wales.
In the Will of Samuel Ashmore, late of the City of Sydney, in the Colony of New South Wales, master mariner, deceased.
NOTICE is hereby given, that Richard Pritchett Ashmore, of the City of Sydney, In the Colony of New South Wales, gentleman ; James Malcolm, of Sydney aforesaid, gentleman ; and Richard John Hopkins, of Sydney aforesaid, gentleman, Executors named in the Will of the above-named deceased, intend, after the expiration of fourteen days from the publication of .this notice, to apply to the said Court, for probate of said Will.—Dated this 8th, day of April, AD. STENHOUSE & HARDY, Proctors for the Executors, 21, Elizabeth-street North. ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION. (1858, April 9). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 603. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228398694 

All Captain Ashmore's assets were also put up for sale - the property at Chowder Bay now described thus:

Marine Villa, with 15 Acres of Land, at Chowder Bay." ~ By order of the executors under the will of the late Captain Samuel Ashmore.
For Positive Sale to the highest bidder.
A Comfortable Marine Residence, delightfully situated at Chowder Bay, distant three-and-a-half miles from Blue's Point
BOWDEN and THRELKELD have been favoured with instructions to sell by auction, at the City Mart, 862, George-street Sydney, on THURSDAY, the 13th day of May,
All that valuable estate known as Cliffton, at Chowder Bay, situated a little to the north-east of Bradley's Head, opposite Vaucluse, comprising 15 acres of land, embracing the frontage to Chowder Bay, as shown on the plan.
Many hundreds of pounds have been expended on this property in the formation of an orchard, stocked with choice trees, vines, and shrubs, and In the erection of a stone-built cottage, containing six rooms and balcony, with spacious cellars underneath; kitchen and servant's room detached. On the beach Is a cottage of two rooms, and small stone store adjacent. The improved portion, including the orchard and dwelling-house, fenced off from the rest There is a never-failing and abundant supply of excellent water from a creek which discharges itself into the bay.
A portion of this estate comprises the high land on the North Shore, at the back of the bay, below Bradleys Head ; conspicuous from every part of Sydney, commanding, from its elevated position, the most beautiful views of the harbour in every direction. It is accessible by water in twenty-five minutes from the Circular Wharf ; and hyland, through the village of St. Leonard's.
To be sold in one lot.
The Auctioneers deem' it unnecessary to give anything like a full description of this truly valuable property, the advantages and beauties of which must be seen to be appreciated.
Cards to view may be bad at the City Mart, where a plan be seen, and farther particulars made known.
Terms at sale.
Preliminary Notice.
Advertising (1858, May 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13009632 

An 'Old Sydney' Sketch.

'Ashmore House,' Kent-street, once a high-class residence, now a picturesque ruin in a farrier's yard; built by Captain Samuel Ashmore over 70 years ago. In the sixties it was occupied by Mr. Samuel Bennett. IN THE LIBRARY. (1913, April 23). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158475994 

Writing from Gulgong, New South Wales, Mr. S. T. Bishop says:— 'With reference to Mr. Sydney Smith's 'Old Sydney Sketch' on the 'Mail's' Library Page of April 23, I may say that Alfred Ashmore, eldest son of Captain Ashmore, was a fellow-apprentice of mine in 1848, in Captain Town's barque Royal Saxon. When in port Captain Ashmore made his house my home from Saturday night until Monday morning. The captain rated chronometers for all the ships in the port. He had been in the East India trade for some years. 'Ashmore's Banks,' in Torres Straits, were named after him. He had  an orchard in Chowder Bay. The last time I saw Captain Ashmore was in 1853, when I went to Beechworth, in Victoria. There were three cottages in a row in Kent-street, Sydney, and Captain Ashmore's was the centre one.'  A Canberra Girl and Her Horses. (1913, May 7). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 46. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158475472 

The following properties of the late Captain Ashmore were disposed of by Messrs. Bowden and Threlkeld on Monday :-Chouder Bay, 56 acres with improvements, for £1183 ; his late residence In Kent-street, for £1400; and three cottages in Kent-street, for £1070; a house In Fitzroy-street, off Burke-street, the property of the late Mr. Sullivan, for £550 ; also a cottage in Fitzroy-street, O'connell Town, for £)40 ; a farm of 18 acres, two and a half miles over the dam at Cook's River, for £85 ; and several allotments at Enmore, with frontage a to Emily and Sebastopol streets, at from 14s to 20s per foot frontage. MERCANTILE AND MONEY ARTICLE. (1858, June 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13011460 

Joseph Westbrook, a successful importer and merchant, was the purchaser. 

ROSTOCKS Superior Peg Boots-J. WESTBROOK has just received, ex Phosnoian, a further supply of these admirable goods, to which he respectfully invites the attention of the public, especially those gentlemen who have been waiting this arrival for suitable sizes. Also, just arrived, an excellent assortment of boys' and youths' boots. J. WESTBROOK, 256, George-street. Advertising (1858, May 6). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13009632 

An Ophisaurus from Chowder Bay. Master J.WestbrookDONATIONS TO THE AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM DURING OCTOBER, 1859. (1859, November 5). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64092491 

NORTH SHORE-- STOLEN or STRAYED, an Iron Grey MARE, age about five years, branded P near side and 668 off side, under saddle. A reward of £2 will be given to any parson returning the same to the owner, J. WESTBROOK. Cliffeton, Chowder Bay. If stolen, a reward of £10 will be given on conviction of offender. Advertising (1860, February 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13036992 

Before the Chief Commissioner,
In the estate of Edward Fairbrother, a third meeting. Insolvent was examined by Mr. Husband in reference to a contract for the erection of a House at Chowder Bay, for Mr. Joseph Westbrook, and payments received by him on account thereof. The meeting then adjourned until the 7th August. INSOLVENCY COURT. (1860, July 10).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13042820 

MEDICAL GENTLEMEN and OTHERS.-TO LET. the HOUSE and GROUNDS now in the occupation of Mr. Westbrook, CHOWDER BAYThe dwelling house, which is beautifully situated, and commands an extensive prospect, contains ten (10) spacious rooms and entrance hall. The other buildings consist of a double kitchen, weatherboard cottage, and stone stable. There is a large orchard, well stocked with fruit trees, and a paddock of 2 ½ acres. There are, altogether, 56 acres of land securely fenced.
These premises, which have an easy communication with Sydney, both by land and water, are admirably adapted for the establishment of a SANITARIUM, which, by proper management, would ensure a handsome income. For terms and other particulars, apply on the premises to Mrs. WESTBROOK, or to Mr. HAWTHORNE, Arund el-terrace, Glebe. Advertising (1861, June 22). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60495349 

Mr. Westbrook added improvements and then set about trying to lease a portion of the property, advertisements suggesting someone could have a great business there along the line of a sanatorium, as originally dreamed by Mr. Graham. It is into this dream steps a gentleman renowned for being he who began the Fairy Bower at Manly - Charles Hemmington - who calls this new endeavour 'Fairyland'. Charles Hemmington had originally been transported here:

Conditional Pardons
Hemington Charles PARDONS. (1844, June 25). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 840. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230148634 

Manly's Fairy Bower' was opened in April 1859:

Advertising (1859, April 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13024149

Mr. Charles Hemmington's Fairy Bower was well attended throughout the day. It is situated a short distance from the pier of Manly Beach, and is composed of a quantity of refreshment tents, with tables and seats formed from the trees and caves, let to picnic parties at moderate rates.
Amongst the various vessels ran by the Company throughout the day of rejoicing, the Emu, commanded by Captain Ferris, is especially worthy of notice from its swiftness and the kindness of the commander. MANLY BEACH. (1859, May 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60402086 

Reports of up to 12 thousand people pouring into Manly on holidays, such as that of Queen Victoria's as above, or during Christmas breaks, resulted in everyone selling out of everything that was provided through Manly businesses to visitors, with the result reported as:

Sunday School Children's Excursions. 
The annual treat of the children belonging to the Pittstreet Congregational Sunday School took place yesterday. It had been announced for some time previously that as many of the parents of the children and friends of the school as could accompany the children in their excursion would be most heartily welcome ; and this invitation was responded to to an extent that was not anticipated. Accordingly, the morning of yesterday, instead of one boat sufficing to accommodate the excursionists, another boat had to be chartered. This difficulty having been got over, the Illawarra and Nora Crenia steamed down the harbour with their living f freights towards Manly, shortly after nine o'clock. Having arrived at the Pier, the children, to the number of about 350, with their teachers, parents, and friends, repaired to the Fairy Bower, where arrangement had been made for their reception. There they amused themselves in a variety of ways-swinging on numerous ropes suspended to the limbs of the gigantic trees which abound in the locality, being the rage. While the juveniles were thus amusing themselves, the older children dispersed in groups, seeking suitable spots for the unpacking and disposing of the various niceties with which they had provided themselves.

At one o'clock the juveniles were warned by the ringing of a bell that their sports were for a time to cease, as they were required - and they needed no coercion-to engage in another and even more pleasant operation than those which had so far occupied their attention. In providing for the gastronomical necessities of the numerous juveniles the contractor, Mr. Hemmington (the proprietor, of the Fairy Bower), had experienced a difficulty in providing a sufficient quantity. This was occasioned by the extensive and to some extent unanticipated consumption of a vast quantity of edibles by the thousands of visitors that patronised the favourite bower on the two preceding days, and the difficulties of procuring supplies from Sydney, while the boats were so busily engaged in conveying the pleasure seekers to and from Manly. This difficulty, however, being eventually met, appeared even to enhance the interest of the excursion, and resulted in the entire satisfaction of all concerned. It is not necessary to state that, after the open air amusements and vigorous athletic exercises of the morning, the juveniles did ample justice to the excellent spread. After dinner, the sports of the morning were resumed, and continued to a late hour in the ' afternoon, when the remains of the former meal were I laid out and quickly disposed of. 

At half-past five , o'clock the Illawarra left for Sydney, with the first instalment of the excursionists, the remaining portion being brought up by the Nora Creina, half an hour later. Unfortunately for the company, the heavy rain with which we were visited last night came on before the boats arrived at the wharf; but, by the timely extending of the awnings, much of the unpleasantness was avoided. At seven o'clock the last of the party were safely landed at Pheonix Wharf. Notwithstanding the somewhat unpropitious termination of the day's pleasure, the remembrance of the excursion to Fairy Bower will long be cherished by both young and old who took part in it, as a sunny memory. In conclusion, we may remark that the expenses incurred in the excursions are defrayed by donations from friends of the school, and also by the church and congregation with which the school has been long connected.-The children and teachers of the Balmain Presbyterian Sabbath School, with numerous friends and members of the church, also had an excursion yesterday. The Washington, chartered for the occasion, left Crook's Wharf, Balmain, with the company, at about nine o'clock, a.m., and proceeded to Middle Harbour, where, as soon as arrived, the party were lauded on a suitable spot for passing the day. The amusements of the juveniles were similar to those mentioned above as having been engaged in by the children of the Congregational school. An abundance of good things to appease the keen appetites of the company was liberally distributed, and in the evening the party returned to Balmain by the steamer which took them thence, apparently well" pleased with their day's excursion. Advertising (1859, December 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13035023 

Manly's 'Fairy Bower', under Mr. Hemmington, didn't last too long:

In the Sydney District Court.
Michael John Davies, Plaintiff, and Charles Hemington, Defendant.
ON Friday, the 1st day of February, 1861, at 12 o'clock in the forenoon, pursuant to a Writ of Fieri Facias, issued in this cause, unless the same be previously satisfied, at the Court House, Macquarie-street, Sydney, all the light, title, and interest of the Defendant in a piece or parcel of land at Manly Cove, in the County of Cumberland, known as the Fairy Bower, and now in the occupation of the Defendant, or so much thereof, which the said Defendant is seised of or entitled to, or which he can either at Law or Equity assign or dispose of, will be sold by public auction.— Dated this 15th day of January, 1861.
GEO. S. YAKNTOX, Registrar. Michael John Davies, Plaintiff, and Charles Hemington, Defendant. (1861, January 18). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 204. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230059568 

Hemington Charles—Sale of property belonging to by order of District Court . Index page (1861, June 30). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. v. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230063934 

Fortunately, and undeterred, Charles Hemmington tried again, the result being that by December 1863 - Chowder Bay has finally become a pleasure resort for all:

FAIRYLAND, CHOWDER BAY.-This beautiful retreat for picnic parties, &c., will be open on CHRISTMAS DAY and after. Everything will be sold at Sydney prices, and of the very best quality. Provisions, wines, spirits, ales, &c , &c. The Nautilus Steamer will run from the Circular Quay at 10,12, 2, and 1 ; from Woolloomooloo at 11 and 3 ; and from Fairyland as late as required. Let all bear in mind the former comforts of the Fairy Bower, the now deserted spot, and that the Fairy Queen and her spirits now settle permanently at her own sacred home, the Fairyland, where she rests in peace to watch over the comfort of the public.
NAUTILUS STEAMER to the FAIRYLAND, Chowder Bay, from Queen's Wharf, 10,12, 2, 4 ; from Wooloomooloo, 11 and 3. From Fairyland as late as required Return tickets, 1s 6d. Advertising (1863, December 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13092555 

Unfortunately the enterprise did not last too long as within a year:

5 ½  ACRES, adjoining Mr. Westbrook's House and Grounds, being the property partially laid out as
by Mr. C. F. Hemington.
RICHARDSON and WRENCH have received instructions to sell by public auction, at the Rooms, Pitt-street, on MONDAY, 28th November, at 11 o'clock,
All that piece of land containing 5 acres 2 roods near George's Head, on the margin of the beach at Chowder Bay, Port Jackson, together with all the Improvements made by Mr. Hemington, comprising substantial stone buildings for public use, romantic walks, garden, partially erected wharf, &c.
Great judgment has been exercised in selecting this land for the purpose for which it was intended. It is one of the most beautiful spots fronting the harbour, and commands unrivalled views of the waters of Port Jackson, extending to the city and suburbs. It will be sold to the highest bidder on the above date, by order of the Mortgagee. Plan on view at the Rooms. Advertising (1864, November 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13101194 

And as a result of so much calamity:

Charles Frederick Hemington, of Bradley's Head, was brought before the Court by senior sergeant Ferris, who had apprehended him as a dangerous lunatic, and a person likely to commit some indictable offence. Prisoner was remanded for fourteen days, and recommended for medical treatment. WATER POLICE COURT. (1864, October 29). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166651175 

A happier occurrence from the same year and same place Mr. Hemmington ventured forth again:

CAMERON.—At Chouder Bay (near Sydney), on the 5th January, Mrs. Cameron, of a daughter. Family Notices (1863, January 12). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60521399 

On the 21st of March, at Dodderidge Chapel, Northampton, England, by the Rev. T. Arnold, Mr. Edwin Cooke, of Stafford, to Eliza Jane, eldest daughter of J. Westbrook, Esq., of 33, Marefair, Northampton, and late of Chouder Bay, near Sydney. Family Notices (1865, May 18). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31124492 

A day in the life of Chowder Bay and a practice since suspended when armed ships are leaving the harbour:

NARROW ESCAPE.-When H.M. steamship Falcon was leaving Port Jackson on Friday, and abreast of Chowder Bay, several guns wore fired loaded with shot; one of the shot struck the rock near the residence in the bay, and alarmed tho occupants. Two children were seated on a rook, but were fortunately removed after tho first gun was fired, by the parents; the next shot struck the rock where the children were seated, and the consequences would have been serious if they had remained. It will be recollected that a case equally dangerous took place some time ago, by the discharge of a loaded gun from a man-of-war leaving Cockatoo Dry Dock, when the shot passed through a house, and the inmates miraculously escaped. Such practices ought not to be allowed. MAGISTRATES. (1865, July 3). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64140515

In 1866 Mr. Westbrook appears to be trying to sell the whole estate - this is also one of the first written recordings of the premises as 'Cliffeton House':

NORTH SHORE.-For Private SALE, that valuable and delightfully situated marine estate, CLIFFETONabout three miles from Milson's Ferry, It contains 56 acres of land, embracing the whole of Chowder Bay and a portion of Taylor's Bay, together with the commodious family residence, Cliffeton House, and numerous improvements. RICHARDSON and WRENCH, Pitt-street. Advertising (1866, January 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13124793

Despite the above, the property remained in the Westbrook family - a small article in December 1867 states Chowder Bay is still being visited by steamers and those who can sail there on their own yachts. The Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron, based just around thew corner, and its fleet of wonderful yachts, was a frequent visitor during the 1860's. 

A more robust advertisement for the property in 1868 lends an insight into all that had been 'improved' during the Westbrook's tenure - perhaps the naming of the property as 'Cliffeton' was a real estate ploy (?):

That variable and delightfully-situated Marine Estate, CLIFFETON, situated on the North Shore, about 3 ½ miles from Blue's Point Ferry, containing 56 acres of land, more or less, embracing the whole Water Frontage to Chowder Bay, and a large portion of Taylor's Bay,
together with a handsome and commodious Family Residence erected thereon, and numerous other improvements, comprising Garden, Orchard, cleared Paddock, &c, &c.
RICHARDSON  and WRENCH have received instructions to sell by public auction at the Rooms, Pitt-street, on MONDAY, 11th January, at 11o'clock, The above valuable and extensive marine estate.
Cliffeton House is situated on a gentle declivity, leading to the sandy beach lining Chowder Bay, and is well sheltered at the back and sides. It is a substantially-erected family residence, built of stone and brick (thoroughly cemented), with slated roof, and contains, on the Ground Floor, spacious verandah on three sides, leading by stone steps to a lawn and garden, and opening into a wide hall, from which four large rooms and pantry have entrance. On the Second Floor is a large landing, with five good bedrooms and spacious balcony ; and on the Upper floor is one large room or observatory, with balcony overlooking the bay.
The house also contains three large cellars, which, together with, the whole of the building and the grounds around it, are perfectly dry, a large outlay having been made in draining them thoroughly.
The internal fittings of the lower floor are of cedar, and throughout the whole house the fittings are of a very superior kind-the rooms being papered and painted with much taste.
The outbuildings comprise kitchen and servants' room, with fowl-house, woodshed, &c. There are also several never-failing wells and two galvanized iron tanks of 450 gallons each, for collecting rain-water, in addition to a never-failing creek.
Nearly the whole of this estate is securely enclosed by fencing. The grounds, about 8 acres, including the house, are secured by an inner fence, and comprise garden, well-stocked orchard, and paddock of about 3 acres. In the latter are a stone-built stable, and a gardener's cottage of two rooms, built of weatherboard. 
It is scarcely possible to do justice to the charming and romantic beauty of the position of Cliffeton House and Grounds. Situated on a gentle eminence, with lawns and garden running down to a white sandy beach, and over-looking Vaucluse, and some of the choicest points on the southern shores of the harbour, it occupies an unsurpassed and most picturesque position. It also enjoys the general advantage of being easily accessible, both by land and water, a good road lending to it from Blue's Ferry. To an admirer of fishing and boating Cliffeton can hardly be recommended sufficiently, while as a sanatorium, or for public pleasure gardens, it would be almost impossible to select a finer or more healthy locality, or a property more eligible in every respect for such a purpose.
Plan on view at the Rooms. Advertising (1868, December 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13177733 

The same advertisement appears again in January 1869 with the appellation that at this auction, January 11th, "will positively be sold"and also that there is room for a hotel. In November Cliffton Cottage and grounds are advertised in the 'To Let' columns.

Joseph Westbrook, and this may be his son, also Joseph Westbrook, now on the property and in charge, writes regarding what a lack of fences may help occur

STRAY CATTLE ON THE NORTH SHORE. (1870, January 21). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60898936 

Meanwhile, people kept coming to the resort, now happily enabled in disembarking by a much better jetty and under the new lessee Duncan Butters, who built the dance pavilion in 1870, this one measuring 100 feet by 25 feet. Duncan Butters was a contractor and carpenter who was put to financial stress a few times during his construction career. He came to Australia from Scotland and in 1860 married Mary Ann, a daughter of William West, Ship Builder. In June 1869 the couple tragically lost their two year old son, David John. Although they were blessed with other boys and girls, a change of scenery may have been part of Mr. Butters reasons for taking on Clifton Gardens as an enterprise:

TO LET, or SELL, CLIFTON ESTATE,Chowder Bay, consisting of house, with 10 lofty rooms, hall, landing, cellars, detached kitchens, a two roomed cottage, and 66 acres of land ; a superabundance of the purest water, and plenty of fuel ; approached by a carriage road from St. Leonards in half an hour, or by boat from the city in same time. The house is a most substantial building, of brick and stone, with slated roof, and, having just undergone a thorough overhaul, is in perfect repair.
Rent, £60. Purchase of the freehold, £1200; two-thirds may remain on mortgage at 5 per cont. As a new and pleasant picnic field this property assuredly possesses features to attract which are unrivalled. The proprietor, at present residing on the premises, will be happy to show the property. Advertising (1870, March 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13202190 

Decayed Fish on Beaches.— The beaches of the different bays in our harbour are becoming more and more places of resort for those who delight in picnics— and their name is legion ; but a serious interference with the pleasure of excursions is to be found in the fact that a large quantity of putrid and poisonous fish are left on the beaches to fester in the sun, to disgust people by their unbearable stench, and to make it exceedingly dangerous for children to play on the shore, lest they should wound themselves with the fins of fish that contain an element of poison. At the present time the beach at Chowder Bay is strewn with cat fish, rejected by the fishermen who haul there. We are not aware whether there fa any authority by which this state of things can he remedied ; if there is, it ought to be enforced— and, if not, it should be created.TOWN AND COUNTRY. (1870, April 16). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166813474

Department of Lands,
Sydney, 29th. July, 1870.
NOTICE is hereby given, that application has been made by Mr. Joseph Westbrook, to erect a Jetty in front of his property at Chowder Bay, as particularized in the annexed description; and all persons interested are invited to state, within one month from this date, their objections, if any, to the proposed erection.
The Description referred to.
County of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby, at Chowder Bay, Port Jackson: Commencing on the high-water mark of Port Jackson, at a point about 1 ½ chains westerly from the north-western corner of the reserve at Gurugal head, and extending north-easterly about 60 feet. APPLICATION TO ERECT A JETTY IN CHOWDER BAY. (1870, August 26). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 1845. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article223531219 

Via the Kembla

(1870, November 5). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page12668316

DOWLING-STREET WESLEYAN SUNDAY-SCHOOL PICNIC.— A picnic of the Dowling-street Wesleyan Sunday, school children took place at Clifton Gardens, Chowder Bay, on Saturday last. The Vesta started with the children from Cowper wharf, Woolloomooloo Bay, at 9 o'clock. The steamer made various trips during the day, landing the visitors. Altogether there were about 400 or 500 persons in the gardens by 3 o'clock. Various amusements, without intermission except for luncheon, were entered into with spirit. All the party were landed in Sydney at a quarter-past 7, without any mishap. Everyone was highly delighted with the beatific Clifton Gardens, which is a new place of public resort. The proprietor, Mr. Butters, was very attentive and obliging. BREACH OF PROMISE CASE AT MELBOURNE. (1870, November 7).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107132238 

St. Andrew's Day.— The rule now enforced against public holidays being granted in the Government departments on St. Patrick's and St. Andrew's days, had the effect of rendering the festival this year a very partial holiday. In fact few of the citizens, except the members of the St. Andrew's Benevolent Society appeared to notice the festival. The members of the society named held their first annual picnic to Chouder Bay, where after being safely conveyed thither enjoyed themselves in the indulgence of athletic games, common to the Land of Cakes. A violinist and a few bag pipers discoursed during the day many national airs, whilst the Highland Fling and other national dances were well patronised. Shortly after 7 all were safely landed in Sydney. ADJOURNMENT OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. (1870, December 3).Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115292182 
Chowder Bay - circa 1870 - showing Clifton Hotel and new wharf, Image No.: a325034h, courtesy State Library of NSW
FINE PICNIC GROUNDS for Sunday Schools, etc., CLIFTON GARDENS, CHOWDER BAY. For terms apply to J. CORBETT, 95, King-street. Advertising (1870, December 19). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13210232 

Owing to the boisterous state of the weather, the steamers plying to Chowder Bay were unable to land passengers, who were therefore compelled to return to Sydney. Those who chose to produce the excursion tickets received the amount paid for them, but many persons did not apply for a refund of the money, and threw away the tickets when they landed. This was a chance for several observant 'larrikins' standing by, who, after picking up the tickets, applied for and obtained the excursion fare upon each one, and beat a retreat before the swindle was detected. Summary. (1870, December 31). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1860 - 1871), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166806074

Licensing Business.— Francis Lemele Oliver's license of the Bengal Arms, was removed to the Chowder Bay Hotel, at North Shore. WATER POLICE COURT. (1871, January 6). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129970042

LICENSING BUSINESS.—The following applications were granted, viz. :—Francis Lemeale Oliver, removal of license of the Bengal Arms, Bridge-street, to a house at Chowder Bay, North Shore, to be known as the Chowder Bay Hotel ; WATER POLICE COURT. (1871, January 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28418313

On the application of Francis L. Oliver, the license of  the Chowder Bay Hotel was transferred to Duncan Butters; WATER POLICE COURT. (1871, January 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28418137 

It is a singular fact, that while the beautiful harbor of Port Jackson is lauded by the colonists, and so generally patronised by holiday excursionists, so many of its charming nooks and windings remain unvisited and unexplored. The enterprise of those who cater for public enjoyment, is continually developing new spots of scenery to gratify the tastes of those who are best pleased with novelty. The many miles of winding river scenery afforded by the Lane Cove river, and the upper reaches of the Middle Harbour are prolific with these nooks, so gratifying to those who delight in picniçs and boat excursions, and these localities are almost unknown to most of our Sydney population. 

Another spot, which the Christmas holiday time has just brought into repute is Chowder Bay, of which we give an illustration. It is a well protected, rocky cove, lying to the north-east of Chowder Head, a sandstone promontory on the north shore of Port Jackson. The sandy beach at the head of the bay affords fine space for all kinds of active amusement, while its diversity of rock and woodland is acceptable to those whose enjoyment is of a less exuberant character. Visitors to Chowder Bay are within easy access of the fortifications now progressing on the north side of the harbour. CHOWDER BAY. (1871, February 18). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1853 - 1872), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63617987

The Annual Excursion will be made to Clifton Gardens. Chowder Bay, on THURSDAY, November 9th, Prince of Wales Birthday.
Particulars in a future issue. JOHN T. KENDALL, Gen. Sec. Advertising (1871, October 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129965873 

December 1871 – Duncan Butters:

(1871, December 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page1455696 
Clifton Gardens. Chowder Bay. — An excursion to this delightful locality was patronised by a large number of pleasure seekers, who, on their arrival, improvised picnics in the numerous shady nooks, while others rambled to the fortifications at George's Head. Rural sports were carried on throughout the day with unqualified success, and dancing to the enlivening strains of the full German Band that was engaged for the occasion, was the chief order of the day. The excursion was under the management of an energetic 'committee, who hired three steamers, the Cobra, Alchymist, and the Premier to convey the company to this beautifully situated recreation ground. Mr. Frank Smith, who is always successful in his undertakings, was the hon. treasurer, and it is sufficient to say that the affair came off' with equal éclat to any of the Burrangong Hotel arrangements. CLIFTON GARDENS. CHOWDER BAY.-An (1872, May 25). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114739307 

Thursday. (Before Mr. District Court Judge Simpson).
Mackenzie v Butters.— In this case, Frederick Kooff sued the defendant, Duncan Butters, In the name of the official assignee in his insolvent estate, to recover a turn of money, being half the amount of losses sustained in a speculation in which they were concerned as partners. Defendant is the owner of the pleasure grounds at Chowder Bay, and he and Kooff had entered Into an agreement to hire steamers to convey passengers to and from that place on certain holidays. Refreshments, acrobats, and other concomitants of pleasure seeking parties were provided, but the weather proving unfavourable, the speculation turned out to be a failure, and a loss was sustained, half of which Kooff sought to recover from defendant, he being a partner with him in the transaction. The case was postponed until tomorrow. DISTRICT COURT (1873, September 12).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107171849 

The New South Wales No. 2 Battery of Volunteer Artillery celebrated their anniversary on Tuesday by a very pleasant picnic to Chowder Bay, and an excellent dinner at the Oddfellows' Hall, Elizabeth-street, in the evening. The steamer Herald left the Circular Quay with the excursionists shortly after 10 o'clock a.m., the members of the battery going down to the above named picturesque and secluded spot with their wives and families to the number - of about 160 persons. Nothing could possibly be mere genial than the weather; the bright sunshine and invigorating breeze being all that could be desired. Arrived at Chowder, the party broke up into numerous merry groups; some dancing to the music of Bur-roughs and Murcutt's band, some playing cricket, some promenading, some roaming through the woods, and some visiting the adjacent fortifications. After a sufficient interval the entire party reassembled at the sound of the bugle, and, sitting down in the pavilion, did ample justice to an excellent repast provided by Compagnoni and Co., under the watchful superintendence of the committee. The chair was occupied by Lieutenant P. Talbot, commanding, who was supported on the right by Major Shepherd and Major Wilson, and on the left by Mr. William Beane. In the vice-chair sat lieutenant Anderson ; having on his right Captain Fahey, and hisleft Mr.-G. Talbot The chairman proposed the health of ‘Her Majesty the Queen,' which was drunk with the usual honours. The Defence Force. (1873, September 27). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 416. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162660428 

DONALD—LUKER—March 25, at Chowder Bay, by the Rev. J. A. Nolan, Thomas Steele Donald, to Amelia Luker, both of Sydney, New South Wales. Family Notices (1875, April 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13354566 

THE FRIENDS of Mr. DUNCAN BUTTERS, of Chowder Bay, are respectfully invited to attend the funeral of his beloved WIFE ; the procession to move from the Circular Quay, end of Pitt-street, THIS MORNING, at 10 o'clock, to Balmain Cemetery. Family Notices (1875, July 14). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13357056 

On the 27th June, by special license, at St. Andrew's Church, by the Rev. Mr. Dugall, Mr. Duncan Butters, of Scotland, to Mary Ann, second daughter of Mr. William West, of Union-street, Sydney. Family Notices (1860, June 29). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13042509

On the 13th instant, at his parents' residence, Moran-street,Pyrmont, David John, the beloved son of Duncan Butters, aged 2 years. Family Notices (1869, June 18). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60835663

BUTTERS. –July 12, at her residence, Clifton Gardens, Chowder Bay, Mary Anne, the beloved wife of Mr. Duncan Butters, and second daughter of Mr. William West, shipbuilder, of this city, after a short but painful illness of inflammation of the lungs, aged 32 years. Regretted by a large circle of friends. Family Notices (1875, July 17). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13357248 

Duncan Butters may well have wished to leave the place where he lost his wife. He passed away in July 1906, then resident in Alexander street, Hunter's Hill. The selling off of chunks of land

The well-known resort of pleasure-seekers.
W PRITCHARD has received instructions to sell by public auction, at his Rooms, 281, George-street, opposite Hunter-street, THIS DAY, Thursday, 23rd November, at 11 o'clock, Six acres one rood eighteen perches of land, having a frontage of about 479 feet to the hotel and pavilion grounds, 469 feet in an unreserved road, by a depth of 607 and 526 feet to a reserved road leading to the great military road. 
This property is well situated, and commands an excellent view of tho harbour, and surrounding country.
Title freehold.
Terms at sale. 
Advertising (1876, November 23). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13383989 

In the matter of Duncan Butters, a special examination under summons Mr. H. P. Bradley appeared for the official assignee. The insolvent was examined, and deposed that he had filed his schedule in 1864:
since his insolvency he had got other property; he had a building at Balmain worth about £1100, and leasehold property at Chowder Bay, which he leased from Mr. Westbrook, the lease had about six years to run, at a rental of £80 a year, and he had tried to sell for £2000 he got £1000 for his interest in that lease from Mr. Thompson, he had an interest in some property at Ryde, 30 acres, which he had purchased, but which had not been conveyed to him as yet, he had to pay £700, and had paid about a third; the deeds of the Balmain property were in the Savings Bank, and the bank had a mortgage over that property of £500; the whole of the £1000 he got from Mr. Thompson he paid away; he made a deposit of £13, on two allotments of land at Mortlake, Parramatta River, he had a small sum in the Union Bank; he gave Mr. Marshall a note of hand for £40 to settle with the assignee, and handed over the lease to Mr. Thompson. INSOLVENCY COURT.—MONDAY. (1880, September 28). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13468918 
From Album: Sketches in New South Wales and Victoria, 1855-1882 / by J.B. Henderson CREATOR J. B. (John Black) Henderson, 1827-1918. 3-4. Chowder Bay, 1878. Images no: a8641004h and a8641003h. Courtesy State Library of NSW.

The Thompson Family Decades

As shown above Mr. Duncan Butters sold his leasehold to Mr. David Thompson in September 1880 and Mr. Thompson bought the property in 1886. Mr. Joseph Westbrook passed away in 1887.

Clifton Gardens map, c.1888 - courtesy Mosman Local Studies Collection, Barry O’Keefe Library

David Thompson gives us another link between the beautiful bay of Clifton Gardens and Pittwater as Mr. Thompson was also a Captain in his former career prior to taking over Clifton Gardens who was associated most with the steamer Kembla, a vessel which made frequent trips here and to the Hawkesbury during the 1880's as well as to Clifton Gardens.

David Thompson had a lot of get up and go, an apparently fiery temper, and is the gentleman responsible for turning a ten room cottage that was then converted and used as a hotel into something much grander - as well as other 'improvements'.

Among the records that describe these changes are one that states the series of 'hotels' were built on top of the same site or place as the original cottage placed there by Captain Edmund Cliffe. Although this statement is mixed with a few inaccuracies regarding dates, it does come from a descendant of this builder-up of Clifton and therefore deserves some credence:

Sir,-In reply to the letter of Mr J H M Abbott appearing in jour column of July 4 instant on the 'Initials on the Rock ' LM, 1840 leading from the ferry wharf to the roadway near the entrance gate at Chowder Bay, the whole mark denoted a boundary, and Is a surveyors landmark on the Chowder Bay alignment. This runs across diagonally from the beach in a north-westerly direction over the gully to Mr. Hunters vacant land acquired by the Commonwealth Government about the year 1920. In the year 1840, Captain Clifton, an officer In the Imperial Army, received a grant of 56 acres embracing a good portion of the water-frontage extending round Taylor Bay, including a large portion of land on the heights of Chowder Bay. Captain Clifton built a large two-story house on the site where the hotel now stands. The property, of 56 acres, was sold some 15 years later to a gentleman residing in England, named Mr. Westbrook. He subsequently decided to sell the property, the same being auctioned by Messrs Richardson and Wrench in the year 1879. The successful purchaser was the late Captain David Thompson in the year 1886, who had the 56 acres surveyed and put under Torrens Title. He built the new hotel on the present site, where Captain Clifton built his first residence The picnic grounds were previously known as Chowder Bay, but after the erection of the new hotel and pavilion it was decided in 1886, in order to perpetuate the name of the first owner, Captain Clifton, that the name of Chowder Bay should go. Henceforth, it was to be known as Clifton Gardens
I am, etc.,
FRANK THOMPSON. Croydon, July 4. LETTERS (1934, July 9). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17097093 
CHOWDER BAY, SYDNEY HARBOUR. (1885, December 19). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 17. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64036790
Clifton Gardens, alike all places accessible by steamer then, was prey to that lamentable tide of gangs called 'pushes' and the 'larrikins' which then filled them. Clearly at base just cowards, these mobs would descend in a large crowd on places where families gathered, such as Manly, and rob people, assault people and do their best to exhibit the worst language they could warble. Their female partners, called 'molls' as many were supposedly engaging in prostitution or using their female charms to entice men to dark alleys where they could be robbed, were a scourge that began in the 1870's and went on into the 1890's. They were basically criminals, many of them young, who thought they should be in charge wherever they went.

At present we are mid-row of a run on some of Australia's formative early poets who had a love and long association with Manly. One of these Emile Theodore Argles, is said to have been at the centre of The Bulletin case which came to court as a libel against a place similar to Clifton Gardens in the 1880's, at Clontarf, where the article published stated matter of factly this place had become unsuitable for families due to being overrun by 'unsavoury sorts' - including 'molls' - which reads like the place had become a ground such 'pushes' had taken over. Another of these pages on Manly Bards and poets, Victor Daley, has some information on how Manly residents dealt with the influx of those who would overrule such places.

The word 'larrikin', now a term we may use with some affection, was actually a definition for a hoodlum, or 'rowdy'. What the reports record over and over is their starting fights anywhere they went with everyone there - especially in places where families had gathered and women and children could be put at risk.

Captain Thompson had to deal with such people and this also affected his business in more ways than the apparent one of scaring would-be picnickers from visiting the place. He, or his son when he took over running the place around 1895-1896, finally resorted to vetting those who would board the steamers on the city side of the harbour, but even then, some of these criminals snuck through:

The Holiday Disturbers.
At the Water Police Court yesterday afternoon, David Thompson, the landlord of the hotel at Chowder Bay, pleaded guilty to four charges of resisting and assaulting the police. The statement of the police was to the effect that Constable Skinner had arrested a man named Blair for riotous behaviour, and with Constable Herrington was removing him to the police boat, when the defendant intercepted them and incited the prisoner to resist. He then caught Skinner by the throat, and; Skinner in turn seized him by the throat. Herrington and constable Dandas went to Skinner's assistance, and the prisoner, who is a powerful man, assaulted both in turn before he was placed in the police boat. Mr. Low stated that the prisoner had on all previous occasions assisted the police. He was under the influence of liquor, and had made a mistake in the present occasion, and he, therefore, asked the bench to deal leniently with him. The bench fined him in all .£20, or in default eight months imprisonment. The fines were aportioned as follows: — resisting Constable Skinner in the execution of His duty £5, or two months; assaulting Constable Skinner £5. or two months ; assaulting Constable Herrington £5, or two months ; assaulting Constable Dandas £5, or two months. The Holiday Disturbers. (1882, January 28). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107989122 

Chowder Bay.
The landlord of the Chowder Bay Hotel, with reference to the disturbances at Chowder on Anniversary Day, writes that he is a colonist of 27 years standing, and had never been before a court previous to this occasion. He had 84 picnics this season, which were conducted in the most orderly manner. On Thursday, anticipating a number of larrikins to arrive by a boat, he went to the jetty to prevent them landing and found that a fight was going on. He rushed into the crowd to dispense the combatants, and accidentally elbowed a constable, when he was immediately arrested for interfering with the police in the execution of their duty. He adds that he had always assisted to, preserve order, as several constables could testify, hence he resisted what he considered to be an unwarrantable interference with his liberty. Chowder Bay. (1882, January 30). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article107988627 

David Thompson, the proprietor of the Chowder Hotel, Sydney, has been fined £20 for permitting music and dancing in his grounds at Chowder Bay on St. Patrick's Day. Thompson previously had a license, but a recent application for a renewal was refused. TOWN TALK. (1882, March 27). Geelong Advertiser (Vic. : 1859 - 1929), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article150632151 

Music on Pleasure Grounds.
David Thompson, licensee of the Clifton Arms Hotel, Chowder Bay, appeared yesterday afternoon at the Water Police Court to answer a charge of permitting music on his licensed premises whilst open to the public. Mr. Roberts, who appeared for the defence, objected to the information, contending that the grounds where the music was played did not mean or include the ‘premises' which only came within the meaning of the Act. After some argument, Mr. Dillon was of opinion that the words 'licensed premises' confined the offence strictly, to the house, and under the circumstance the bench would dismiss' the complaint, but a fresh, information could be issued. Mr. Roberts pointed out that the time within which a fresh summons could be issued, cine month, had lapsed. He was also prepared to prove that the licensee of the hotel had no control whatever over the adjacent grounds, which were leased by other parties. Music on Pleasure Grounds. (1882, May 12). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108203132 

Hotel Licences Refused
David Thompson, landlord of the Clifton Hotel, Chowder Bay, made an application for a renewal of his license. Objections were also filed by the police in this case, on the ground that on all public holidays the hotel and grounds were visited by larrikins and larrikinesses, who disturbed the peace of the neighbourhood. Mr. Roberts, sen., appeared for the applicant, and contended that his client had tried as far as possible to keep his hotel free from notorious characters. Evidence was called to show that the applicant had endeavoured to conduct his hotel in a proper manner. The bench, stated that they did not think it was to the public interest that the hotel was kept open so long, and refused the application. Hotel Licenses Refused. (1883, June 22).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111032122 

Despite this ongoing challenge, and there would be more to come, David Thompson is the gentleman who turned something small into something great and is responsible for the building of those large structures mostly associated with Clifton Gardens when thousands were vsiitng daily and everyone had their annual picnic there, where a Sunday School or a large organisation where thousands of people and their families were treated to a great day out. 

David Thompson's dreams may have been realised in part on Saturday December 12th 1885, with the opening of the brand new Marine Hotel as he had turned what had been a picnic grounds into a fully fledged resort:

Marine Hotel, Chowder Bay.
The Marine Hotel, a handsome building, erected by Mr. D. Thompson, the owner of the pleasure grounds at Chowder Bay, was opened on Saturday afternoon. About fifty ladies and gentlemen responded to the invitations to be present, and at noon the steamer Meteor left the quay with the party. After an oyster lunch, the building was inspected, and the general opinion appeared to be that as regarded situation, lofty, well appointed bed and sitting rooms, and pleasant surroundings, the Marine Hotel had no equal in the colony. 

During the afternoon a banquet, prepared on the premises under the direction of the host and hostess, was served in one of the dining rooms, an apartment 40 x 20 feet. Mr. Mackay presided. 'The Queen,' &c., having been toasted, the chairman proposed the toast of 'The Host,' which was received with cheers. Mr. D. Thompson responded. The other toasts were 'The Architects,' 'Builders,' 'Ladies,' 'Press,' and 'Chairman.' 

The Marine Hotel, which occupies a commanding site on a wooded height of the bay, presents a most imposing appearance, which is farther enhanced by the dense bush with which it is surrounded. The building is in the Italian style of architecture, and is three storeys in height, with a balcony 59ft in length and 9ft wide to each. From the balconies a splendid view of the harbor is obtained. 

Rising from the centre of the building is a turret fitted with Louvre windows, and surmounted by a flagpole. This turret is intended for ventilating purposes; but there is at all times sufficient fresh cool air in the house to render artificial ventilation unnecessary. The frontage of the hotel is 116ft, and the average depth 60ft. It is 50ft in height from the ground level, and the site is some 100ft above the sea level. 

There are three entrances to the building and three staircases, the principal one being very handsome and of massive design. The flights are 6ft wide, and the width of the corridors is 14ft. Stained windows light each landing and the passages. The basement floor is devoted principally to the bar, dining-rooms, &c. The dining rooms have been arranged specially for the convenience of picnic parties. The bar is large and most elaborately fitted up. On the first floor there are a bridal chamber and drawing room, very handsomely furnished, and also a number of bed and sitting rooms for boarders, a billiard room (40 by 20ft), reading room, &c. The second floor is similarly arranged and furnished. There are altogether forty-five apartments, exclusive of servants' quarters, &c, and all are lofty, bright, well ventilated, and furnished. Hot and cold water is supplied throughout the building, and the matter of drainage has been carefully attended to. Lavatories, bath rooms, &c, with modern improvements, are fitted throughout the house. 

Marine Hotel, Clifton Gardens, Mosman, c.1890. Courtesy Mosman Local Studies Collection, Barry O’Keefe Library

All the rooms either open on to a balcony, or have a fine harbor view from wide windows. The cellars are cut out of the solid sandstone, and are exceedingly dry and spacious. The building and foundations are of brick with cement. 

The architect's were Messrs. O. H. Lewis and Son, and the builders Messrs. Eaton Bros. The amount of money expended so far in building and improvements has been between £11,000 and £12,000; but a farther expenditure is to be entailed in improving the grounds round the house (there are fifty-eight acres). 

Some seven acres are to be turfed for a cricket lawn tennis, and sports ground. Terraces, laid with grass, and planted with shrubs and flowers, are to be formed from the house to the lower level ground below, and a seawall and promenade along the beach are to be formed. The Marine Hotel should not only prove one of the most beautiful places about the city, but also be a favorite picnic resort. The pavilion is now completed, except a few fittings. This is a very large building, 200ft by 30ft, and 30ft high. In the centre are three large Louvre turrets for ventilation. Balconies 9ft 6in wide extend right round, and command a view of the harbor and country. Underneath there is a wide promenade, from which access is gained to the ballroom by large eliding doors. Ladies and gentlemen's cloak rooms, &c., are provided. The pavilion, which, is named Thompson's Port Jackson Pavilion, is quite an attractive object from seaward. Marine Hotel, Chowder. (1885, December 14 - Monday). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article111343280 

Chowder Bay.
CHOWDER is a delightful little bay, situated on the west side of Sydney Harbour, and not more than about fifteen minutes steaming distance of Circular Quay. Its entrance on both sides is guarded by rocky heads, but once inside them is a delightful little bay, with smooth placid water, bounded by a sandy beach, semi-circular in form, and about a quarter of a mile in extent. At the back of the beach the hills rise rather abruptly until the table-land, through which the military road to the various forts runs, is reached. The land, which is bounded by the bay, to the extent of some 50 acres, is the property of Mr. David Thompson, by whom it was purchased in 1880. 

Mr Thompson has gone to vast expense in beautifying the grounds, with the result that the charming spot, always pleasant and picturesque, has considerably increased in popularity as a place for picnics. There is a large pavilion for dancing, and the grounds abound with swings, roundabouts, and other means of entertaining both young and old. 

In addition to these improvements Mr. Thompson has just erected a large and commodious hotel, which is in every respect a very handsome structure. The building has a frontage of 113 feet, by 108 feet in depth. It consists of three stories, and contains 63 rooms of various sizes. 

The building has been erected from designs by Mr. O. H. Lewis, who has also superintended the work. The contractors are Messrs. Eaton Brothers. There are handsome balconies, hot and cold water baths, and the most modern devices for securing the best sanitary and ventilating effects have been utilized, and altogether the hotel, which is the largest in the neighbourhood, is a credit in every respect to the proprietor, the architect, and the contractors. The cost of the structure exceeds £15,000. 

The handsome new pavilion will accommodate about 5,000 persons. Mr. Thompson has imported a bathing machine from England, by means of which visitors may enjoy a bath in the sea with perfect security, and without fear of sharks. The machine is so contrived, and is fitted with such ingenious appliances, that on being wheeled out into the water, a frame is lowered which reaches from the bottom to the top of the water, and the bather, completely surrounded, is as safe as in a plunge bath in his own home. The Meteor and other steamers run regularly to Chowder from Circular Quay. Our illustration gives a capital view of the pleasant little spot, and also shows the position of the new hotel. 

Chowder Bay. (1885, December 19).Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 11. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64036766 

His Excellency Lord Carrington is to be entertained by the members of the Royal Sydney Yacht Squadron this afternoon. The yachts will rendezvous in Farm Cove at 1 pm., and will then proceed to Chowder Bay, where they will be put through a number of evolutions, under the command of the commodore. The crews will then go ashore to the pavilion, where the Governor will be entertained at luncheon. A large gathering is anticipated, and the affair promises to be most successful. SAILING NOTES. (1886, February 6).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 38. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71072974 

Apparently one imported bathing machine as not enough as this article shows - or perhaps the plaintiff was bedazzled by all that had arisen before his eyes just months previously:

(Before Mr. District Court Judge WILKINSON.)
This case, in which the plaintiff. H. Greenfield, sued David Thompson, of the Marine Hotel, Chowder Bay, for £100-as payment for two patent safety bathing machines, made, as alleged, to the order of the defendant-was resumed, Mr. Field appearing for the plaintiff, and Mr. Coffee for the defendant, the council for the plaintiff represented that Greenfield had involved himself in considerable outlay in undertaking the manufacture of the machines-the cost for which alone amounting to £20, whilst labour employed came to about £60 additional. The defendant had ordered the machine as a speculation, and it was submitted-that the plaintiff's story was therefore quite probable, since there were 66 rooms in the hotel, and as Chowder Bay in the summer months was frequented by thousands of visitors, there would be ample use for three bathing machines. For the defence it was urged, that even according to the plaintiff's evidence, no order was given until the first machine was delivered, and neither acceptance nor receipt of any part payment made by the defendant could be produced. The plaintiff, on the contrary, had been asked by the defendant, three or four weeks after the delivery of the first machine, whether he would buy it back, a fact which he submitted was utterly inconsistent with the plaintiff's story that two more machines had been ordered. The evidence for the defence also made it clear that the plaintiff was granted by defendant the use of the beach in order to advertise the machines. His Honor nonsuited the plaintiff with costs. METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COURT. (1886, March 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28360757 

That wasn't all David Thompson did to keep his visitors happy and safe - when 'roller-skating' was all the rage, which younger readers would call rollerblading today, he adapted his premises and continued to thrive:

The various skating rinks in the city and suburbs were all well patronised on Saturday by the devotees of this health-ful exercise. The Grand Crystal Palace Skating Rink in York-street, under the management of Mr. Wyburd, offers in addition to u splendid floor many other attractions for visitors, and a grand masquerade skating ball and carnival is to be given on Tuesday, September 18. The Sydney Elite Skating Rink, opposite the Exhibition Building, has also become quite a fashionable place of resort, and the performances given there nightly by Miss Mabel Sylvester, have been watched with great interest. Miss Sylvester will appear for tho last time at this rink to-night. Roller-skating has also been largely popularised in Newtown through the excellent accommodation provided at the St. George's Hall Rink.

A new feature in the attractions at Chowder Bay takes tho form of a skating rink, which has been erected at considerable cost by the proprietor of Chowder Hotel, Mr. Thompson, and will be opened to the public on Monday, the 8th October next. The building, which is 160ft. in length by 60ft. wide, is fitted with sliding doors on both sides, making the place nice and cool, the floor being specially prepared of the best pine. SKATING RINKS. (1888, September 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13696251

From George's Head, a long, sweeping indentation includes Chowder and Taylor Bays, which offer no special points for comment other than that Chowder Bay used to form one of the most popular picnic resorts, especially for the annual gatherings of societies. It offers great inducements to family parties, on account of its being adjacent to the city, and the heavy sea-roll being avoided. Some time ago its proprietor erected one of the most spacious pavilions in the colony, but this has recently been converted into a skating-rink, to fall in with the popular craze. SYDNEY: ITS HARBOUR AND BAYS. (1888, October 25). Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article63621256

The Sydney Morning Herald
THE annual reunion of the Engineering Association was held at Chowder Bay on Saturday, when Sir Henry Parkes delivered an address. DURING his speech at Chowder Bay on Saturday the Premier stated that he had always been in favour of the elective principle in the constitution of the Upper House, and pointed out the defects of the present system of nomination. The Sydney Morning Herald (1889, December 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13751730 

Maliciously Wounding.
At the St. Leonards Police Court yesterday before Mr. B. Lee, Francis Gray charged David Thompson with maliciously wounding him on the head at Chowder Bay on Easter Monday, and the evidence went to show that Gray, who is a, boy of 16, went out in a yacht to Clontarf on the Saturday preceding Easter Monday to encamp there. While returning to Sydney they went into Chowder Bay where they landed. A row occurred between Gray and thirteen other lads who formed the yachting crew. In the midst of it they saw Thompson, who is the owner of Chowder, coming, and sung out 'Here's Thompson.' They turned round to walk away when he was struck on the head with a stick by Thompson. Gray fell down senseless, and had to be taken to Sydney to the Infirmary where he was attended to by. Dr. Wade. Three policemen saw the occurrence, and gave evidence for the prosecution. The defendant was fined £5, £1 1s professional costs, and £1 1s medical costs, or four months' imprisonment. Maliciously Wounding. (1890, April 25).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128773734 

Refused For Chowder Bay.
Comments by the Magistrate.
In though licensing division of the Water Police Court to-day, before Mr. B. Lee, L.M., a number of booth and billiard licenses and music permits were granted. David Thompson applied for two booth licenses for Chowder Bay on Boxing Day and New Year's Day. Mr. Leo said : — I will refuse this application. This place has become a perfect pandemonium. It is but a place where the scum of the city is collected, and where, by the granting of these licenses, they are given facilities for getting drunk and committing outrages. It is not in the interests of justice or society that these places should he allowed to sell drink at all, for they are a disgrace to those who frequent them. I would put my foot down on all such applications, for it is evident that they are only the means of creating crime. When the court was closed Mr. Thompson naked his Worship to reconsider his decision. Mr. Lee said: — "If I had my way I would not allow you to sell drink at Chowder Bay at all, and would not even allow you to have a publican's license there. The place, as I have already said, is nothing hut a place of such a description that it ought to be put down altogether. I have no desire to in any way conceal my opinion about the way I would deal with such resorts." HARBOR BOOTH LICENSES. (1890, December 24). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article227466974 

This may have seemed to be a blessing at first, and as more 'larrikins' turned up at this party, and turned it into the opposite, it can be seen that the public may have been well fed up with such antics by then as the males among their numbers who were not bent on hurting everyone else sprang to the defence of those present:

For a considerable time the executive officers of the H.A.C.B.S. have been in negotiation with Mr. David Thompson, of Chowder Bay; with the view of leasing from him those charming pleasure-grounds. To decide this proposal a full representative meeting of the society was held at the League rooms -on last Sunday (says the Sydney Freeman of 13th September). Mr. John Toohey was in the chair. Mr. Kew explained to the meeting the action in trying to secure a lease of Chowder Bay grounds for all public holidays for picnic purposes. He was pleased to inform the meeting that Mr. Thompson had let them his grounds on what seemed to very favourable terms, and that the agreement was completed in every respect, and only required-the approval of the meeting that the agreement might be signed- he further stated that since the agreement made terms were' offered them for the use at Athol Gardens. .He stated the terms, was finally decided to sign the agreement for Chowder Bay.... 
and the Labour Day Executive expressed their grateful thanks to the Hibernian for their generous... he promised to send ... the society to make the picnic memorable. Intercolonial. (1890, September 27).Advocate (Melbourne, Vic. : 1868 - 1954), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168053324 

During the Hibernian picnic at Chowder Bay yesterday, the larrikins were engaged in gambling when the police interfered, but were immediately set upon and received severe handling.
The disturbance spread with alarming rapidity, and several civilians assisted the police. They were met with a storm of sticks and stones, &c. Men were knocked down and trampled under foot, women and children were shrieking and crying, and fled to the steamers and other places of safety. The hotel keeper closed his bar, and a number of drunken men joined the infuriated crowd. The severity of the struggle increased, the roughs keeping up a dangerous fusillade on the crowd from the heights, with volleys of stones and palings dragged from the fences. Trees were also used as implements of offence and defence, and men were felled in every direction. A number of larrikenesses joined in the riot, and encouraged the men to fight; a body of police were telegraphed for, and upon their arrival succeeded in quelling the riot. The excitement continued intense, and the police effected a number of arrests in all directions. About 46 of the ringleaders were arrested, several females among the number. A number of persons were more or less injured during the melee. A RIOT AT CHOWDER BAY. (1890, October 7). Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (NSW : 1851 - 1904), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article65346715 

Serious Larrikin Riot.
One of those serions larrikin riots for which some of the harbor resorts have on public holidays been noted, occurred at Chowder Bay on Eight-hour Day. It must, however, be distinctly borne in mind that it had nothing whatever to do with the labor question, but was solely caused by some of the larrikin bands or ''pushes," as they delight to call themselves, who at times break out and make things generally unpleasant for the public. The Hibernian A.C.B. Society held a picnic there on Monday, and about 5000 persons attended it. Amongst the crowd were a horde of larrikins from some of the purlieus of the city. Shortly before 2 p.m. a number of larrikins refused to desist from playing "pitch-and-toss," and Constables Murphy (Mossman's Bay) and Burke (Balmain), the only two of the force present, sought to make an arrest. 

At once there was a dense crush, and stones, bottles, and sticks were hurled at the unfortunate constables. Men, women, and children were knocked down, crushed, and trodden on, and complete panic set in. Some civilians and a couple of artillerymen went to the assistance of the constables ; but all were much knocked about. Meanwhile, Mr. Thompson, the licensee of the hotel, cleared his bar, closed the house, and telephoned to Sydney for police. To add to the rioting a number of larrikinesses joined in the fray and urged on their companions. As soon as the police launch was seen approaching a stampede was made for the bush but the ringleaders had been carefully marked, and as soon as the police, a dozen in number, under Inspector Hyam landed, they promptly made arrests, handcuffed the "wanteds," and sent in all 43 men and three women to the Water Police cells. The prisoners were dealt with by Mr. Addison on the following day, and received sentences of from one week up to four months' gaol. Some of the men were remanded. The conduct of the two artillerymen and the civilians who assisted the police was highly spoken of, and also that of Constables Burke and Murphy. Serious Larrikin Riot. (1890, October 11).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 44. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71182917 

There is a little more on the career of Mr. Burke under 'Extras', including a reference to Mr. David Thompson keeping one of this ripped off a tree branches by his bar ever afterwards. Just one more article on the widely reported incident:

Serious Riot at Chowder.
The Eight-hour Day of 1890 has been signalised by one of the most serious disturbances that has occurred in the vicinity of Sydney for many a long day, although it must be noted that it had nothing to do with the labor question which has been disturbing the public mind. Part of yesterday's holiday programme was the Hibernian A.C.B. Society's picnic to Chowder Bay, the proceeds of which were to go to the Labor Defence Fund. Fully 6000 people flocked to the favorite water-side resort, and each boat leaving Sydney in the forenoon took large crowds of pleasure seekers. Men, women, and children were among the crowd, and those who set out for a day of merriment little thought now their amusement would be interrupted. Two or three athletic events had been disposed of by half-past 1 o'clock, and scattered picnic parties were to be seen in every direction, enjoying the holiday in true Australian style. Suddenly, in the neighborhood of the pavilion, where dancing was going on to the lively strains of a brass band, there was a RUSH AND SCUFFLE. This was caused by the two policeman on duty interfering with a gang of larrikins engaged in playing ' pitch and toss.' The police requested the gang to desist from the pursuit of their unlawful game, but were met with a defiant refusal, and when an attempt was made to effect an arrest the two constables, named respectively Murphy (Mossmans Bay) and Burke (Balmain), were set upon and hustled.

Seeing there was a row in progress THE CROWD RUSHED towards the pavilion, and the police, who were near the entrance to the large building, got into the thick of two seething mobs— one consisting of the dancers anxious to get out of the pavilion and the others the outsiders wishing to 'see the fun.' The outside crush was the heaviest; and, despite his frantic efforts one of the constables was swept through the doorway. He was then AT THE MERCY OF THE ROUGHS, and received a severe handling. Numbers of men and women then came into the open, and the disturbance spread with alarming rapidity, and several persons who gallantly went to the assistance of the police were met with STICKS, STONES, AND CUSSES on every hand. Men were knocked down and trampled under foot without any possibility of their friends assisting them, and while shrieking women, often with children in their arms, fled to the wharf, where two steamers were moored, others in the panic rushed to the heights above the bay. Mr. Thompson, the proprietor of the Port Jackson Hotel, as soon as he saw the row spreading, with great presence of mind cleared his bar and closed the doors. The persons who had been there drinking then joined the crowd, and as each additional body of, in many cases half drunken, men joined the infuriated crowd in and around the pavilion, the severity of the struggle increased. A number of roughs, who apparently did not care to get to close quarters with the police and those helping them on the level ground, took up positions on and around the steep pathway leading to the hotel, and, with a plentiful supply of stones to hand, kept up A DANGEROUS FUSILADE on the crowd below. Among the most willing assistance rendered to the two constables then engaged in the battle was that they received at the hands of two gunners of the Permanent Artillery ; but it is feared that one of them at least will carry scars as a result of his bravery. Meantime Mr. Thompson had opened up telephonic communication with Sydney, and shortly after half-past 2 a request was received at headquarters for police assistance. Most of the constables in reserve at the Water Police Station were at once dispatched, Inspector Hyam going in charge. The news soon spread that the police from Sydney had been called out, and as if with the intention of doing as much damage as possible before they arrived, the larrikin element displayed itself with even greater certainty than it had previously done. Palings were dragged from fences, and limbs of trees were eagerly seized upon as weapons, and in some instances men went to the length of wielding both stone and glass bottles. Men were KNOCKED DOWN IN ALL DIRECTIONS. But, strange to say, no fatalities are reported. Round the outskirts of the fight the scene of confusion was made more confusing by the exceedingly riotous conduct of large parties of larrikinesses, who, while throwing stones and fighting anybody and everybody near them, yelled out words of encouragement to the men more closely engaged in the riot. The place was a perfect pandemonium at 3 o'clock, but a few minutes later the boat carrying the police from Sydney entered the bay, and their appearance had a most astonishing effect on the rioters. In a moment there was a stampede for the bush, but it was of small avail, for the ringleaders in the disturbance had been 'spotted' by Constables Murphy and Burke and their assistants, who, encouraged and re-invigorated by the knowledge that they then had a strong force be hind them, at once commenced to make arrests. The reinforcement of police was quickly landed, and without any delay were ordered to scatter about the grounds. This they did most effectually, and although there was still a lot of excitement there was no more rioting. Those who could be identified were taken in custody, handcuffed, and conveyed to Sydney in the police launch. At the same time there was a great desire on the part of everybody at Chowder to get back to Sydney, and the steamers crowded rapidly; in fact, they were rushed, and it was with, difficulty they got away from the wharf. The scene was one of awful confusion, especially among the women, many of whom had several children with them, and it yet remains to be seen what injuries have been suffered by persons quite innocent of creating or taking part in the riot. 
About 4 o'clock 'the Water Police Court was so thronged with prisoners that the front door had to be closed, greatly to the annoyance of a crowd that had assembled outside, all apparently anxious to know what was going on inside. The prisoners were brought in in batches, all handcuffed, and it took a considerable length of time to get their names, ages, occupations, and other particulars entered in the charge-sheet. After the first dozen or two had been passed through into the cells the greater number of them commenced singing comic songs in a loud, triumphant, and defiant tone. They were nearly all young and decently clad; and very few of them seemed to be aware of the position in which they had placed themselves. After the prisoners had been safely placed under lock and key the police at the station seemed at a loss to understand what the unusual occurrence really meant, for there had been no time for explanations. So great, apparently, was the surprise created in the lockup, that the usual customs were departed from, and the reporters were prevented from even getting the meagre details always placed at their disposal. Even the name of tine prisoners were refused ; but it transpired that up to 4.30 p.m. 22 prisoners had been lodged in the cells. Serious Riot at Chowder. (1890, October 7). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113745515 

The collator of this page, having witnessed a youth who ended up dying as the result of a rock fight on school grounds when much much younger, holds no sympathy with these young fools - they were fortunate they didn't kill anyone, although, as the article points out, some were scarred physically that day. Would they still have been 'singing in the cells' had they killed someone?

The amount of people on the grounds is astonishing too - 6000 in one place on just one occasion may indicate Clifton Gardens, when not a destination young would-be criminals were trying to lord it over, must have been a place that provided much pure joy to thousands each month and every year - for decades. As is the universal case worldwide then, and now, people will not be intimidated by those who seek to impose darkness where light reigns. People continued to flock to the gardens in defiance of such 'rowdyism' and, as time has proved with the definition now ascribed to a 'larrikin' - all becomes much more rosy, and what was really going gets lost, when viewed from afar or if there is a penny to be made:

"Friends were saying good-bye, good-bye;
Tears were falling from every eye,
Griffo had a rock
In the toe of a sock
As me push sailed away for Chowder,"
Charlie Fanning, burnt cork artist, used to score heavily with the ballad, so topical was the allusion to Chowder Bay among his audiences at the Tivoli. But now Chowder Bay pavilion, landmark of a day that is past, is in the hands of the wreckers. The land abutting on Chowder Bay was known as Thompson's Estate. More than half a century ago the owners decided to clear the scrub and turn the cosy little cove into a pleasure resort for the rapidly-growing population of Sydney. A dance hall was built on the flat, a small hotel on the hill, and all and sundry were invited to come along and make merry. The "pushes," consisting of young men who called their girls "kliners," responded with enthusiasm. 
Every Comfort 
In the interval between dances, beer would be freely drunk in the hotel on the hill, while those who preferred a fight in the pavilion soon started one. A "kliner" was usually selected to make a casus belli. The "blokes" usually danced in their singlets, and if they did not wear singlets they danced in their shirts. They were, therefore, all ready for the fray. When it was thought that this particular form of diversion was fizzling out, the police would walk in quietly and gather up the worst cases, the merrymakers would get back to normal, the kliners would soothe their heroic blokes, and then they would go on with the dance. DAY OF THE "PUSHES" (1933, July 2).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article231431623 

The development of Harbour Defences accounts for the structure you can see in many Chowder Bay images at the opposite end of the beach - and perhaps a little caution for those steering steamers to the resort - a little more on the development of Harbour Defences under 'Extras'. The article below gives us a date for the appearance of this structure:

The New Torpedo Station at Chowder Bay.
Our illustrations this week include one of the new torpedo station at Chowder Bay, which has been established under the direction of Colonel de Wolski, R.E., Director of Military Works for New South Wales. Many of our readers have become aware of most of the deficiencies which have been discovered in regard to our defences, and there are few who are not familiar with the disclosures made in Parliament by Dr. Creed in regard to the damage done to torpedo cable and other appliances in consequence of the absence of suitable places in which to store the War materiel. The advent of Colouel de Wolski to these shores was signalised by a ruthless scrutiny into nearly everything pertaining to our defences. He was not satisfied with merely examining or inspecting the fortifications, but had walls pierced and materials probed, and the story he told as the result of his analyses was a most discouraging one. Hardly anything came up to the Colonel's ideal, which not a few feared was so high as to be quite unattainable. Now, however, he has had an opportunity of doing something of a constructive character, and the result is to leave no doubt on the minds of anyone that the standard which Colonel de Wolski always has before him, although a high one, is quite possible of realisation. He has proved that this is so in regard to the new torpedo station which has been erected ' at Chowder Bay. 

Hitherto the gear and appliances required by the Submarine Miners in connection with the protection of the entrance to the harbour have been kept at a store at Berry's Bay, which was not only ill adapted for the purposes to which it was applied, but was a considerable distance from the fortifications. It is obvious to anyone that, instead of being at so great a distance from the site where they will be required, all the mines, &c., should be at the place where they can most readily be brought into use. This, in the opinion of the military authorities, is Chowder Bay. 

The site chosen is at the north-east section of the bay, and being in a condition of nature it had to be prepared so that the necessary approaches could be made and buildings erected. A considerable area of the foreshores, was reclaimed, an esplanade formed, a jetty erected, and the rocky slopes excavated in terrace like form. It is either against or upon these terraces that the. principal buildings have been erected but their design and situation are such that anyone looking at them from the bay would almost fancy that he was looking at one complete instead of several structures. Close examination shows that there axe practically two main buildings, one at the back of the other, the uppermost being a little to the east of the other. The top bunding includes a large lecture and class rooms, and one walks out of it on to a kind of piazza, asphalted and bounded by a dwarf wall and palisading. This piazza embraces a portion of the roof of the lower buildings, and was designed for a parade ground for the Submarine Miners. It seems to be admirably adapted for the purposes to which it is intended to apply it. From tins elevated parade ground can be obtained a magnificent panoramic view of the harbour. 

The lower building, which is divided into two storeys, is constructed so as to be used for stores, the ground floor being specially designed for housing torpedoes, mines, Arc., and the first floor for the thousand and one appliances used in connection with torpedo warfare. On the level of the ground floor there is an extensive yard, or esplanade, the boundaries of which are made by a substantially -built dwarf stone wall. In this yard have been erected workshops and a loading shed, in the latter of which the torpedoes are charged with explosive substances. In the southeastern corner of the yard there is a cell-like looking structure which is intended as a gun-cotton store. In the same neighbourhood there is a huge tank, which has been designed as a receptacle for submarine cables, to secure the preservation of which it is necessary to keep them immersed in water. This tank is 30ft. long by 20ft. wide, and has a depth of 7ft., and it is fitted with a movable cover, composed of three independent sections. Torpedoes are transferred into and out of the stores by means of tramways, which extend to the head of the jetty, and there are also fitted up in connection with the stores travellers, lifts, and other appliances for facilitating haulage. At the rear of the lecture and class rooms is a building which has been erected as quarters for the warrant officer, who is to fulfil the duties of storekeeper: and contiguous to it are two large tanks which have been excavated out of the solid rock, and have been lined with brick, and the bottom plugged with clay. Each tank has a capacity of 6000gal. 

The lecture-room is 40ft. long by 30ft. wide, and the interior of it has a much 'wanner appearance than is usually presented by buildings used for military purposes. The ceiling, which is domed and 13ft. high, is coloured with French grey. The walls are of cream, the lower portion being set off by a wainscoting of dark wood. The uppermost structure, which embraces the lecture and class rooms, is 80ft. long by 30ft. wide. The parade ground, which is north of the lecture room, is 120ft. long by 40ft. wide. The loaded mine stores, which are on a level with the esplanade, are 120ft. long by 40ft. in width, and are constructed in such a way as to form four independent chambers. The walls are 2ft. in thickness, and running around them is a polished kauri dado. The roof is of concrete, and there are appliances which, when brought into use, isolate each chamber from any other part of the building. 

People who are accustomed to pass up and down the harbour are never tired of protesting and declaiming against those hideous structures which occupy Garden Island, and of discussing the question of whether without incurring very lavish expenditure it would not have been possible to have designed buildings which would have fulfilled all the requirements of tho naval authorities, and would vet not have stripped many parts of the harbour of some of 'their most glorious charms. If those who are inclined to urge that buildings to be suitable for naval purposes must necessarily be hideously repulsive will visit the new Torpedo Station at Chowder Bay, they will quickly relinquish their opinion and express their delight with the architecture and general appearance of the new buildings. The torpedo buildings were erected by Messrs. Parry and Farley, and the cost of the whole of the works, we learn, did not exceed £8000. The New Torpedo Station at Chowder Bay. (1891, July 18). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 137. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162176863

Colonial Secretary's Office,
Sydney, 3rd January, 1893.
IT is hereby notified that Chowder Bay, between George's Head and Chowder Head, in Sydney Harbour, has been reserved as a Practice Submarine Mine Field for the training of the Submarine Mining Corps,—the limits of the water so reserved being all Chowder Bay within a line drawn from George's Head to Chowder Head marked by Red Buoys lettered " Mine Field."
GEORGE B. DIBBS. Government Gazette Notices (1893, January 4). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 43. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220963776 

In 1922, after changes in technology that made these types of mines ineffective, the Corps was disbanded. Chowder Bay then became a depot and barracks for Army engineers until the 1970s, when it was the site of the Army Maritime School until the school closed in 1997.

The changes didn't seem to affect the amount of visitors to Clifton Gardens. This also gives us a list of similar places people flocked to when granted a day off:

Manly was visited by the greatest number during the day, the boats of both companies being kept busy up till well into the evening, and it is computed that about 15,000 people were carried by the two companies. Many excursionists took the coach down to Narrabeen and Pittwater district, while thousands chose to spend the day on the inviting reserves and beaches. Queen's Cliff, Marine Parade, Shell Beach, Fairlight, Forty Basket Beach swarmed with visitors also.
Athol Gardens, Chowder Bay, Clontarf, Middle Harbor, Watson's Bay, Fern Bay and Coney's Gardens each had special holiday attractions, dancing, &c, and all were largely attended. The Holiday. (1894, October 2). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108889161 

If those who frequented Chowder Bay and Clifton Gardens were in fear of setting of a mine, this tragic incident reminds us that anyone living on the water, especially a harbour that was so busy at times, will at times be open to witnessing the kind of accident that can place a dark spot on the history of such places:

Fatal Collision in the Harbour.
Lying little better than a wreck on her starboard bilge, full of water, her bow looking towards the beautiful white beach in Chowder Bay, is the steamer Princess, the painful evidence 'of an extraordinary collision that occurred in the harbour on Tuesday afternoon. Distressing incidents are involved in the affair, including the loss of two lives and great suffering amongst the survivors. Looking at the fact that it was but a little after 5 o’clock on a beautifully clear afternoon, and the whole harbour was absolutely free to the two steamer's concerned, the accident is amazing, it was between 5 and 6 o'clock when the telephone messenger reached the Herald office from Mr. Thompson's Hotel, in Chowder Buy, that women and children were being picked up from the sinking steamer Princess within sight of the hotel. Another message said, ' Have sent for doctors.' As quickly as possible the., steamers running in the ferry service past Chowder were on arrival at Circular Quay boarded to learn further details. All that could be obtained was that the tug Awhina, inward bound from Newcastle, had run clown on the guard steamer' Princess and partially sunk her, and that many were hurt, among whom could be seen the forms of what were taken to be half-drowned women and children. These were the reports of the passing steamers, and, naturally, such news flew with wild rapidity about the city, and caused a profound sensation. But the real facts, though not as bad as at first anticipated, made up one of the most exciting episodes in the boating history of the harbour. 

What really happened between the steamers was that the Princess, coming out of the bay, was heading for Steel Point, there to pick up some of the workmen employed on the fortifications. She had just left the military wharf in the bay when the steamtug Awhina, heading up towards Bradley's Head, ran into her port quarter. The immediate effect was to nearly capsize the Princess. There were on board, sitting on deck seats, fully 20 ladies and children who had been on visit to Middle Head and were returning to Sydney. The boat was on the usual trip she makes each evening to bring workmen from the various fortifications, -and in addition to the ladies and children there were, it is variously estimated, 20 men aboard. The fearful list the vessel took when the Awhina struck her may be estimated from the fact that the captain, standing at the wheel on the bridge, was shot head first overboard into the water, followed by one of the male passengers. Many others were washed down on the deck by the inrush of the sea. Others fell over the rail into the sea, and then occurred a terrible distressing occurrence. A little child was seen tight under the sponsion, and a Miss Jarvis, who was struggling in the water, seeing the little white upturned face of the child, grabbed hold of the little one, and actually succeeded in raising it up above her head at arm's length. The nasty jobble of S.E. sea at this moment overwhelmed both girl and child, and the latter was seen no more. A soldier sprang in and rescued the girl Which of the two missing children it was is not certain. At a little distance off was seen also a lady passenger throwing her arms wildly about, clutching air, as each succeeded wave brought her within view. 

Volunteer Borland, a Submarine Mariner, and the holder for the Royal Albert medal for bravery at the sub marine explosion accident which happened some time ago off Middle Head during an Easter encampment, dashed after the unfortunate lady, and swam with her until both were picked up. The lady was identified as Mrs. T Buckland's nurse, and at latest accomis on Tuesday night was in a very unsatisfactory state and quite unconscious. A little boy and girl were picked up by two men who came upon the scene from a dredge at work off the bay. The boy was said to be Major Bridge's son. Many of the accounts conflict in detail as to what really took place in the moment of greatest peril when the vessel lay completely on her beam-ends, the heartrending screams of the ... causing a panic. What is held put most strenuously by all who landed in the bay is that the steamtug Awhina ought to have immediately run alongside, the Princess instead of keeping off as she did. Later the Awhina I came into the jetty 'and landed two or three of the semi-droned people and it is stated that one of her crew sprang in and rescued one or more, of the sinking people. Look at, the. injuries ' dons t) the Princess, it is certain that hal the collision occurred further out' in deep water few lives could have been saved. From the time she was struck to the time she reached the sandy beach could not have exceeded five minutes-!, audit is to the fact of...the, shallow that the passengers owe their lives. Later. Two more deaths are reported in connection with yesterday's harbour disaster, the victims being Elizabeth Evan, aged 19, and a little girl named Leila Ward. Fatal Collision in the Harbour. (1894, December 21). The Scone Advocate (NSW : 1887 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156322832 

Fatal Collision of Steamers in the Harbour.
The Steamer Princess and the Newcastle Tug Awhina.
Four Lives Lost

On Tuesday, the 18th inst., in full daylight, and in the broad fairway of Sydney Harbour, two steamers collided and paused the loss of four lives. Looking at the fact that it was but a little after 5 o'clock on a beautifully clear afternoon, and that the whole harbour was absolutely free to the two steamers concerned, the accident is amazine. It was between 5 and 6 o'clock when the telephone message reached the Herald office from Mr. Thompson's Hotel, in Chowder Bay, that women and children were being picked up from the sinking steamer Princess within sight of the hotel. Another message said, ' Have sent for doctors.' As quickly as possibly the steamers running in the ferry services past Chowder were on arrival at Circular Quay boarded to learn further details. All that could be obtained was that the tug Awhiua, inward bound from Newcastle, had run down on the ' guard steamer ' Princess and partially sunk her, and that many were hurt, among whom could be been the forms of what were taken to be half-drowned women and children. These were the reports of the passing steamers, and, naturally, such news flew with wild rapidity about the city, and caused a profound sensation. But the real facts, though not as bad as at first anticipated, made up one of the most exciting episodes in the boating history of the harbour. 

1. Removing One of the Bodies from Chowder. 2. The Steamer Princess in Shallow Water. 

What really happened between the steamers was that the Princess, coming out of the bay, was heading for Steel Point, there to pick up some of the workmen employed on the fortifications. She had just left the military wharf in the bay when the steamtug Awhina, heading up towards Bradley's Head, ran into her port quarter. The immediate effect was to nearly capsize the Princess. There were on board, sitting on deck seats, fully 20 ladies and children who had been on visit to Middle Head and were returning to Sydney. The boat was on the usual trip she makes each evening to bring workmen from the various fortifications, and in addition to the ladies and children there were, it is variously estimated, .20 men aboard. The fearful list the vessel took when the Awhina struck her may be estimated from the fact that the captain, standing at the wheel on the bridge, was shot head first overboari into the water, followed by one of the male passengers. Many others were washed down on the deck by the inrush of the sea. Others fell over the rail into the sea, and then occurred a terribly distressing occurrence. A little child was seen right under the sponson, and a Miss Javis, who was struggling in the water, ? Beeing the little white upturned fa6e of the child, grabbed hold of the little one, and actually succeeded in raising it up above her head at arms' length. The nasty jobble of the S.E. sea at this moirent overwhelmed both girl and child, and the latter was seen no more. A soldier sprang in and rescued the girl. At a little distance off was seen also a lady passenger throwing her arms wildly about, clutching air, as each succeeded wave brought her within view. Volunteer Borland, a Submarine Miner, and the holder of the Royal Albert . medal for bravery at the submarine explosion accident which happened some time ago off Middle Head during an Easter encampment, dashed after the unfortunate lady, and swam with her until both were picked up. The lady was identified as Mrs. T. Buckland's nurse. A little boy and girl were picked up by two men who came upon the scene from a dredge at work off the bay. The Awhina came in to the jetty and landed two or three of the semi-drowned people, and it is stated that one of her crew sprang in and rescued one or more of the sinking people. Looking at the injuries done to the Princess, it is certain that had the collision occurred farther out in deep water few lives may have been saved. From the time she was struck to the time she rationed the sandy beaoh could not have exceeded five minutes, and it is to the fact of getting her into the shallow, where she was sketched by our Artist, that the passengers owe their lives.

The Steamers.
The tug Awhina promptly took her departure for Newcastle, so that the extent of damage was not ascertained. She is a wooden vessel, belonging to Mr. John Dalton, of Newcastle. Was built at Auckland in 1884, a screw steamer of 50horse power ; length, 100ft. ; beam, 21ft. 2in. ; depth, 10ft. 4in. The Princess was owned by Mr. Matthew Byrnes ; also a screw '.steamer, built of wood at Sydney in 1877, and of 25 horse power. Her dimensions are — length, 67ft.. : beam, 15ft. 5in. ; depth, 4ft. 6in.

The Scene at Chowder.
The circumstances attending the accident were pathetically painful. Mrs. Bridges, wife of Major Bridges, had given a children's picnic on the seventh anniversary of the birth of her twin daughters, and a number of children had been invited. Everything connected with the gathering had been of a most enjoyable nature till eventide, and just after the homeward journey had been commenced, the collision occurred. Sad to say, one of the twins — little Marjorie Bridges — and a little daughter of Mr. Thomas Buckland— a child of about 5 years of age — were drowned. The house of Mr. W. Proctor, Submarine Miner and caretaker at George's Head, was converted into a hospital for the time being, the following patients being temporarily housed there : — Misses Pearl, G. and D. Airey, Mrs. Ward, Miss Ward and Master Ward, Mrs. Andrew Loughnan and 3 children, Master G. Green, Master Bridges, Miss Ethel Dnrracfa. (Mrs. Bridges' nursegirl), and Mrs. Buckland's nursegirl, who was in a very serious condition. 

Immediately after the accident medical aid was telephoned for, and Dr. Arthur was quickly on the scene, being followed almost immediately by Dr. Pilkington, both of Mosman's Bay. Dr. Clark, of North Shore, was in attendance also as soon as distance would permit, and later on, when a telephonic message was sent to the Australian Club for a supply of blankets, Dr. Murray, of Armidale, who was staying at the club, volunteered his services, and proceeded by the Submarine Miners' launch to Chowder to see if he could be of any service, and he remained with the patients. At the Chowder Hotel several of the passengers were remaining for the night, amongst them being Miss Airey, May and Kathleen Jones, and Mrs. Bridges. It is almost needless to say that many of them were quite prostrated with grief, others were still suffering severely from, the effects of their immersion. Dr. Arthur stated that when some of them were first carried ashore they were in quite a moribund state, but, with the exception of Mrs. Buckland's nurse, he thought they would all pull through safely. Her condition, however, was very serious. Messrs. Proctor and Bloomfield were among the first to put off to the assistance of the Princess and rendered excellent service, and great praise is given to Mr. Proctor for the assistance he rendered, not only in placing his house at the disposal of the unfortunate people, but for willing help in other ways. The Scene at Chowder. (1894, December 29). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1309. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162833449 

Clifton Gardens was all about bringing light, access to green space and clean clear saltwater for thousands of picnickers for just over one hundred years. The all dancing, music and sports mustered to bring laughter - while, in this case, laughter of another kind may have been that which was produced - it certainly was in this office, in 2017, when found:

An enormous crowd assembled at Chowder Bay this afternoon to witness the trial of "the flying machine." The affair proved a complete fiasco. There was a considerable delay before any start was made, and the crowd commenced to express loud disapproval.

Finally the machine, which was constructed of heavy metal, ran down a slide without any occupant, and the crowd expected to see it fly across the harbour. Instead it fell upon the rocks below, and was smashed to pieces. The management state that the crowd interfered with the arrangements. TELEGRAMS. (1894, December 27).Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) , p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article137272106 

The Maxim Flying- Machine. (See letterpress on this page.)
Aerial Navigation. 
(See illustrations on this page.)
In this age of invention almost, everything is thought possible, and the human race is supposed to be on the threshold of wonderful discoveries which will transform the world. Synthetic chemistry advances from triumph to triumph, and aims to make food out of its inorganic elements; chemistry and electrical science are trying to solve the problem of the utilisation of all the energy of coal; and a hundred other ideas claim the labors of enthusiastic and able scientists. The conquest of the air has always appealed powerfully to popular imagination, ancient myths bear evidence of the thought, and modern times have seen many an attempt at aerial navigation. At the present day no city is complete without its would-be invention' of a flying machine, and competent scientific men have asserted that within ten years the problem will be solved. Mr. Hiram Maxim is at present making a determined attempt to master it, and our illustrations-for which we are indebted to "Engineering"-give a good idea of his machine and boiler.

Another of our illustrations- shows a "flying" machine with which an attempt was made to fly at Chowder Bay, Sydney, on Boxing Day. The attempt was a total failure.

The Maxim flying machine is a large braced structure formed of steel tubes and wires, and is exceedingly stiff for its weight, which is about eight thousand pounds, including men and stores. At its lower part it carries a deck, on which the crew stand, where also the boiler, steering wheel, and reservoirs of water and gasoline are mounted. At a height of some ten feet above the deck come the engines, each ot which drives a screw propeller of seventeen feet ten inches diameter and sixteen feet pitch, working in air. Above the propellers is the great aeroplane. Smaller aeroplanes project out, like wings, at the sides, the extreme width being one hundred and twenty-five feet and the length one hundred and four feet. There are five pairs of wings, as shown in the illustration, but the intermediate three pairs I are not always used, and at the time of the accident on July 31, 1894, when the machine actually flew a short distance, these were not in place. At that time the area of the aeroplanes was four thousand square feet. With all the planes in position, the total area is five thousand four hundred square feet. Forward and aft of the great plane are two steering planes, carried on trunnions at the sides, and connected by wire strands with a drum on the deck. By turning this' drum the steering planes can be simultaneously tilted to direct the machine upward or downward, or to keep it on an even keel.

The Boiler in Maxim's Flying Machine 

The chief interest centres on the boiler, as, unless, this be made exceedingly light, it is hopeless to expect that the machine will soar. There is a very close resemblance between the Thornycroft boiler and Maxim's boiler. In each case there are two wing drums, connected by a large number of curved tubes with a steam and water drum, and there are also down comers to facilitate the circulation. The casing is also made of straight tubes. In the boiler of the flying machine a feed heater is placed over the steam drum, but it is not shown in the engraving. The feed heater is constructed of steel tubes three-sixteenths inch bore and one-twelfth inch thick; the water is pumped through it at a pressure of thirty pounds higher than the pressure in the boiler, and is delivered through an injector-like nozzle into the top of the downcomer pipe. The incoming water delivers its surplus energy to the surrounding liquid, creating a rapid and powerful current in the pipe, and consequently maintaining an active circulation in the small tubes in which the steam is generated. The feed pumps are placed oh the deck beneath the engines, and are of variable stroke so as to be adapted to the needs of the boiler. As they .work at high speed, the valves are of large diameter larger than that of the plungers. Pounding is prevented by a rubber bag on the suction and spring pistons on the, discharge. The total quantity of water in the boiler only amounts to two hundred pounds, so that it is necessary that the amount of feed should be accurately adjusted. There is a very ingenious water level indicator. A small pipe is led in a loop from front to back and from back to
front of the furnace. It is then taken to the steam and water drum, and led backward and forward through that in the same way, below the water line. The hole is filled with water, and forms a closed circuit having two loops-one in the furnace and one in the water. Now, so long as the upper loop is in the water the pressure does not rise greatly beyond that in the boiler, because the heat taken up in the furnace is conveyed, by the circulation, to the water in the drum. But if the water level falls in the drum, then there is no outlet for the heat; the pressure, consequently, rises most rapidly, and shows itself on a gauge attached to the pipe. By this most ingenious device an open-faced pressure gauge is substituted for the usual gauge glasses. The weight of the boiler, with casing, feed-water heater, dome, and uptake, is nine hundred and four pounds; with burner and water it is one thousand two hundred pounds. The heating surface is about eight hundred square feet, and the flame surface thirty square feet.

The " Flying" Machine which Failed to Fly on Boxing Day at Sydney.

The fuel burned in the boiler in gasoline, of a specific gravity of 72deg Baume, It is carried in a copper vessel on deck, and is pumped through a vaporiser into the furnace. The pipe from the pump is led into a vessel having a large gasoline burner beneath it. In this vessel the spirit attains a pressure of fifty pounds on the square inch, and a corresponding temperature, in which condition it is, of course, highly inflammable. The gas which it gives off is conducted by a pipe, passing through the furnace, to a jet, like that of a Bunsen burner, at the front of the furnace, and in rushing through it, induces a powerful draught of air, with which it mixes. The combined charge passes through hollow fibre bars, pierced on the upper surfaces with fine holes, and burns in seven thousand six hundred and fifty separate flames. The arrangement is so powerful that the pressure in the boiler can be raised from one hundred pounds to two hundred pounds in a minute. The air supply can be regulated at will, while the expenditure of gasoline automatically adapts itself to the needs of the boiler. The pressure of the gasoline vapor acts on a lever, which is balanced by a spring. If the feed is greater than the consumption, the pressure on the lever puts a pawl in gear with a ratchet wheel, and, through intermediate mechanism, works a block along a slotted arm to reduce the throw of the gasoline feed pumps. If the feed is too small, the opposite effect is produced, and the throw of the pump increased.
There are two screws, each driven by a separate compound engine having cylinders 5.05in and 8in in diameter by 12in stroke. The steam is distributed by means of piston valves having three-Inch stroke, and operated by eccentrics. The exhaust steam is delivered into the air, but Mr. Maxim states that he used successfully an air condenser. This seems to be a necessity, because the supply of water would prove a serious load. Even to drive one horsepower would require two thousand Ave hundred pounds of water per hour, which would be a considerable addition to a lengthy trip, especially if undertaken for warlike purposes in a hostile country.

To supplement, or replace, the safety valve, by-passes are provided so as to allow live steam to pass directly to the low pressure cylinders. Instead bf blowing off into the air, the steam is blown past the high pressure cylinders, and the fall in pressure is made to do the work on the exhaust from the high pressure cylinders, drawing the steam from the high pressure cylinders and driving it into the low pressure cylinders. The boiler will make more steam than the engines can take ' in the usual way.

The boiler pressure, when running, is three hundred and twenty pounds per square inch, giving in the high pressure cylinder a differential pressure of one hundred and ninety-five pounds, and in the low pressure cylinder ons hundred and twenty-five pounds. The cut-offs are respectively 0.75 and 0.625 of the strokes. In the high pressure cylinder there is a very large clearance, designed to prevent injury from rater in case the machine should pitch The actual horse-power delivered to the screws is three hundred and sixty-three when the engines are running at three hundred and seventy-five revolutions per minute. Of this, one hundred and fifty horse-power are expended in slip, one hundred and thirty three horse-power in actual lift on the aeroplanes, and eighty horse-power in driving the machine, with its frames and wires, through the air. The thrust of the screws, when the machine is moored, is two thousand one hundred pounds, and when it is running it is two thousand pounds. We give these figures, omitting decimals. The total lift is something over ten thousand pounds at a speed of forty miles an hour, and with the aeroplanes making an angle of about 7.25deg with the horizontal. Aerial Navigation. (1895, January 12).Australian Town and Country Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1870 - 1907), p. 31. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article71224479 

Despite what was reported as a debacle being unpopular with those who had gathered to witness the laws of gravity remain intact, the idea that people will travel to witness such marvels brought a repeat later that same year - this one more successful:

It is estimated that between 6000 and 7000 people journeyed yesterday, by steamers to Chowder, which is now known as Clifton Gardens. There was dancing in the pavilion, and the usual round of amusements. The great attraction, however, was a balloon ascent by Professor J W. Price, a well-known American aeronaut. The afternoon, luckily, was suited for the adventure, there was a light north-easter wind blowing, and it was bright and clear. The balloon was inflated on the land with hot air, and the process was watched with interest by the holidaymakes. The balloon was a huge affair, being something like 90ft. high and 108ft. in circumference. It was made of unbleached calico, and was named the " White Wings," The parchute attached to it was like a large umbrella, but having ropes instead of wire ribs It was 20ft in diameter, and was made of brown holland. The inflation of the balloon was commenced at 3 o clock, and was completed in a little over half an hour.

No time was lost in getting away. At a given signal the ropes were let go, and the balloon shot swiftly upwards. Professor Price clinging to a trapeze, being about 60ft below the balloon-as the professor informed our representative afterwards-rose to an altitude of about 6000ft, when he detached the parachute. That fell for a distance of something like 200ft before it expanded, but after that it came slowly and steadily downwards, falling amongst the bush on the hills overlooking Taylor Bay. As soon as the parachute was detached large volumes of smoke could be seen issuing from the balloon, und it appeared to be on fire. This, however, was not so with the hot air forced into it there was necessarily a large quantity of smoke, but the balloon fell to the ground uninjured and was shortly afterwards recovered. The ascent was watched with great interest by the visitors, and there was a feeling of relief that every-thing passed off so successfully. The balloon, as well as the falling parachute, could be seen from different parts of the city and the harbour. When Professor Price was seen afterwards he appeared none the worse for his trip. He said that the ascent was successful in wvery way. He " dodged " the big trees coming down, and landed in a comparatively clear portion of the bush. Professor Price, it may be stated, was here some six years ago, when he made a '' tour in the clouds " from Bondi. Since then he has been in India, Africa, Lowland, and, in fact "all over the world ". He will make another ascent on the occasion of the Highland Gathering sports, and two ladies, Miss Adair and Miss Viola, will subsequently perform similar feats Professor Price has only been in Sydney for three weeks, and he intends leaving here on the 18th January for America. A large number of the visitors to Chowder formed picnic parties and passed an enjoyable day, and the majority returned to the city before dusk. CLIFTON GARDENS—A BALLOON ASCENT. (1895, December 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14031085

And another:

Captain Penfold, of aerial fame, will provide something spectacular at Clifton Gardens this afternoon, when he will make an ascent in a huge gas balloon. Special provision has been made by the Sydney Ferries, Ltd., who will run boats to the scene at short intervals from No 4 Jetty.
BALLOON ASCENT AT CLIFTON GARDENS. (1914, January 11). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120353865 

The value of aerial craft In time of war will be demonstrated by Captain Penfold, the Australian aviator at Clifton Gardens, to-morrow. He intends making an ascent in the large gas balloon, and conducting a mimic war In the air firing explosives and otherwise showing what can be accomplished by this branch of defence. 
Captain Penfold first attracted attention in this direction at San Francisco, when he astonished Americans by exploding bombs above their battleships at night. On that occasion the search lights were tuned on the Australian, but they only served to show the Invulnerable position of the airman. Steamers will leave every half-hour from No. 4 Jetty to-morrow, starting at 9a.m. BALLOON ASCENT AT CLIFTON GARDENS. (1914, March 21). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114490935

It is during the 1895 to 1896 period we see a changing of the guard of sorts occurring with one of Mr. Thompson's sons, Alexander Joseph, named as manager. Captain Thompson would have been in his early 60's.:

A cheap and enjoyable outing is provided by Mr. A. J. Thompson, manager of Clifton Gardens. During the day Boxsell's String Band, which has been specially engaged, will perform for dancers, and in the evening a grand fireworks display will take place. Steamers will leave the jetty at the foot of Phillip-street every quarter of an hour from 9.30 a.m. till 3 p.m., and from 5 p.m. till 8 p.m. CLIFTON GARDENS. (1896, January 25).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article109919324 

Clifton Gardens maintained their reputation for being one of the most popular seaside resorts in the harbour, there being attracted thither some 2000 people. The principal inducement to many of the visitors was the spacious pavilion situated on the beach, and as usual dancing was carried on with much vigour. Dancing was not the only attraction however, the gardens and the estate of which they form part abounding in features which contribute materially to the enjoyment of the holiday-seeker. The patrons of this place invariably include a considerable contingent of juveniles, and many of these revelled yesterday in the joys which were to be obtained from a ride on a merry-go-round. Family parties were numerous, and they seemed to experience much pleasure from the outlook upon the most animated part of the harbour which the Clifton Gardens afford. At Circular Quay throughout the day representatives of the proprietor of the gardens were engaged carefully scrutinising would-be patrons, with the result that the proffered patronage of a goodly number was rejected. CLIFTON GARDENS. (1896, November 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14074763 

... then down the harbour, and finally into Chowder Bay, or, to give the favourite picnic-ground its newer and more romantic name, Clifton Gardens. It was a happy thought to have the luncheon and the speechmaking at Clifton Gardens, for it was from this pretty place, with its big white beach, its broad green lawn, its thick fringe of trees, and the hotel, perched like some old time castle up on the rocky steep, that Mr. Curran, so to speak, set out on his Parliamentary career. It was at Clifton Gardens that Mr. Curran was entertained four years ago on the eve of his departure for Ireland. He had been elected M.P. for South Sligo, and his old Sydney friends met together to wish him God-speed. ' Out of sight out of mind' is a common experience, but judging by the attendance at Tuesday's demonstration— and it really was a demonstration of political as well as personal significance — Mr. Curran' s friends in Sydney would seem to have increased rather than diminished during his absence. In every sense of the word, it was a representative gathering, and, viewed in any light, the tribute of regard was one of which the member for far-famed Sligo had reason to be very proud. 
As a rule, the spreads at Clifton Gardens are held in the dancing pavilion, but on this occasion, and much to everyone's enjoyment, the luncheon was served by Mrs. Thompson in her cool, roomy, and cheerful dining-room. The company numbered between 70 and 80 gentlemen. The menu 'cards,' artistically printed by Batson and Co contained a photograph of the guest. As a souvenir of the event, nothing prettier could have been designed. The Hon. R.E. O'Connor, Q.C., M.L.C., occupied the chair, having on his right Mr. T. Curran, M.P. {the guest of the day) ; Mr. William. M'Millan, M.P. (ex-Colonial Treasurer) ; Mr. John See, M.P. (exColonial Treasurer); the Hon. Daniel O'Connor, M.L.C. (ex-Postmaster- General) ; the Hon. John Hughes, K.S.G., M.L.C. ; and the Hon. Thomas Dalton, K.C.S.G., M.L.C. On his left : The Hon. Sydney Smith (Minister for Mines), Sir George Dibbs (ex-Premier), Mr. W. J. Lynej M.P. (leader of the Opposition),- the Right Rev. Monsignor O'Brien (Rector of St. John's College)/ the Hon. John T. Toohey, K.C.S.G., M.L.C, and the Very Rev. Dean Slattery, P.P., Newtown. Sir William Patrick Manning (ex-Mayor of Sydney), occupied the vice-chair. Among others present were Mr. Henry Copeland, M.P. (ex-Minister for Lands), Mr. E. W. O' Sullivan, \ M.P., Mr. R. Atkinson Price, M.P;i': the' 'Very Rev. Dean Healy (P.P., Balmain East), the -rery Rev. P. Le Rennotel, S.Mi (St. Patrick's), the Very Rev. P. Slattery, O.S.F. (Wobllahra), the Very Rev. Dr. O'Harah (private secretary to the Cardinal- Archbishop), Rev. Carey (St. Mary's Cathedral), Rev. J. P. Mynagh (P.P., Balmain West), Rev. T. Gartlan, S.f. (North Sydney), T. M. Slattery, K.C.S.G. (ex-minister for Justice), Mr. G. Barry (Mayor of North Sydney); City Alderman H. Chapman, City Alderman P. F: Hart, City Alderman J. 11. Rainford, City Alderman Waine, Mr. G.a Smithers (Stipendiary Magistrate), Mr. L. J. Harnett (Sergeant-at-Arms Legislative Assembly), Mr. F. B. Freehill (Consul for Spain and Captain of the New South Wales Irish Rifles),Mr, E. O'Farrell, Mr. L. J. Brient (editor of the Daily Telegraph) Colonel Waddell, Mr. John Meagher, J. P. (Uathurst), Mr. Walter Coonan (solicitor, Wyaiong), Mr. J. Carlos, 33.A., Mr. B. Foley, Mr. F. J.Riley, Mr. J. II.. Davies, Mr. Henry Thorpe, Mr. Perrin, Dr. W. E. Warren, Dr. M. J. Clune, Dr. Flynn, and Dr. Power, Mr J. Blakeney (the FiiEEMAVb Journal), Mr. Frank Coffee, Mr. W. J. Hickey, Mr. J. L. Mullins, Mr. William Ellard (' Timothy Fogarty'), Mr. William Dolman, Mr. E J Holbn-rdale, Mr. J M'Sharry, Mr. C. Dulfy, Mi. F. J. Cahill, and Mr J. W. Walshe. MR. THOMAS CURRAN, M.P. (1897, January 9). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115471485 

Mr. Thompson's large pavilion and picnic grounds' at Clifton Gardens may fairly be reckoned among the most popular harbor resorts on all those occasions when the Sydney public sets apart a day on which to meet its friends and make merry. On Anniversary Day it justified its previous reputation. 'From morn till noon, from noon till dewy eve steamers plied to and from the bay, each heavily laden, until the attendance numbered nearly 2000. The majority; resorted to the pavilion, and spent their time in dancing to the excellent music provided, whilst many sought out shady nooks and sequestered spots, where they might open the picnic hamper, and pass the day in a quieter but equally, enjoyable manner. CLIFTON GARDENS. (1898, January 28).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108770681 

Mr. A. J. Thompson was again favored with a large number of people at his pleasure resort, Clifton Gardens, yesterday. Steamers ran from No. 4 Jetty, Circular Quay, at short intervals throughout the day. Upon arrival at the grounds the numerous summerhouses were quickly taken possession of by several picnic parties, while the children amused themselves on the swings and merry-go-round. During the afternoon Glass's Excelsior String Band played several selections on the ground, which was greatly appreciated by those present. The beach also proved a great attraction to the younger folk. Several of the male sex passed the day in fishing off the pier and the adjacent rocks, and were rewarded with some splendid hauls. The last steamer returned to the Quay shortly after 6 p.m. The usual evening excursion will take place next Wednesday, when patrons will be afforded two hours dancing in the Port Jackson Pavilion. CLIFTON GARDENS. (1898, March 21).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108766867 

Tragedy then struck the Thompson family:

THOMPSON.—February 6, at his father's residence,Thompson's Hotel, Clifton Gardens, Samuel, the beloved son of Captain David Thompson, aged 27 years. R.I.P.
THOMPSON.—February 6, at his father's residence,Thompson's Hotel, Clifton Gardens, Samuel, the beloved husband of May Thompson, aged 27 years. Family Notices (1900, February 7). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14292824

"We regret lo have to announce the death of Captain David Thompson, the widely-esteemed proprietor of Clifton Gardens (Chowder Bay) Recreation" Grounds. For the past 21 or 25 years Captain Thompson had devoted himself to the improvement of his charming harbour report, and the popularity of the bay has never waned. Many years ago he was a skipper under the flag of the Illawarra Steam Navigation Co., and will he remembered in connection with the steamer Kembla. Death occurred peacefully at half-past 2 o'clock this morning. The late captain has left two sons and two daughters. The funeral will leave Clifton Gardens at 2.15 tomorrow afternoon and the interment: will take place at Gore Hill Cemetery. DEATH OF CAPTAIN DAVID THOMPSON. (1900, July 25). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 3 (LATE CITY EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230628116

THOMPSON.— On 25th July, 1900, at his residence, Thompson's Hotel, Clifton Gardens, Captain David Thompson, dearly beloved husband of Mary Thompson, aged 65 years. R.I.P. Family Notices (1900, July 25). The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 1 (LATE CITY EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230628128

On the 11th instant, by special licence, at St. Mary's Cathedral, by the Rev. M. J. Dwyer, O.S.B., David, youngest son of Samuel Thompson, of county Down, Ireland, to Mary, eldest daughter of Mr. Francis McDonall, Windsor. Family Notices (1863, February 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13074530

Other spellings have Mary's maiden name as 'M'Douall' while the NSW BDM's Index spells her surname MacDonald and McDonald: THOMPSON—M'DOUALL—February 11th, by special license, at St. Mary's Cathedral, by the Rev. M. J. Dwyer, O.S.B., David, youngest son of Samuel Thompson, of county Down, Ireland, to Mary, eldest daughter of Mr. Francis M'Douall, Windsor. Family Notices (1863, March 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13075999

THOMPSON.—The Friends of ALEXANDER and WILLIAM THOMPSON are kindly invited to attend the Funeral of their dearly beloved UNCLE, Captain David Thompson; to move from his late residence, Clifton Gardens, THIS DAY, Thursday, at 2.15, for Gore Hill Cemetery. Mrs. P. KIRBY and SON, Undertakers. Family Notices (1900, July 26). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14326587

Mary Thompson became licensee for the hotel and the family carried on, including new ideas and those that had attracted visitors in the past.

As our readers will observe in our advertising columns, steamers will, on and after Sunday next, leave Fort Macquarie for the above popular harbor resort. Passengers who desire to leave from Circular Quay will be conveyed there from by means of a free omnibus. CLIFTON GARDENS. (1902, April 27).Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167892773 

Mr. A. G. Thompson, the popular manager of Clifton Gardens, is to-day starting his new steamer, the Kangaroo. There will be two concerts and two bands on board, one on the upper deck and the other on the lower deck. This should prove a great attraction, as it is a venture never before attempted in Sydney harbor. The artists that will appear are Messrs. Les. Nelson, Francis, Crawford (eccentric comedian), Donnegan (coon singer), Elliott (New Zealand), C. Boxsell, and E. Gray's orchestra. Full particulars can be obtained by looking at the advertisement column. CLIFTON GARDENS. (1902, September 7). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article167904319 

The balloon ascent at Clifton Gardens this afternoon was a failure owing to the collapse of the tunnel conveying the hot air to the balloon.  The balloon was made of canvas, 50ft high and 110ft in circumference with a capacity of from 22 000 to 25,000 cubic feet. The attempt was to have been made by V. T. Taylor, a Sydney native. When the balloon was about three-parts filled, the current of hot air with which it was being inflated was cut off owing to the collapse of the tunnel. Taylor then assayed to make the attempt, &na fastened himself to the parachute, which was : attached to the bottom of the balloon. Ke gave the word, 'Let go!' The ropes were cut, but there being insufficient air, the balloon, instead of leaving the ground, rolled over two or three times, and gave a number of the spectators an unpleasant hot-air bath. The balloon then completely collapsed, and after Taylor had explained to Mr. Thompson, the proprietor of the grounds, as to the cause of the failure, he gave instructions that in order to keep faith with the public, Taylor would have to try another attempt. This Taylor cordially agreed to do, and he was anxious to make the ascent as the collapse of the tunnel could in no way be attributed to him. Arrangements were then made for the second attempt. About 3000 people were present. 
Later.— An attempt was made to construct a more substantial tunnel for the purpose of inflating the balloon, and so give Taylor a chance of carrying out his contract. It was considered that the tunnel was too short, and the fire thus being brought closer to the mouth of the balloon, those in charge held the opinion that it would probably catch alight if an attempt was made to innate it. That information was conveyed to Mr. Thompson, who told Taylor that he would either have to consent to make another attempt next Sunday, or do so this evening. The balloonist then agreed to make an attempt on Sunday next, and announced to the public the cause of the failure in the first instance, and that those who hid paid for admission to-day would be allowed in free on Sunday. AERONAUT AT CLIFTON TO-DAY'S LAWN TENNIS (1904, November 14). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113303288

The year 1904 was also when the Thompson family began selling their estate and homes began dotting the area around the resort:

Cartographic Map - Image No.: nla.obj-230305404-1, courtesy National Library of Australia.

The Inauguration of the Motor Boat Club of New South Wales

'Clifton Gardens', Kerry and Co. image No: 28789, courtesy Powerhouse Museum Tyrell Collection on Flickr. Mr. Kerry, photographer, was a Mosman resident - visit previous History page: Royal Motor Yacht Club – Broken Bay – Early Motor Boats and Yachts, their Builders and Ocean Races to Broken Bay, the Hawkesbury and Pittwater

As always a resort reached by water, prior to the advent of the Sydney Harbour Bridge and better roads, was still attracting those who love to be on the water. Clifton Gardens again proves another connection with Pittwater through the Royal Motor Yacht Club Broken Bay, at Newport, and its beginnings as a main branch on the Harbour which inaugurated its formation at Clifton:

The large and representative gathering of ladies and gentlemen on the fine ferry steamer Kareela on Saturday afternoon showed that there was considerable interest taken in the inauguration of the Motor Boat Club of New South Wales. Amongst those present were many who are prominent in aquatic sports, sailing being particularly well represented, and yachting clubs also. Some came probably out of curiosity, but before the day was past all were agreed that the opening of the club was well worth seeing and a sight worthy of the promotors and of the harbour. Some delay was experienced in getting the affair going, but this was largely due to the unavoidable absence of the honorary secretary, Mr. G. W. Whatmore, whose launch Gee Whiz would not — so the owner complained — whiz, and as he was in a most responsible position there was for a time a most serious hitch. However, Mr. H. E. Ross, who had charge of the visitors, was equal to the occasion, and did his part well. 

Farm Cove was thronged with motor boats of great variety, and as soon as possible the officers of the day got them under control. A procession was formed, perhaps not quite what had been sketched out in the programme, but all the same most effective as a spectacle, indeed very impressive in its proportions and general display. The sight was such as appeals to all followers of aquatics, but beyond ' the range of any camera. After speeding for about a mile the boats slowed down, and soon the flagship Kareela was in the midst of the fleet of about a hundred motor and other boats. There were (he stately, well-kept, symmetrical launches, homely-looking cruisers, racing machines of somewhat peculiar appearance, and solid looking craft which sail when the breeze is favourable, and push along at moderate speed with the aid of a small engine when for -want of wind the sport would otherwise prove irksome. For a while the fleet became something approaching a tangled mass of boats, but this rather added to the spectacular effect, and gave visitors a favourable view of the proceedings. Further on the boats headed for that beautiful bay once known as Cliftonville, and now easily recognised as Clifton Gardens. Here with a fine sandy beach, clear water, and pleasant surroundings, finely backed up with thickly-wooded hills, the many launches came to rest. A prettier spot could not be chosen, perhaps the only blemish being that due to our civilisation, a large and unadorned building by courtesy called a pavilion. This, however, was utilised later in the afternoon, and proved a pleasant resort. When the large number of boats were safely moored, the scene was certainly the most striking even seen in the harbour — and yet it may be eclipsed before the season has run out. Visitors were landed, and found their way over the extensive grounds, or paraded along the beach, to more easily take in the excellencies of the aquatic fete. 

The handsome Cyrene and smart-looking Boomerang, were rather far out of the bay, but the Bona which was near the visitors' steamer was a central attraction, and is the largest of the fleet, well, excepting the converted torpedo launch Empress, a long and narrow boat with a suite of roomy cabins. The Gulnare, a sailing yacht with a small engine installed, looked very well indeed, but the sailing cruiser Mistral, also possessed of an engine, was finely decorated, and secured the prize for decorated boat The Gulnare was a good second in this competition. Baby Simplex gave an exhibition of speeding, which was watched with much interest, and the rather drab-looking little craft was cleverly handled, as it sped in and out among the moored boats, scooting along at a surprising rate of speed, and with a hooting monotonous tune. Another flyer which claimed attention was Mr. Harden's skiff, Little De Dion, a surprising little boat that went very well. Both were constructed in Sydney, which fact is pleasant to remember. Then a new covered-in dish-like boat, which was Quite new to our waters, or to any waters, shows yet another step in the evolution of the speed boat. This, Mr. Joss's boat, named the Bullett, is lightly constructed, but well stayed, in much the way that a racing rowing boat is put together, and about a third of its length is covered with some cotton material, probably calico. The tuck is about as wide as that of a crack sailing boat, and the bow is fine and well-shaped as a wherry skiff. Amongst the boats noticed were: — Cyrene (Commodore Mitchell), Asthore (vice Commodore Read), Boomerang (rear-Commodore Albert), Lady, Marjorie, Myall, Venus, Norseman, Gulnare, Norma, Fiji, Firefly, Kara, Florida. Olympic, Baby Simplex, R.H.V., Hercules, Standard, Nea, Empress, Mars, Idler, Hinemoa, Nelson, Fedora, Dauntless. Sparklet, Yarrawa, Bullett, Aida, Bona, Mimosa, Daneborg, Togo, Gadfly, Weena, Spray, Little De Dion, Ida, and Ideal. The boats (there being about 10) of the Port Jackson Skiff Club manoeuvred about the fleet of launches, and added to the effectiveness of ? the affair. These boats were also provided with a race, which was won by Yvonne, there being several starters. It was intended to have a tug-of-war, but this event fell through; also one or two other items. Later in the afternoon, the visitors were entertained in the pavilion, and the club declared alive. The commodore in declaring the Motor Boat Club' established gave some interesting particulars as to the membership, number of boat-owners, and the objects of the club. The honorary secretary also gave a short sketch of the prospects of the club, which, he stated, were even at the time of its opening ceremony the largest as to membership and number of boat-owners enrolled in the world. Speed launches were to be encouraged, and there was reason to believe that in a few months a race for motor boats in Sydney 'Harbour would show pace made equal to that of the fastest boats of England or elsewhere. The illustrations of English racing boats in last week's issue of the 'Mail' were from photographs kindly lent by Gibson, Battle and Co., who are agents for Thornycroft and Co., the successful builders of such boats and makers of engines. Photos, of Cyrene, Kara, and some other boats were by Frazer, Rushcutter Bay.


THE COMMERCIAL POINT OF VIEW. A vessel fitted with a 30-h.p. oil engine. This engine drives an 80-ton vessel such as the one illustrated.

Photo, by Fraser. VERA II. Owned by G. Ramaciotti. This boat is fitted with 15-h.p. Union engines. The hull was built in Sydney.

PREPARING FOR THE CARNIVAL. A yacht fitted with an auxiliary oil engine.
THE MOTOR BOAT CLUB. (1905, November 8). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 1181. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165000206 


'Favoured with ideal conditions, the Motor Boat Club of New South Wales was brilliantly inaugurated on the waters of Port Jackson on Saturday afternoon. If the club is young its membership is already strong, for no body has ever started under happier auspices. Tho club has all tho elements for success-boundless enthusiasm, a peerless domain, and the certainty of great development. Saturday afternoon must always stand out in the annals of the sport of the harbour.

The fleet, comprising motor-driven boats of all shades and sizes, assembled in Farm Cove at about 2 o'clock. Large numbers of people lined the shores to admire the evolutions, and there was plenty to marvel at. Motor boats have not the grace of the gliding yacht, but they offer much to compensate for the lack of the beautiful. They are to the yacht as the funnelled steamer is to tho white winged sailing ship. They cleaved the waters of Farm Cove with a wonderful precision, skimming past the warships, driving recklessly across the bows of a sailing boat, curving and winding with a contemptuous disregard of wind and tide. Some were gay with colour, being competitors for the procession prize, and the majority were enlivened by the summer frocks of venturesome ladies.

It is a boast of the motorist that he is a timekeeper Independent of the assistance of the elements, he observes his appointments. But accidents will happen, and by a strange irony on Saturday the hon. secretary, Mr.G. Whatmore, to whose efforts the flotation of the club was largely due, had a mishap as he came down the harbour to assist In marshalling the little fleet. As he lightly remarked afterwards, his boat, the G-whiz, which has a reputation for speed and reliability, refused to "whiz," and he was delayed. Nevertheless, good work was done by the commodore- (Mr. P. C. Mitchell), the vice-commodore (Dr. George Read), tho rear- commodore . (Mr. Frank Albert), the committee men (Messrs. J. B. Holdsworth, H. E. Ross, C. B. Bradley, G. I. Stanton, and Fred. Alderson), and Mr. F. A. Wiesener (marshal),and a capital procession was formed. The commodore led off in the Cyreno, and streaming out from Farm Cove there were the rear-commodore in the Boomerang, the vice- commodore in the Asthore, Mr. Wiesener in the Little De Dion, with the larger boats on the outer lines, and a host of smaller ones in the centre. Bringing up the rear was the Sydney Ferry-steamer Kareela, thronged with hundreds of friends of the motor boat owners. 

Enlarged section showing 'Kareela'  from 'Clifton Gardens', Kerry and Co. image No: 28789, courtesy Powerhouse Museum Tyrell Collection on Flickr.

When well launched on the stream the effect was very striking, and illustrated vividly the proportions of the new harbour power. The procession passed along slowly, keeping good order, although here and there flashed a couple of racers, torpedo-shaped craft, that drove at a speed and turned and swirled with a precision that indicated some big racing days as motoring evolves. A couple of yachts and several sailing boats idled through the throng. Their occupants looked at the plain little motor vessels as might the swan at the plain duckling, but the motor-drivers, conscious of their utility and greater certainty, were in no degree discomfited, and they undoubtedly had the pull when the "sailers" fell out to tack. 

The destination was Clifton Gardens, where the visitors landed and took tea, while the motors engaged in an interesting programme of racing and water sports. A feature of the afternoon was the parade of decorated launches. Mr, E. A. Laurence took first prize with the Mistral, Mr. C. E. Waters second with the Gulnare, and Mr. Fred. Alderson third with the Mimosa. During the afternoon the commodore, in the course of a brief speech in the pavilion, declared the club Inaugurated. Mr, Mitchell said that it was only in last June that Mr. Whatmore set out to got the motor boat owners together. The result exceeded all anticipations. (Cheers.) Such a demonstration as this was beyond anything then hoped for. At present the club embraced about 150 boat-owners. (Applause.) There was not the slightest doubt that the motor boat had come to stay. He had nothing to say against their "white-winged" brethren. There should be no antagonism between the two sections of the water sport. (Hear, hear.)The motor men desired more independence from the caprice of the breeze and the will of the tides. He prophesied a great future for motor boats and for their builders. (Hear, hear.) Then there was the question of defence. He hoped they would be encouraged by the defence authorities to form the club into a naval corps-(hear, hear)-and that all motorists would Join it.

Mr. Whatmore emphasised that the Motor Boat Club of New South Wales was already the largest in the world. In other cities the owners were split up, but here they were all under one flag. (Hear, hear.) The boats owned by the club represented £75,000, and with the exception of the purchase of boilers, all of that money went to local Industry. (Applause.) So far the boats were chiefly cruiser launches, but before the end of the season there would be on Port Jackson some launches capable of speeds equal to the fastest in the world. We had the finest strip of water, and should endeavour to cleave it with the finest boats. (Applause.)

The race for skiffs was won by Mr. L. O'Toole's Yvonne. MOTOR BOATING. (1905, November 6 - Monday)The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14719589

Those Amazing Baths And The Purchase By Sydney Ferries LTD.

'Clifton Gardens', Kerry and Co. image No: 28790 and 28791, courtesy Powerhouse Museum Tyrell Collection on Flickr. 

In 1906 what had been a long term recreation of many, swimming in broad daylight, or 'bathing' as it was then called, was legalised and people could frolic to their heart's content. In 1905 Sydney Ferries Limited began negotiations to purchase Clifton Gardens and took possession on January 2nd, 1906. As daylight bathing became permissable they sought t captilise on the boom in the popularity of getting in the water and gave Clifton Gardens the next of its structure in those circular baths:

The Sydney Ferries, Limited, announce a Continental at Clifton Gardens tonight, to which large steamers of the fleet will ply from No. 4 Jetty, Circular Quay. An attractive programme has been arranged, including items by the New South Wales State Military Band, Mr. Shipway, Mr. Hinchy, Mr. Smith, Mr. Bobbie Matson, Mr. M. A. Walsh, and Mr. J. Edward Sykes. CLIFTON GARDENS CONTINENTAL. (1906, January 11). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article114227551 

The twelfth half-yearly meeting of this company was held yesterday at the company offices, Mr. H. E. Russell presiding. The report and balance-sheet, which were unanimously adopted, stated that the net profit after making provision for depreciation of steamers and wharf properties, and setting aside a sum for special repairs and new steamers, added to £671, the balance brought forward from the previous half-year-amounted to £7658. A dividend of 10 per cent, per annum free of income tax, absorbing £7000, was declared, and the balance, £658, carried forward. 

The past half-year had been one of exceptional activity and progress. In order to preserve and consolidate the company's Interests in the growing district of Mosman, the board had deemed it advisable to secure the principal outposts which were coming more and more into prominence. To this end they had bought the premises and grounds known as Clifton Gardens, possession of which was taken on January 2. They had also bought the wharf at Balmoral, and since the end of the year they have entered into a contract tor the purchase of the freehold known as Athol Gardens. A pontoon had been placed at Musgrave-street wharf, Mosman; a new waiting-room erected, and the necessary approaches thereto made. The time-table to Mosman had been further improved. A dally service to Clifton Gardens, Balmoral, and The Spit has been established. Messrs, W. C. Goddard and H. E. Russell, directors, and Mr. D. Foil, auditor, were re-elected, and a vote of thanks to the directors and officers of the company carried.

At an extraordinary meeting held subsequently special resolutions were agreed to, wherein an instalment of 20,000 now £1 shares is to be issued to share-holders at par, on the proportion of one to every seven shares held by them. Another 40,000 shares will be issued at a later date. These resolutions have to be confirmed at a later meeting. The new capital thus authorised will be sufficient to provide for the construction of new boats and other necessary expenditure for the furtherance of the company's developments as they become necessary, and will put the directors in the position of being able to set free- certain funds which have been set aside, and are now hold In reserve. The sum thus sot free enables the board to recommend the declaration of special bonus at the rate of 3s per share, which It is proposed to make payable on the 31st March next, at which date the amount will be available in cash. SYDNEY FERRIES, LTD. (1906, February 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14739203 

The thirteenth half-yearly meeting of the above company was hold at tho company's offices yesterday, Mr. H. E. Russell presiding.
The report and balance-sheet, which were unanimously adopted, showed that the net profit-after making provision for depreciation of steamers and setting aside a sum for special repairs and new steamers-added to the balance brought forward from the previous half-year, amounted to £8657. From this sum a dividend at the rate of 10 percent, per annum, absorbing £8000, was recommended, leaving a balance of £657 to be carried forward. 

Since the date of the last half-yearly meeting the balance of the purchase money of Clifton Gardens had been paid, and arrangements were In course of completion to lease the hotel and grounds to, Messrs. H. Adams and Robert Moodie. A lease of the water frontage at the foot of the proposed new road Immediately adjoining the grounds had also been arranged with the Harbour Trust Commissioners, for the purpose of erecting a commodious jetty. Swimming baths will also be erected. The purchase of Athol Gardens had also been completed, and a contract for the construction of a jetty was being carried out.
At the close of tho ordinary half-yearly meeting an extraordinary general meeting was held, and the following resolution was carried,-"That article 70 of the company's articles of association be amended by striking out the words 'seven hundred and fifty' in the second one thereof, and Inserting tho words 'one thousand' in lieu thereof." A confirmatory meeting will be held on August 10. SYDNEY FERRIES, LIMITED. (1906, July 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14788976 

The Sydney Ferries, Ltd., intends to repair the Clifton Gardens Hotel, and to construct a new jetty and swimming baths there. The Wasp. (1906, August 4). The Newsletter: an Australian Paper for Australian People (Sydney, NSW : 1900 - 1919), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article102708730 

The new swimming baths to be erected for the Sydney Ferries at Clifton Gardens are quite different to any baths hitherto built here. One of the principal improvements is the marine promenade which encircles the enclosure, and a number of lamps will form a ring of electric light all round the promenade. The bathers' platforms are on a lower level, and the dressing-rooms will be in the pavilion at the back, and above them will be a refreshment gallery. The swimming basin and beach will be provided with all the latest ideas and aquatic novelties for the amusement of young and old. Mr. W.G. Todd, manager of the Sydney Ferries, expects that the baths will be ready in about 12 weeks' time. The contract for the first portion of the work has been let to Mr. E.H. Kelly, contractor, of Greenwich. Mr. Rutledge Loust is the architect. BUILDINGS AND WORKS. (1906, September 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 9. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14816121 

The Sydney Ferries, Ltd., are making wonderful improvements In that well-known pleasure resort Clifton Gardens, and have spent thousands of pounds, upon the work, which is just upon the: point of completion. With “regard to the baths." said Mr. W. G. Todd, In conversation with a "Star" man to-day, "there is nothing like them In Australia, nor, so far as I understand, on the Continent even. We will have' accommodation for 5000 or 6000 spectators on the grounds. The bath will be circular, with a promenade round the top, and the swimming platform under the promenade. There will be about 300 dressing rooms, and on top of these a grandstand, or pavilion, with accommodation for a couple of thousand people. At the back of the baths provision is being made for non-swimmers, women and children, or those just learning to swim, the total swlm-1'ng area being 325tt. by 225ft. "There Is a 50 yards racing platform across the centre, and a diving platform, with platforms arranged every 10 feet, up to 50 feet high. 

Progress Is also being made In the pavilion for afternoon tea, the place being fitted with all necessary appliances. The baths are also fitted with various amusement devices in the water. They will be opened with a big swimming carnival on December 8 by the North Sydney Swimming Club, and my company has given a sliver cup, valued at £10, to be known as the Sydney Ferries Cup, for competition. This is for a 150 yards-Inter-club relay race, and has to be won 'three times. Another cup Is to be given by the Sampson Wire Netting Co., and the blue ribbon of the swimming season, the 100 yards championship, is to be held, and the Queensland champion, Springfield, is expected to compete. "The hotel," Mr. Todd continued, "will be used as a residential hotel, and will be ready for occupation about the middle of December and the improvements to the grounds arid pavilions and the baths will all be competed early in December, making It one of the most up-to-date pleasure and residential resorts In the southern hemisphere. "Messrs. Adams and Moodie are the lessees, and the hotel will be under the personal supervision of Mr. Henry Adams, and the grounds and baths under that of Mr. Robert Moodie." CLIFTON GARDENS (1906, November 20).The Australian Star (Sydney, NSW : 1887 - 1909), p. 1 (FIRST EDITION). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article228483687 

Attention is invited to an advertisement to-day regarding the swimming carnival to be held at Clifton Gardens baths next Saturday under the auspices of the North Sydney Swimming Club. The 100 yards State championship of N.S.W. is to be contested and a good race is anticipated between Alec (Alick)Wickham, 'Lou' Baker, and one or two others. The North Sydney Club has managed to prevail upon Springfield, the Queensland champion, to come down and take part in the half-mile handicap. The 150 yards inter-club will attract the best swimmers from several club' Other events include high and fancy divine and a special turn by the Seagull Club, the show is to close with a water polo match between expert teams. Steamers will leave No. 4 jetty at advertised times. OPENING OF CLIFTON GARDENS BATHS. (1906, December 2). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126560990 

Officially Opened on Saturday December 8th, 1906:

The new amphitheatre swimming baths erected by the Sydney Ferries, Limited, at Clifton Gardens, were officially opened this afternoon in the presence of a large number of spectators, who were loud in their praises of the handsome structure and the facilities which the baths afford for natatorial carnivals. Of graceful and unique design, the new structure is a truly magnificent swimming bath, 'a happy combination of the practical and the picturesque.' 
The space covered is 30,000 square feet. The basin is circular in shape, and a promenade platform 12ft wide runs right round it, with a platform for swimmers and dressing accommodation underneath. The dressing-rooms are 200 in number. Fifty feet from high water mark is a high-diving platform. 
The opening ceremony was performed by Mr. H. E. Russell, chairman of the directors of the company, who released the lower section of the steps leading to the diving tower, with a gold key, presented by the architect, Mr. Rutledge Lovat. Immediately the steps were placed in position, Mr. Russell declared the baths open, and a member of the Seagull Club took a dive from the top of the tower amid great applause. 

The annual carnival of the North Sydney Swimming Club then began, the principal events in a well selected programme being the 100 Yards State Championship,, and the 100 Yards Northern Suburbs championship. Unfortunately rain came down in torrents a few minutes after the programme had been entered upon, driving the spectators under shelter, and causing a cessation of the events for some time. The officials were: Referees, W. Bethel and G. H. Stainlay; Jadges, W, H. Mitchell, J. W. Turner, G. Tartakover, W. C. Goddard, H. Russell, P. Taylor, J. Dagleish, Dr. Robertson, — Griffiths, and — Jones; diving judges, W. H. Mitchell, V. C. V. Lane, J. Danehy; timekeepers, A. Balding, L. Flegeltaub, J. Carney, and W. Kerr; starter, R. Keers. Results: — , 
50 YARDS RACE FO'R SOBRAON BOYS.— Final: Lahiss, 1; Ryan, 2. Time, 36 3-5sec. 100 YARDS CHAMPIONSHIP OF N.S.W.— Starters: A. Wickham (East Sydney S.C.), P. Byers (Balmain S.C.), L. M'Queen (Fort-street S.C.) H. Hardwick (Sydney (5.C.), R- Baker (East Sydney S.C). The competitors were sent away well together, and were punched for about 40 yards, when Wickham forged slightly ahead and turned the 50 yards lap with a few inches lead from Baker. The struggle to the finish was a magnificent one between Wickham and Baker, the latter securing victory by a tev.oh. Hard-wick was third, a couple of yards behind Wickham. Tim«. 61 l-5sec.
50 YARDS NORTHERN - SUBURBS SCHOOLBOYS' HANDICAP.— Final: L. Wetton (St. Leonards), 5yd, 1; G. Campbell (St. Leonards), 9yd, 2; G. Murray (Manly), 3yd, 3.' Time, 53sec. 50 YARDS WARSPITE BOYS' RACE. — W. Fuggins, 1. Time, 53sec. 
50 YARDS KIERAN REMEMBRANCE HANDICAP.— J. M'Lean, 1; C. Reynolds, 2. Time, 30 l-5sec. 
DARBY AND JOAN RACE (Interclub).— F. K. Milne and F. B. Pitt. 
150 YARDS SYDNEY FERRIES' INTERCLUB RELAY 'RACE.— First heat: W. Wylie, W. H. Buncombe, B. Cochrane (Randwick- and Coogee Club), I. Time, 1min 45sec. Second heat: A. Dixon, T. Bell, and W. Jacobs (Sobraon). Time, lmin 38 2-5sec. Th5rd heat: F. Smith, J. Forsyth, and J. . Por.te.pus (Western District). Time, Imin 3* 2-5sec*. 'Fourth heat: W. Regan. A. J. Wilkins, and K. Milne (North Sydney), Time, lmin 36 4-5sec. Fifth heat: H. Fawl, T. Sinclair, and W. Paton (Rose Bay),, Time, lmin 31 4-5sec. Sixth heat: G. Cummins, E. Cummins, and F. Cuinmins (Sydney). Time, lmin 33 4-5sec. Seventh heat: R. Scott, W- Thompson, M. Legor (Waverley). Time, lmin 37 3-5sec. Eighth heat: C. Russel, W. W. Hill, and M. Duffy (Sydney), 1. Time, lmin 33 2-5sec. Final: Sobraon, 1; Western Suburbs, 2; and Waverley, 3. Time, lmin 39sec. 
SPRINGBOARD DIVING.— Cadden (Bondi), 1: Levick (Mosman), 2. 
HALF-MILE INTERCLUB HANDICAP, forcup and trophies.— First division: H. Dalley (Drummoyne), 2min Bsec, 1; W; M'Queen (Sydney), 1min 10sec, 2; Cecil Fenwick (North Sydney), 3min, 3. Time, 14min 39 2-5sec. Second division: J. Watkinson (Pyrmont), imin lOsec, 1; O. Dickman (Pyrmont), 35sec, 2; L. W. Springfield (Queensland), scr, 3. A splendid race. Won by 16 yards, Dickman beating Springfield by a touch. R. Healy (East Sydney) gave up at 760 yards. Time, 13min 9 2-Bsec. Springfield, who wore the East Sydney champion down, was awarded the enp for fastest time, which was 12min lSeec for the distance. The trophies were divided between Dalley and Watkinson, the winners of the divisions. . 
TO-DAY'S SWIMMING. (1906, December 8). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115677034 

Clifton Garden Postcards - courtesy Mosman Local Studies Collection, Barry O’Keefe Library 

Sydney, fortunate much beyond all other cities of the Commonwealth in the matter of swimming baths, is now in possession of another bathing enclosure of larger dimensions than any previously existing. The Clifton Garden Baths, erected by the Sydney Ferries Co., Ltd., is now available to the public. Altogether the space covered by the structure is 30,000 square feet, and when it is fully completed there will be comfortable accommodation for 5000 people. Two platforms, each 12ft. wide, run round the swimming space, which is circular in shape. Dressing room has been provided for 200 people. A special section outside the deeper portion is being set apart for ladies, while another is to be for the use of non-swimmers. 

The opening was marked by a carnival held under the auspices of the North Sydney Swimming Club. Unfortunately, a heavy thunder storm, which broke over the city at half past 1, and lasted well into the afternoon, militated very much against the big attendance (provision had been made for about 5000), and only 1500 people witnessed the display, many of them being drenched by rain the while. The big pavilion overlooking the baths failed to provide the shelter looked for, as it was very much exposed. Before it can properly serve the purpose intended it may have to be glassed in. On the whole the swimming was good, but the management left a great deal wanting. The most important event, the 100yds Championship of New South Wales, attracted five starters — A. Wickham, P. Byers, L. McQueen, H. Hardwick, and H. Baker — and in view of the fact that both Wick ham and Baker had been sprinting remarkably well during the past few weeks, they were looked to to put up a very close and exciting race, and expectations were fully realised. Getting away well together, Wickham gaining a slight advantage, the five were at top tension from the moment they touched the water. Soon Wickham and Baker singled out, the colored boy leading and travelling at a speedy clip, despite the sea that rolled in as the effect of a fierce squall at the moment. Amid excitement Baker was seen to be gaining on Wickham over the home stretch of 50 yards, and, the latter swimming an erratic course, while his opponent travelled straight as an arrow, contributed to his own undoing, which came about right at the very end of the course, when, after battling away together neck-and-neck for ten yards, Baker gained the distinction contested by the touch, and then only through allowing his arm to stretch along the surface of the water ; had he lifted the limb to bring it over, the premiership would have been Wickham's. Such a close thing has rarely been witnessed in a swimming race. The time, 1min 15sec, must be written particularly good in the circumstances, for the condition or the water was anything but favorable to speed. P. Byers was fourth. 

Next in point of interest was the Half-mile Inter-club Handicap, for which F. W. Springfield, Queensland's mile champion of Australasia, had been specially brought over as a 'draw card' against the State three-quarter and one mile top notcher, Reg. Healy. The race was decided in two sections, and the prizes divided among the placed men. Only three of seven starters finished in the first, which Dalley won by the touch from W. McQueen, with Fenwick 50 yards away, third. Eight contested the second division, but attention was centred only on Healy and Springfield (who left the platform together. Lap after lap they swam stroke for stroke, turning almost simultaneously every time, but losing a lot through, considerable deviations. Now they were in the middle of the roped space, and again they were right on the boundary, and perilously close to fouling. So the struggle went off till 600 yards had been covered. Then Springfield was seen to be slowly but surely gaining that long-fought-for advantage. At 650 yards the Queenslander led by 2 yards, and at 7C0 yards there were 6 yards of clear water between his feet and the local man's head. Travelling over the next fifty yards, Springfield overlapped Sydney Club's champion, C. N. Smith, who had 45sec start, and, touching the end of the lap, Reg. Healy retired beaten. Spring field continued to swim with great vigor and in fine form, but he could not catch Watkinson, who breasted the tape 20 yards to the good, after experiencing a close call at the hands of that promising Pyrmont boy, O. Dickman, who was beaten by the touch and not an inch more. The winner's time was 15min 9 2-5sec, and Springfield's 12min 15scc. The Queenslander will consequently carry home the 'Samson' Cup for having accomplished the fastest time, and it was a fine performance. indeed. Watkinson is the ex-Sobraon lad who swam so much with the late B. B. Kieran. The 100 yards Northern Suburbs championship introduced a youth — E. J. Cooke— who will be found among the forefronters of the continent in another year or two. Though led at the turn by Len Murray, Cooke swam with such dogged determination and sustained speed that he won by a couple of yards at least in lmin 2 3-5sec, Mur ray occupying lmin 4 2-5sec. High-diving dis plays and novelties were other good items of a first-class programme. Taunton, who won the Fancy Costume event, was capitally got up as a tramp, and acted the part as if to the manner.

The officials were : Referees, Messrs. W. Bethel and G. H. Stainlay ; judges, Messrs. W. H. Mitchell, J. W. Turner, G. Tartakover. W. C. Goddard, H. Russell, P. Taylor. J. Dagleish, Dr. Robertson, A. W. Griffiths, and C. D. Jones ; diving judges, Messrs. W. H. Mitchell, F. Lane, J. Danehy ; timekeepers, Messrs. A. Balding, L. Flegeltaub, J. Carney, and W. Kerr ; starter, Mr. R. Keers. Results : — 50 YARDS RACE FOR SOBRAON BOYS.— Final : Lahiff, 1 ; Ryan, 2. Time, 36 3-5sec. 100 YARDS CHAMPIONSHIP OF N.S.W.— Starters : A. Wickham (East Sydney S.C.), P. Byers (Balmain S.C.), L. McQueen (Fort-street S.C.), H. Hardwick (Sydney S.C.), R. Baker (East Sydney S.C.). Baker won by the touch from Wickham, with Hardwick third. Time, 61 2-5sec. 50 YARDS NORTHERN SUBURBS SCHOOL BOYS* HANDICAP.— Final : -L. Wetton (St. Leonards), 5sec, 1 ; G. Campbell (St. Leonards), 9sec, 2 ; G. Murray (Manly), 8sec, 3. Time, 53sec. 50 YARDS WARSPITE BOYS' RaCE.—AV. Fug gins, 1. Time, 53sec. 50. YARDS KIERAN REMEMBRANCE HANDICAP. — J. McLean, 5sec, 1 ; C. Reynolds, 5sec, 2. Time, ,30 l-5sec. DARBY AND JOAN RACE (Inter-club).— F. K. Milne and N. B. Pitt. 150 YARDS SYDNEY FERRIES' INTER-CLUB RELAY RACE. First heat : W. Wylie, -AV. H. Buncombe, B. Cochrane (Randwick and Coogee Club), 1. Time, imm sosec. Second heat : A. Dixon, T. Bell, and W. Jacobs (Sobraon). Time, 'lmin 33 2-5sec. | Third heat : F. Smith, J. Forsyth, and J. Porteous (Western District). Time, lmin 34 2-5sec. Fourth heat : W. Regan, A. J. Wilkins, and K. Milne (North Sydrroy). Time, lmin 36 4-5eec. Fifth heat : II. Fawl, T. Sinclair, and W. Paton (Rose Bay). Time, lmin 31 4-5sec. Sixth heat : G. Cummins, E. Cummins, and F. Cummins (Sydney). Time, lmin 33 4-5sec.' Seventh heat : R. Scott, W. Thompson, M. Legor (Waverley). Time, lr.iin 37 3-5sec. Eighth heat : C. Russell, W. W. Hill, and M. Dully (Sydney), 1. Time, lmin 33 2-5sec. Final. Sobraon 1 Western District 2 Waverley 3 SPRING-BOARD DIVING. — Cadden (Bondi), 1 ; Leviek, 2. HALF-MILE INTER-CLUB ' HANDICAP.— First section : H. Dalley (Drummoyne S.C.), 2min 5scc. 1 ; W. McQueen (Sydney S.C.), lmin 103ect 2 ;
C. R. Fenwick (North Sydney S.O.), lmin, 3. Only three finished. Time, 14min 3D &-5sec. . Second section : J. Watkinson (Pyrmont S.C.)( lmin 10sec, 1 ;'0. Dickman (Pyrmont S.C.), 35 sec. 2 ; F. AV. Springfield (Queensland), scr, 3. Won by 20 yards ; Dickman beat Springfield by the touch. AVinner's time, ISmin 9 ' 2-5sec ; Springfield's time, 12min 15sec. 100 YARDS CHAMPIONSHIP OF NORTH SYD NEY.— E. J. Cooke (Mosman), 1 ; L. Murray (Manly), 2 ; R. McKelvey (Manly), 3. A great race. won by about 2 yards. Time, lmin 2 3-5sec. Murray's time was lmin 4 2-5sec. HIGH-DIVING COMPETITION— A. Wickham, 1 ; Humphries, 2. , FANCY COSTUME.— Taunton (a tramp) won the costume prize and the race. SWIMMING. (1906, December 9). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126563421 

Sydney Ferries taking over also closed the decades the Thompson family ran the hotel and gardens. The hotel licensee became Henry Adams while the recreation grounds were placed under Mr. Robert Moodie.

(1907, April 19). The Sydney Stock and Station Journal (NSW : 1896 - 1924), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-page13114159 

Henry Adams Licencee - Clifton Gardens, Chowder Bay  Clifton Gardens Hotel  PUBLICANS' LICENSES. (1909, September 22). Government Gazette of the State of New South Wales (Sydney, NSW : 1901 - 2001), p. 5161. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226579228 

Clifton Garden Postcard dated April 30th, 1908  - courtesy Mosman Local Studies Collection, Barry O’Keefe Library 

Advertising (1912, August 11). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article120676918

Sydney Ferries Ltd. sought to improve the hotel premises and perhaps update the main building structures. They also installed a tram track along the wharf to the grounds.
The following sketches are courtesy of the NSW State Records:

Clifton Gardens, Site Plan showing position of Clifton Gardens Hotel and pavilion, wharf and Chowder Bay, Applicant/owner, Sydney Ferries Limited, Architect Walter Newman, Hunter Street, Sydney, Special Court, Electorate of Middle Harbour re Reduction of License 5 March 1908, approved 30 July 1914

Hotel, Chowder Bay, Front and side elevations and section, Applicant/owner, Sydney Ferries Limited.

Clifton Gardens Hotel, Basement, ground and first floor plans, section, Applicant/owner, Sydney Ferries Limited, Architect Walter Newman, Hunter Street, Sydney, Marine Hotel Chowder Bay subsequently Clifton Gardens Hotel

CREMORNE got its name seventy years since or more because the enterprising entrepreneur who erected a dance room on the tip of Robertson's Point borrowed from a London pleasure resort the term 'Cremorne Gardens.' Thence holiday-makers were conveyed on holidays in small paddle
steamers or on otherwise idle tugs. My memories of Sydney's Cremorne Garden may, however, be mingled with hazy re-collections of Chowder Bay— re-named 'Clifton Gardens' when Sydney Ferries, Ltd., bought this property about 23 years since, and there erected a new pavilion, renovated the hotel, improved the Jetty, and built a circular sea bath, whence jelly-fish, sprats, and sharks were excluded by small-meshed wire netting. Returning to Cremorne by mental aero-plane, in the early 'ninties, I inhabited a red-roofed cottage— the only one in the vicinity, and plainly visible from the city - which stood on the heights to the left of Shell Cove. Thence my late wife and I spent most or our holidays in exploration of Cremorne, then carpeted with flowers. The local dairyman then pastured his cows on Cremorne. Where the sandstone on the gully side had been steeply quarried a milker once slipped over and broke her neck. As no one gave her burial, we avoided the scene of that catastrophe for at least six months afterwards. About that time a bore was driven down near the site of the present Cremorne wharf. It struck the seam of coal now worked at Balmain. At the time, however, Cremorne was deemed the most profitable spot for the landing and shipping or coal, and its beauties were in great danger until E M. Clark— then a member for St. Leonards, as was Sir Henry Parkes— on a motion for adjournment, aroused the sympathy of the Assembly and saved one or the Harbor's beauty spots from annihilation. —GEORGE BLACK. OLD CREMORNE (1930, April 28). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 6. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article125975708 

A little about Mr. Rutledge Louat:

Barrier to Keep out Sharks 

(1929, January 21). The Newcastle Sun (NSW : 1918 - 1954), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164030493 

His father, Pierre Claude - 

Death of Mr. Louat.
It is our painful duty to announce the death, at Merrylands, on Thursday morning, of Mr. P. C. Louat, father of Miss Ernestine Louat, the popular lady vocalist of this district. Mr. Louat was a native of Lyons, France, where his father was a landed proprietor. For 40 years, however, the deceased gentleman was a colonist of New South Wales, and for 25 years he was a resident of Balmain, for 30 years being connected with the Mort's Dock and Engineering Company, near whose works his house stood

As superintendent of one of the departments, some large works carried out by the Company were done under his control. Some three or four years ago Mr. Louat removed to Merrylands for health reasons. He had been ailing for some time past and, about a week ago, underwent an operation at Dr. Hinder's private hospital. Though the operation was successful, it only gave temporary relief. Deceased was a brother-in-law of the Rev. W. Woolls Rutledge, president of the Methodist conference, and he leaves a widow and six children (four sons and two daughters). Mr. Rutledge Louat, architect, of the A J.S. Bank chambers, is his eldest son. The deceased gentleman's funeral took place yesterday (Friday), the place of interment being the Wesleyan Cemetery, Rookwood, and Mrs. Jordan Sparks, undertaker, Parramatta, having charge of the funeral arrangements. Death of Mr. Louat. (1902, September 27).The Cumberland Argus and Fruitgrowers Advocate (Parramatta, NSW : 1888 - 1950), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86203645 

There passed away in her 90th year the relict of the late Mr. Claude Louat, who was for many years one of the superintending engineers of Mort's Dock. Mr. Louat came from France with another engineer named E. D. Nicolle, who was so prominently associated with Thomas Sutcliffe Mort in laying the foundation of the frozen meat industry. The two young French engineers went originally to New Caledonia, but came on to Sydney, where they ultimately found a friend and employer in Mr. Mort. 

Mr. Louat established the first ice works in Brisbane before settling down in Balmain at Mort's Dock. He married the sister of the late Hon. Sir Arthur Rutledge, K.C., of Queensland. Mrs. Louat was a remarkable woman, the mother of a large family, and interested in all good works. The home at Balmain, with its water-front, was always full of young people, and sailing was a favourite sport and pastime. 

The French community in Sydney 40 years ago found in Mr. and Mrs. Louat warm friends. Mr. Louat through an active life was always a prominent member and was recognised as one of the best examples of vigorous French character in Australia. Mrs. Louat has seen grandchildren and great-grandchildren arrive with mounting interest and solicitude. Her mind was keen and clear to the last, though for some time she has been an invalid. Mr. Rutledge Louat, architect, of this city, is the eldest son, and Dr. Frank Louat a grandson. The eldest daughter was well known in Sydney some years ago as Miss Ernestine Louat. She was a fine singer, who married a Belgian engineer, M. Parlongue, and is now living in Brussels.
The interment was at Rookwood after a short service at Newtown yesterday morning, conducted by the Revs. F. MacGowen and Morris Young. MRS. CLAUDE LOUAT. (1936, October 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17290051 

Instances of the French community in Sydney gathering at Clifton Gardens are recorded in local newspapers from the early 1900's - just one sample of such gatherings, at which it is likely the designer of this wonderful structure was one attender, also allows us to see what is happening in dress fashions as much as a Winter's day at Chowder Bay - Vive la France!:

On July 14 the French residents of Sydney celebrated the anniversary of the taking of the Bastille by a consular reception and a picnic at Clifton Gardens. The recent Anglo-French rapprochement, incidental to the interchange of visits between King Edward and President Loubet, helped to make the celebration enjoyable. At both functions the utmost cordiality prevailed between our French colonists and their Sydney friends. The reception took place in the morning at the Consulate. Many of Sydney's most prominent citizens left cards with M. Biard d'Aunet.

The picnic took place at Clifton Gardens in the afternoon, and was largely attended. The Consul General for France (M. Biard -l'Aunet) presided, and amongst others at the head table were: Sir Harry Rawson, Lady Hawson, Miss Rawson, Sir John See, Lord Richard Nevill, the Attorney-General (Mr. B. R. Wise), Mr. J. Kidd (Minister for Agriculture), Mr. C. Oliver (Chief Railway Commissioner), Mr. H. M'Lachlan (Secretary for Railways), Mr. Justice Cohen, Sir William P. Manning, Mr. J. Barre Johnston (president ol tihe Chamber of Commerce), and a very representative gathering of French residents. The toast of ' The King ' was drunk with musical honours, and the ' Marseillaise ' was sung when the health of President Loubet was drunk. The Consul General proposed the health of ' The Governor General, Lord Tennyson.' The toast was warmly drunk. The chairman then proposed the toast
' The State Governor.' Sir Harry Rawson said that he joined with them in wishing prosperity and happiness to that nation which he trusted sincerely was now more than ever going to be England's good friend. He trusted that the rapprochement between the two nations would be cemented, because if it was it would be the dawn of a new era, and there would be prosperity for humanity and peace for Europe. (Applause.) Other speakers were Dr. Rougier, Mr. B. It. Wise, Sir John See, Sir William Manning, and M. Bricard. 

5. MRS. AENGEN HEYSTER AND DAUGHTERS. The Latter Presented the Bouquets to Lady Rawson. 6. DEPARTURE OF GUESTS. 
FRENCH NATIONAL FETE, CLIFTON GARDENS, JULY 14, 1903. (1903, July 22). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 225. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165189983

A Little more About Clifton Garden Baths

The Clifton Garden baths became very popular for all kinds of swimming carnivals - unfortunately not without tragedy. This little boy's parents, two brothers and aunt inserted In Memorium notices in local papers for years after their loss:

Mr. S. Murphy, City Coroner/yesterday held an inquiry concerning the death of Horace Stalder, the schoolboy who was drowned on Wednesday last at the Clifton Gardens Baths. Stalder had lived with his parents, in Railway-street, Petersham.

A schoolboy deposed that Stalder was climbing up and down a ladder in the water at the baths, lie fell : in, and sank. An attempt was made by another boy to rescue him, but he was too heavy. Mr. Abbot, teacher in charge of the boys, was called, and he recovered the body. Win. Arthur Abbot, the teacher, deposed that he took a party of boys down to the baths for a swimming carnival. He was told that Stabler was in the water, and dived in and got the body out of eight feet of water. He did not know whether Stalder was a non-swimmer. Unsuccessful attempts were made to. restore animation, and Dr Phipps was summoned. The depth of the water was indicated by figures on the piers in the baths. James Rickards, headmaster of the Petersham Superior Public School, stated that some of the boys had entered the. baths at a time when they were supposed to be eating their lunch. They should not have gone into the water before the carnival had begun. The boys had been cautioned of the danger the day before. The larger boys were instructed to look after the smaller. Amongst the teachers' there were two holders of Life-saving certificates. The boy was only two or three minutes under water. A SCHOOLBOY DROWNED. (1909, March 7). Sunday Times (Sydney, NSW : 1895 - 1930), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article126591116

STALDER,-In loving memory of our dear son and brother, Horace Donald, aged 10 years, who was drowned at Clifton Gardens March 3, 1009. He was beloved by all who knew him. As years roll on we miss him more. Inserted by his loving parents and brothers, Alex, and Lance. 
STALDER.-In loving memory of my dear , nephew, Horace Stalder, who was accidentally drowned at Clifton Gardens, March 3, 1010. Inserted by his loving aunt, F. McDonald. Family Notices (1912, March 4). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article15314459


R. Shaw (top) leaving the water after winning the Mosman carnival's junior 220 yards, followed by A. Hill and B. Hay. SWIMMING AT CLIFTON GARDENS. (1931, February 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16750692 

In July 1933 Sydney Ferries Ltd applied to Mosman Council to make improvements to facilities at Clifton Gardens, including the swimming pool. 


All that is left of the dancing pavilion, which was identified with Clifton Gardens for more than half a century. CLIFTON GARDENS LANDMARK DISAPPEARS. (1933, July 20). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16992466 


Boarding the ferry steamer yesterday to attend the Water Board's annual picnic at Clifton Gardens. PICNICKERS FOR CLIFTON GARDENS. (1933, October 10). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17014038 

By 1934 the pool was enlarged by opening one side of the circular structure to combine the baths and the adjacent wire protected beach bathing enclosure to form one continuous swimming area. Now over 300 feet in length by 200 feet wide, equipped with springboards and pontoons and surrounded by a promenade, together with a fine sandy beach, the bathing facilities continued to attract picnickers.

This Summer

THE popular Clifton Gardens baths and the former protected bathing enclosure have been com-bined to form a new, magnificent swimming area over three hundred feet in length by two hundred feet wide, surrounded by a promenade and equipped with springboards and floats. The picnic area has been levelled and beautified, and shade shelters erected. Fifteen acres of glorious picnic space and bushland! Cheap Fares—Adults 4d.; Children 1d. each way. Ferries from No. 4 Jetty, Circular Quay, regularly.

Sydney Ferries Limited.
FERRIES FROM No. 4 JETTY, CIRCULAR QUAY. Advertising (1934, October 13). The Australian Women's Weekly (1933 - 1982), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article47497104

Clifton Garden Postcard showing back of Baths and beach  - courtesy Mosman Local Studies Collection, Barry O’Keefe Library

The baths  - Image No.: a230018h, courtesy State Library of NSW

The 1940s saw people flock to ocean beaches and attendance at the Clifton baths began to drop. The Clifton Gardens baths were owned by the Maritime Services Board by 1949, and leased back to Sydney Ferries Ltd until 1952. Portions of the upper floor of the bathing pavilion were used as staff quarters for the nearby hotel, or leased as residential flats. 

Clifton Gardens
Sir,—Mr. G. B. Jackson, who writes about the condition of the beach at Clifton Gardens ("Herald," Feb. 18), should have investigated the contents of the incinerators of which he complains. He would find that they are used to burn the refuse which drifts on to the beach. Perhaps he would prefer his own Bondi condition, but, for his information, two men spend an aggregate of 60 hours a week at Clifton Gardens striving for perfection. A. JACKSON, Beach Inspector. Clifton Gardens (1949, February 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18098595

By the 1950s the structure was in poor condition. In October 1956 Mosman Council invited tenders for the demolition of the two-storey weatherboard bathing pavilion, the dressing sheds and accommodation, and the remaining semi-circular portion of the adjoining swimming baths. Days before tenders closed, these buildings were destroyed by fire, leaving only the pile foundations in the water. 

Clifton Gardens bathing sheds, 1956 - courtesy Mosman Local Studies Collection, Barry O’Keefe Library. Images No.: 000963a and 000963b.

Following removal of what was left, Mosman Council approved, in December 1957, the construction of a fully shark proof swimming enclosure which was completed in January 1958 at a cost of £3,500. Apart from repairs, realignment and a new jetty, the enclosure remains close to these modifications today.

James Rutledge Louat, clearly an innovator in anything he did, passed away at Mosman during the Winter of 1951:

Death Of Mr. J. R. Louat
Mr. James Rutledge Louat, a Sydney architect for nearly 50 years, died yesterday at his home at Mosman after a short illness. He was 84.
He specialised in domestic architecture and was one of the pioneers of flat building in Sydney. He designed the circular swimming enclosure at Clifton Gardens.
Mr. Louat was the son of Mr. Pierre Louat, a French engineer, who came to Australia as a bridge builder and later became manager of Mort's Dock.
He is survived by Mrs. Louat, a son, Dr. Frank Louat, barrister, and a daughter. Death Of Mr. J. R. Louat (1951, July 24).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18218411 

CLIFTON-GARDENS: A POPULAR RESORT IN SYDNEY HARBOUR. (1907, January 12). The Australasian (Melbourne, Vic. : 1864 - 1946), p. 28. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139331345 
In 1912 the Thompson family began subdividing and selling what acreage they still had around Chowder Bay and the Clifton Gardens resort. One of the more pleasant aspects of this is streets named fro his wife and daughters - members of the family did remain in the area:

2000 at Clifton Gardens
Although the general public that travels to the city by trams every morning failed to notice any shortage of ticket collectors and drivers this morning, the reason was only due to the extra work performed during the past few days by the roster clerks and depot masters When the time came for the tram- way men's annual picnic the officials approached these dignitaries with the request that as many men as possible should be freed for the picnic. The roster clerks and depot masters fell in with the request, and promised to do all In their power to make the gathering as large and as representative as possible. About 2000 people left Fort Macquarie this morning by special boats for Clifton Gardens, where a generous sports programme had been arranged for the tramway athletes, their lady friends and the children. Dancing, a punch and Judy show, bathing, and pillow-tights were all down on the programme.


At the tramway men’s picnic today the band went along as well as the kiddies. This little lad is experimenting without getting very much in the way of result. Probably if there was more boy there’d be more music. TRAMWAY PICNIC (1922, November 7).The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 - 1954), p. 9 (FINAL RACING). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224153623 

Leased by Sargents'
Sargents Limited, have taken a lease of the Clifton Gardens Picnic Grounds from Sydney Ferries Limited. The picnic grounds, including the 'Dixieland' dance hall, will be controlled by Sargents from August 1. The Clifton Gardens Hotel does not come under the change. CLIFTON GARDENS (1923, July 17).Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article119166077 

This arrangement continued - records found indicate:
October 1938 – sublet Pleasure Grounds and Hotel for 3 years to Sargents Pty Ltd for £4,00 per annum plus Rates and Taxes – from Sydney Ferries Ltd.  From 1.10.1938. Area of Hotel land – 7 acres, 1 rood, 30 perches. 2 storeys brick and stone structure. 57 bedrooms in main building + 27 over the baths.


Among those seated in the front row are Miss. Curnow, Mrs. Harold Fairfax, Sir James Fairfax, Lady Fairfax, Mr. Geoffrey Fairfax, Miss Betty Wilson, Mr. W. O. Fairfax, Mrs. Conley, Mr. W. G. Conley, and Mr. W. R. Charlton. "SYDNEY MORNING HERALD" AND "SYDNEY MAIL" PICNIC AT CLIFTON GARDENS. (1927, November 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16420251 
Hoffnugs picnic - an annual event, this company sending their employees to Clifton Gardens annually since the 1880's - Image No.: nla.obj-162506372-1
Panorama of Hoffnungs picnic at Clifton Gardens, New South Wales, 2 [picture] / EB Studios Created/Published - between 1917 and 1946, courtesy National Library of Australia.
With the advent of subdivision and homes built, the name for the resort became the name of a suburb:

Miss Lorna Jones, centre, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Edward Jones, of Clifton Gardens, and her matron of honor, Mrs. Owen Jones, left, and bridesmaid, Miss Muriel Conroy. Miss Jones' marriage with Mr. George Scammell, son of the late Mr. W. J. Scammell and of Mrs. Scammell, of Middle Head-road, Mosman, will take place at St. James' Church, King-st., tomorrow night. — Dayne Photo. CLIFTON GARDENS BRIDE AND ATTENDANTS (1930, May 7). Evening News (Sydney, NSW : 1869 - 1931), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117474394 

Modern Hotel Right Alongside the Harbor
SYDNEY Is known the world over as the Harbor City, and many visitors from the country prefer to stay hi sight of the harbor when they come to Sydney, What a refreshing change to come from Goulburn or Orange, New England or Wagga, to Clifton Gardens Hotel, right on the harbor and enjoy the fresh harbor
breezes and watch the moving panorama of ferry boats, white-winged sailing craft and ocean-going liners, The popularity of Clifton Gardens among country visitors Is due not only to beautiful situation— so cool, quiet and sheltered— but also to though first-class standard of comfort and cooking which has boon maintained for many years. Whether you stay at Clifton Gardens for the week or a month or a whole summer, you receive Individual attention every day. Since the coming of the Harbour Bridge it really is not necessary to stay …
theatres, do your shopping and see the sights conveniently. Clifton Gardens hotel Is now only twelve minutes from the heart of the city by car via the harbour bridge, and of course Is also served by ferry service from Circular Quay to Clifton Gardens. CLIFTON GARDENS (1934, March 8). The Farmer and Settler (Sydney, NSW : 1906 - 1955), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article117739619 

One of Australia's still unsolved mysteries centered around Clifton Gardens in 1940. Although the young lady's case baffled people, and was ascribed to her taking her own life, what really happened remains unknown:

SYDNEY, Sunday. 
The body of a young woman was found in a reserve at Chowder Bay, Clifton Gardens, on Saturday night. One of her stockings was twisted twice around her neck. An anonymous telephone call led police to find the body this morning. The victim was Betty Van Tonder, 24, domestic, of Kardenia-street, Mosman.

Police believe that she was murdered, but are not entirely discounting the theory of suicide. The stocking apparently had been torn from the suspender which held it. The young woman otherwise was fully dressed. An examination revealed that the woman's death was due to strangulation. There were no marks of a struggle where the body was found, and the woman's clothing was in orderly array. Police were informed that the dead woman of late had shown signs of stress. Efforts are being concentrated on identifying and locating the man who made the anonymous telephone call. The anonymous caller telephoned Central Ambulance at 11 p.m. on Saturday that he had attended a picnic at Clifton Gardens, and that he had seen the body of a murdered woman in the bush on the reserve. He hung up when asked to give his name. 

Central Ambulance immediately telephoned the police, and Detective Inspector McCarthy and Detective Sergeant Regan, of the C.I.1., and Detective Sergeant Hargreaves, of North Sydney, were assigned to the case. The body was taken to the morgue, where a post-mortem was conducted by the Government Medical Officers, Drs. Percy and Sheldon. Immediately after the telephone call police searched the area for two hours, and then suspended the search until 6 o'clock this morning. The body was discovered by Constables Fraser and Gilligan of Mosman police, and was identified by a steward at the Clifton Gardens Hotel. The body was found not far from the Clifton Gardens Hotel. 

Missing Since Friday 
Police were told that the young woman went to a hairdressing saloon at Mosman on Friday night to have her hair waved, and that she left there about 6.45 p.m. She then disappeared. When she did not appear for work on Saturday, her employer, Mr. H. S. B. Young, communicated with the police. The young woman, police learned, is of South African Dutch extraction, and spoke only broken English. She came to Australia 13 months ago in the employ of Mr. and Mrs. G. Scott, who stayed at the Clifton Gardens Hotel, but she left their employ suddenly without any reason. Police were informed that Mr. R. G. Heath, of Gardenia-road, who lived near where the body was found, said he heard a disturbance about 7.50 p.m. on Saturday, and his dogs began to bark. He did not attach any importance to the disturbance. STOCKING ROUND NECK (1940, March 11). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954) , p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article140525754

How Could Betty Van Tonder Strangle Herself?

THE theory that Betty Van Tonder strangled herself with her stocking is not one which will readily convince the public. AS a matter of fact, many people would regard it as an insult to their intelligence to be asked to believe that suicide is the solution of this mysterious tragedy. FOR a month the police have been investigating the puzzling affair. Yet apparently they require another fortnight to prepare their case for the City Coroner, because the hearing of the inquest has been set down for April 18.

IT appears that the C.I.B. proposes to explain the case away as an example of unusual suicide. While some facls may point to this deduction, others are in such strong disagreement that the theory must br regarded as most unsound unless it is proved right up to the hilt. 11 cannot be built on flimsy suppositions. It would be far better to allow the tragedy to join the roll of our grisly unsolved murders than to pass it off as a suicide, when it bears so many indications of murder.

Miss Betty Van Tonder, 23-year-old nurse-maid, was a South African of Dutch extraction who came to Australia a little more than 12 months before her death as a maid. When she left service she was employed by people named Young in Kardinia-street. Mosman. In some quarters it is said that the girl on occasion discussed suicide. It is also declared that she was fond of detective and crime stories. Such things, however, can hardly be taken as signs of mental abberation or a desire to commit suicide. In fact, most girls of her age have discussed suicide —pro or con — at some time without being considered mentally unbalanced. It is a fact, that crime and detective fiction is the country's best selling reading matter

It would be difficult to suggest, therefore, that the Van Tonder girl was morbid, unusual, unbalanced, or, sub-normal because she at some time discussed suicide and read crime and detective novels. Most puzzling circumstance is that ne girl on Friday. March 8, her day off. went to a chiropodist, and paid an ordinary visit to her doctor. She had her hair set and later went to the pictures. Surely such actions do not suggest a contemplation of death. IT IS UNKNOWN WHETHER SHE WAS AT THE PICTURES ALONE OR EVEN WHETHER SHE WAS ACCOMPANIED WHEN SHE SET OUT TO WALK HOME. BUT IT IS KNOWN THAT IN THIS LOCALITY THERE HAVE BEEN FREQUENT COMPLAINTS OF WOMEN BEING ACCOSTED AT NIGHT AND ASKED TO GO WALKING. However, the actions of the girl on that Friday were hardly the actions of one who was working up to a mental condition which would culminate in a ghastly form of suicide.


The girl did not arrive home that night nor the next day. But late on Saturday night a man telephoned the ambulance and reported the finding of a body in the scrub at Clifton Gardens. The next morning the corpse was lying beneath a large flat rock overlooking the harbor. About 25 feet away was her handbag. That's a puzzling circumstance. The body had been moved by someone before the police arrived. If it is difficult to understand why the girl should want to commit suicide, it is more puzzling to discover HOW she could commit suicide. Her stocking had been roughly torn from her leg and had been tied tightly around her throat. It was knotted with a difficult and unusual kind of knot; a knot such as is used by sailors. The ends of the stocking were then wrapped loosely around the throat again. HOW ANY YOUNG WOMAN COULD GET HERSELF INTO SUCH AN EXTREME STATE OF FRENZY, WITHOUT APPARENT RECENT CAUSE. AND THEN STRANGLE HERSELF IN SUCH AN INCREDIBLE WAY, WILL BE HARD TO ESTABLISH. Some local people subscribe to the theory that the girl was met by someone on her way home from the pictures, was invited to a stroll in this secluded park— not a very unusual episode— and was thereupon strangled. MURDER IS INDICATED! (1940, April 7). Truth (Sydney, NSW : 1894 - 1954), p. 20. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article169112444

Control of lands at Chowder Head and Clifton Gardens is being considered by the Mosman Council. Owners of land include Sydney Ferries, Ltd., the Clifton Gardens Hotel, the Maritime Services Board, and the Crown.
The Town Clerk, Mr. Marshall, who prepared a report at the request of the council, said the land was a little over 14 acres and had a total unimproved capital value of £11,020.
The only direct public access to the land, he stated, was by way of steps from Morella Street. There was a way through, the Clifton Gardens Hotel property, public use of which could be stopped at any time. CHOWDER BAY LAND CONTROL (1946, May 16). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17986097 

No Permit For Clifton Gardens Luxury Hotel 
SYDNEY, Wednesday. 
The Minister for building materials (Mr. Dickson) said to-day that a permit for building materials would not be issued for the proposed luxury hotel at Clifton Gardens. He added that Clifton Gardens came within the area where permits were still needed for the building of hotels. The only permit-free buildings were houses, churches, schools and hospitals. "In the circumstances we certainly would not allow a luxury hotel to be built at present," he said. 
£l million Plan 
Mr. Dickson was commenting on the statement by Mr. J. Herbert, managing director of the Canary Club, that a luxury hotel, to cost nearly £1 million, would be built at Clifton Gardens for American tourists. The club bought the hotel last week at an undisclosed price. Mr. Dickson said as the result of the partial lifting of building controls by State Cabinet last week, hotels could be built without permit anywhere in tile State, except in an area from Newcastle to Port Kembla, extending as far west as Mt. Victoria. "I think now that a number of hotels will be built in the country," he said. "My view is that they are more urgently needed there for accommodation purposes than in the city." No Permit For Clifton Gardens Luxury Hotel (1950, April 20). Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners' Advocate (NSW : 1876 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article140628388 

The Clifton Gardens Hotel was demolished on 17 November 1967, clearing from the grounds what had once been a resort attracting thousands, if not millions to picnics, to celebrations where every nationality or political party, society or business held grand events. 

Although there may be a few uneasy spirits lingering, it is the sound of laughter, of people enjoying each other's company, of children and adults engaging in play in their thousands and side by side, that must most fill that bay in the dim light of pre-dawn and at dusk. That laughter, and perhaps a Captain or two issuing orders...meets the laughter that is generated by visitors enjoying the reserve today.

Clifton Gardens today, Chowder Bay is still an idyll everyone is welcome at and remains a recreation site with great food, open access to the historical submariners buildings, a secluded from cold winter winds bay for swimming in, a great coastal walk, a playground for youngsters - in fact it remains a paradise kept in trust for the people by the Harbour Trust - visitor's guide available HERE
Ceramic [passenger ship] picnic, Clifton Gardens, 19 Sept. 1913, Image No.: a342004, courtesy State Library of NSW.
Above: Lorraine Slater at the Storemen & Packers' picnic, Clifton Gardens Beach. Date of Work: 1 Dec 1934, by Sam Hood, Image No.: hood_01237, courtesy State Library of NSW. 

Below: Confectioners' picnic, Clifton Gardens (taken for "The Labor Daily"). Date of Work: 30/4/1938 by Sam Hood, Image No.: hood_17140, courtesy State Library of NSW.

Extras and References

1. Samuel T. Pees. Oil History. Whale - Sperm Oil. 2004. Retrieved from http://www.petroleumhistory.org/OilHistory/pages/Whale/sperm_oil.html
2. Sperm whale. (2017, March 27). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sperm_whale&oldid=772480299

Agricultural Society - 1828
We here subjoin a list of the officers and corresponding and subscribing members of the Agricultural Society. 
The gentlemen designated as officers, are His Excellency Lieutenant-General Darling, Governor in chief, the Patron Vice-Patron.— The Honorable Alex. McLeay, F. R. S. and L. S., Colonial Secretary, and Member of the Executive and Legislative Councils. 
Honorary Members.— The Hon. Captain Rous, R. N.; Thomas Fowell Buxton, Esq., M.P.; their Honors Chief Justice Forbes, and Mr. Justice Stephen ; Edward Barnard, Esq., Colonial Agent; Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., President of the Horticultural Society, London; Robert Brown, Esq., Vice-President of the Linnean Society; John Barrow, Esq., F. R. S., Secretary to the Admiralty. 
President.— Sir John Jamison, Knight, and K. G.V. Vice-Presidents.—The Rev. Samuel Marsden ; Hannibal McArthur ; and John Blaxland, Esquires. Treasurers.— Messrs. Jones and Walker. Secretaries.— George Thomas Palmer and A. B. Spark, Esquires. 
Corresponding Members.—Messrs. J. Hugler, President of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society, Utenhage, Cape of Good Hope ; E. C. Emmett, Honorary Secretary to ditto ; (Dr.) Hooker, Professor of Botany, Glasgow ; Joseph Sabine, Secretary to the Horticultural Society, London ; Charles Telfair, Mauritius; C. R. Princeps, Calcutta; (Dr.) Wallack, Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens, Calcutta ; Robert Barclay, London; Allan Cunningham, King's Botanist, New South Wales; and Charles Fraser, associate. 
The subscribing members are 154 in number— and comprise Messrs. Andrew Allan, George Allen, Edward Aspinall, James Atkinson, William Balcombe, A. M. Baxter, Henry Bayly, Willoughby Bean, Archibald Bell, (hon.) Alexander Berry, J. B. Bettington, John Bingle, John Black, Wm. Bland, John Blaxland, John Blaxland, junior, Gregory Blaxland, Gregory Blaxland, junior, Wm. Bowman, William Bradley, Wm. Bradley, junior, Richard Brooks, Henry Brooks, William Broughton, William Brown, John Brown, W. J. Brown, G. D. Brown, (Captain) Bunker, Geo. Bunn, J. T. Campbell, Wm. Carter, Phillip Cavenagh, James Chandler, James Chisholm, Win. Cordeaux, Wm. Cox, Wm. Cox, junior,. George Cox, Robt. Craw-ford, T. Cumming, J. B. L. de Arrietta, (Major) D'Arcy, P. de Mestre, John Dickson, John Dight, (Major) Druitt, Lesslie Duguid, Henry Dumaresq, Wm. Dunn, W. F. Faithful, Robert Fitz, (Hon. Chief Justice) Forbes, George Forbes, William Foster, (Rev.) Henry Fulton, Frederick Garling, J. T. Goodsir, John Harris, J. S. Harrison, (Rev.) Thomas Hassall, Samuel Hassall, Jonathan Has-sal, James Hassall, T. F. Hawkins, F. A. Hely, Patrick Hill, Matthew Hindson, John Hook, John Horsley, Wm. H. Hovell, Wm. Howe, J.G. Howe, Robert Howe, Charles Howard, ———— Howey, Thomas Horton James, Sir John Jamison, Thomas Icely, George Innes, Richard Jones, E. J. Keith, (Captain, R. N.) King, James Laidley, Wm. Law- son, Wm. Lawson, junior, John Lawson, Nelson Lawson, Wm. Lethbridge, Wm. Lithgow, Francis Little, Edmund Lockyer, Robert Lowe, Hannibal McArthur, John McDougall, Andrew McDougall, James McDougall, John McHenry; John Macka- ness, P. McIntyre, A. K. Mackenzie, (hon. Alex ) McLeay, Donald McLeod, A. McLeod, John Mac-laren, Thomas McVitie, (Rev.) S. Marsden, Charles Marsden, David Maziere, (Rev.) G. A. Middleton, Thomas Moore, W. H. Moore, J. J. Moore, James Norton, Nathaniel Norton, Henry O'Brien, John Palmer, John Palmer, junior, G. T. Palmer, Geo. Panton, James Phillips, John Piper, Thos. Raine, David Ramsay, George Rankin, (Rev.) Thomas Reddall, Edward Riley, James Robertson, John Robson, T. B. R...., S. S...., G.T. Savage, Ellis M. Scott, W. Simpson, A. B. Spark, (hon.) John Stephen, John Stephen, Francis Stephen, John Street, George Suttor, Charles Throsby, F. W. Unwin, William Walker, (Rev.) W. Walker, (Dr.) Robert Wardell, J. P. Webber, (Major) West, (Rev.)——— Wilton, T. W. M. Winder, Edward Wollstonecraft, and John Wood. OUTRAGES. (1828, September 26). The Australian (Sydney, NSW : 1824 - 1848), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article36867849

Order. 24--Lady Wellingaton (brig), 196 tons, Cliff master, from London via Hobart Town,-- agent; 10 casks ruin, 1 box books, 1 box Stationery, 1 box ink, 8 casks blacking, I box sauces, 9 kegs mustard, 2 boxes oilmuan's wares, 1 cask glue, 6 barrels rosin, 12 kegs paint, 3 cases tin ware, I cask rotten stone, I cask filfrve oil, 1cask jspanned goodls, I nmat lamp cotton, 1 case cottons, 2 cases hate, 2 boxes artificial flowers, E. Parker; I case piano forte, I case slates, J, Orton; 25 bags saltpetre, 3 casks wrought iron, 33 boxes 3 casks I bundle ironmongery, 2 casks blocks, I cask furniture, I case baize, W. Walker & Co.; 5 cases hats, I bag - - R. Uther I blhd. rum, I lhhd. brandy, 1 hlhld. Generl, 50) or.saks beer, 6 tierces wine, 2 kegs unils, 3 tri-pots, 2 copper coolers, 2 anchors, 39 bundles iron b ops, 2 iron hoops, I bWick Iron, 2 bundles paws and )hovels, 1 cask I bundle tin ware, 1 bundle copper, I shedt lead, 6 grindstnes, 30 barrels gunpowder. 5 cases muskets, I case rifles, I case gsartouch boxes and belts, I cask fishing-tackle, 2 cases cutlery, 2 cases harlpoons, I carse saddlery, 6 Sbalesslops, I-cask bats, 2 bapes clothl, I casestuffs, I case haberdashery, 6 cases I bale cottons, I cask refined augar, I bug coffee, 4 chests tea, 3 bags sugar,. I barrel cocoa nuts, I barrel raisins, 9 packages apples, 80 ash oars, E. FI. Cliffe. Shipped, at Hobart Town,-1l ease straw bonnets, 2 cases Leghorn bonnets, 2 cases lits, 1 trunk shoes, 1 bale woollens, 2 bales blankets, 2 packages nails, 2 copper coolers, 80 bags sugar, 12 cases bottled fruit, 10 pipes brandy, 20 baskets tobacco. SYDNEY GENERAL TRADE LIST. (1832, June 2). The Sydney Monitor (NSW : 1828 - 1838), p. 3 (AFTERNOON). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32141319

THIS DAY, a Match for One Hundred Pounds, will take place between Seven Whale Boats, which has created considerable interest among the amateurs of Aquatic Sports.

The following are their names and Colours:
{Death's Head & "Rubicon," DANIEL, } Marrow Bones.
" Woodlark," GRIMES, Green.
"Lady Wellington," CLIFF, Red Cross.
" Lady Rowena," RUSSELL, White Cross. 
" Noormuhul," TABOR, Red & white. 
" Elizabeth," 'FINNIS, Blue.
" Sir Wm. Wallace" Carter, Green & white

They are to start from Slaughter House Point, Dawes' battery, precisely at 3 o'clock, and to round a Flag Boat moored off Bradley's Head, and back ; the first boat to receive two-thirds of the Stakes, the second the remainder.

The race will afford considerable amusement, as there is great competition between the parties, some backing the Colonial-built Whale Boats, three of which are entered, and others preferring the English. The boats are the best in the Colony, and the Crews are first raters. The Sydney Herald. (1832, July 30). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28654102

Sporting Intelligence.
BOAT RACE.—A beautiful rowing match took place on Monday, between seven whale boats, be-longing to the whalers now in port, starting from the Slaughter House Point round Shark Island, a distance of about ten miles, for a sweepstakes of £15 a boat, the first boat to receive two-thirds of the money, and the second boat the remaining third. Shortly before three the various boats took their stations, and at three o'clock a signal gun being fired from the Rubicon, away they started in fine order, the Woodlark's taking the lead, but for a very short distance, the Lady Rowena's and Rubicon's shooting ahead of her, bow and bow, and it appeared that the struggle would be left to be de-cided by these two boats, the crews of both showing they understood how to handle their oars in masterly style ; but after rounding Shark Island, the Wallace's and Elizabeth's began to draw ahead of the Rubicon's, who appeared from the arduous struggle to have become exhausted, and began to drop astern ; the Lady Rowena's still kept ahead. A gun fired from the Rubicon announced the arrival at the starting place of the first boat, and they came in, in the following order ;

Lady Rowena, 1 , Sir William Wallace, 2 ; Elizabeth, 3 ; Rubicon, 4 ; Normuhul, 5 ; Lady Wellington, 6 ; Woodlark, 7.

The first boat was not only built, but manned and steered by native youths, who appeared in high glee on the occasion. Captain M'Murdo, of the Zebra, undertook the whole of the arrangements, so that every thing went off with the utmost regula-rity. In the evening the Captains of the various vessels, to whom the boats belonged, partook of a dinner at the Royal Hotel.

REGATTA.—The lovers of Aquatic Sports will receive a high treat this morning, by paying a visit at noon to any of the Promontory's overlooking that splendid piece of water called Port Jackson.The gentlemen commanding the various Whalers, and other vessels in harbour, have determined not to proceed to sea without trying the respective merits of their Boats and Crews, at pulling, and the following Matches and Races have resulted 

1st. A match for £50, between Captain RUSSELL'S boat, " Currency Lass," colour White, and Captain CARTER'S boat, " Erin go Bragh," Green 
and White.

2nd. A Race for a Purse of 40 Guineas, be-tween 8 Whale Boats, belonging to vessels in harbour, to be manned by Crews belonging to any 

OWNER'S NAMES.                             BOATS NAMES.                                COLOR.
Capt. DANIEL'S,                                  Dan Devil,                                            Death's Head &c.
" CARTER'S,                                        Erin go Bragh,                                     Green & White. Shamrock, White & Green. 
" TABOR'S,                                           I'm Coming, '                                        Red & White. 
" FINNIS'S.                                            Blue eyed Maid,                                  Blue.
" TAYLOR'S,                                         Australian,                                            Blue White Cross. 
" GRIMES',                                           Currency Lad,                                       Green. 
" RUSSELL'S                                      Currency Lass,                                     White.

3rd. A Sweepstakes for 30 Guineas, for Gigs of all classes, and Whale Boats, pulling five oars and under.

Capt. DANIEL'S Secret, Black.
" WIGHT'S Beef Boat, Red White & Blue. 

4th. A Sweepstakes for 30 guineas.
Capt. M'Murdo, R. N. Zebra, Red Ensign.
Mr. KENNEDY'S Water Witch, Blue & White. 
Capt. WIGHT'S, Tasmanian, Red White & Blue.
Ditto, Medway, White. 
Mr. JONES'S Ncwha, Red.
Capt. DANIEL'S, Wanderer, Black.

5th. A Purse of £10 for Boats not exceeding 18 feet in length.
Capt. DANIEL'S, Whim.
" WIGHT'S, Harlequin.
And four other boats not named.

6th. A Sweepstakes of £10. for Licensed Water-men's Boats, with a pair of sculls each.

HUBBARD'S Mary Ann, Red. 
MOULTER'S, Mary, Blue. 
DODD'S, Ann, White.
PHILLIP'S Blue eyed Maid, Red & White. 
LYONS'S, Hit or Miss, Blue & Red.
CHAPMAN'S, Bother'em, Blue & White. 
ATKIN'S, Fire Fly, Blue White & Red 
BROWN'S, Monarch, White & Red.

The 1st race to start from H. M. S. Zebra, Capt. M'Murdo, this day, at noon.
Two other Matches are expected to take place, which are not yet arranged. The three first races will be round Shark Island, and back to the station boat-the others as may be agreed upon. The signal gun will be fired from the Rubicon, at noon precisely, when the first boats will start.
Those desirous of entering their boats are to apply to Captain Daniel's before 11 o'clock.
All boats to be alongside the station boat, at Dawes' battery, by 1/3-past 11 o'clock, and report themselves to the Umpires.

UMPIRES.-Captains M'Murdo and Daniel.
STEWARDS.-Messrs. Kennedy and Oliver, and Captains Cliffe and Russell.
REFEREE.-G. Bunn, Esq.
TREASURER.-J. Campbell jun., Esq.

The Fair Jane, manned by four gentlemen amateurs, we understand, is ready to be matched for £50, to row with any boat in the harbour, with the same number of oars. DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE. (1832, August 2). The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), p. 2. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12844966

A MOSMAN HOME OF HISTORIC INTEREST - Disappearance of 'The Nest'
Mosman's Bay has just lost a very old landmark in ' The Nest,' the demolition of which has deprived the popular waterside suburb of its oldest home.

BUILT in the early thirties of the last.century by Archibald Mosman, after whom the bay was named, 'The Nest,' though it was not so called until after the late Mr. Richard Harnett acquired it towards the end of 1859, originally stood in 30 acres of ground, and, in the architectural language of the day, was what was known as a cottage orne, an appellation by which all middle-sized dwellings with verandahs and French windows were then designated. Situated on the eastern hillside, immediately overlooking the bay, and with its orchard, vineyard, kitchen and flower .gardens, and other attractive features, it was truly an ideal home. The house was built by convict labour, and the extraordinary thickness of its walls and other indications of the security that was obviously aimed at in its construction, seemed to suggest that the intention was to make it capable of withstanding anything in the way of an attack on the part of the convicts when employed about the place.

ARCHIBALD MOSMAN, After whom Mosman's Bay was named.

ANOTHER feature of the house, which for upwards of thirty years past had been in the occupation of the family of the late Professor Charles Bad ham, wras the flagged courtyard in the centre of the building, round which rooms were built. This alteration was effected by a much earlier tenant, Mr. John Stirling, after the plan of houses he had seen in the south of Spain. Mr. Stirling was a very well-known man in his day in Sydney. He was for many years chairman of that ill-fated institution, the Bank of Australia, and was Chief Inspector of Distilleries  from 1847 to 1859. Mr. Stirling went to live at 'The Nest'' in 1844, and remained there 14 years, during which time he had the control of the heaving down establishment in the bay.

'THE NEST,' WHICH HAS JUST BEEN DEMOLISHED. Almost completely hidden from view by the trees by which it was surrounded, 'The Nest' stood on the hill overlooking Mosnian's Bay, near the ferry wharf. During its existence of nearly 90 years it was the home of some notable families, including that of Archibald Mosman, who built the house in the early 'thirties, when he established his whaling station in the bay.

A GOOD deal of 'style' was kept up at 'The Nest'' when John Stirling lived there. At this little out-of-the-way home, situated, as it was, in what was practically the bush of North Shore, the Stirlings had their butler, housemaid, parlourmaid, cook, gardener, and other servants. They had two guns in the grounds. of 'The Nest.' in the late 'fifties, and it was the. custom to welcome visitors from Sydney with a salute. The late Mr. Charles Gordon (afterwards Sir Charles Gordon, Bt.), was living there then, and the only other residence at the bay, besides the old stone cottage that stood near the bridge, was 'The Rangers,' at that time in the occupation of Mr. Henry Stuart Russell. 

IN the early 'sixties Judge Forbes became the occupant of 'The Nest,' and it was during his residence there that an incident occurred which may explain the mystery surrounding the discovery of a gun that was recovered from the bottom of Mosman' s Bay in December, 1884. It was an old-fashioned weapon, one of the kind that talked so often to the French in Nelson's day, and was found by some workmen who were employed in sinking piles alongside the sea wall on the site of the present wharf. It was said to be an 18-pounder, but it was so corroded with rust as a result of its long submersion that the inscription engraved on it.,' with the exception of the letters 'G,R.,'' could not. be deciphered. 

THE mystery about this gun is as to how it got into the bay, and what became of it after its recovery. By many it was thought at the time that it must have fallen overboard from the Sirius when she was careened there in 1789. It is, of course, quite possible that the gun originally belonged to Phillip's flagship, but it is very doubtful whether it got into the bay in the manner described. Much more likely is it that it was one of the two guns with which those salutes at 'Tin-Nest' used to be fired. When Judge Forbes was living there in the early 'sixties, the sons of Stuart Russell, in one of their boyish freaks, toppled one of the guns over the edge of the cliff on which it was standing, and sent it rolling down the hillside, and there is little doubt that it eventually found its way into the water. Mr. J. R. Stuart. Russell, one of the participants in that little frolic, has related that on 'festive occasions' his father- would . hoist the Union Jack on the tower at 'The Rangers,' and that this was the signal to Judge Forbes to fire off the cannon. Nobody seems to know what became of this gun.

OF Archibald Mosman's numerous family the best, known member was the Hon. Hugh Mosman, famous as the leader of the prospecting- expedition that discovered the Charters Towers goldfield, and for many years a member of the Queensland Legislative, Council. This son of the founder of Mosman's Bay was born at 'The Nest.' Two of Mr. Archibald Mosman's daughters married prominent Queensland politicians, Sir Arthur Palmer and Sir Thomas M'llraith, each of whom afterwards became Premier of the northern colony. The grounds in which 'The Nest' stood are now undergoing the subdividing process, and the old home will soon be but a memory. It is a pity; but its fate was inevitable.



In the distance, on the left-hand side of the pictures, will be noticed a building with a spire. This was 'The Rangers, at that time in the occupation of the late Oswald Bloxsome, by whom the house was built in the early forties. It was demolished some years ago. A MOSMAN HOME OF HISTORIC INTEREST (1921, September 21). Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 16. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article162033818

IF Mr. JACKSON, of Newcastle, Pilot, does not send for his  BOAT within the space of ten days from this date, and pay the amount due to me for repairs, I shall sell the same for my charges against her. JAMES KELL, Chowder Bay. Nov. 23,1837. Classified Advertising (1837, November 28). The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2214189 

[From the Sydney papers.]
The miraculous rescue of one of the seamen of the ill-fated Dunbar, the sole survivor from the wreck, has been the means of removing a portion of the mystery which previously shrouded this awful tragedy. As soon as it became known in Sydney that a man had been saved, we directed enquiries to be made of the circumstances. It appeared that in the course of the forenoon of Saturday a boy on the rocks near the Gap saw a man on a ledge of rock below, making signals by waving some object. He immediately ran for assistance, which was quickly on the spot. Ropes were obtained, and a lad named Antonio Williska, a native of Iceland, volunteered to be let down. The man was then hauled up, and on reaching the top was immediately attended by Inspector Mortimer, in charge of the police, and by Sergeant Healy. He stated his name to be James Johnson, and that he belonged to the wrecked vessel. Some spirits were given him, and he was enabled to walk with slight assistance to the Marine Hotel, where he was placed under the care of Dr. West. Dr. Duigan was also subsequently in attendance. Johnson was immediately placed in bed, and of course carefully attended; but it is remarkable that, though he had been exposed for forty-six or forty-seven hours without food, yet he was but little exhausted. He had received very little injury, and in a few hours appeared to have almost entirely re-covered. He is a strong, hearty-looking man, between twenty and thirty years of age, and is, we believe, a native of Drogheda, in Ireland.
The courageous lad who was lowered to the assistance of the seaman was of course soon brought up after the rescue of the man; and in reward for his exertions a subscription was at once got up amongst the persons present, and the lad was sent home with fresh clothing, and some £10 or £11 in his pocket.-Sydney Empire.

Shortly after daylight on Saturday, the Circular Quay became thronged with persons desirous of going down to the Heads by the Washington and o' her steamer reported to have been chartered to visit the locality where the wreck took place. A feeling of intense melancholy appeared to pervade the whole of those present, and the numerous coffins sent down to the wharf, to receive such bodies as might be picked up, added to the general gloom. It was a painful sight to witness the agonizing feelings of many who were there, either cognizant of the feet that their friends or relatives were passengers by the ill-fated ship, or expecting such to he the case. At about 10 o'clock, one of Mr. Edye Manning's steamers, in charge of Captain Sullivan, came alongside the Circular Quay, and such was the rush to get on board that stringent measures fcad to be adopted to prevent, as much as possible, any persons embarking other than those who were directly interested in the vessel and her passengers, who could perhaps identify any of the bodies, or who claimed a right to go on board as representatives of the press, or as holding some official appointment. The shells for the reception of the bodies having been shipped, the steamer left the wharf with about 60 or 70 persons aboard, among whom were Captain Pockley, the Inspector-General of Police, the Coroner, and several police-officers. The Harbour-Master's boat, with its crew, towed astern. The steamer went close along shore after rounding Bradley's Head, when one of the pilot-boats (Mr. Jenkins's) hailed her, and showed a gangway board, which was immediately identified as belonging to the Dunbar. Taylor Bay was closely searched by those in the Harbour-Master's and the Empire reporter's boat, and this investigation continued with great care until arriving off Hillery's Spit, in Middle Harbour. 

The following is the result of the search:-In Taylor Bay nothing but small fragments of the wreck could be seen, but on pulling into Chowder Bay a large piece of the stern frame and quarter was discovered, flung close to the beach. This was all copper fastened with very strong bolts, and appeared to be entirely composed of teak. Washed on the rocks and strewing the beach in this vicinity were large quantities of candles, and several articles of wearing apparel, including coats, waistcoats, and trousers, some of which appeared to have been worn, and others were new. The pockets of these garments were searched, but there was nothing in them which would lead to a knowledge of the owners. On proceeding to the point between George's Head and Chowder, a large portion of the top ides of the ship was met with, apparently the quarter, to which was attached the dead eyes, and part of the mizen rigging. On George's Beach an immense quantity of wreck, planking, ribs, beams, another part of her side, and heaps of small fragments were strewn. Several persons were on shore here, some of whom had succeeded in discovering two bodies (a woman and a child), which were taken charge of by the Harbour Master and put on board the steamer, floating in this locality were a number of kid gloves, braces, and other articles of haberdashery; thence to Middle Head pieces of wreck, broken cases, hats, and clothing were constantly passed; and along the rocks could be discerned timbers,' beams, parts of spars, &R., but owing to the heavy sea rolling in it was impossible to go close enough to the shore to make a minute examination. 

The Harbour-Master cruised to the south side of Middle Harbour, while the Empire reporter's boat searched on the opposite side. Masses of wreck and cargo had washed ashore all along this coast, but scarcely anything worth recovering. A lowermast, not much injured, was lying between the "Hole-in-the-wall" and the Big Beach. At Hillier's Spit an appalling scene presented itself. Under the overhanging rocks, from which the water was dripping fast, lay the bodies of 11 unfortunates. The first that was identified was the body of Captain Steane, R.N.; his face was not much disfigured, but his clothing was considerably torn; if the marks upon his linen had not showed who he was, his features could have been recognised. Close to him was the body of Mr. Downey, which had received severe braises upon the face and legs. These two alone amongst the passengers had their clothing on. A young midshipman, recognised as Sir. Williams, and whose linen was marked W, B. W, 24, had received severe contusions on the face, which was much swollen. It was evident that when the ship struck he was on deck upon watch, for he was fully dressed, and had on besides a monkey jacket and comforter; his right foot was broken near the ankle, and his clothing was much torn. A young lady, about 13 years of age, was nest found, who had not suffered much from contusions. Her body was not recognised then, bat she was remarkable for the smallness of her hands and feet. One of the most affecting spectacles was a woman with two children in her arms, and upon whose countenance, even after passing through the horrors of death, there still appeared a smile. A lady was recognised as Mrs. Waller, by her brother-in-law, Mr. J. G. Waller. A girl of 12, who had gold ear-rings, and another body of a female were not recognised. All around this place the space was covered with miscellaneous goods; in a small inlet were two bulls, and at the Spit another.

After leaving the Spit the steamer proceeded to Manly Beach, where four other bodies were taken aboard. Two were Jewish children; one was a sailor, and the other a man of large proportions, whose face was frightfully battered and disfigured, and whose body was also greatly bruised. The steamer subsequently proceeded outside, and coasted along as far as the Lighthouse, examining the rocks with glasses, bat discovering no appearance of any more survivors. One or two bodies, and many portions of bodies, however, having been recovered from the Gap, the steamer proceeded to Watson's Bay, and landed several shells, awaiting the return of the party who were dispatched with them.

Large numbers of persons lined the tops of the rocks, between the South Beef and the Signal-Station, quite up to night, gazing on the terrible spectacle below. As the sea rolled in, the most sickening sights were constantly presented. Several times during the day bodies, both male and female, passed slowly over the rocks, and disappeared again in the surf; while mutilated remains were cast up at almost every wave. In the afternoon, a courageous fellow, named Francis Osborne, was lowered on the flit rocks, over which the remains chiefly passed, and before sunset he had succeeded, at great personal risk, in grasping from the elements many portions of bodies. Many persons examined three mangled remains, but could trace no mark that would lead to identity. The greater portion of the limbs appeared to have belonged to persons of robust stature. The remains were placed in shells, and conveyed on board the steamer, when they returned to Sydney with the whole of the bodies which had been recovered during the day.-Empire.

The inquest having been postponed, a steamer (the Black Swan), with the Inspector-General of Police and other officials on board, proceeded down the harbour, and entered into every bay between the Cove and the North Head; the police boats, which were being towed, were detached, and a careful search made all round the beaches. Nothing, however, was discovered, until they reached Middle Harbour. There a party of the Water Police, under Inspector Cowell, have been stationed since Friday morning, and have found and landed sundry boxes of boots, casks of beer, boxes of raisins, stationery, and other portions of the cargo. All along the beach were pieces of the wreck, broken sperm candles, legs of chairs, and other pieces of furniture. It would be impossible to convey an accurate idea of the appearance of the beach-it baffles description. From end to end it is strewed with broken portions of the wreck, for the most part in pieces scarcely three inches square. Such has been the violence of the waves that the teak planks that were observed were rounded, as though the corners and edges had been taken off by a carpenter's plane. The peculiar appearance of this beach is considerably increased from there being scat-tered amongst the debris thousands of pieces of composite candles. Here, as elsewhere along the shore, the wreckers have been at work, many of the heavy teak beams having been cut half-through with an axe, and the heavy copper bolts by this means taken out. And here we may remark, that every precaution to pre-vent this sort of thing has been taken by Captain M'Lerie, who has been most energetic in his endeavours since the wreck took place, not only to recover the bodies of the unfortunate people who have come to this untimely end, but also, by stationing police along the shore, to prevent wrecking. Having proceeded as far as Manly Beach, the steamer crossed to Watson's Bay, where they took on board three bodies which had been recovered at the Gap. These bodies were recovered by Charles Bodgers, of the Bowling Alley, Parramatta street, and George Cox, a labourer, living at Waverley. Hopes were attached to the men, who were materially assisted in their praiseworthy efforts by Mr. Pilot Hydes, Mr. Moffitt, solicitor, and Mr. M'Mahon, of the Post-Office. The first body picked up was nearly perfect, and on the fleshy part of the left arm, between the elbow and wrist, the letters H. B. were pricked in. The second body picked up was greatly mutilated, only the trunk and one arm remaining. The third was perfect, and there were the letters G. M, inside an anchor, pricked in on the fleshy part of the right arm, between the wrist and elbow. These lifeless remains were placed in shells, and are now in the dead-house.
At Watson's Bay the steamer took on board Johnson, the recovered seaman, and then returned to Sydney.

_ The appearance of the Gap has now undergone considerable change. On Monday afternoon the fragments of wreck were fast disappearing, and the sea having greatly abated, several boats approached close to the base of the cliffs. George Mulhall, in his skiff, ran the coast down some distance to the south of the Signal Station, but saw no indications of any survivors from the wreck. Nearly abreast of the Flagstaff several spars are to be seen, and as the sea receded portions of the sails became quite visible, clearly showing that a portion of the hull still remained there.
An article of woman's apparel had been picked up, near a body sadly mutilated, marked "J. Logan." Empire.

A slight description of the locality where the late melancholy catastrophe occurred may be interesting to those not acquainted with it. From the South Head, on which the lighthouse stands, to the South Beef, at the entrance of Port Jackson, the distance is about a mile and a half. It is between these two points that the catastrophe occurred. The coast is very high and steep, and, indeed, may be said to be inaccessible. Next to the South Reef is a small bight commonly known as the Gap, and here are large table rocks nearly level with the surface of the water, and as smooth as if cut by the chisel of the mason. Here, perhaps more than any-where else, the breakers roll in with excessive violence. A little further south is another bight terminating in a deep and somewhat remarkable fissure in the racks; and it has been suggested that some chances of saving life might have existed had the unfortunate Dunbar struck here, as persons can go down this opening (and did do so on the day of the wreck) without incurring any risk, and this probably would be greater in the daytime. There is deep water alongside, but the rocks are by no means so steep, and are more easily climbed than in other parts.

The next bay is a very short distance from the Flagstaff at South Head, and is, we are of opinion, the place where the Dunbar struck. In the fearful sea that was running on Thursday night, it is a miracle that a single soul has been saved. We arrive at the conclusion that this was the place where the ship went ashore, as on the morning of the wreck no traces of the ship could be seen further south. When, however, the ebb tide made, this would send the wreck towards the entrance of the port, and the easterly wind and sea, assisted by the subsequent flood-tide, would drift the bodies and floating masses into Middle Harbour, where, indeed, the greater portion of the debris and a number of bodies were drifted.-Empire.

At Watson's Bay was picked up an interesting relic-a child's straw hat with a feather in it, which was shown to Johnson (the fortunate survivor), and he identified it as worn by one of the children in the tropics. We have heard that a piece of crochet-work, with the needle stuck in it, and a reel of cotton attached, was picked up at North Harbour. This melancholy relic of the calamity seems as if it were only just laid aside by the fair fingers that but a few moments after were motionless in death. The steamer, after calling at Manly Beach, and sending a boat up North Harbour (which, however, discovered nothing) stretched straight across for Watson's Bay, and received on board the bodies of three men, evidently seamen by the marks on the arms-one, with the exception of the top of the skull, and the loss of part of the left arm, was entirely whole, and seems to have been a fine man. The other two were only trunks, the mutilated remains of unfortunate sailors.

Mr. P. Cohen, of Manly Beach Hotel, saw two bodies floating, and tried to recover them; but, in consequence of the number of sharks, and the ferocity with which they fought for their prey, he was unable to do so. Mr. Moffat and a pilot are, we believe, the persons under whose directions the three bodies were taken from the Gap.-Harold.

On Monday, at 11 o'clock a.m., an inquest was held at the King's Arms.
The first witness examined was James Johnson, who made oath on the Holy Gospel, and deposed-I am a seaman belonging to the ship Dunbar, commanded by Captain Green. I do not know the captain's Christian name. We sailed from Plymouth on the 31st of May last. I cannot tell the "tonnage of the ship. She was a large ship-a first-class ship. We left Plymouth on the 31st of May, with a large cargo. I am not able to state exactly the number of passengers. I know they were composed of men, women, and children. There were males and females in the steerage as well as in the cabin. There were no servants in the steerage. I am positive as to the date of sailing, and recollect well that it was on a Sunday morning. There were 59 seamen on the ship's articles, including myself; or, rather, including officers and all on board in the capacity of sea-men. The chief officer's name was Struthers. 

We had a prosperous voyage up to the time of the wreck; in fact no accident or mishap had occurred during the previous part of the voyage. The vessel was not a leaky one. I noticed nothing particular on the voyage until we made King's Island, and that was on last Sunday week, August 16. It was blowing fresh that day, and the wind was "free." We were running on that day under double-reefed topsails-that it, when we made King's Island. We kept a look-out for that island the night before we made it. We made the island, according to the expectations of the captain, on the day first named. On such occasions a proper look-out is always kept by the ship's officers. We made the island under double-reefed topsails. I am quite positive that it was on the 10th instant that we made King's Island, and likewise that was the island we kept a look-out for on a night before. We made it according to the ship's reckoning, and we could see it very plainly. The wind was then from the westward. After sighting the island we shaped our course for Bass's Straits. The weather was very hazy from the time we made the land until we got free of the Straits. The sail was shortened from the stress of weather. Two reefs had oftreathe?l'wntf°|,SaI'S from nothing else but stress ehZlf ^: expecting to meet the land the captain shaped his course for the Straits. He was steering about east and by north; but I am not exactly certain ahrnit f'nVWb1"16^ Straits that night, or, rather, about 3 o'clock in the morning. We saw a light on the land. We kept our course straight on. The light was on the port bow. I cannot say what distance the was from us. There was no light; Change in the sea
S ^ 13» u,lU1 wc had Passed through the Straits. We made two boards on that day,
C'^r of the "'ani X have been to Melbourne before but not to Sydney. I am an able seaman, and have been II years at sea. I served my apprenticeship on the coast of England. I was employed la., 5. i~e between England and Ireland. I never ?rCJ Dunbar before this voyage. We next passed Kent-s Group, and made the light at Cape Howe. I do not know the light myself, but that is the name I heard it called on board. I kept no log. It was at night or in the evening, when we passed this light. I do not 2Ti?\li 1? ? 3 was ehia^ed after sighting that light; but I do know that we were running under double-reefed topsails along- the coast at Cape Howe. 

It was however, raining, and very hazy and misty weather. We could see the coast sometimes. There was not a very heavy sea on. A correct look-out was kept but there was no person keeping a look-out aloft, neither was it customary to do so. The look-out was kept only from the forecastle. I believe a look-oat Is sometimes kept aloft in some vessels on nearing the coast. That night passed away very well. Next day we carried on more sail, and continued to do so until we sighted land off Botany. It was on Thursday evening we sighted the land on Botany; all hands distinctly saw the laud. There could be no mistake. After doing so we closereefed our topsails, and were close-hauled upon a bowline. The wind was about east and by north, and we were lying along the coast. When we made the land we were about 10 or 13 miles off. The starboard tacks were on board, and we were close-hauled on a bowline. We were close-hauled Mid running under easy sail. We shortened sail after making the land off Botany. There were three reels in the main topsail, and the fore topsail was closereefed. The mizen topsail was stowed. The spanker was brailed up. We took the second jib in, and also the main topmast staysail. The weather was squally accompanied with rain. From the time of sighting Botany the captain was on deck, and the chief officer was on deck. When we made the land about Botany it was about 6 or 7 o'clock on the evening of Thursday lit. After sighting Botany we kept on our course with our bearings. I saw the light at the lighthouse on the South Head shortly after 7 o'clock that evening. I swear positively it was shortly after 7 o'clock on Thursday evening last I saw the light of the Sydney lighthouse. The vessel was then laying her course about north-east and by north. She had not plenty of room for she was making too much lee-way. I knew she was making lee-way, and I believe it was because she had not enough of sail upon her. 

Captain Green was all this time standing upon the poop. The sails at this time were not shaking; they were full. The captain was not saying " luff," "starboard," or " port." The captain and chief officer were on the deck from 8 to 12 o'clock that night. The watch went below by orders aud were relieved at 8 o'clock. At that time it was raining hard. The light at the lighthouse was seen only at intervals, but when seen it was distinctly seen. It is a revolving light I am sure. I remained on deck because I belonged to the chief officer's watch. The captain remained on deck notwithstanding that the wateh was relieved, and he gave the orders as usual Everything was properly attended to as usual. All orders were strictly obeyed, and there was nothing whatever to show that there was any dissatisfaction or disobedience on the part of the crew. We then stood along the coast until wc fetched the lighthouse. The light was upon our lee mizon rigging. Tile ship was not labouring heavily She obeyed her helm readily. There was one man at the wheel until the orders were given by the captain to "square away." On the port side was the lee-mizenrigging. The captain was walking upon the weatherside of the poop when all hands were called. When the light was seen on the mizen-rigging all hands were piped by the boatswain, and all hands immediately obeyed the call. All hands were called to "wear ship." Those were the orders given by the captain and the words were passed from the lips of the boatswain himself. The orders in the first instance had been given by the captain to the chief mate, and by the latter to the boatswain. We did not "wear ship" after all hands came on deck. When all hands came on deck the order was given to "square away." When we got the yards squared the order was given to haul the foresail up. The order was immediately obeyed, and the yards were squared. The ship was then kept away before the wind. The light was distinctly visible; but only at times. To the best of my belief when the word was given to 'square the yards," the light had just previously been seen. I swear the light had been seen immediately before the order was given to "square away." When the yards were squared away the vessel was running on a top sail, and it was blowing very fresh. It was about 11 o clock when the hands were called. Perhaps a few minutes past 11 o'clock. 

There was a look-out upon the forecastle. An able seaman had been placed there for the purpose of keeping a look-out for the land. The second and third mate had also been sent to keep a look-out on the forecastle. After sending the second mate forward, the captain called out, "Do you see anything of the North Head?" The mate said "No" When I saw the light she had it a bit upon the port bow. The captain then again called out, "Can you see anything of the North Head?" The forecastle watch cried out "No." The captain then said to the man at the wheel, "Keep your luff a bit." No order was given to brace the yards at that time. I heard distinctly the words " Keep your luff." 

The position of the ship was then changed a small bit. Shortly after that the second mate called out, "Breakers ahead." The captain then called out to the man at the wheel " fort your helm." We were hauling in the port braces when the captain told us to haul the yards round. When he told us to haul on the port braces we heard the cry of breakers ahead. He then called ont, "Brace the yards sharp up." The order was quickly obeyed. There were 13 able seamen in each watch. There was no want of hands to work the ship. We could see the light at this time. The light was right over us. A few minutes after we hauled the yards round. 

When the captain saw the light he did not give orders to alter the position of the yards; and about two minutes afterwards we bumped upon the rocks. The ship went broadside on to the rocks. At the time of striking we were endeavouring to stretch out to the eastward. Her head was lying to the northward, and she was drifting with the rise and fall of the sea. At this time the passengers had come from between decks, and were running about the maindeck imploring mercy, and uttering piercing and heartrending cries for succour. The ship was lying broadside on in the heavy surf. The captain was standing upon the poop, cool and collected. I could hear no orders given after the ship struck. 

There was great cou when the word was given that the ship struck. With the first bump the three topmasts went overboard. The first sea that breached over the vessel staved the quarter boats. There was no boat lowered from the vessel. The mizenmast went first by the board. The foremast stood a long time. She was in the surf about five minutes before she began breaking up, and then went with a great crash. I was on deck, standing on the poop. The first sea that breached over the vessel knocked me down, and I immediately got up and took hold of a rope. I then ran down into the cabin where I found one of the skylights open. I saw nothing of the captain after this. The sea was breaking over the vessel when she struck. We made only one signal. We sent up a blue light. It was the steward who set the blue light oft, at the captain's order. The light went over the land. It was visible upon the port shore for three or four minutes. The light was discharged just before the vessel struck. I got into the cabin, and out of one of the skylights. I then got on the weather-side and crept in to the mizen mains. The vessel kept continually breaking up aft, Finding the vessel breaking up aft, I moved forwards into the main chains, and subsequently into the fore chains, where I found the captain. This portion of the vessel also broke up, and I found myself upon four planks. The next sea which came washed me up among a lot of broken timber. We saw no vessels in the evening. We did not stand off the land at any time. I did not hear the captain say at any time, “If I stand off the land I shall be driven to the northward." If the captain had seen my danger he could not have laid further off the land than he did. The captain did all in his power to save the vessel, and neglected nothing so far as I saw. I think when the captain gave the order to square away he was under the impression that he was entering the Heads until he heard the second mate cry out "Breakers ahead;" but that is only my own surmise. The officers did not tell him that they saw North Head. Nor did any one else say so, because it was not to be seen. There was no opening to be seen that I could detect ; in fact, I could see nothing ahead at all. I was n«t apprehensive of danger; and just before we struck I thought we were going straight Into the harbour. It was the second mate who gave the alarm of "Breakers ahead." It was somewhere about the port bow we struck the rocks first. As she bumped she fell over, and then it was impossible to lower a boat. The sea did not make a clear breach over at first. : We had four boats, two upon each side. There is not the least truth in the report that the longboat had been branched, or that any passengers had got into it. I am quite sure that all the men were sober and steady. We were allowed only one glass of grog daily. Great many of the crew were working their passages out at a shilling a-month. After I found myself upon the rock my senses returned, but I could hear nothing except the noise of the sea. The first thing I saw in the morning was the dead bodies floating in the sea. I saw that I was the only person there I was about 10 yards above the level of the sea. The sprays washed the rock upon which I was sitting, but it was not at all slippery. I was not in danger of being swept away. I had a blue shirt on, a singlet, and a pair of drawers. I have met with only one injury a mere bit of a scratch upon my knee. I am quite positive about seeing the light just before we went ashore. It was only a few minutes before the yards were squared away. There was no such person on board the ship as Oliver George Jones. There was no person of the name of William Cousens on board.
By the Foreman-The ship was not altered after sighting Botany from 7 till 11 p.m. The vessel was going close-hauled, going about three knots an hour. I cannot say bow far the ship was off the land when we saw Sydney light. When we squared away we brought the light on the port bow. It was not more than half an hour from the time of squaring away till she struck Both anchors were ready. The captain and all officers were on deck.
By the Coroner-I am not aware that any soundings were taken.
By the Foreman-When the yards were squared, and the vessel put before the wind, she run about five or six knots an hour.
By the Coroner-The vessel was not pressed.
By Mr. Raphael-There might have been time to have let go the anchors after she struck, but she would have veered on. I identify the bodies of the following persons:-Young Mr. Williams, midshipman: Charles Sappy, I be here formerly in the water-police here: the boatswain; also, John Givaren, seaman; a servant-girl of Mr. Waller, one of the cabin passengers; also Mr. Waller's eldest daughter, and I think one of Mr. Myers's children, a girl. Among the passengers, X knew an old captain of the Navy, Captain Stearne; I have identified his body. I have never been into this harbour before. Miss Logan was a passenger. She was about 20 or 21 years of age. Also, two Masters Logan: they used to dress in a kind of French uniform. There were about 65 passengers. Mr. Waller and Mrs. Waller, and either five or six children, were among the passengers. The boats were not lowered, but everything was in readiness to lower them. Tire weather was too hazy on Thursday to take an observation. Mr. and Mrs. Peek were passengers. They came on board at Plymouth; also Miss Logan and her brothers. The vessel was fully laden, drawing about 18 feet. There were not any deaths or births during the voyage. The crew and passengers were all healthy. There was a Master Weiss on board. He was an apprentice. Doctor Baine was the doctor of the ship; and the third officer's name was Fascoe. The second officer's name was Spence. One of the midshipmen was named De Verd. There were six midshipmen on board. The captain's steward's name was Ward. We had four life-buoys on board. The chief cuddy steward was named Sam. We had four bulls and two milch cows, some sheep, and pigs on board. There were three Finlanders among the able seamen, and about eight Dutchmen. The men in my watch were Alexander Munro, William Miller, John Lewis, Thomas Chapman, John Douglass, John Colestou, Geo. iemar, Harry Cummings, Jolui Guy. These men were all in the starboard watch. The following were some of the men in the port watch. William Horn and
»n. Were three apprentices, Horn, McGuffy, and Allen. Among the steerage passengers I knew Mr. and Mrs. Healy and three children Mrs. Brown and one child, Mr. Clarke, wife, and two children; also a Mr Bynon, whose wife I think I heard was out here. Mr. Bynon, I think, went home in the Dunbar last voyage. The ship was fully manned and in trood discipline. We found the ship always work well, and kept good headway in stays. There was a gentleman on board in the habit of reading prayers to passengers and crew. I think it was Mr. Waller. There was a Mr. Troaghton among the passengers. This Mr. Tronghton told me during the voyage that he had a brother drowned off Cape Horn. The captain was universally respected in the ship.
Other evidence was taken, and the Coroner briefly summed up. After a discussion of about three quarters of an hour, the Jury returned the following verdict:" The Jury find that the bodies viewed are- those of some of the passengers and crew of the ship Dunbar, out of London, commanded by Captain Green, and bound :o this port, and that the said ship Dunbar was wrecked outside of the Sydney Heads, close to the Gap, on the night of Thursday, the 20th August, causing the death of the said parties. There may have been an error of judgment in the vessel being so close to the shore at night in such bad weather, but the Jury do not attach any blame to Captain Green or his officers for the loss of the Dunbar."
The Jury also appended to this the following rider:" The Jury consider it their duty to put on record their opinion that the present pilot arrangements for this port are most inadequate, and desire to draw the attention of the Government to this matter."
The inquest concluded shortly before 11 o'clock.-. Empire.

The interment of those bodies which have been recovered from the wreck of the Dunbar took place on Monday. The public offices were all closed at 2 o'clock, and shortly after that hour business in the city was entirely suspended, and almost all the shops, including a. large number of the public houses, were closed. The flags on the ships in the harbour were all half-mast high, and the city wore a most dismal aspect.
The footway of George-street was lined from end to end with men, women, and children, all of whom seemed deeply affected with the melancholy spectacle they were assembled to witness. Shortly after 6 o'clock about a hundred private carriages had drawn up in Lower George-street, as seven hearses had arrived at the deadhouse, Circular Quay. In one of these hearses, the panels of which were open, was placed the coffin, covered with the Union Jack, containing the body of Captain Stearne, R.N. In the remaining six were placed coffins, the contents of which were as follows
One, C. Sapple, a seaman of the Dunbar, formerly a man-of-war's man, and who was about eighteen months ago employed in the Sydney Water Police force; two, a boy aged about three or four years, name unknown; three, parts of human bodies picked up at the Heads on Sunday by Mr. MoSUtt and Mr. M'Mahon; four, trunk of a female, unknown; five, a young female, unknown; six, John Gaven, a seaman of the Dunbar, formerly a man-of-war's man; seven, the boatswain of the Duabar; eight, a female, unknown; nine, a bey, supposed to be Master Healey; ten, parts of human body; eleven, male, unknown; twelve, female unknown; thirteen, portions of human bodies; fourteen, trunk of a boy, unknown; fifteen, portions of human bodies; sixteen, supposed to be the body of Mr. Struthers, chief officer.

The procession was then formed in the following order:
Advanced body of Mounted Police.
Band of the Royal Artillery.
The seven Hearses, the last one containing Captain Steame's body.
Officers and seamen of H.M.S. Herald.
Chief Mourners, in mourning coaches; James Johnson, the Water Police Magistrate, the Port-Master, and the Inspector-General of Police.
Several mourning coaches.
The Royal Artillerymen, accompanied by their Officers, and Captain Scott. The City Police. The Carriages of the Members of the present Ministry, and about 70 private carriages.
Each hearse was flanked by two mounted policemen, and the entire procession was flanked by the City police.
The cortege moved from the Circular Quay towards the Cemetery about 6 o'clock, and arrived at Camperdown about 7. The bodies were lowered into a large grave, and the funeral service read by the Rev. D. C. Kemp, by candlelight. A very large number of persons had assembled at the Cemetery to witness the ceremony. The bodies having been duly interred with the usual solemnities, the procession returned to Sydney. The undertakers engaged were Messrs. Stewart and Dixon; and the Cemetery Company generously gave the ground without any charge whatever.
Mrs. Waller and her servant were buried privately; a large number of citizens following them to the grave.

Mrs Waller, identified by Mr. J. G. Waller.
Master Myers, identified by Mr. Jacobs, and supposed to be three years and a half old.
Master Myers, supposed to be 12 years old, identified by Mr. Jacobs.
Mr. J. P. Downey, recently an architect in this city, identified by his father.
Capt. Stearne, R.N., identified by the sailor Johnson.
A female servant of Mrs. Waller, name unknown, identified by Johnson.
Body of a young lady, supposed to be Miss Waller, and identified as such by Mr. J. G. Waller; but decided by the medical witness to be the body of a married woman. Body of the boatswain, name unknown, identified by Johnson. Body of a man, identified as that of a seaman known as Sappy or Sappo. Mr. Williams, a midshipman; about 18 years of age, first voyage, light hair.John Gaven, a seaman.
Master Healy, a little boy, three years old.-Empire.

The body of another female was recovered on Monday, under the following circumstances:-Mr. Graham, of the firm of Donaldson, Graham, & Co., started in the steamer Premier, to explore the shores of the harbour, and went in her all round the North Side. The body now in question was brought to the steamer in the boat of Mr. Collier, tide surveyor, and was conveyed by the steamer to the deadhouse. The body was that of a female, and had been picked up off the rocks opposite the hospital ship Harmony, in Spring Cove. Deceased was a young woman, from 25 to 30 years of age. She was measured, and was found to be 5 feet 6 inches high. She is a beautifully formed woman, with remarkably small hands and feet; and the body is perfect, with the exception of the scalp being carried away. She had a wedding-ring on her linger, with a plain keeper. These rings bear the initials W. D., and are in the possession of Mr. Miller, of the firm of Muriel & Miller, at whose place they can be seen. Three books have also been found, two of them having the name of J. Webb written on them. Herald. WRECK OF THE DUNBAR. (1857, September 12). Adelaide Observer (SA : 1843 - 1904), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158115356 

(From the Illustrated London News, December 24th, 1853.) 
The Dunbar, which is the property of Duncan Dunbar, Esq, of London, is the. largest ship by nearly 300 tons that has ever been built at Sunderland, where she was launched on the 30th ultimo. She was constructed at the building-yard of Mr. James Laing, by whom a large portion of Mr. Dunbar's splendid fleet, amounting now to nearly 35,000 tons, has been built. A few years ago the building of a ship of nearly 2001) tons burthen on the Wear, would have been considered a dream, and that the feat has now been accomplished is a proof of the mastery which science, capital, and perseverance have obtained over natural obstacles in these go-a head days of Free Trade and stimulating competition. 

The dimensions of the Dunbar are : — Length of keel for measurement, 201 feet 9 inches; extreme breadth, 35 feet; depth of hold, 22 feet 7 inches ; height between decks, 7 feet 3 inches. She is 1080 tons burthen ; her register tonnage being 1321. Her timbers are of British oak, and she is planked and decked with East India teak. She is built for strength, stowage, and durability, yet withal is a graceful model. She is extra copper-fastened throughout, and her iron knees and other fastenings areof enormous strength. Tlie masts of the Dunbar are. in keeping with the rest of the ponderous structure; they are built of leak. The mainmast weighs nine tons ; the foremast eight tons, nnd the mizen in proportion. The poop is eighty-two feet in length, and seven feet in height; it is tastefully panelled in front, and ornament-ed with a row of pillars of polished teak, and it will be flitted up with all tbe elegances of modern upholstery for the enjoyment of first-class passengers. Great attention has been paid to ventilation in all parts of the vessel. The between decks has the appearance of a large hall, each berth being separately lighted. The Dunbar has been carefully inspect-ted by many of the first shipping authorities, who have unanimously declared her to be the finest merchant ship afloat ; and in strength, quality of material, and work-manship, nil] bear comparison with the best productions of the dock-yards of this or of any other country in the world. THE DUNBAR. (1857, September 9). Bathurst Free Press and Mining Journal (NSW : 1851 - 1904), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article62047741

'The magnificent clipper ship Dunbar, 1321 tons register, 2500 tons burden, Captain James Green, sailed from Plymouth on Sunday morning for Sydney direct. The Dunbar is one of the fine fleet of Mr. Duncan Dunbar, of Limehouse, engaged in the Australian trade, carrying first class cabin passengers and a very limited number of second class. The vessels on this line are despatched monthly from London, and call at Plymouth for the convenience of embarking passengers-the dispatch of the ships from Plymouth being placed in the hands of Mr. Wilcocks. - Ibid. [New Zealand Gazette, June 6SHIPPING RECORD (1857, August 21). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64983962


(1912, February 21). Globe (Sydney, NSW : 1911 - 1914), p. 2 (WEEKLY). Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article98401888


THE ship's Bible salvaged from the Dunbar, which was wrecked near Sydney Heads 97 years ago to-day will be used at the annual commemoration of the dis-aster at Camperdown Cemetery to-day.  The Bible has been in the possession of the Whealey family, of Manly, since it was picked up at what is now known as Forty Baskets Beach on the day of the wreck of the Dunbar—August 21, 1857.

The Bible has been handed to the Rector of St. Stephen's Church, Newtown, because of the association of Camperdown Cemetery, in which the Church stands, with the wreck.

Many of the victims of the Dunbar disaster are buried in the cemetery. It is likely that the Bible will be passed to the cemetery trustees for preservation with other relics of the Dunbar. Accompanying the Bible was a statement by the Whealey family, recording the story of the recovery of the volume.

It is stated that much wreckage from the Dunbar was cast upon the Forty Baskets Beach, near the home of John and Jane Whealey. Their sons, Daniel and William, searched the wreckage. Among the debris was the Bible.

One hundred and twenty passengers and members of the crew lost their lives in the wreck. There was only one survivor, James Johnson, a seaman. For many years after the wreck he was stationed at Nobbys (Newcastle) lighthouse, and died in 1915.

THE Bible is slightly water stained, but its otherwise good condition is probably due to its having been kept in a box, perhaps a watertight case similar to the tin or steel deed boxes then in general use. A few of the pages, including the title page, are missing.

The Commonwealth Secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, the Rev. H. M. Arrowsmith, closely examined the Bible. He found the date "1838" at the beginning of the New Testament.

Mr. Arrowsmith said the volume is one of the editions printed at the Pitt Press, Cambridge, by John William Parker, printer to the Cambridge University.
On the inside of the Bible is the name of Daniel Whealey, and the date "August 21, 1857"—the day on which the Dunbar was wrecked.

Underneath the name of Daniel Whealey is a quotation from Proverbs: "A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favour rather than silver and gold. The rich and the poor meet together: the Lord is the maker of them all."

There is pasted in the Bible a membership certificate of the Juvenile Temperance Association of New South Wales in the name of William Whealey, dated September 19, 1869. This society was founded earlier in that year. BIBLE FROM THE DUNBAR (1954, August 21). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 10. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18423642 

C F Hemmington - Notes

To the Editors of the Sydney Morning Herald
Gentlemen -On Saturday, the 11th instant, I noticed in your paper a letter from the Turon, signed by W. H. G., casting certain reflections on myself, but knowing that if must emanate from some vindictive or envious feeling, I felt at first disposed to treat them with silent contempt however, on reflection, feeling more interest for the cause in which I am engaged than for any personal attack, I deemed it justice to the diggers to answer that mischievous production, more particularly, as two of the gentlemen are now fortunately in Sydney, who took an active part in getting up the Address which Mr W. H. G. basely assent to be my own composition. As far as that part sou, I shall leave the author to answer for himself Mr W H C also states that I was closely ensconced in my store at Oskey Creek at the time that danger was apprehended, when at the same time I was in the midst of the crowd conversing with Mr. St Julien, the special reporter for the Sydney Morning Herald, which that gentleman perfectly recollects A all 1 more remarkable occurrence took place tending to establish the fallacy of that statement, I called at the commissioner’s quarters and was conversing with the commissioner^ Messrs Green and M'Lain, respecting the working of Thompson a Bar, on leaving there I received a fall, when Mr Green and Mr. Johnson most kindly led me back to Mr M'Lam a room until I recovered In the next place Mr W H G states that I endeavoured to take upon myself tho merits due to the Rev Messrs Palmer and Piddington, in answer to which I would beg to my that I have long since held the two reverend gentlemen in very high esteem, which was much enhanced by their exertions on that day, consequently I should feel some pleasure in adding one gem to the laurel than in plucking one leaf from the wreath they on that occasion so richly earned.
The circumstance which I alluded to respecting Mr Green was not on this day or even at Sofala on the evening of the first day on which the new regulations were put in force trooper Hutchison was sitting in my office when a person came to my store to ask for balls or lead sod at the same time evincing great anger when he was gone Hutchison remarked to me that mischief was intended I said yes much violent excitement was provoked by the measures of that day and numerous plots were contemplated but which I still hoped as the foaling subsided we should be able to prevent If Mr. WHC will take the trouble to ask trooper Hutchison that question he will doubtless soon be satisfied on that point I recollect when Mr Maxwell came to Sydney on behalf of the diggers a letter appeared in thE Empire stating that he was not recognised by the general body at the same t me a subscript on was made up amongst them to defray his expenses Mr W H G answered that letter through the Bathurst Free Press and gave it as his opinion that the writer of the former was evidently one of the disappointed.
Mr. W H G may now I think; apply that epithet to himself and I should wish no bettor satisfaction than to see him engaged in the arduous task that I have undertaken after witnessing a display of his abilities at Bathurst. The honourable member for that county, who i» now taking a lively interest in our cause will doubtless recollect that at a meeting; of his consitluents at Mr Whitton's, Mr W H G e mt forward and wished to say something on behalf of the diggers when Mr Samuels justly observed that the meeting. was called for a different purpose however, a general ia brest being felt for the interest of the diggers and expoating (which they did) something Important ifcoy made no objection to his addressing the meeting In the mean time this self important orator. feeling overcharged with his imagined ability, reminded me of the mountain in labour, and when he obtained permission to vent his eloquence, the event was much the same, a managed to splutter oat a littler something which in reality amounted to nothing, si d shortly finding himself stuck fast, Mr. Samuels asked him if he had any thing more to say, when he answered in the negative, or d left the table, evidently blasting at his own imprudence So much for my envious friend is labouring (which I really do) in the present cause, I labour not for praise or public fame
I have endeavoured to set right a misguided Council, by just and substantial facts, which I defy to be denied, I have endeavoured to serve the diggers because they merit it, I have endeavoured to induce the Government to meet the wiahoi of the diggers, because in so doing they will advance their own interests and the interest of the public at large To unite the different bodies, and to prevent contention, is alone my aim, and should my humble efforts tend to promote the general public good, the height of my ambition is at ones attained Trusting you will do me the favour to give this insertion
I have the honour to be, Gentlemen,
Your very humble obedient servant,
C. F. HEMMINGTON. To the Editors of the Sydney Morning Herald. (1853, June 25). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 5. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28644458 

Charles Hemmington – 1842 – unclaimed letters 

W PENDRAY. Senior, begs respectfully to inform his numerous friends and the public at large, that he has resigned his business as Merchant Tailor and Draper, into the hands of his son, and returns many thanks for past favors. W. Pendray, junior, begs leave to say, that the business, will continue to be con-ducted with such punctuality and diligence as will, it is trusted, merit public confidence.
W. Pendray, Senior, further begs leave to inform the Public generally that he has appointed and duly authorised .Mr. C. F. Hemmington, to receive and settle all his outstanding debts to the 31 st of December, lilli, whose receipt will be a sufficient discharge thereof. Mr. P. therefore requests all (lioso whose accounts are un-settled lodoso without’ delay; also, all claims against him to be sent in as be is about to leave for England,
N. B. All over due Bills and Warrants of Attorney, to be settled forthwith. Letters of business addressed to Mr. C. F. Hemmington, 9 George and Jamieson-streets. Classified Advertising (1842, February 8).The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), p. 1. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2555704  

Under the patronage of His Excellency Sir Charles and Lady Mary Fitz Roy, His Excellency Sir Maurice and Lady O'Connell, and most of the Elite of Sydney.
HIS Excellency the Governor has appointed Friday (this day), the 1st January, when he will open the Pantechnicon.
His Excellency and Lady Mary will be present in the forenoon, and the doors will open at ten o'clock, A.M. precisely, and continue open.
During the day, various pleasing amusements will be provided, and for the entertainment of visitors, the band of the 99th regiment, (who, by the kind permission of Colonel Despard, will be present) will afford that pleasure they are so well able to do. In addition, the services of some of the first-rate musical and vocal talent of the colony are secured for the occasion. And at night, a grand display of fireworks, such as are not known and were never seen in this colony, will be exhibited. These fireworks, which will be very beautiful, have been purchased at a great expense, and cannot fail to afford ample amusement.
Attached to the Pantechnicon is a large dam of water of eight acres, where boats will be in readiness for those who may so please to amuse themselves. Refreshments are provided in abundance, both day and night, and all who visit the Pantechnicon on the opening day cannot fail to be gratified.
The tickets for admission will be, single, 3s, double, 5s.
This will include day and night.
Tickets to be had of Mr. Aldis. George-street, and at the Pantechnicon, Parramatta- -
By order of the Committee,
Advertising (1847, January 1). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28649060

Pantechnicon The word "Pantechnicon" is an invented one, formed from the Greek pan ("all") and techne ("art"). It was originally the name of a large establishment in Motcomb Street, Belgrave Square, London, opened around 1830. It combined a picture gallery, a furniture shop, and the sale of carriages, while its southern half was a sizable warehouse for storing furniture and other items. The Seth Smith brothers, originally from Wiltshire, were builders in the early 19th century, and constructed much of the new housing in Belgravia, then a country area. Their clients required storage facilities and this was built with a Greek style Doric column façade, and called Pantechnicon, Greek for "pertaining to all the arts or crafts". Subsequently, special wagons were designed with sloping ramps to more easily load furniture, with the building name on the side. 

Yesterday, Boxing- day, the people of Sydney left I their homes en masse, and shaking off from their feet the dust of the city, hied them as swiftly as steam  would carry them to the sea shore. The great crowd ', numbering, we should say, some ten thousand, flocked towards Manly Beach, and the carrying capacities of the dozen steamers employed were severely tested. We missed on this occasion, when it was most needed, the presence of the band, whose members, if they had exercised forethought, might have reaped a splendid harvest. But though lacking harmonious strains, there was animation enough aboard the steamers, every one of which was literally crammed with passengers, so crammed, indeed, that the speed of the vessels was very materially reduced. But nothing whatever occurred from this over-crowding, and we must commend those in charge of the boats for using due precautions that no accident happened. Manly itself throughout the day was alive with holiday seekers, who dotted the sea-shore, ascended the rocks leading to the fairy bower, wandered hither and thither laughingly around and about and through the maze, clambered up to the camera tower, where a magnificent landscape lay glorious before them, and lingered about Grocotts Pier Hotel, where there was no lack of good things for sustenance and refreshment. Some of the more lusty among the people hurled quoits, whilst not a few played at a game in which the chances were twenty to one in favour of the individual who promoted the sport. The game was simple, but calculated to fill the pockets of the ancient mariner, who perpetually sang out, " Three halfcrowns for a shilling," and -who uttered now and again, sarcastic phrases, which inflamed the weak-minded, and tempted them to spend more shillings in the fruitless endeavour to gam half-crowns. The game is called "Three Sticks a Penny ; " but this cunning old man, as it was holiday time, charged a shilling for three sticks-and certainly, he circumvented the vernal rustics in a marvellous manner.

He was only playing upon the gambling propensities of his supporters, some of whom, we believe, could ' not pay their passage back to Sydney. But wisdom , must be bought. As the Manly Beach donkies have become rather notorious of late, owing to the illustrious personages who have bestraddlcd them, we wish to say a word in their behalf. We all know that donkies have skins of perdurable toughness, and are of slow and uncertain pace, but the Manly Beach donkies ought to refuse work altogether. We saw some of them cruelly used yesterday, so badly and abominably treated as to ex-cite angry comments from passers-by. The half-starved animals, for they have no flesh, and their bones preach how innutritious is the salt bush, were loaded with boys, and were kicked, cuffed, and thrashed in a shameful manner. The owners of these donkies, if they have bowels of compassion, ought to prevent these abuses, for they are flagrant and patent, and are a disgrace to Manly. There was no music at Manly, an omission much to be regretted, and probably a bond could not be obtained. MANLY BEACH. (1859, December 27). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13034926 

A large concourse of the citizens and ladies of Sydney, together with a great many visitors to the city from the country, flocked on board, the steamers belonging to the Illawarra Steam Company, on purpose to enjoy their holiday, hold in honour of the anniversary of her Majesty, QUEEN VICTORIA OF ENGLAND, yesterday.
The vast majority of the ships in the splendid harbour of Port Jackson were decorated gaily with flags of all nations. -
' The star-spangled banner' of that most glorious off-shoot of the British name and nation, floated at the mizzen peak of every American vessel in the harbour.
The tri colored flags, of France and of Holland, were displayed upon the vessels belong to either nation. :
Mr. Manning, the principal of the Illawarra Steam Company, made the most liberal and extensive arrangements possible for providing accommodation for all who wished to spend-their, holiday at Manly Beach. The steamers laid on for the occasion, comprised the " Pelican," the " Black Swan," the " Emu," the " Kiama," the " Williams," and the " Hunter."
The last mentioned vessel is the largest of the group, and was commanded by Captain Sullivan, as courteous, skilful, and complaisant a commander, as ever carried a vessel on the broad, beautiful waters of Port Jackson.
There were between 600 and 700 passengers on board of the Hunter steamer, and during the-day between 12,000 and 13,000 persons visited the beautiful indentation in Sydney Harbour known as Manly Bench.

The Hunter steamer left the Phoenix Wharf shortly after eleven o'clock ,in the forenoon, and the passengers had a most interesting opportunity of beholding all the most lovely spots and promontories of this splendid harbour. The wind was southerly and westerly, very slight at first, but becoming more turbulent as the entrance to the Heads became apparent. The Phoenix passed rapidly by Pyrmont and Balmain, thence through a fleet of vessels, decorated with the flags of all nations. Thence past Goat Island, Danes' Battery, the lovely promontory of St. Leonard's, with the Artillery Barracks on the opposite side ; past the European-(formerly a mail steamer) lying in the stream ¡ past the Queen's men-of-war Iris and Cordelia, at anchor off Fort Denison ; past Kirribilli Point and Fort Denison, Neutral Bay, Macquarie Fort-allowing to the passengers a splendid view of Government House and the surrounding scenery past the masked battery at Lady Macquarie's chair; past Woolloomooloo Bay, Rushcutters Bay, Cyrus Cove, Clarke's Island, and Bose Bay, where the splendid mansion of Sir Daniel Cooper is visible, and thence leaving Bradley's 'Head, on the starboard side, passing Milk Beach, George's Head, entering into view of the light-houses-the old one, called "Macquarie’s," and the new one, termed "Hornby's light ; " past the Sow and Pigs, so dangerous even to friendly mariners, and so, fatal, if proper precaution be not adopted, to foreign invaders.
It would be too great an amount of trespass upon our space to describe further the immense and numerous beautiful views of Sydney harbour. One ought to feel a sentiment of combined gratitude and pride at being an Australian by birth or by adoption, when regarding it from the prow or bulwarks of a swiftly-gliding vessel.

Inspector Quirke, of the District Police, was on board the Hunter, steamer, with a portion bf the force under his command, and materially assisted in preventing in-jury to person or property; by the hasty endeavours of passengers by the numerous steamers to land. .They arranged many of those disputes which some how or other unavoidably arise in so large a congregation of visitors to a previously "terra incognita".

All the land about Manley Beach is laid out in a most interesting manner. After passing Mr. George Birch's, New Brighton Hotel, the visitor is shown, by the courtesy of the police officer residing in the neighbourhood, up Constitution-hill, past a labyrinth, or maze, nearly completed, then up to the camera obscura, a tower where Mr. William Bagnall displays to his numerous visitors his extraordinary powers. By means of the use of the camera obsoura, all the motions of vessels and boats in the harbour, even the undulations of the waves, can be distinctly rendered visible (and with more certainty) as by a person watching them out of doors. The boat races of the Manly Beach Regatta were as plainly apparent in the camera obscura, and more so, than to an out-of-door spectator. Mr. Bagnall has fitted up his "tower" in a most amusing style, and it is eminently adapted for the recreation of invalids, or of persons who desire a little relaxation from the ordinary and onerous duties of business routine. Amongst the various other novelties introduced by Mr. Bagnall, is a Russian bagatelle board of a very singular sort, rendering the amusement one most intrinsically of chance. Even with regard to little children's entertainments, Mr. Bagnall has had regard; having fitted up some of the most extraordinary yet perfectly secure swings possible, in the, midst of the natural harbour which surrounds his toner. The views from the highest altitude of the tower on every side are of the most lovely description ; that on the north-west side comprises an immense panorama of ocean view hill and dale. Mr. Bagnall's photographic rooms are first-rate, and he has so ably arranged his machinery as to be competent to take photographic likenesses, particularly those of young children in the most speedy yet concise manner. He has also a cave under a canopy of solid rock commanding a very lovely and extensive view per mere per terras, just under his tower.
There are some very excellent baths kept by Mr. Guest, at Manly Beach, perfectly safe, secret, and commodious, comprising cold, warm, vapour, shower, and others, fitted up with every requisite, and in a style of extraordinary luxury combined with economy, principally with a view to their use by invalids.

1884 - 1886: By Warrior, A. Contributed by Graham Trevena [Page 4a] (from the album 'Works by Members of the Amateur Photographic Society of N.S.W presented by the Society to His Excellency Lord Carrington August 1886') - retrieved from The Dictionary of Sydney. Visit: Manly's Stone Kangaroo, Camera Obscura,  First Maze And 'Chute' - Fun Days In Sea Hazes From 1857 On

Mr. Charles Hemmington's Fairy Bower was well attended throughout the day. It is situated a short distance from the pier of Manly Beach, and is composed of a quantity of refreshment tents, with tables and seats formed from the trees and caves, let to picnic parties at moderate rates.
Amongst the various vessels ran by the Company throughout the day of rejoicing, the Emu, commanded by Captain Ferris, is especially worthy of notice from its swiftness and the kindness of the commander. MANLY BEACH. (1859, May 25). Empire (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1875), p. 4. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article60402086 

This item precedes what would become, in 1871, the establishment of marine reserves for defence along our harbour shores and the restriction of selling lands needed for this. It is included here because it refers to a fear by the writer of Americans being invaders of Sydney during the time they were engaged in the civil war for the abolition of slavery and has kept the first spelling of Chowder Bay, as 'Chouder' intact.

THE event which many have for months foreseen is at hand. England is about to be drawn into a contest with the Federalists of North America, and the first news of the rupture will in all probability be brought to our shores by the war vessels of the enemy. The impossibility of the North conquering the South, is now admitted by every one, except the wretched penny-a-liners and pot-house politicians of New York. The low rowdies and braggart raga-muffins who, under the name of the great Re-public, hoped by the power of a vast confederacy to overawe, bully, and ultimately trample under foot all the order and respectability of the world, have seen their evil hopes vanish into thin air. The wings of the American eagle have been clipped, and, like baffled fiends, the, owners of that bird, desire to do us much mischief as possible before their final defeat. No country do they hate-no country have they ever hated, as much as England. They hate it for its aristocracy, for its conservatism, for its wealth, for its respectability, for its virtue, for his integrity, and lastly, and above all, FOR ITS FREEDOM While vainly indulging in empty boasts of their monopoly of that commodity, they have been compelled themselves to see, and to let the whole world also see, by one more example in addition to the thousands with which history teems, that FREEDOM cannot exist under the control of a mob. 

The well-regulated order which the glorious and time-honoured Constitution of England, has enabled her to preserve amidst the utter collapse of the American democracy, is gall and wormwood to those who sought to invert the natural laws of humanity, and place power exclusively in the hands of persons destitute of that intelligence and prudence, without which all powers un-checked, must sooner or later become intolerable. The abolition of slavery has nothing to do with the American contest. The Yankees of Boston, and the drab-coloured men of Pennsylvania would aid the South to bind the slave in triple bonds, if their fatal principles of unbridled democracy could, by such means, be made to prevail. The worthy log-splitter, Lincoln, who, to his own discomfort and the disgrace of those who placed him in the position, is now the Dictator of the North, has not concealed the fact, that he and his party are contending, not for the freedom of the slave but for the reconstruction of the Union, and the power which an unlettered and uncontrolled mob at all times desire to possess, for the purpose of menacing those who are wiser and better than themselves. The piratical instinct is the natural growth of such principles as those which have placed such an utter nobody as Lincoln at the head of thirty millions of men. It is that instinct which will drive the men of Washington into a war with England. 

By the invasion of Canada, and the fitting out of hundreds of privateers, they can put England to enormous cost and do great damage to her shipping and her commerce. Their speedy defeat and signal chastisement are certain, but their object will be accomplished if they can inflict on England some portion of the misery under which they are now prostrated. Their discomfiture in such a contest, about which they themselves can hardly entertain a doubt, will, the more readily pave the way for that gigantic act of repudiation by which, and by which alone, the national debt which they have with such unexampled rapidity and prodigality created, can be discharged. Split up into fragments, the nation which issued the "green-backs" will disappear, and the individual members of the dissevered corporation will commence afresh, equally destitute of character and obligations.

These speculations may or may not be entirely realised, but one thing is certain, and that is, that it is our duty at once to prepare for action. Not an hour is to be lost.

We have men and material enough if properly handled to guard effectually against an attack, not merely of a few Yankee pirates, but of any force which they could send to our shores. We have somewhere about sixty serviceable guns in our various forts, and four Armstrong guns (forty pounders), with travelling carriages, arrived a few days since. There can be little doubt that not one of our guns is placed where it ought to be. 

From Chouder Bay, Rose Bay, Double Bay, and the East of Garden Island, any vessel could destroy Sydney with the most complete impunity at the present moment, and no risk would be incurred in getting into any of those positions. If Sir William Denison had taken the utmost pains to establish his utter incapacity as a military engineer, he could not have succeeded more completely than he has done in the planning of our present fortifications. They are, perhaps, the most discredit able military failures ever witnessed, and it has always been a matter of surprise that they have not been long since dismantled.

Our fortifications should be where Sir John Burgoyne recommended them to be placed-at the Heads. Unless we are prepared to arm every point and island in the harbour as far as the Cove, the enemy should be kept below the Sow and Pigs shoal. Nature has given us every facility to accomplish that object. The eastern channel is narrow and impracticable for large vessels, and the western channel can be approached only, in such a manner as to expose an enemy to a concentrated fire, for a time sufficient to prevent any vessel passing, if the batteries were aided by a few obstructions which could be readily placed to impede the navigation. The extreme point of Middle Head has been already prepared for the reception of eight guns, and the southern side of it for four more. George's Head could in a week be prepared as an earthwork for eight others. We should thus have twenty guns, every one of which would do effective service upon any vessel from the moment she came abreast of the South Reef. 

A heavy 10-inch gun on a traversing platform, on the high bluff immediately to the south-east of the new light house, and a similar gun on the point at the south end of Camp Cove would complete the fortifications. Those two guns, well handled would prove formidable to any enemy. The four Armstrong guns placed in the first instance on the point at the west end of Shark beach, to which a road already exists, and where a platform for the guns with an earthern breastwork could be constructed in a few hours, would aid all the other guns ; and, in the event of the lower batteries being passed, they could be removed to Darling Point, or the point at the east end of Elizabeth Bay, to which a road could be made without much difficulty or delay. Half dozen old unserviceable vessels could be moored as fireships between the south end of the Sow and Pigs' shoal and George's Head, and fitted with the means of ignition by galvanic battery from the shore. The steam-tug Washington might be plated with iron an placed in the hands of our Naval Brigade, to be used either as a ram or for the purpose , of carrying one large gun at the bow. For all the guns abovementioned our thirty regular, and 200 volunteer artillery, assisted perhaps by 100 men from the garrison, would be sufficient, leaving our rifle volunteers to take such positions according to circumstances, as might enable them most effectually to pick off the enemy. The plan here sketched is, I submit, one worthy of consideration, and it is put before the public in the hope that it may contain some suggestions which, if acted upon in time, will save us from the disgrace of being surprised by a contemptible section of that buckram fleet which the British-built and British-manned Alabama has for more than a year been able to set at defiance.
OLD ENGLAND. Newcastle, 15th JunePREPARE FOR ACTION. (1863, June 19).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28622351 

Department of Lands,
Sydney, 7th February, 1871.
HIS Excellency the Governor, with, the advice of the Executive Council, directs it to be notified, that in pursuance of the provisions of the 4th section of the Crown Lands Alienation Act of 1861, the lands specified in the schedule appended hereto shall be reserved from sale for Harbour Defences.
No. 6. County of Cumberland, parish of Manly Cove, at Dobroyd Hill, between North and Middle Harbours, Port Jackson, containing 250 acres. The Crown Lands within the following boundaries : Commencing near Grotto Point at the southern extremity of the east boundary-line of Win. Clarke's 20 acres; and bounded on the west and south by the east and north boundaries of that 20 acres northerly 7 chains and westerly 18 chains; thence by the east and north boundary of Charles Heasley's 20 acres northerly 17 chains westerly 17 chains to the east boundary of Win. Yates' 20 acres; thence by the east and north boundary of that land northerly 10 chains and westerly 11 chains to its north-west corner; and thence by a line west 1 chain to the east boundary of T. Jones' 60 acres ; and thence by the east boundary of that land bearing north 25 chains to the south boundary of Thos. Ellis' 11 acres and perches; thence on the north by part of the south boundary of that land and part of the south boundary of T. H. Lewis' 10 acres and 25 perches easterly to the north-west corner of T. H. Lewis' western portion of 10 acres thence by the west boundary of that land bearing south 10 chains; thence by the south boundary of that land and its easterly prolongation, forming partly the south boundary of T. H. Lewis’ eastern 10 acres, being in all a line bearing east 21 chains thence by the east boundary of the last-mentioned 10 acres bearing north 10 chains to the south boundary of Thos. Lewis' 10 acres 3 roods and 32 perches thence by the south boundary of that portion and its easterly prolongation, being in all a line bearing cast 11 chains and 78 links to the west boundary of John Whaley's 20 acres thence by that boundary bearing south 19 chains to its south-west corner; and thence by the south boundary of. that land and F. A. Hely's 20 acres, being in all a line bearing east 34 chains 20 links to the waters of Port Jackson; and thence on the south-east by the waters of Port Jackson south-westerly, to the point of commencement. [71-158 Ms.]
No. 7. County of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby, at George's Head, about 86 acres 2 roods. The Crown Lands within the following boundaries: Commencing at the northeast corner of Jas. King's 150 acres and bounded thence on the north by a road 1 chain wide dividing it from C. Nathan's 18 acres and C. Beilby's 20 acres and 21 acres bearing east 26 degrees 21 minutes north about 12 chains and east 29 chains 20 links to the west boundary of C. Beilby's 10 acres; on the east by part of that boundary and by the east boundary of a reserve at George's Head bearing south in all 20 chains; on part of the south by a line west 1 chain to the north-east corner of F. Bellamy's 5 acres 2 roods ; thence by the north boundary of that land bearing west 10 chains; and thence by a line west 1 chain to the east boundary of J. W. Hunter's 5 acres 2 roods; on part of the west by that boundary bearing north 4 chains ; again on the south by the north boundary of J. W. Hunter's 5 acres aforesaid bearing west 7 chains ; again on the east by the west boundary of that land bearing south to a creek flowing into Chowder Bay; on the remainder of the south by that creek dividing it from T. Graham's 15 acres westerly to the east boundary of James King's 150 acres aforesaid s and on the remainder of the west by that boundary bearing north, to the point of commencement. [71-158 Ms.]
No. 8. County of Cumberland, parish of Willoughby, at Long Bay, Middle Harbour, containing 18 acres 3 roods. The Crown Lands within the following boundaries: Commencing on Long Bay at the south-east corner of Richard Hawkins' 16 acres and 30 perches; and bounded thence on the west by part of the east boundary of that land bearing north 10 chains; on the north by a line bearing east about 22 chains to the west boundary of a reserve of 7 acres ; on the east by part of the west boundary of that reserve bearing southerly to Long Bay aforesaid; and on the south by that bay westerly, to the point of commencement. RESERVES FROM SALE. (1871, February 7). New South Wales Government Gazette (Sydney, NSW : 1832 - 1900), p. 308. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article224330227 

The other factor that had saved lives in Chowder Bay, as in the case of the Princess accident by the Sub Marine gentleman, was ensuring the defence and training of defence staff adjacent to the waters of the harbour was developed. 

Department of Home Affairs,
Melbourne, 27th October, 1909.
HIS Excellency the Governor-General in Council has approved of authority being granted for the purchase, for Defence purposes, from Messrs. Herbert Edmond Rae, Frederick George Rae, and William Allwood Rae, for the sum of Nine hundred and twenty-five pounds (£925), of certain land at Chowder Bay, in the State of New South Wales, as described in the Schedule hereunder.
B.09/11201. Minister of State for Home Affairs.
All that piece of land at Chowder Bay, in the Borough of Mosman, Parish of Willoughby, County of Cumberland, State of New South Wales, Commonwealth of Australia, being portion 10 delineated in the public map of the said parish, deposited in the Department of Lands, originally granted to John William Hunter by Crown grant dated the fourth day of July, 1859, containing an area of five acres and two roods or thereabouts, as shown by portion hatched on plan hereunder :—
PURCHASE OF LAND FOR DEFENCE PURPOSES AT CHOWDER BAY, NEW SOUTH WALES. (1909, October 30).Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), p. 1663. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article232364771 

Commonwealth of Australia.
Department of Home Affairs,
Melbourne, 13th September, 1912.
TENDERS will be received until Noon on Monday, the ..th September, 1912. for repairs to Boat Slip at Submarine Mining Depot, Chowder Bay, Port Jackson.
Specification may be seen at the office of the Works "Director for New South "Wales. Customs House (4th floor), Sydney, to whom tenders, indorsed as above, should be addressed.
The lowest or any tender not necessarily accepted.
Minister of State for Home Affairs. TENDERS FOR REPAIRS TO BOAT SLIP AT SUBMARINE MINING DEPOT, CHOWDER BAY. (1912, September 21).Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), p. 1610. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article232445948 

HIS Excellency the Governor-General in Council, pursuant to section 6 of the Lands Acquisition Act 1906-1934, has agreed with the Governor of the State of New South Wales for the purchase for Defence purposes of the State Crown lands described in the schedule hereunder.— (C.L.I 127.)
for Minister of State for the Interior.
All those pieces of land containing an aggregate area of 1 acre more or less being unalienated Crown lands of the State of New South Wales situate at Chowder Bay, Municipality of Mosman, Parish of Willoughby, County of Cumberland as shown hachured on plan hereunder.  ACQUISITION BY AGREEMENT OF LAND FOR DEFENCE PURPOSES AT CHOWDER BAY, NEW SOUTH WALES. (1936, November 5). Commonwealth of Australia Gazette (National : 1901 - 1973), p. 2028. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article232668362 

One of the Kembla's visit's to Pittwater

It would be a curious holiday in Sydney if the harbour, the pride of all New South Welshmen, were not visited by a large proportion of the inhabitants of the city when deter-mined upon obtaining a day's outing. Yesterday was no exception to the general rule, all the favourite spots of interest being well patronised. The Manly Beach steamers were running nt half-hourly intervals during the whole of the day, and they were filled to the utmost of their capacity; while the steamers to Watson's Bay, Clontarf, Athol Gardens, Mossman'» Bay, &c, all received more than usual patronage. Messrs. G. and B. Nicoll's steamer Australian took a large crowd of excursionists to Sandringham and Sans Souci, returning at an early hour in the evening. The Truganini, on her trip to the Hawkesbury, was well patronized. So far as we have been able to ascertain, no accident of any consequence took place. The members of the Australian Holy Catholic Guild held their annual picnic at Chowder Bay, and, as has always been the case, it was numerically, and indeed in every other respect, a great success. There could not have been fewer than 2500 on the ground. The usual sports and amusements were indulged in with the earnestness characteristic of these outings ; they included dancing, football, rounders, &c. The Imperial Band was present, and rendered the necessary dance music. A feature in the proceedings was the Irish dancing in the smaller pavilion facing the hotel, on the top of the eminence overlooking the beach. The party were all lauded in safety at the Circular Quay shortly after dusk, after spending a very pleasant day. Pearl Bay was the scene of the excursion under the auspices of the Young Men's Christian Association, and was visited by about 700 or 800 people. The delightful weather enabled almost everybody to join in the various games. A most enjoyable day was spent, and no accident of any kind occurred to mar the day's pleasure. 

One of the most successful excursions that has taken place during the season was that which was held yesterday to Pittwater and the Hawkesbury River. The glorious scenery of this matchless river doubtless had the effect of inducing so large u number of persons to assemble on board the good ship Kembla, which was lying at the Circular Quay yesterday morning, ready to convey intending excursionists. At a quarter to 10 precisely the Kembla cast off her moorings and steamed away, having on board at least 800 people. The weather was magnificent, and the trip a most enjoyable one to most of those on board, though some were to be met with suffering from mal de mer. Barrenjuey was rounded about 12, and the glorious scenery which burst upon the view of the excursionists, and which was seen for the first time by most of them, excited universal admiration. 

At a quarter to one the Kembla was brought up alongside the wharf at Newport, and the majority of her living freight, after getting ashore, dispersed in various directions. Refreshments were to be had in plenty on board the steamer, and about 150 partook of luncheon in the saloon. At four o'clock, when every spot worth visiting had been thoroughly "done" by most of the excursionists, the party re-embarked. The steamer was then headed down the bay, and after a pleasant run of about three-quarters of an hour Mount Elliott was rounded, Captain Skinner having kindly decided to give his passengers an additional treat by trip up to the entrance to the Hawkesbury. This was looked upon as a great treat, and frequent exclamations of delight were heard as each point of interest and beauty was passed. After going up the estuary about five miles, Captain Skinner turned his vessel's head homewards, and after a pleasant passage the Kembla was brought up alongside her wharf in Darling Harbour. No accident of any kind occurred to mar the day's enjoyment, and the almost universal verdict was that tie excursion was about the most successful, in every respect, that has been held this season. HARBOUR EXCURSIONS. (1880, May 25).The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 3. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article13460708  

SYDNEY, Friday.
The four masted barque Earl of Dunmore, which arrived from London on Sunday last with a valuable cargo of general merchandise and anchored in Chowder Bay, was, shortly after 1 o clock this morning discovered to be on fire the outbreak must have been smouldering for a considerable time for the smoke which burst through the forehold, was immediately followed by sheets of flame, indicating that a fire was raging below

Captain Meueke ordered distress signals to ho sent up. Before this,could be done, however, the flames had attracted the attention of the authorities at South Head, who telephoned to Captain Baird, the harbour Master at Goat Island, and he sent the steamer Pluvius to render assistance The Pilot steamer Captain Cook also made for the burning ship. The crew attacked the flames with great determination, but they could do but little to stay the spread of the fire In the forehold was stored a large quantity of lnflammable material, such as oils, tar, and turpentine, and a dense and pungent smoke to a great extent hampered the efforts of the fire fighters thee seriousness- of the situation was realised by the officers of the vessel, who, while directing operations for keeping the fire under, devoted some attention to get ting, the boats in rediness should it be found necessary to make a hurried departure.

Meanwhile Mrs Meueke and her child were taken on board the Captain Cook. The Pulvis on arrival got a hose on board the Earl of Dunmore, and under the direction of Captain Beard the powerful pumps were soon sending two thousand gallons per minute into the hold till the fire made rapid headway and the pumps of the Captain Cook and the tug Hero were also called into recquisition. It shortly became apparent that mastery of the fire would be a matter of great difficulty. The flames continued to get a firmer hold, and shooting higher and higher, set the rigging ablaze. The deck began to get terribly hot and the work of casting overboard that portion of the deck cargo which had caught fire was hampered by a fresh wind, which swept the flames and choking smoke across the ship. 

The Earl of Dunmore - on fire on Sydney Harbour, August 14, 1903. Image courtesy State Library of South Australia - A D Edwardes Collection.

An attempt was made to cut away the deck, but the under lining of steel prevented the seat of fire being reached. Operations in the vicinity of the forehold were called on at considerable risk but the crew succeeded in clearing the deck of all movable obstacles, and thus facilitated the endeavours of those fighting the fire and enabled them to confine the iii mes to the fore part of the barque.

The ship Kensington entered the heads during the early hours of the morning and a boat's crew was sent from her to the Earl of Dunmore, and rendered valuable assistance At a quarter to 4 o'cIock the fire was raging as fiercely as ever and it was decided, as the work of fighting the flames was being attended with more and more danger, and as the bow owing to the quantity of water pumped into the hold was very low to beach the barque 

A steel bowser was got aboard the tug Hero, and the Earl of Dunmore was slowly towed across to Rose Bay and run aground on a sandy bottom not far distant from the pier.

The Pluvius and another Harbour Trust steamer the Powerful, kept pumping water into her hold Hie fire was difficult to subdue. At intervals of a few* minutes apart masses of flame shot out from the fore hatch, followed by dense volumes of suffocating smoke

By 10 o clock the fire was completely extinguished It seems unfortunate that it was necessary to run the vessel aground stem first for the vvatei ponied into \o 1 hatch Ins rushed through other lntche thus completeIv soiling the cargo in the hatches Jl id the vessel taken ground stern first, and the portion of the ship on fire been at the lower angle than that untouched by flames, the water would have remained in the forehold, facilitating the subjugation of the fire and keeping the remainig holds com pal itnclj free from water. As yet no estimate of damage can be made but it is feared that the whole of the cargo is practically destroyed while the ship has sustained much damage 

Captain Spinks of the Undent nters Association then In 1 threo centrifugal* pumps placed in position capable of throwing out 1000 gallons per minute The whole of her deck from the forecastle to abaft of the foremast was burned out and in places completely burned through The cargo in the foiehold must be completclj destrojed and the three remaining holds although untouched bj fire aro flooded by the water pumped into the forward hatch

The Earl of Dunmore is a steel four masted barque of 2 287 tons gross and 2 205 tons net. She was built in 1891 by Russell and Co of Greenock and classed 100 At at Llovds. She is owned by the Sailing-ship Earlof Dunmore Company Limited (J D Thompson) and her principal dimensions are - Length 227ft 9in, bteadth 42ft 1in and depth 24ft 2in. She is registered at Port Glasgow.

The origin of the outbreak is a mystery. It appears that the whole of the hatches four in number, were sealed down and nobody had been below for several days. It is fortunate that the explosives which arrived in the Earl of Dunmore consisting of 110 tons of dynamite and gunpowder ba-been discharged It had been intended to bring the barque up to the wharf to-day to be discharged.

The following is a copy of her manifest -

300 es K ii 12 qr cks ' hhds wines, S", bis 4 500 cs SOT pkKS 4 **0- cts " 9J0 drums unspecified goods 50 cs 84 qr cks whisky (i__ cs starch 1 200 lif bxs gunpowder 038 es pickles 48 ce ces* ncea _ cs oil 75 es castor oil 110 cn salad oil 47. CB 11 qrcka 11 ocha brandr 130 CB stout .1» es sauce 11 tan!- epsom salts, 72 truck wheels 40 ea eli corj °4 cn c1 eesç 40 c3 lueca oil °1 es erlatinp US bn-js feed 8 i-s 40 Iris s-rtpetre 10 es Coi 1} s fluid °(I ilnima ammonia If keps ullin 10 Iris ink 2. es bbekinir 2j0 rs v estas "1 cs ploies 100 es spirits 1 000 ca teenrva 16 ea arms 42 grinding stones 46 CB magn_ift 40 ca jam "fl es block juice 8. ca cocoa 23 es choco late ü0 es infanta food l8 cs olives 43 es capers 60 cs bathbrick. 25 cs bloater paste M vices, 100 CB infanta food 100 cs 25 . hhda vinegar 21 drums carbolic acid 800 ca coffee essence 57 cs herrings, 93 cn cartridges, 80 cs 35 cks 50 qr cica 5 hilda rum 380 steel rails 100 oven talcs, 29 cs sardines 0" cs stove 21 cs jellies 851 cs Dsh "4 ea meats "5 sinks 6 S slate slalw and sundries. BARQUE EARL OF DUNMORE. (1903, August 15). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 15. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article9827250

The recent appointment of a committee from Government departments interested in spelling and pronouncing names given to localities by the aborigines should secure a most desirable uniformity in the correct use by the public of the designation of many of our country towns. For the following reasons, however, it would be further desirable that other aboriginal nomenclature in this State should also be used, and an extension in their Inquiries' given to this committee so that appropriate native names may be reverted to. As we have but scant records in Australia, it cannot but be very desirable that any names used by them should be perpetuated when significant, and euphonious. An excellent authority, the late Rev. William Ridley, In his work on the 'Kamilaroi Dialect and other Native Languages,' has dilated on their wonderful inflection, and Rev. Peter MacPherson and Rev. John Fraser have also emphasised the euphonious construction of aboriginal local names. The historic remains of the early aborigines consisted almost wholly of ingenious weapons and carvings on sandstone rocks, but few of the original weapons of the wild aboriginal now remain, and the keys to some of the dialects are lost. 

An invaluable collection of anthropological remains made in the early days by the trustees of the Australian Museum was unfortunately destroyed in the Garden Palace fire, and can never be replaced, so that the best use should be made of any records still in existence. Savants in the old world have repeatedly appealed to the Governments of Australia to preserve any relics of the early aboriginal inhabitants, as owing to their isolation in the Antipodes comparatively little is known of them in scientific circles, although their ethnology is both ancient and interesting. The old European pioneers who were brought into first contact with the aborigines in their wild state have now nearly all departed, but sufficient data should be obtained before it is too late from any persons possessed of the knowledge so as to identify every important geographical feature, as originally named by the natives. The late Sir Thomas Mitchell, when Surveyor General, took a great interest in the aborigines, as is evidenced by his invention of .the screw-propeller, whose working was suggested to him by that remarkable aboriginal weapon, the boomerang. 

Mr. J. Larmer was one of the best known surveyors employed under him, and that gentleman prepared about 70 years ago a memorandum recording, from extensive personal observation and inquiry, the aboriginal names of many of the principal bays and promontories on the South and North shores of Port Jackson, from which, through the courtesy of the chief draftsman of the Land Department, the following names are extracted, showing the European designation then obtaining placed opposite to the original native names: 

— Billy Blue's Point — Waning area; Hulk Bay — Quiberie: Milson's Point— Kiarabilli ; Point East of Milson's— Wudyong; M'Laren's Store — TVurru Birri; Careening Cove Bay— Wete Weye- Point west of Robertson's — Kurraba; Robertson's Point — Wulwarrajevmg; Mosman's Whaling Estate Sirius Cove— Gorambulla gong: Bradley's Head — Burroggy; Chowder Bay — Koree; West Head— Gurugal; Middle Harbour — Warringa; North Harbour — Kunna; Frenchman's North Harbour, or Balgowlah Township— Jilling; Darling Harbour— Tumbu-long; The Spit, Middle Harbour — Burrabru; Point east of Spit — Parriwi; Long Nose Point — Ytrroulbine; Goat Island— Milmil; Jack the Miller's Point — Coodye; Slaughterhouse Point — Tarra; Bennelong Point — Jubughalee; Mrs. Macquarie's Point — Yourong; Elizabeth Point — Jerrowan; Mr. Macleay's Point— Yarrandabby; Point Piper— Willarra; Rocky Point south of Vaucluse — Burrowey; Vaucluse Point — Moring; Siddon's and Watson's— Kutti; Lang's Point— Kubung hana; Sow and Pigs— Birrwi Birra; Shark Island— Boam Billy; Clark Island— Bil-longalolah. 

It will be seen on comparison that, since the making of this list by Mr. Larmer in 1837, the names of several of the localities given have been altered, as is evidenced on the map of the County of Cumberland issued from the Lands Department in 1891. For example, Hulk Bay is now called Lavender Bay, although it had also been previously renamed from — Moxham Bay, and thus had three European names given to denote its early use by the hulk Phoenix, and by two sons-in-law of old 'Commodore' Billy Blue, who once resided in the locality. Kirribilli was renamed by the first settlers Milson's Point, but this latter name has been since given to the point west of it, fronting the grant of the late John Campbell of the wharf, whilst the original name of Kirribilli is retained for the eastern headland, where the old fort was erected, now adjoining the residence of the Admiral. The bay, which fronted the store of M'Laren, an early whaling merchant, is now styled Neutral Harbour ; and the designation previously given to it by Governor Phillip, owing to its being devoted by proclamation for the anchorage of foreign vessels, reverted to Mosman's Whaling Estate; Sirius Cove; has been abbieviated to that of Mofeman's, and the work ol another pioneer merchant honoured, but the native name is almost unknown to the lcrge population which has settled there of late years. Tarra, the western headland of Sydney Cove was first renamed; Point Maskolyne, then Slaughter-house Point, and then Dawes Point, after the astronomer who took the first observation there. Jack the Miller's Point has been abbreviated into Miller's Point, although the land has been long alienated from him to other private owners, notwithstanding the claim made about 40 years since by his son on his return after a long absence in foreign parts. 

Bennelong Point is still marked as such on the map, although the proper aboriginal local name is Torjegully, and it now is better known as Battery Point. The remarkable career of this early aborigine, Bennelong, is thus attempted to be perpetuated, no doubt, to recall to Australians yet unborn that he was one of the first aborigines taken to Europe, and his other romantic dealings with the early rettlers in Port Jackson. Watson's Bay, on the other side of the harbour, commemorates a well-known early Australian mercantile navigator, but that of his -contemporary Siddons, who, for a long time faithfully kept the light-house, is no longer linked with his in that connection. Ball's Head was named through the landing near it of Lieutenaiit Ball, who was one in command on the First Fleet, and started from the adjacent inlet when he made the first exploration of the Australian Continent, wending his way over the ridge leading to the head of Middle Harbour, and thence down the coastline to Manly Cove, besides, which he had the great honour to be the first man to circumnavigate the Australian continent. The reasons which actuated the first colonists in changing the native names to those of Goat Island, Shark Island, Garden Island, and j Sow and Pigs are not now apparent, although there must have been something which suggested their doing so. One would think that the original titles would now be more appropriate and sound better, and might well be reverted to in order to record their ownership, say by aborigines of the tribe Cadi, whose boundaries extended on the -south side of Port Jackson, from South Head to Long Cove. 

The aborigines of the Australian continent have never received direct payment for the lands taken from them, as has been the practice in other British possessions, so that the least that can now be done is to commemorate the extinct tribesmen, who numbered about 1500, and once inhabited tie localities near Port Jackson. In the recent controversies respecting the claim of the Commonwealth or State Government to Goat Island the circumstance had been overlooked that it was the ancestral home of Bennelong, and afterwards used as a place on which were imprisoned unruly aboriginal natives, long before being utilised by the Government for other purposes. Governor Phillip had a happy knack of giving appropriate names to localities, as for example in naming Manly Beach after the courageous blackfellows whom he met when first landing there, but the nomenclature given to some of the bays by other European authorities was not usually appropriate, so that it is a great pity the native names were not retained. Further, owing to this departure from original names, there are two bays called Shell Cove on the northern shores of the harbour. Such duplication is very confusing, for although some distance apart, they lie only on different sides of the promontory separating Middle Harbour from the main channel. At the mouth of the Parramatta River on the west side of Ball's Head there is a bay marked on the map 'Ball's Head Bay', but for many years it was better known as Sugar Works Bay, and subsequently Kerosene Bay through the industries carried on in the vicinity. 

These absurd alterations in names are 'not at all exceptional as for far less reason many spots have had their names altered to suit j the whim of those who wished in this way j to hand their friends' names down to posterity. It is no doubt very commendable to honour the early European pioneers in Aus- tralia by calling spots where they resided after them, but there .has been indefensible action in naming other localities from the places in the old country from which the colonists came, as this often leads to ludicrous misconception, as, for example, naming them after historic cities to which they bear not the slightest resemblance, and from their physical features can never be made to do so. True, some of the names given in the early days to localities in Sydney have in course of time become disused, as, for example, that of Bunker's Hill, called after Captain Bunker, and not from the celebrated American battle-field, but its situation at the north end of Cumberland street is known, to few modern Sydneyites. The reason for changing Charlotte-place to Grosvenor-street is not so apparent, even though its origin is disputed, some saying that it was named after Queen Charlotte, and therefore brings to mind the early connection of the Crown with the colonies when George III. was king, and she his consort. 

The confusion which obtains at this early period of our history in the names of the localities around the site of the first settlement shows the necessity for some authoritative gazetteer being published giving the reasons for the names allotted to the various spots, so that coming generations may be induced to take a greater interest in their native land, and be as well posted In the history of this southern ' continent as they are in the making of cities of the old world. Notwithstanding the labours of the local Anthropological and Historical societies, many of the records of Australia narrating the experiences of the early explorers have been destroyed, so that there will be now some difficulty in recalling aboriginal names. (To be concluded next week.) THE CONTRIBUTOR (1905, August 9). The Sydney Mail and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1871 - 1912), p. 342. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article165003502

Nine representative Japanese gentlemen, including Mr. Iwasaki, the Acting Consul-General in Australia, dined at the Marine Hotel, Clifton Gardens (Chowder Bay), last night, and celebrated a national holiday. Yesterday was the anniversary of the accession to the Japanese throne of Jimmu, 2504 years ago, and the line of descent has^never been broken. The company was in high spirits at the success of the Japanese Navy, and the after-dinner speeches, which were delivered In tho Japanese tongue, were warm with patriotic fervour.

The Acting Consul-General was greeted with "Banzai, banzai" (Hurrah, hurrah). He gave a brief history of the recent diplomatic relations of Russia and Japan, and claimed that the Japanese statesmen had exercised exemplary patience. Throughout Japan her sons were flocking to the standard, and while the war would be prosecuted with unflinching pertinacity, there would be no departure from the humane principles that marked tho Japanese operations in the war with China. It was to be regretted that war had broken out, but the fault did not rest with Japan. The history of Japanese arms, and the proud position of her Navy and Army justified the belief, in which he shared, that the war would be carried to a successful and, he hoped, a speedy conclusion. He proposed the toast of "His Majesty, Our Emperor."

The toast having been honoured, Mr. Morita, manager J. Osawa and Co., said that he, like other Japanese, preferred peace to war, but there were times when the methods of peace failed, and It became imperative to draw the sword. Japan had been forced into war, and now that the campaign had opened, the world would be amazed at the vigour with which she would push forward against her foe.

Mr. Ide, of J. Osawa and Co., proposed the health of the Acting Consul-General in complimentary terms.
The Acting Consul-General replied, and pro-posed "The Japanese Community In Australia." This was also honoured in Japanese fashion.

Mr. Komura spoke of the commercial relations of Australia and Japan, and said it spoke well for the sea power of the Japanese Navy that so far there was no suggestion that the Mikado's ships were unable to keep the commercial routes clear. On the contrary, Russia had sustained a severe naval defeat. Japan might well be proud of its Navy, which was modelled on British lines.

Mr. Fuji, Chancellor of the Consulate General, said that Japan's national patriotism was intense. It was a sentiment that came from centuries of unwavering loyalty to the Throne and to their country. Japan, he said, would not forget.the European intervention that led to the giving up of the LiaoTung Peninsula after the war with China.

Mr. Nakazumy, representative of woolbuyers, spoke. The Japanese and the British National Anthems were sung, and the nine gentlemen also toasted "His Majesty King Edward VII."

They returned to the city to hear of further Japanese successes.  A JAPANESE DINNER. INTENSE NATIONAL ENTHUSIASM. (1904, February 12). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 7. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article14599343

Commendable Police Record
After thirty-three years of almost unbroken service in the old country and in Australia, Senior-Constable Patrick Burke, of No. 4 Division, recently retired on a pension, with an unblemished record. Mr. Burke, when little more than 17, passed the entry examination for the Royal Irish Constabulary, and was admitted as a member of that tine body of men. In January, 1880, he did duty for about six years in the South, of Ireland, but in February, 1886 lie resigned and came out to Queensland, where he joined the police. After close on three years' service, he, however, decided upon coming to New South Wales, and was here appointed to the service in June, 1888. He was attached to No. 4 Police Division, in the north end of the city, but was afterwards transferred to Balmain, which was at that time included in No. 4 Division. He soon became the possessor of the confidence of his superior officers, as well as of the public, and on this account, as well as on account of his physical condition, was constantly selected for special duty. 

Senior-Constable Burke, a Fine Officer just retired through health.

In the latter end of '90 he prominently figured as a plucky upholder of the law in what was known as the Chowder Bay riot. A picnic was being held at that resort, now Ciifton Gardens, by the Hibernian Society, in aid of the fund for the sufferers of the maritime strike. Burke was on duty there with another constable, when the horde of larrikins took charge. There were over 200 of them from the most notorious of pushes. They rushed the pavilion, scattered the dancers, and violently attacked the police and two artillerymen from George's Head, who went to the aid of the constables and the few civilians who had pluck to stick as well as they could to the Law. Branches of trees were torn up and used, bottles and stones thrown, and the worst of 'push' tactics resorted to, while the picknickers retired to the hillside in terror. Burke got his back to the wall, and simply fought them off by sheer pluck and judgment. 

He tore from one of them a branch of a tree and belted them left and right, while they vainly attempted to get him down, and kick him, as they had done to the artillerymen arid others. Meanwhile help came from Sydney in the Water Police launch, and when Sub-Inspector Hyam arrived with a body of police, the riot was quelled, and Burke pointed out thirty-six larrikins and four larrikinesses, who were arrested and punished. For his pluck Burke was promoted to the rank of first-class constable, and was warmly complimented on all sides, as the 'pushes' were a great scourge. 

The hotel -keeper at Chowder, the late Mr. Thompson, afterwards kept the tree branch in his bar, and never referred to it without voicing his admiration of the pluck Constable Burke showed that day. 

That was not the only riot he has figured in, for in the riot which occurred in Broken Hill in the early '90's, when the strikers attacked a train conveying police from Sydney, he was struck by a large piece of stone thrown through the carriage window. There was no strike for which he had not been chosen for duty. Altogether he did three years' strike duty throughout the State, and twelve months of that was a: Broken Hill. He was also chosen some years ago as one, of a number of constables who were known as the 'Flying Squadron,' whose, special duty was the breaking up of the 'pushes,' a duty which it is gratifying to know had a very satisfactory climax. In January, 1903, Mr. Burke was promoted to the rank of senior-constable and transferred from Balmain to No. 4 Divisional headquarters, where he remained till his retirement. His popularity in Balmain was attested by the residents in the shape of a valuable gold watch and albert, which he values with good reason. When he joined the police in Ireland he stood 6ft. 11in., and is now 6ft. 2in., and it was no uncommon thing for him to handcuff two desperate characters together, or take one in each hand to the lockup. The non-commissioned officers and men of No. 4 Police Station presented Mr. Burke on his retirement, with a handsome marble clock, and his youngest daughter with a gold brooch, as a token of their esteem, on his retirement. Commendable Police Record (1913, September 11). Freeman's Journal (Sydney, NSW : 1850 - 1932), p. 12. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article108170678 

Australian Motor Yacht Squadron.
Despite a howling wind and a dull sky overhead on Friday members of the Australian Motor Yacht Squadron turned deaf ears to pessimistic warnings about unfavourable weather and were rewarded on Saturday with blight sunshine that made summer frocks possible and speed boating and motor yachting more than pleasant It was the occasion of their Commodores Day and after nn ex citing half day s racing at Middle Harbour with outboards speedboats and cruising yachts the entire company repaired to Clifton Gardens where they completed the evening with dinner and dancing at the Clifton Gardens Hotel

Fashions were distinctly Interesting It Is amazing how much crepe can be worn in so many different ways In a variety of colour's and shades It provides a charming frock for the afternoon in the drawing-room and with a smart cap of the same material becomes a feminine sporting frock for any outdoor occa sion Linen will always be popular for Australian summers and is now being treated In a charmingly distinctive and nautical way with sailors cord and buttons An interesting revival was the tiny fluted fish frill which was exploited in many cases for the ornamentation of the neck sleeve or central figure line

One of the largest parties was entertained by Commodore J W Booth and Mrs Booth who wore a nautical frock of white sand crepe with marine blue buttons beneath a shoulder cape of marine blue She Included among her guests Mrs Arthur Booth in a frock of pale canary flat crepe with a small black cap Mrs E House who wore sea green crepe studded with brass studs Mrs N Jacobs who was appropriately attired in a sailor blue flat crepe coal and skirt with a startling blouse striped in black and yellow Miss E Himmelhoch who wore her oyster grey crepe with a pink checked pussy cat bow Mrs M Booth in black georgette Mrs C Sharp in white knop silk beneath a black wagger coat and Mrs. Slater in a frock of blue floral marocain

Mr J O Andrews (social secretary) and Mrs Andrews who wore a sporting afternoon frock of off white cotduroy marocain with neck to waist-lines of pearl buttons and a swagger coat to match were present on their cruising yacht Smerdnn with Miss Vera An drews and Mr Norman Andrews Among those i whom they Invited to spend the afternoon as

their yachting guests weie Mrs J Sheather in a frock of black marocain combined with white Mrs S Aggett in blue checked crepe with white organdi ruffles at the throat and Miss Jojce Aggett Miss N Wagstaff Miss F Bresdin Mrs J S Miller Mrs B Campbell Miss F Drurle Mr and Mrs Arthur Benjamin and Mr and Mrs J Handley


Some of the guests entertained by Mr. and Mrs. J. O. Andrews on their yacht, Smerdna*, on Saturday afternoon, at the Australian Motor Yacht Club's regatta at Middle Harbour. From left to right, Miss Jean Porter, Mrs. Rus Porter, and Miss Irene Lancy.

Mrs. R. Smith (wife of the vice-commodore) wore a frock of pale blue crepe de Chene with an ornamentation of fishfrills down the side and round the neck, and entertained many guests, among whom were Mrs Molloy and her daughter, Kathleen, Mr. P. Gilbert, Mr and Mrs J. Hogan, Mr. and Mrs. W Ryan Mr. L. Doyle (race secretary), and Mrs Doyle Rear-Commodore J. Wylie and Mrs Wylie, on their cruising yacht Miss Joy, entertained many friends.

The assembly gathered between races at the club-house at Middle Harbour. It was most exciting to see hurried take-offs and the scramble aboard the cruisers when the starting pistol was fired. The yachts, with their load of women in coloured dresses and the men in nautical uniform, provided a beautiful pic-ture as the boats skimmed over the blue water with the green hills spotted with tiny red roofs behind them.

Afternoon tea was served in the club-house half-way through the afternoon's programme and then the racing began again A basket of white frangipanni, red roses, and blue delphiniums, representing the club colours, was presented to Mrs. Booth (wife of the Commodore) by Joyce Aggett on behalf of the women who had helped to organise the day.

Among others who were present were Mr and Mrs. R. Porter, the latter wearing a smart frock of white crepe designed with black circles, and a wide brimmed white straw hat. Miss Jean Porter, in white sand crepe and a large red hat: Miss Irene Laney, wearing powdue blue flat crepe with split cape sleeves, Mr M. A. Sampson: Miss Mary Stalk, in a charming afternoon frock of sky blue sand crepe worn with a fluted frill at the neck: Mr. Don Payne (secretary) ; Miss Phyll Daley, who was in dust pink linen suit with a tucked blouse in white voile; Mr. J. Fletcher, Miss Jean Sheath, Mr. Jack Courtney, and Mr. Richardson.

At the conclusion of the afternoon all the parties boarded their respective yachts and proceeded in the dusk of the evening to Clifton Gardens. Dinner was a jolly proceeding, as everyone by this time knew everyone else, and all formality was waived. The dance that followed was even jollier. A white rabbit which was raffled led to much hilarity among the guests. FOR WOMEN (1934, February 5). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 4. Retrieved  from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17045298

This vessel's name was actually spelled 'Swerdna'

RETURN OF THE PICNIC STEAMERS--NEW YEAR'S DAY. (1885, December 19).Illustrated Sydney News (NSW : 1881 - 1894), p. 13. Retrieved from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64036803 

This sketch is by Arthur Collingridge, (1853-1907), Painter and illustrator of Australian scenes 1879-1901 who exhibited widely, mainly in NSW. Founding member of the Royal Art Society of NSW 1880.

Clifton Gardens Mosman: An Eternal Green and Saltwater Space, and Of Many Captains - threads collected and collated by A J Guesdon, 2017.