Inbox and Environment News: Issue 414

July 28 - August 3, 2019: Issue 414

National Tree Day 2019

National Tree Day started in 1996 and has grown into Australia's largest community tree-planting and nature care event.
It’s a call to action for all Australians to get their hands dirty and give back to the community. ​​​

While every day can be Tree Day, we dedicate celebration of Schools Tree Day and National Tree Day to the last Friday and last Sunday in July. In 2019 Schools Tree Day is Friday 26th July and National Tree Day is Sunday 28th July.

Mount Gilead Development Bulldozing Koala Habitat Approved: Resident Turtles To Go Too - The Beginning Of The End Of Campbelltown's Koalas

The Developer who was booted out of the Sydney Stadium rebuild one day was welcomed elsewhere with open arms the next. Lendlease, has received permission to remove trees and de-water dams at the historic Mount Gilead farming property south of Rosemeadow late this week.

In the document made public on Friday a four-member Campbelltown Local Planning Panel effectively authorised bulldozers and work crews to enter the site, dismissing the concerns of locals who argued that approval was premature because a development application for the proposed estate has yet to be assessed, let alone approved.

"In the Panel's opinion there are no grounds to justify refusal of the application," the document said.

Although protesters gathered outside the Campbelltown Council's offices, and tens of thousands from the area and surrounds had sent in submissions as well as a long run campaign to save the local fauna on the property, their responses didn't mean much with either the council representing them or the panels that have been put in place for developers so that government at local, state and federal level can say 'it wasn't us' - and 'bulldoze' ahead.

Although the document wasn't released to the general public residents until Friday, vigilant locals spotted a tree service business on the land hours after the panel meeting.

In response to the the fact that koalas will soon have their homes bulldozed the Planning Panel's report states (that they) also:

stipulated that Lendlease take measures to ensure that any wildlife inhabiting the dams or neighbouring surrounds be "treated humanely and relocatedbefore development activities start.

"A qualified ecologist or wildlife carer is required to be present throughout the de-watering activities to relocate fauna or take fauna into care where appropriate" the approval document stated.

Recent studies and reports show that the success rate for translocated koalas is very low - they don't survive. Coomera, once the heartland of Southeast Queensland koalas is probably a worst case example of translocation outcomes; some 180 koalas (the numbers keep varying) were translocated to facilitate 30 developments – all approved by the Gold Coast City Council. The wildlife returns obtained by Australians for Animals Inc. on the translocated koalas demonstrated that 2 survived - that's not even 1%. Their count found that at least 23 'were ripped to pieces by dogs'.

The NSW government adopted a translocation policy in May 2019 which states its key objective  [is to] increase good practice in translocation initiatives by ensuring they:
are only undertaken where necessary or beneficial for conservation of the species or as part of an approved offset arrangement [for a state significant development]

The NSW Government's Translocations for offsets is moving koalas in the way of development. Unfortunately, the approval of mass felling of trees, and plans to raze 100% more of some kola habitats, means translocation, even if it did work, cannot occur as there is nowhere to move them to.

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature has guidelines for translocations. Two are listed:
1. Conservation Translocation - To improve the status of the species or
2. Conservation Introduction - To avoid population extinction at any scale.

There are also a number of turtles in the dams on the acreage and soon nowhere for them to be translocated to. Their habitat is being destroyed as well.

The panels report's use of the phrase 'before development activities start' would also indicate Lendlease don't need to lodge a DA for the proposed estate - that's already approved too.

The leaders of local environment group Save Mount Gilead are now urging people to keep emailing the council and the premier, as well as looking into an injunction.

It's a bad news to be made aware of on the day that was National Tree Day for Schools this week - not a good message for all those little hands that were out planting green fronds a few inches tall on the same day their parents were finally able to access the panel's decision.
It's a slap to their faces - on National Tree Day too. 
It's a disaster for our ever diminishing tree count.
A disaster for our ever diminishing water supply. 

It's a death sentence for the koalas of Campbelltown, just as dogs, dogs in reserves, mass quick development and the cutting down of trees were the death sentence for Pittwater's now extinct koalas.

As one resident said;
If this wasn’t such a serious issue it would be laughable how dodgy this whole process has been of acquiring historically significant land that is home to abundant wildlife, no less an endangered [and] disease free koala colony... we need open spaces, our children and grandchildren need to see our native animals, we need to preserve history.

While another stated:
This morning I met with some very knowledgeable people about koalas and when I got home this little guy was nestled in a tree in my backyard, there was a swamp wallaby as well. All I could think was you poor little devils Gladys Berejiklian and some local government people intend destroying you and your habitat. 

Tomorrow I will email Gladys Berejiklian again, and our local Campbelltown council again and ask that they protect Mount Gilead and the unique wildlife corridor

At Campbelltown this week

National Tree Day Planting At Toongari

National Tree Day activity at Toongari Reserve, Avalon Beach from 10.00 am to 2.00 pm on Sunday 28th July 2019.

This is an appeal for community members to plant tubestock and help continue the work already completed by the Toongari Reserve Bushcare Volunteers.

The site of the planting is behind the kindergarten. Come along and get involved in greening your community and making a difference to your local environment.

How to find this hidden gem:
  • The pathway from Central Road is between 55 and 59 Central Road and joins the pathway from Bowling Green Lane, behind Pittwater Palms retirement village leading to Toongari Reserve.
  • The pathway from Avalon Parade is the right-of-way at 118 Avalon Parade, which is beside the KU Avalon Kindergarten.
Please wear suitable clothing for planting including enclosed shoes. Gloves, tools and equipment for planting, watering cans and buckets provided.

Sydney Wildlife August 2019 Course

It‘s one of the happiest and saddest times of being a wildlife carer. We give the animals a second chance, help them realise their instincts and prepare for the wild. Often we have no idea how they are getting on in their natural habitat after release. We can only hope that the months of dedication and sacrifices pay off.

These two were taken to the vet after being found by members of the public. They were both orphans and soon became close friends in care. Scratchum was found alone in Newtown and Foxy was with her mum (who subsequently died after suspected poisoning) at Fox Studios. Over many months they were bottle fed, introduced to solid foods, increased their strength and climbing skills and now are living in a thick patch of bush in a Sydney suburb.

If you want to become a volunteer carer, rescuer, phone operator, fundraiser or educator, register for the next course to be held 10-11 August in Londonderry. Register here:

Sydney Wildlife (Sydney Metropolitan Wildlife Services)

NSW Upper House Inquiry Into Koala Populations And Habitat In New South Wales

This inquiry was established on 20 June 2019 to inquire into and report on koala populations and habitat in New South Wales.

1. That Portfolio Committee No. 7 – Planning and Environment inquire into and report on actions, policies and funding by government to ensure healthy, sustainable koala populations and habitat in New South Wales, and in particular:
(a) the status of koala populations and koala habitat in New South Wales, including trends, key
threats, resource availability, adequacy of protections and areas for further research,
(b) the impacts on koalas and koala habitat from:
(i) the Coastal Integrated Forestry Operations Approvals and Regional Forest Agreements,
(ii) the Private Native Forestry Code of Practice,
(iii) the old growth forest remapping and rezoning program,
(iv) the 2016 land management reforms, including the Local Land Services Amendment Act 2016 and associated regulations and codes
(c) the effectiveness of State Environmental Planning Policy 44 - Koala Habitat Protection, the NSW Koala Strategy and the Biodiversity Conservation Act 2016, including the threatened species provisions and associated regulations, in protecting koala habitat and responding to key threats,
(d) identification of key areas of koala habitat on private and public land that should be protected, including areas currently at risk of logging or clearing, and the likely impacts of climate change on koalas and koala distribution,
(e) the environmental, social and economic impacts of establishing new protected areas to conserve koala habitat, including national parks, and
(f) any other related matter.
3. That the committee report by 15 June 2020.

Committee membership
Ms Cate Faehrmann MLC The Greens (Chair)
Hon Mark Pearson MLC Animal Justice Party (Deputy Chair)
Hon Mark Buttigieg MLC Australian Labor Party
Hon Catherine Cusack Liberal Party
Hon Ben Franklin MLC The Nationals
Hon Shayne Mallard Liberal Party
Hon Penny Sharpe MLC Australian Labor Party 

Make a Submission Online HERE. Submissions close August 2nd, 2019.

North Sydney Council Declares A Climate Emergency 

North Sydney Council has become the 30th Australian Council to declare a ‘climate emergency’. Councillors unanimously voted on Monday night (22 July) to acknowledge that climate change poses a threat to the future of our cities, including the North Sydney Local Government Area. 

More than 600 jurisdictions worldwide have recognised a state of climate emergency that requires immediate action by all levels of government. In Australia, these include Hawkesbury City Council, Melbourne City Council, City of Sydney, City of Ryde and Randwick City Council. 

North Sydney Council agreed to join and support the City of Sydney’s resolution of 24 June 2019 calling upon the State and Federal Governments to declare a climate emergency and to respond to this emergency by taking urgent action to meet the emissions reduction targets contained in the Paris Agreement. 

Council will now write to the Prime Minister, Premier of NSW and relevant State and Federal Ministers providing a copy of the Council resolution and calling upon them to act urgently to address climate change and its impacts. 

Council also voted to encourage neighbouring Local Government Areas to also declare a climate emergency and advocate to State and Federal Governments in their own right. 

A report will now be prepared which details initiatives Council is already undertaking to reduce carbon emissions and identifies areas which could be improved. 

The report will address: 
- Adoption of a guiding principle in all Council operations to reduce carbon emissions towards the reduction targets contained in the Paris Agreement. 
- Introduction or strengthening of existing policies that make a positive contribution to reducing carbon emissions. 
- A specific budget provision for climate change initiatives linked to the Delivery Program. 
- Facilitating the roll out of car charging battery stations in the local government area.

New Plastics Policy For North Sydney Council

North Sydney Council has taken the next step towards banning single-use plastics across all Council operations, venues and events.  Councillors voted on Monday night (22 July) to place a new Single Use Plastics Policy on public exhibition for community feedback. The draft Policy requires Council staff to find alternatives, where feasible, to disposable plastic items, including those made from polystyrene, that are designed to be used once and then discarded.  

This includes, but is not limited to, disposable cups and lids, straws, bags, cutlery, plates, bottled water, take away containers, single serve sachets and unnecessary packaging.  

Mayor Jilly Gibson said: “Reducing single use plastics is an important step towards making our Council operations more sustainable.  
“By reducing single-use plastics we are providing a range of benefits for our community – it will reduce the amount of single use plastic that goes to landfill, help reduce water pollution and litter, and help improve the amenity of our parks and open spaces.” 

North Sydney Council already has several initiatives to reduce single-use plastics, including Plastic Free July activities, support for community groups such as Boomerang Bags and Harbourcare, support for businesses through the Better Business Partnership's Bye Bye Plastic, Hello BYO program, as well as reducing single-use plastic in Council’s internal operations. 

This Policy will ensure Council continues to contribute to the Australian Packaging Covenant Target that 100% of all Australia’s packaging will be reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025. 

The Policy will go on public exhibition for 21 days. Visit Council’s website for information.   

Barrenjoey Seal Colony Growing

Jools Farrell, local ORRCA lady extraordinaire, reminds us that at present the Australian Fur Seal Colony at Barrenjoey is growing. In mid May there were 3 but there will be a lot more as we had up to 20 last year.

Please remember that legally you must stay a minimum of 40 metres away from seals, especially if they come ashore on the estuary beaches or ocean beaches to rest.

Also please keep an eye out for them if you are out in a boat as they do venture out of this spot to feed on the estuary or around Barrenjoey Headland. In recent years they have been seen everywhere from Barrenjoey to Clareville and Church Point.

Please do not attempt to feed them as they get plenty of food here in Pittwater. Please also do not attempt to swim with them, Jools asks.

If you do see a seal in distress, please contact ORRCA on their 24/7 hotline: 9415 3333.

Tasmanian Lobster Organs And Reflexes Damaged By Marine Seismic Surveys New Study Shows 

July 26, 2019: IMAS
A new study of the impact on marine life of seismic air guns, used in geological surveys of the seafloor, has found that the sensory organs and righting reflexes of rock lobster can be damaged by exposure to air gun signals.

Published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B, the research by scientists from IMAS and the Centre for Marine Science and Technology at Curtin University is the latest in a series of studies they have conducted into how seismic surveys affect marine animals.

The study was funded by the Australian Government through the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (FRDC), Origin Energy, and the Victorian Government’s CarbonNet Project.

Lead author Dr Ryan Day said researchers exposed rock lobster to seismic air gun noise during field tests in Tasmania’s Storm Bay and examined the effects on a key sensory organ, the statocyst, and the lobsters’ reflexes.

“While the impact of air guns on whales and fishes has been relatively well-studied, the effects on marine invertebrates such as lobsters, crabs and squid remain poorly understood,” Dr Day said.

“We chose to study the impact on rock lobster because they are a high value fishery and an important part of global marine ecosystems.

“Previous studies have shown that the statocyst, a sensory organ on a lobster’s head, is critical in controlling their righting reflex, enabling them to remain coordinated and evade predators.

Image: seismic air gun test in Storm Bay, Tasmania. Credit: Rob McCauley

“After exposing lobsters to the equivalent of a commercial air gun signal at a range of 100-150 metres, our study found that the animals suffered significant and lasting damage to their statocyst and righting reflexes.

“The damage was incurred at the time of exposure and persisted for at least one year - surprisingly, even after the exposed lobsters moulted,” Dr Day said.

The study’s Principal Investigator, Associate Professor Jayson Semmens, said that while the ecological impacts of the damage were not evaluated, the impairment would likely affect a lobster’s ability to function in the wild.

“This study adds to a growing body of research that shows marine invertebrates can suffer physiological impacts and changes to their reflexes in response to anthropogenic noise such as seismic surveys,” Associate Professor Semmens said.

“In recent years our research team has also looked at the impact of seismic surveys on lobster embryos, scallops and zooplankton

“Such studies are important to enable government, industry and the community to make informed decisions about how such activities can best be conducted while minimising negative outcomes for fisheries and ecosystems globally,” he said.

Earlier this year approval was given to 3D Oil to conduct seismic surveys in the Otway Basin, 18 kilometres west of King Island.

The President of the Tasmanian Rock Lobster Fishermen's Association, John Sansom, said this area encroaches on the lobster fishery.

Mr Sansom said he was more concerned about the effects on the larvae or eggs.

"Through this research we understand that seismic surveys actually impact on larvae and actually kill them. he said in an ABC report on Friday

IMAS is the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies in the University of Tasmania.

Catch A Glimpse Of A Humpback Whale

Visit a coastal NSW national park to spot a humpback whale, as they start their annual migration north.

From May to November 2019, over 30,000 humpback whales will migrate from the cold waters of Antarctica to the warmer waters off north east Australia to mate and give birth before heading south again.

Vantage spots for whale watching include national parks with lookouts, headlands and foreshores.

Southern right and minke whales may also be spotted off the NSW coast during migration season.

Keen whale-watchers can download the free Wild About Whales mobile app, which helps users find the best locations for spotting whales, get real-time notifications of nearby sightings, and record their sightings.

Environment Minister Matt Kean said the app is a great tool for the whole family to learn more about whales, while also contributing to a citizen science project.

“Citizen science volunteers and other organisations such as ORRCA do an amazing job of monitoring the number of whales migrating along the NSW coast each season,” Mr Kean said.

Find whale watching vantage points

Learn about approaching marine mammals in NSW

Mentorships And Money For Youth; Share The Spark Tank Event Entries Now Open 

Groups of Northern Beaches young people are working together to create inventions, apps, new businesses and community services in time for an August 15 deadline in hopes they can present their ‘pitches’ live at an event called “Spark Tank’ and win hundreds or thousands of dollars plus 10 weeks of business start-up advice provided by successful entrepreneurs and business consultants.
Visit this page to read up on the mentors and download entry forms:

The business pitch event, similar to the TV show Shark Tank®, is hosted by Share the Spark, an ACNC approved charity that empowers young people to make life affirming choices. To participate in the event, each team must include at least one person they know who is going through a hard time. The Spark Tank event is being held in conjunction with R U OK day, Thursday, September 12, to encourage young people to look out for each other. Simple things like making a call, sharing a project or just being together can make all the difference.

At the Spark Tank event, local young people will present their ideas in front of a live audience and a panel of six successful entrepreneurs at Newport. Close for submissions is August 15.

If you would like to show your support for R U OK day and watch the local young people pitch their ideas and cheer on your favourites at this free event in There will also be R U OK information that everyone can easily act upon in their community and delicious home baked cookies, cakes and beverages available for a gold coin donation to help support Share the Spark.

“There is no cure for suicide,” said Kimberly Clouthier, Director of Spark, “that is why we focus on prevention, and the earlier the better. The time to prevent diabetes or cancer is when you are still healthy; by exercising, eating well and keeping your stress levels low. The same holds true for suicide prevention. We want to help young people stay positive and inspired so they keep making life affirming choices and have the resilience and support they need when challenging times come.” 
As part of Spark’s early prevention plan, Share the Spark provides free ongoing micro-mentoring programs that match young people up with professionals, usually in their work environment. Any youth between the ages of 8 – 23, who feel they would benefit by spending time with someone who is passionate about what they do, can sign up anytime on the Spark website to participate.

Spark’s programs allow young people to experiment and choose who they would like to spend time with, and for how long. This flexible approach encourages interactions with many different professionals over time so they gain contacts and real-life experience in the careers they explore.  They also increase their personal confidence, resilience and spark for life.

Share the Spark is also always welcoming new mentors so young people can have a large variety of professions to explore. Mentors must be passionate about what they do and excited to share that spark with a young person. All mentors pass a working with children check and attend two training workshops, one on youth communication and the other on suicide prevention, plus there are ongoing workshops on specific areas, all free of charge. 

“Simply by going through our mentor training you are doing a lot to help prevent suicide”, Kimberly said, “you will know what to look for, how to talk about suicide and what to do, not just for young people but for anyone in your life.”

Spark Tank contestants are segmented in two age brackets, roughly one for 8-16 year olds and one for 17-23 year olds. Teams enter a submissions outlining their idea to Share the Spark. 

Submissions will be evaluated on merit, uniqueness, community involvement etc. and winners will be selected by the Spark Tank Panellists to participate in the actual Spark Tank event in front of a live audience. 


Pittwater Players Part Of Roos Baseball Team For 2019 Worlds

Pittwater players Josh Beezley, Max Milner, Tom Butler and Forest player Caden Crouch on their way to Nettuno, Italy to play in the 2019 World Boys Baseball Tournament as members of the Roos Baseball Team. Good luck boys and enjoy this amazing experience.

2019 World Boys Team Announced

We congratulate the following players on their selection in the 2019 Roos Baseball Team. The team will participate in the 2019 World Boys Baseball Tournament being held in Nettuno Italy. This will be the 38th World Boys Baseball Tournament - the 2018 edition was held at Blacktown, in Sydney.

The team will play practice games in Czech Republic before sightseeing in Rome then heading to the tournament.

Caden Crouch
Conrad Moss
Jackson Campbell
Jacob Foster
Jacob Veres
Jaxon Forbes
Jordan Martin
Joshua Beezley
Logan Harris
Luke Jacobs
Max Milner
Owen Glover
Reece Gallagher
Tom Butler
Trent Jamieson
Daniel Jung

About Roos Baseball Team

The Roos Baseball Team is a team based in Sydney, Australia and competes in the World Boys Baseball Tournament, an annual tournament held in a different country each year. We first participated in the tournament in 2006 when the tournament was held in Osaka, Japan. We travelled as the “Sydney Baseball Team” as this was more identifiable to teams from other countries than “NSW”.

In 2012 we hosted the tournament in Australia and changed our name to “Roos Baseball Team” after establishing a great rapport with the tournament organisation over many years. Although the name changed to Roos to establish a strong connection to Australia, the team right from the start back in 2006 has established itself as a team that loves to turn up and play baseball no matter what level of competition we play against as long as we have fun doing it.

The coaches and staff have always strived to make the tour a memorable one each year with some standard rules we issue each year:
  1. You must want to have fun
  2. You respect the uniform and what you represent within the team which includes your State and Country
  3. You respect everyone on the trip including all other teams, umpires, officials and touring parents
  4. You must want to learn and compete at the highest level you can
  5. Rule #5 is always refer back to Rule #1
Each year the staff always strives to provide the best value for your money with travel, accommodation, sightseeing, shopping, travel gear including uniforms and baseball games. We also look to accommodate as much of what we believe the players would like on the tour with food and customs in different cultural experiences. We always welcome additional travellers in parents or supporters and do our best to accommodate the needs of these as long as it doesn’t hinder the itinerary too much. 

The tour being a sanctioned team by the ABF, we are strict in our practises in pitching and playing restrictions. The Roos also look to have all players have at least 50% of game time barring any potential issues such as illness and injuries that unfortunately occur from time to time. Any illness or injury is a priority of the Roos staff to seek a quick diagnoses and then a resolution it get the player back on the ballpark provided a clearance is provided by the doctor. We believe that you should play for a long time in your career and not a short time and will have that in our minds right from the 1st trial to the last game played. 

The Roos have setup a Facebook site which is now being used by several of the teams who each year participate in the World Boys. All the Roos staff can be contacted via a private message from within the group if needed and we are always opened to helping with extra instruction with coaching or just general information if required.

For more, visit:
Pittwater Baseball website:  On Facebook:

How To Test Drive A Uni On Open Day

By University of Sydney
There's a lot you can learn about uni on Open Day. You may have done some reading online or picked up a prospectus, but nothing can beat a uni Open Day to gather all you need to know before applying. Here are our top tips to make sure any Open Day is worth the visit. 

Walk the walk: leave the car behind
Depending on what your living arrangements may be, why not come to campus exactly as you would if you were a student? Not all universities are great for parking, especially ones in Sydney, and on Open Day we generally recommend leaving the car at home and catching public transport due to the amount of people coming to campus. So why not take the train, catch the bus or cycle in? Granted the timetables may be different on a weekend, but it will give you a good idea of how long your commute may be. We say we're a 10-minute walk from Redfern station - try it out for yourself. 

Set your own agenda 
Do you want to compare one degree over another? Are internships something that are important to you or are campus accommodation options the reason you're visiting? There is so much you can find out on Open Day but it's important to make sure you prioritise what's important to you so you know you'll finish the day getting what you came for - and this may be different to your friend or a classmate. A mini-lecture or an information session is a really good start in building your day because they are a summary of key points and are run at scheduled times. Creating a schedule on our Open Day website or app is an easy way to organise your day to make sure you don't miss out. 

Ask your burning questions
There are so many people on campus at uni open days who are ready to help you with any questions you have, so make sure you ask. One of the biggest pluses is being able to get personalised advice or speak to someone who knows what it's like to be in your shoes. At the University of Sydney Open Day, you can do that by heading to the course advice booths, having a chat to one of our friendly student ambassadors on campus - who may even be leading your campus tour - or meeting some of our current students from our clubs and societies on the front lawns. What if you don't get the ATAR? What does a day at uni look like? Will you be able to get a job? Don't be scared to ask or just have a chat. 

See the campus for yourself
Does the Quad really look like Hogwarts? What's it like inside a lab or uni library? The only way to find out what it's like on campus is to come and see it for yourself, and there is no better day than an Open Day to see a campus at its best. Go for a tour, see where you could be taking your classes, studying between lectures, meeting friends, getting active, or even living. Don't forget to take a moment in between all the excitement to ask - can you see yourself studying here next year or in the future? Take it all in to decide if you want to come back. This is something universities can't give you in the brochure - the vibe on campus and your gut feeling. You can't leave any Open Day without it!

Think outside the square
Uni isn't just what happens inside the classroom, or even just on campus; a world of opportunities await you so make sure you take the time to explore those too! Ask us about study abroad opportunities, interdisciplinary projects, our high achievers' program, and of course ways to make friends on campus and the student experience. Other things to think about are what scholarships opportunities are open for before and once you're studying, as well as the support services available for you once you're a student. If you've finished up for the day, why not head into neighbouring Newtown or Glebe to explore what's on our doorstep. 

And finally, spot the difference
It might be once you set foot on campus, once you've gone home, or even after having gone to a few Open Days. There will be something about each university that sets them apart in your mind and ultimately helps you decide which one is the right one for you. Gathering all the information you need before the pressure of final exams is a good place to start and think things through. Going to university is a big decision but it's an exciting one. Our advice: don't rush the decision and enjoy the fun that comes with exploring all your options - starting with Open Day!

We look forward to welcoming you to campus on Saturday 31 August at the University of Sydney's Open Day. Sign up to keep up to create a personalised schedule so you don't miss out on all your favourite talks and activities. 

Uni Open Days: Winter - Spring 2019

Macquarie University
Open Day 2019
Saturday 17 August, 10am — 3pm
Studying at Macquarie will multiply your potential for success. Come to our Open Day and find out how our industry connections, passion for collaboration and appetite for unconventional thinking will help you achieve remarkable things. Attend lectures, speak with our experts, jump on a tour or participate in hands-on activities. Open Day is an experience made for (YOU)us

Explore their website:

University of Sydney 
Open Day 2019
Saturday 31 August, 9am-4pm
Join us on Open Day and immerse yourself in campus life for a day.
You'll discover endless opportunities at the University of Sydney and find out why we are ranked 5th in the world and 1st in Australia for graduate employability by QS.
Explore their website:

Open Day 2019
Saturday 7 September, 9am - 4pm
Make your Open Day experiences count and get a taste for the UNSW student life – explore our Kensington and Paddington campuses, attend mini-lectures, and speak to current students and your future teachers. Discover the opportunities that will shape your future!

Explore their website:


Australian Catholic University
Canberra 31 August
North Sydney 24 August
Strathfield 7 September

Australian College of Applied Psychology
Sydney 22 August, 27 November

Australian Maritime College (University of Tasmania)
Launceston 10 August
Hobart 3 August

Australian National University
Canberra 31 August

Charles Sturt University
Orange 6 September
Bathurst 4 August
Port Macquarie 25 August
Albury-Wodonga 18 August
Dubbo 30 August
Wagga Wagga 11 August

Sydney 22 August
Online Chat available 3–6pm
18 September,
10 October, 26 November

Griffith University
Gold Coast, Nathan and South Bank 11 August

International College of Management, Sydney
Manly 11 August

La Trobe University
Shepparton 2 August
Melbourne 4 August
Mildura 14 August
Albury–Wodonga 18 August
Sydney 22 August
Bendigo 25 August

Macleay College
Surry Hills 24 August

Macquarie University
North Ryde 17 August

MIT Sydney
Sydney 24 August

National Art School
Darlinghurst 7 September

SAE Creative Media Institute
Sydney and Byron Bay 11 August

For campus tours/appointments and course
information call (02) 9964 6555
or visit

Southern Cross University
Coffs Harbour 16 August
Lismore 17 August
Gold Coast 18 August

TOP Education Institute
For a campus tour call (02) 9209 4888

Torrens University Australia
Torrens University 17 August
Media Design School  17 August
William Blue College of Hospitality 17 August
Billy Blue College of Design 17 August
Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School 7 September

University of Canberra
Bruce 31 August

University of New England

University of Newcastle
Port Macquarie 15 August
Central Coast (Ourimbah) 3 August
Newcastle (Callaghan) and
Newcastle City 31 August

University of Sydney
All campuses 31 August

University of Technology Sydney
City campus, Ultimo 31 August

University of Wollongong
Wollongong 3 August

UNSW Sydney
UNSW Sydney 7 September
UNSW Canberra 24 August

Western Sydney University
Parramatta South and
Parramatta City campuses 18 August
Liverpool City campus 21 September

Researchers Identify New Species Of Pocket Shark

July 18, 2019: Tulane University
A team of researchers, including two from Tulane University, has identified a new species of pocket shark, following careful study of a pocket shark that made international headlines in 2015 after it was brought to the Royal D. Suttkus Fish Collection at the Tulane University Biodiversity Research Institute.

The 5½-inch male kitefin shark has been identified as the American Pocket Shark, or Mollisquama mississippiensis, based on five features not seen in the only other known specimen of this kind. That specimen was captured in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in 1979 and is now housed at the Zoological Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia.

The newly identified American Pocket Shark was first discovered in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. (Photo by Tulane researcher Michael Doosey)

The details of the new species, which was caught in the Gulf of Mexico in February 2010, are described in an article published in the animal taxonomy journal Zootaxa. The authors include Mark Grace of the NMFS Mississippi Laboratories of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Henry Bart and Michael Doosey of the Tulane University Biodiversity Research. Other researchers involved in the study are John S. Denton and Gavin Taylor of the Florida Program for Shark Research at the University of Florida, and John Maisey of the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York.

“The fact that only one pocket shark has ever been reported from the Gulf of Mexico, and that it is a new species, underscores how little we know about the Gulf."  Henry Bart, director of the Tulane Biodiversity Research Institute

“In the history of fisheries science, only two pocket sharks have ever been captured or reported,” Grace said. “Both are separate species, each from separate oceans. Both are exceedingly rare.”

Bart added, “The fact that only one pocket shark has ever been reported from the Gulf of Mexico, and that it is a new species, underscores how little we know about the Gulf - especially its deeper waters - and how many additional new species from these waters await discovery.”

Researchers said there were notable differences between the original Pacific Ocean specimen and the newer specimen from the Gulf of Mexico. Those differences include fewer vertebrae and numerous light-producing photophores that cover much of the body. The two species both have two small pockets that produce luminous fluid (one on each side near the gills).

The pocket shark was collected in February 2010 in the eastern Gulf of Mexico by the NOAA ship Pisces, during a mission to study sperm whale feeding. Much to his surprise, Grace discovered the shark in 2013 while examining specimens that were collected during the NOAA survey. Grace asked Tulane to archive the specimen in its Fish Collection. Soon after, Grace and Tulane postdoctoral researcher Doosey undertook a study to determine what species it was.

Identifying the shark involved examining and photographing external features of the specimen with a dissecting microscope, studying radiographic (x-ray) images and high resolution CT scans.  The most sophisticated images of internal features of the shark were produced at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, which uses the most intense source of synchrotron-generated light in the world to produce x-rays 100 billion times brighter than the x-rays used in hospitals. 

Bart said the partnership between Tulane and NOAA was instrumental to the work that lead to the discovery and identification of the American Pocket Shark. “The Tulane-NOAA Fisheries partnership is continuing and may lead to additional discoveries in the future,” he said.

Mollisquama mississippiensis GRACE, DOOSEY, DENTON, NAYLOR, BART & MAISEY, 2019
American Pocket Shark 
Classification: Elasmobranchii Squaliformes Dalatiidae

Reference of the original description
GRACE, M.A. & DOOSEY, M.H. & DENTON, J.S.S. & NAYLOR, G.J.P. & BART, H.L. & MAISEY, J.G. (2019)
A new Western North Atlantic Ocean kitefin shark (Squaliformes: Dalatiidae) from the Gulf of Mexico. Zootaxa, 4619 (1): 109–120

Mollisquama mississippiensis GRACE, DOOSEY, DENTON, NAYLOR, BART & MAISEY, 2019, illustration to provide what may be how it looks in the deep-dark, with all of the photophores and luminous fluid glowing © Mark Grace

One Dose Of HPV Vaccine May Be Enough

July 24, 2019: University of Melbourne
One dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has comparable effectiveness to two or three doses for preventing cervical pre-cancer, according to a new study.

In a large national data linkage study published in Papillomavirus Research, researchers compared cervical screening outcomes for a quarter of a million Australian women who were eligible for vaccination under the national program.

Researchers found that in women who were vaccinated at a young age, when most had not yet been exposed to HPV, that receipt of even one dose of HPV vaccine lowered the chance of having a pre-cancerous lesion detected at cervical screening.

Lead author Julia Brotherton from the VCS Foundation and the University of Melbourne said this data adds to other evidence starting to emerge that one dose of HPV vaccine may eventually prove to be sufficient for protection.

"If one dose vaccination proves to be enough, it will really simplify our ability to protect more people against these cancer-causing viruses," Associate Professor Brotherton said.

"That could make a huge difference, especially in less well-resourced countries that currently have high rates of cervical cancer but can't currently afford vaccination or screening."

However, Associate Professor Brotherton emphasised that until the results of formal trials were in and recommendations changed, that young people should make sure that they complete the two-dose vaccination course currently in place for best protection.

"The HPV vaccine has proven itself to be both very safe and remarkably effective," Associate Professor Brotherton said.

Vaccination is a key part of the World Health Organisation's recent call to work towards the elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem, together with HPV based screening, facilities for early diagnosis and treatment, and palliative care.

In Australia, HPV vaccination is routinely offered free of charge under the National Immunisation Program to both girls and boys in early high school at age 12-13 years, with free catch up available up to the age of 19 through local doctors and clinics.

As in Australia, most countries are only now beginning to be able to assess the vaccine's impact on screening outcomes from the vaccination of girls at the routine target age rather than in young women who were already sexually active prior to vaccination.

Recent data from Denmark and the US also support the possibility that one dose may be sufficient, but results of randomised trials are awaited before official recommendations are changed.

The data was analysed by a team of researchers from the VCS Foundation, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and cervical screening program managers from the ACT, NT, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia.

Background notes:
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of viruses that are extremely common worldwide.
  • There are more than 100 types of HPV, of which at least 14 are cancer-causing.
  • HPV is mainly transmitted through sexual contact and most people are infected with HPV shortly after the onset of sexual activity.
  • Cervical cancer is caused by sexually acquired infection with certain types of HPV.
  • Two HPV types (16 and 18) cause 70 per cent of cervical cancers and pre-cancerous cervical lesions.
  • There is also evidence linking HPV with cancers of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and oropharynx.
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women living in less developed regions with an estimated 570,000 new cases (1) in 2018 (84 per cent of the new cases worldwide).
  • In 2018, approximately 311,000 women died from cervical cancer; more than 85 per cent of these deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Comprehensive cervical cancer control includes primary prevention (vaccination against HPV), secondary prevention (screening and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions), tertiary prevention (diagnosis and treatment of invasive cervical cancer) and palliative care.

Julia ML. Brotherton, Alison Budd, Christopher Rompotis, Natasha Bartlett, Michael J. Malloy, Rachael L. Andersen, Kim AR. Coulter, Peter W. Couvee, Nerida Steel, Gail H. Ward, Marion Saville. Is one dose of human papillomavirus vaccine as effective as three?: A national cohort analysis. Papillomavirus Research, 2019; 8: 100177 DOI: 10.1016/j.pvr.2019.100177

New Treatment Program Offers Hope For Controlling Wombat Mange

July 24, 2019: University of Tasmania
New research from the University of Tasmania is offering hope that the deadly mange disease affecting Tasmanian wombats could eventually be brought under control for wild individuals and populations.

Long-term disease control or eradication in wildlife is rare and represents a major challenge to wildlife conservation across the globe.

Control is particularly difficult for pathogens that can be transmitted through the environment, which includes the mite that causes sarcoptic mange in bare-nosed wombats.

In a paper published today in the Journal of Applied Ecology, researchers present a treatment program and lessons learned from it to guide the development of more effective and feasible control of sarcoptic mange disease in wombat populations.

Disease control was attempted during the mange outbreak at Narawntapu National Park in northern Tasmania, where PhD student Alynn Martin showed the disease could be controlled temporarily using a Cydectin treatment, remotely delivered to wombats using flaps over their burrows.

"The logistics of this treatment made long-term disease control extremely challenging," she said. "After three months of trying to treat each wombat in the population every week, the disease returned, and wombats continued to die. It was very disappointing to see after going to so much effort to save these wombats."

Rather than giving up, the researchers used their study to identify practical solutions to the problem.

With the help of University of Tasmania ecological modeller Dr Shane Richards, they discovered that a combination of a longer-lasting treatment and improved delivery of the treatment to the wombats would improve capacity to control mange in wombat populations.

"Slight improvements in multiple aspects of disease control can have dramatic impacts on our capacity to control this disease in wombats," Dr Richards said.

Lead researcher Dr Scott Carver says that they are now researching a longer-lasting treatment for wombats, called Bravecto.

"We have researched the safety and dose, and are currently determining the effectiveness of the new treatment. Our overarching aim is to make the management of this pathogen much more feasible for individual wild wombats and local at-risk populations," Dr Carver said.

Dr Richards said that field results suggest that the frequency in which wombats change the burrow in which they sleep was an important factor in disease persistence in populations.

The Sarcoptes scabiei mite was introduced to Australia by European settlers and their domestic animals.

Alynn M. Martin, Shane A. Richards, Tamieka A. Fraser, Adam Polkinghorne, Christopher P. Burridge, Scott Carver. Population‐scale treatment informs solutions for control of environmentally transmitted wildlife disease. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2019; DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13467

Preventing People From Abandoning Exotic Pets That Threatened Biodiversity

July 25th, 2019: University of Barcelona
Abandoning exotic pets is an ethical problem that can lead to biological invasions that threaten conservation of biodiversity in the environment. An article published in the journal Biological Invasions, whose first author is the researcher Alberto Maceda Veiga, from the Biodiversity Research Institute of the University of Barcelona (IRBio), reveals that the release of invasive species in the environment has not been reduced despite the regulation that prohibits the possession of these species since 2011.

Other participants in the study, which goes over the regulation of the national catalogue of exotic invasive species, are Josep Escribano Alacid, from the Natural Science Museum of Barcelona, Albert Martínez Silvestre and Isabel Verdaguer, from the Amphibians and Reptiles Recovery Centre of Catalonia (CRARC), and Ralph Mac Nally, from the University of Canberra (Australia).

From buying impulsively to abandoning exotic pets
The study shows that, from 2009 to 2011, more than 60,000 exotic animals causing trouble to the owners were recorded in the northern-eastern area of Spain, but these figures do not correspond completely to the animals that were abandoned. "The main reason people abandon their pets is because they buy impulsively, and some of these species can easily reproduce once they are released," says Alberto Maceda, member of the Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences of the University of Barcelona.

"In general, people get an animal very easily when it is young and cute, but when it grows up and causes trouble, they abandon it. Not all people do what it takes regarding the responsibilities of having a pet, it's a responsibility that lasts many years for those animals who live long, such as turtles."

Laws that do not stop this crime: abandoning exotic animals
Since 2011, a law prohibits the trade, possession and transport of exotic species in Spain. The regulation has been effective to stop shops from selling species of crabs, fish, reptiles and amphibians that are listed in the regulation, but it has not prevented people from abandoning invasive species, the study warns.

"Apart from the species listed in the regulation, there are many others that are abandoned in the natural environment or are left in animal centers," notes Maceda. "The worst problem, however, lies in the exotic species that were commercialized massively years ago. This is the case of the known Florida turtles, which are really small at first, but when they grow, they are usually abandoned. The study shows that the legislative response takes a long time to make any effect regarding the release of invasive species which were sold years ago in this country. These measures are not very effective once the invasive species is distributed around the territory."

Although the law served to stop those species from being sold, "abandoning animals is another crime, and there is not any current legislation to solve this problem." "We cannot ignore -he insists- that releasing any pet in the environment is a risk, apart from not being ethical, and therefore, it has to stop," stresses the researcher.

Fighting for animal wellbeing and promoting a responsible possession of animals
Improving biosafety measures in livestock stabling centers, changing commercial criteria for the species and training buyers to promote a responsible possession are measures that could help reduce the abandoning rate. "It is necessary to create a record of owners, apart from making more educational campaigns. One option could be to require a certificate for the owner's training, as well as the use of microchips and special licenses to have certain species at home, and avoid the free access to species we know that could bring trouble to the owners."

According to the authors, importation of exotic species should be regulated, since nowadays it is only debated on when there is scientific evidence of a risk of biological invasion, or when there is risk of extinction for a species. In short, it would be necessary to list the species owners can have at home.

Not all exotic pets in the environment have been abandoned
Experts warn that prohibiting certain species can generate a response in the market that can promote the commerce of other animals with the same problems. A revealing example is the prohibition of the trade of the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans), which was introduced in the market of other freshwater turtles that brought similar problems to the buyers.

Also, not all exotic pets get to the environment for being abandoned. In some cases, the reason is a lack of biosafety measures -disinfection of waste waters, etc.- in companies that stable exotic species. Also, some legislative measures from the past have been controverted for the conservation of the environment: for instance, releasing mosquitofish -one of the most dangerous invasive species worldwide- to control the local populations of mosquitos.

"Regarding environmental problems, we have to be more proactive than reactive, and we are usually reactive. Pets -invasive or not- cannot be uncontrolled in the natural environment, let alone abandoned. Among other negative effects, they can hunt native species, and alter the natural hábitat and can bring diseases that can persist in the native fauna even when the animal with the disease has already disappeared," concludes Maceda.

Alberto Maceda-Veiga, Josep Escribano-Alacid, Albert Martínez-Silvestre, Isabel Verdaguer, Ralph Mac Nally. What’s next? The release of exotic pets continues virtually unabated 7 years after enforcement of new legislation for managing invasive species. Biological Invasions, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s10530-019-02023-8

Council Leaders In Arts And Culture Gather In Sydney 

Friday 26 July 2019
Representatives from NSW councils leading the pack in the delivery of arts and culture programs to their communities will gather in Sydney next week to learn which of their number will take out a coveted Leo Kelly OAM Arts and Culture Award.

Local Government NSW (LGNSW) President Linda Scott said the councils in the running this year were Bathurst Regional, Bayside, Campbelltown, Canada Bay, Cessnock, Cumberland, Georges River, Mosman, Parramatta, Snowy Valleys and Wollongong councils.

“These awards honour the late, long-serving Blacktown Councillor Leo Kelly OAM, who passed away in 2017 after an illustrious career as a passionate and dedicated champion of his community and the arts,” Cr Scott said.

“Leo was instrumental in creating Blacktown Arts Centre and was a great supporter of the arts through the Blacktown City Art Prize and scholarships for local artists.

“He saw art and cultural programs as about so much more than the creativity of individual communities – they helped define the future communities seek to create for themselves and their children.

“I was honoured to serve alongside Leo on the LGNSW Board before he died and I take enormous joy in seeing his legacy marked each year by the highest-calibre nominations, which seem to get more and more impressive each year.”

The winners of the Leo Kelley OAM Awards will be announced at a Gala Ceremony at Sydney’s Swissotel on Thursday August 1.

“Councils are key provider of arts and culture in NSW, contributing one third of the total investment in arts and culture in NSW – up to $600 million per year,” Cr Scott said.

“Local government also owns and manages more than 600 museums and galleries as well as keeping places, theatres and performing arts centres, making it a major player in the sector.

“So, while arts and cultural programs will always provide social activity and enrichment, they also deliver very real economic value to communities, as well build a strong sense of identity and cohesion.

“That holds true whether we are talking about music, performance, sculpture, painting, fine, decorative and street arts, festivals or other live events.

“Arts and culture also has a strong connection with the natural and built environment and other industries such as local and regional tourism.

“This is why it is so important to recognise and celebrate councils that have shown leadership and innovation in the field and helped build the capacity of the arts and cultural sector.”

Last year’s award winners included Bland Shire, Wollondilly Shire and Port Macquarie-Hastings councils, while City of Parramatta Council was Highly Commended.

“Given the scale and diversity of council-run arts and culture initiatives in NSW, I imagine the 2019 awards will be hotly contested and I look forward to finding out the winner next Thursday in Local Government Week,” Cr Scott said.

The Leo Kelly OAM Arts and Culture Awards are sponsored by Service NSW.

Photo: Cr Leo Kelly OAM

Baby Blue-Tongues Are Born Smart

July, 2019: Macquarie University
Young Australian eastern blue-tongue lizards (Tiliqua scincoides) are every bit as clever as adults, researchers have found.

Life is hard for baby blue-tongues. As soon as they are born, they are on their own, with neither parental support nor protection. Adults of the species can grow to 600 millimetres long and enjoy the benefits of thick scales and a powerful bite, but the young are much smaller and thus more vulnerable to predation.

And that means they have to box clever if they are to survive.

To establish just how smart baby blueys are, researchers Birgit Szabo and Martin Whiting from Australia's Macquarie University, together with colleagues from the Australian National University, the University of New South Wales, and St Andrews University in Scotland, put wild-caught adult and juvenile lizards through a series of tasks designed to test their cognitive abilities.

A dozen adults, all over two years old, took part in the tests, along with 16 captive-born juveniles, all aged between 23 and 56 days.

"In all the tests, the young lizards performed every bit as well as the adults," said Szabo. "This indicates that the young learn at adult levels from a very early age."

The study, published in the journal Animal Behaviour, is the first to directly compare adult and juvenile flexible learning in a reptile species.

Birgit Szabo, Daniel W.A. Noble, Richard W. Byrne, David S. Tait, Martin J. Whiting. Precocial juvenile lizards show adult level learning and behavioural flexibility. Animal Behaviour, 2019; 154: 75 DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.06.003
Australian blue-tongued lizard (stock image). Credit: © Martin Valigursky / Adobe Stock

New Cause Of Cell Ageing Discovered

July 25, 2019: University of Southern California
New research from the USC Viterbi School of Engineering could be key to our understanding of how the ageing process works. The findings potentially pave the way for better cancer treatments and revolutionary new drugs that could vastly improve human health in the twilight years.

The work, from Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Nick Graham and his team in collaboration with Scott Fraser, Provost Professor of Biological Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, and Pin Wang, Zohrab A. Kaprielian Fellow in Engineering, was recently published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

"To drink from the fountain of youth, you have to figure out where the fountain of youth is, and understand what the fountain of youth is doing," Graham said. "We're doing the opposite; we're trying to study the reasons cells age, so that we might be able to design treatments for better aging."

What causes cells to age?

To achieve this, lead author Alireza Delfarah, a graduate student in the Graham lab, focused on senescence, a natural process in which cells permanently stop creating new cells. This process is one of the key causes of age-related decline, manifesting in diseases such as arthritis, osteoporosis and heart disease.

"Senescent cells are effectively the opposite of stem cells, which have an unlimited potential for self-renewal or division," Delfarah said. "Senescent cells can never divide again. It's an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest."

The research team discovered that the aging, senescent cells stopped producing a class of chemicals called nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA. When they took young cells and forced them to stop producing nucleotides, they became senescent, or aged.

"This means that the production of nucleotides is essential to keep cells young," Delfarah said. "It also means that if we could prevent cells from losing nucleotide synthesis, the cells might age more slowly."

Graham's team examined young cells that were proliferating robustly and fed them molecules labeled with stable isotopes of carbon, in order to trace how the nutrients consumed by a cell were processed into different biochemical pathways.

Scott Fraser and his lab worked with the research team to develop 3D imagery of the results. The images unexpectedly revealed that senescent cells often have two nuclei, and that they do not synthesize DNA.

Before now, senescence has primarily been studied in cells known as fibroblasts, the most common cells that comprised the connective tissue in animals. Graham's team is instead focusing on how senescence occurs in epithelial cells, the cells that line the surfaces of the organs and structures in the body and the type of cells in which most cancers arise.

Graham said that senescence is most widely known as the body's protective barrier against cancer: When cells sustain damage that could be at risk of developing into cancer, they enter into senescence and stop proliferating so that the cancer does not develop and spread.

"Sometimes people talk about senescence as a double-edged sword, that it protects against cancer, and that's a good thing," Graham said. "But then it also promotes aging and diseases like diabetes, cardiac dysfunction or atherosclerosis and general tissue dysfunction," he said.

Graham said the goal was not to completely prevent senescence, because that might unleash cancer cells.

"But then on the other hand, we would like to find a way to remove senescent cells to promote healthy aging and better function," he said.

Graham said that the team's research has applications in the emerging field of senolytics, the development of drugs that may be able to eliminate aging cells. He said that human clinical trials are still in early stages, but studies with mice have shown that by eliminating senescent cells, mice age better, with a more productive life span.

"They can take a mouse that's aging and diminishing in function, treat it with senolytic drugs to eliminate the senescent cells, and the mouse is rejuvenated. If anything, it's these senolytic drugs that are the fountain of youth," Graham said.

He added that in order for successful senolytic drugs to be designed, it was important to identify what is unique about senescent cells, so that drugs won't affect the normal, non-senescent cells.

"That's where we're coming in -- studying senescent cell metabolism and trying to figure out how the senescent cells are unique, so that you could design targeted therapeutics around these metabolic pathways," Graham said.

Alireza Delfarah, Sydney Parrish, Jason A. Junge, Jesse Yang, Frances Seo, Si Li, John Mac, Pin Wang, Scott E. Fraser, Nicholas A. Graham. Inhibition of nucleotide synthesis promotes replicative senescence of human mammary epithelial cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2019; 294 (27): 10564 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.005806

Disclaimer: These articles are not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.  Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of Pittwater Online News or its staff.