March 22 - 28, 2015: Issue 207


The Warringah and Mackellar Federal Electorates’ Commemoration is in cooperation with the Davidson, Manly, Pittwater and Wakehurst State Electorates; the Manly, Mosman, Pittwater and Warringah Councils together with ex-service groups including the RSL, Vietnam Veterans and National Service organisations. All schools, sporting, community and Community and Emergency Service organisations in the two electorates have been invited to participate, along with an estimated 2,500 current and ex-service members of the Defence Forces.

This Centenary Commemoration will be the major community event for the two electorates. Any organisation who may have inadvertently not been invited to march is requested to contact Graham Sloper at the Avalon Beach RSL Club (9883 9814 or 9918 2201)

The ceremony will be held on Sunday 19th April 2015 with a march from Boondah Reserve, Warriewood at 11.00 am and finishing at Pittwater Rugby Park for a Commemorative Service. The Service will conclude no later than 12.30 pm. A   Warringah Shute Shield rugby match will follow the Service. 

The day will commence with a rehearsal at 9.00 am in Pittwater Rugby Park for the massed school bands and choirs which have been included in the program to give greater involvement exposure for our youth. 

Over 5,000 have committed to the march. All groups may carry their own banners if they wish and will be identified by the Master of Ceremonies as they march past the VIP stand on Rugby Park. Some 20,000 are anticipated to attend the Commemoration Service where the address will be given and prayers for the Services and the Fallen read.

Anzac Day 2015  

100 Years 100 Boats Anzac Beach Memorial

South Curl Curl Surf Life Saving club has partnered with Turkish household appliance giant beko to help commemorate the 100 years since the Gallipoli landings. Plans are underway to have 100 surfboats simulate the Gallipoli landings at Collaroy Beach on ANZAC Day 2015.

This commemorative event will be held at approx 12:15pm, aligning with the Dawn Service at Gallipoli. Large LCD screens will televise the “live” Gallipoli Dawn Service in advance of our simulated landing and wreath laying ceremony.

Surf Boat crews are invited to participate in this event by registering their interest on our website.

To date registrations have been received from Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Germany, and Singapore.

Education of our youth is an important part of this commemorative event. The organizers will be working with 100 schools across Turkey, New Zealand and Australia to have wreaths made by students. During the ceremony a representative from each of the schools will present their wreath to a member of each of the 100 surf boat crews. Crews will then return to sea, raise their oars and present the wreaths to the depths.

Prior to the ANZAC Ceremony, students will be offered the opportunity to undertake simple research projects about what ANZAC means to them, not only from an Australian/New Zealand perspective, but also from a Turkish perspective. These research projects will be displayed on the day and published on the event's website.

The Gallipoli campaign is often referred to as the moment that Australia and New Zealand came of age. This same campaign set in motion events that later saw the Turkish commander, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk go on to become the first President of Turkey, and was credited as being the founder of the Republic of Turkey. Gallipoli in effect was the birth of these three great nations, and the start of an ongoing friendship that endures to this day. Our ceremony aims to commemorate the sacrifices of all the combatants on the Gallipoli peninsula all those short years ago.

As a thank you to the participating schools, the organizers have sourced one hundred pine saplings that are actual genetic descendants from the pine trees destroyed during the battle of ‘Lone Pine’ at Gallipoli back in July 1915. These saplings will be presented to a representative from each participating school to take back to their schools to plant as a memento of this significant day.

Anzac Cove - 1915

Many Surf Life Saving clubs have members that served their country during what was to be the ‘War to end all wars’, many of whom did not return. Clubs are encouraged to research their history and remember them by including names on their boats, or including a small plaque to be used in the ceremony.

Guest speakers are expected to include the Right Honorable Mike Baird, Premier of New South Wales, Michael Regan, Lord Mayor of Warringah, and other dignitaries.

Those participants, or members of the community wishing to wear their, or their ancestor’s medals are most welcome to do so for this event

“We are honoured to be part of this historic Anzac Day commemoration,” says Michael Goadby, CEO of beko Australia & New Zealand.

"As the Club's representative for this community event we are fortunate to have such a relevant partner in beko and to be supported by Warringah Shire Council, New South Wales Government, Collaroy SLSC and the Collaroy RSL Sub-Branch" says Bryn Russell, Life Member of South Curl Curl Surf Life Saving Club.

For further information please click here . Clubs are invited to register to participate in this once in a generation event via Anzac Beach Memorial    Event phone number: 0432 849 944  Email: 


On April 25th 1915 Corporal Val Marshall 4th Battalion AIF, made a sketch of what he described as showing countryside….”not unlike parts of the Sydney coastline near Curl Curl and North of Narrabeen”

Above: DEE WHY BEACH AND LAGOON. The headland in the background forms portion of Griffith Park— a fine, natural park of 17 acres, recently placed by the Government under the control of the Warringah Shire Council, which is now doing its best to make it attractive for tourists and others.  THE BEAUTIFUL SHIRE OF WARRINGAH. (1915, April 7).Sydney Mail (NSW : 1912 - 1938), p. 34. Retrieved from

Pittwater RSL - 2015


 Above: Rememberance Day -Loyalty Square Balmain - 1916 WWI: Erected during WW1, Balmain’s Unity Square was renamed Loyalty Square at a ceremony on April 24, 1916. The memorial drinking fountain, featuring the words ‘Peace, Honour, Empire, Liberty’ recorded the names of 38 Balmain men who lost their lives at Gallipoli. Photographer: Unknown, Date:  Unknown, courtesy Leichhardt Council

 The first ANZAC Commemorations 

During the past few months we have been including the names and found notes on many a Pittwater resident who came home after World War One. There are far more than we could run whole pages on. There isn't one suburb that did not send several and in some cases, post WWI, most of the men people may have been surrounded by had served if young and fit before enlistment. 

Our recent History pages, although celebrating wonderful people or restaurants you could also stay in, have also illustrated those here, after this war, were surrounded by returned service people who may have noticed how quiet and peaceful our area is, and was then, after where they had been and what they had seen. This week's Pasadena page is no exception, nor was Barrenjoey House, a place Carl Gow frequented, or the the relatives of Pittwater's original matriarchs, Sarah A. Biddy Lewis and Martha Catherine Bens

As we head towards Easter Sunday 2015, a time each year when the triumph of life over death is celebrated, and towards ANZAC Day 2015, 100 years after Gallipoli, it seems timely to wonder what our ancestors may have been experiencing, thinking, or speaking of during that first Easter after Gallipoli.   

The Easter of 1915 fell just 23 days before so many Australians and their New Zealand mates fell on the beach and slopes of that faraway landing place.

The Easter of 1916, in particular Easter Sunday, fell on April 23rd, two days before that horrendous day. A few notes from the periodicals of then and the first commemorations:

NEWS.AND NOTES. Anzac- Day. A movement is being inaugurated in London to celebrate the anniversary of the Australian and New Zealand landing at Anzac (25th April) simultaneously in Great Britain with that in Australia. Owing to the State schools being closed on 26th April (Easter week), Anzac Day will be observed in Victoria on 20th April. NEWS AND NOTES. (1916, March 27). Swan Hill Guardian and Lake Boga Advocate (Vic. : 1914 - 1918), p. 4. Retrieved from


Sir,-Referring to the letter by Mr. J. Merriman yesterday, I would like to state that arrangements are in hand in regard to a procession of as many soldiers as possible who took part in the landing at Gallipoli proceed through the city on "Anzac Day," which, owing to the Easter holidays, will be celebrated on April 28.-Yours. 4c.. -FRANCES M. WOOLCOTT, Hon. Sec. Commonwealth Button Fund.March 31. ANZAC DAY. (1916, April 3). The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), p. 8. Retrieved from

Australian 1st Division troops marched through the London streets on the anniversary of the first Anzac Day. Big Ben and The Houses of Parliament can be seen in the left background (AWM P03330.001)

Westminster Abbey commemoration service brochure (Souvenirs 13/2/2) courtesy Australian War Memorial


LONDON, April 25.    

The great event which has been written deep in Australian history under the date of April 25 was celebrated by a religious ceremony in Westminster Abbey, that venerable building, which has been closely  associated with every great national incident since the Norman William was  crowned there. Its vaulted roofs have witnessed State funerals, public thanksgivings,  and Royal coronations, besides the routine  of daily services for 800 years, and today it was the scene of a great religious service which will touch the further fibres of  the Empire.    

The first anniversary of the landing of the Australians and New Zealanders on Gallipoli Peninsula was devoted to honoring the memory of those heroes who fell in the campaign. Thus was opened a new  and wonderful chapter in the Australian record. The Gallipoli fighting was so full of stirring and tragic incidents, that for days there have been signs of a popular desire to pay tribute to those who gave their lives in the Empire's service. Another incentive was the prospect of seeing many of the actual heroes who have  returned from the land of death and slaughter. Nearly 2,000 Australians and New Zealanders participated in the service.      

Our Maimed Heroes.    

Many are convalescents, and some have quite recovered from their ailments. Not a few were engaged in the hottest phases of the Gallipoli inferno. One can understand somewhat their feelings at hearing in Britain's historic shrine the names of the brigades which took part in the great conflict. Of those men present, over 500 were drawn from Montevideo Hospital,  400 from Abbeywood, 200 from Horneferry-road, and 300 from such hospitals as Harefield. The New Zealanders, under Major Dawson, detrained at the Temple station, and paraded on the Thames Embankment. The Australians, under Lieutenant-Colonel Johnstone, who was present at the landing, and a battalion belonging to Abbeywood and Montevideo, arrived at  Waterloo station, and marched across  Waterloo Bridge, to combine with the  New Zealanders in the Kingsway.  

In the Great Minster's Transepts.  

The procession marched along the Strand to Whitehall, and down that historic thoroughfare past the War Office to Westminster Abbey. Many Anglo-Australians were accommodated at the windows and on the roofs of the Victoria, Queensland, Western Australian, and New Zealand Government Offices. Sir Thomas MacKenzie and his staff have already moved to the New Zealand offices in the Strand. The arrangements in Westminster Abbey were very complete. Massed bands and 600 fit men of the Australian contingent entered by the north door, and were accommodated in the north transept amid the memorials of the foremost politicians, judges, and statesmen of England. The statues of Pitt, Canning, Gladstone, and Disraeli, timorous builders of the wider Empire, looked down on men whose heroism has given cohesion and unity to the work of Imperial statesmen. The New Zealanders entered the Abbey by the door in "Poets' Corner," and occupied seats in the south transept. They found themselves among the memorials of the most noted men of England. On every hand are reminders of those whose writings stirred the imagination and the patriotism of the race from Geoffrey Chaucer to Charles Dickens. It is specially appropriate that this is Shakespeare week. The well-known figure of the great poet there stands in a place of prominence, with his memorable inscription, which reminds us of the "Wreck of Empires" and the dissolution of "The great globe itself and all which it inherit." The remainder of the Australian troops, of whom not a few walked with the aid of crutches or sticks, and assisted by nurses, assembled at the Horseferry-road depot, and were driven to the Abbey. They entered by the western portal, and were accommodated in the choir.

Literary Prominence.

The English newspapers on Monday and today contained many descriptive tributes to the imperishable record of the Australasian and New Zealand soldiers at Gallipoli. This morning the leading news-papers publish special articles giving prominence to the anniversary. ANZAC DAY IN ENGLAND. (1916, April 26). The Advertiser(Adelaide, SA : 1889 - 1931), p. 7. Retrieved from

First Anzac Day March in Brisbane

By April 1916, Australian troops were already fighting in the trenches on the Western Front, and were to remain there for at least another gruelling two years. 




The cottage door is open to the night. The soft air of a beautiful evening following on a glorious day brushes past one Into the room. As I stand here the nightingale from a neighbouring garden Is piping his long exquisite repeated note till the air seems full of It. Far over the horizon Is an Incessant flicker like summer lightning, very faint, but quite continuous. Under the nightingale’s note comes always a dull grumble, throbbing and bumping occasionally, but seldom quite ceasing. Someone Is getting it heavily down there-It is not our Australians.

It was just such a glorious day as this one has been one year ago, when this corps of untried soldiers suddenly rushed Into the nightmare of a desperate fight. At this moment of the night the rattle of rifle fire was incessant all round the hills. Men wore digging and firing, and digging in a dream which had continued since early dawn, and had to continuo for two more days without chance of rest. They were old soldiers within 24hours, as their leader told them In an order which was circulated at the time. Only a sprinkling of the men who were there are in the Anzac units to-day. But they are the officers and the N.C.O's., and that means a great deal.

There is much that is different from Gallipoli. The rain has been heavier In March than for 35 years, and April, until yesterday, seemed almost as bad. The trenches are made passable by being floored with a wooden pathway, which runs on piles-underneath which runs the gutter of water and mud, which Is the real floor of the trench. Sometimes the water rises in the communication trenches so that the boards float on and disappear. To step into an interval between them you may quite well sink in to your waist in thin clay mud. The actual firing trenches and the dugouts there are mostly dry by comparison, except where the accumulated task of draining has been gaining on some regiment which has been holding them. At the rear of the line is a morass of foul-smelling clay.

This difficulty never really reached us In Gallipoli, though we might possibly have found the trenches falling in upon us in the rains of winter if we had stayed. The trenches in France are full of the traces of old dugouts, and mouldering sandbags, before the timbering of all workings was looked on an n necessity. In Anzac we never had the timber for all this, and I doubt If we could ever have had It had we stayed. The soil there was dry, and held up well, and the trenches were deep and very elaborate to a degree which one has not seen approached in France. There may be some parts in the lines where such trenches are possible and where they exist, but I have not seen them. It must be remembered that in France there are stretches of line where it is impossible to dig a trench at all In winter, because you meet water as soon as you scratch the surface, and, therefore, both our line and the Gorman's are a breastwork built up Instead of a trench dug out. The curious thing is that in the trenches themselves you scarcely realise the difference. Your outlook there is bounded in either case by two muddy walls, over which you cannot wisely put your head in the daylight. The solace may be a glorious green field, with flowers and birds, and little reedy pools. If you are two feet over the parapet; but you see nothing from week-end to week-end except two muddy walls and the damp, dark interior of a small dugout. You see no more of the country than you would In a city street. Trench life is always a city life.


The trench is the same as it was in Gallipoli except that in any part where I have been the tension is nothing like so great. It Is not as though you were hanging on to the edge of a valley by your fingernails, and had to steal every yard that you could In order to have room to build up a second line, and If possible a third line beyond that. Here both you and the enemy have scores of miles behind you, and two or three hundred yards more or less makes no difference worth mentioning.

For this reason you would almost say that the German line in this country was asleep compared with the lines we used to know. A hundred and fifty yards of green grass, with the skeleton that was once some old hay waggon upended in the middle of it, and sky- blue water showing up through the grass blades in the depressions; a brown mud wall straggling along the other side of the green - more or less parallel to your breastwork, with white sandbags crowning it like an irregular coping; the inevitable stumpy stakes and masses of rusted barbed wire in front. You might watch it for an hour, and then the only sign of life you would see would be the blue whiff of smoke from some black tin chimney stuck up behind it. The other day chancing to look into a trench periscope, I happened for a moment to see the top of a dark object moving along half-hidden by the opposing parapet. Some earth was being thrown up over the breastwork Just there, and probably the man had to step round the work which was going on. It was the first and only time I have seen a German In his own lines. 

The German here really does his sniping much more with his field gun than with his rifle. They do use the rifles, and they are good shots, but slow. A spout of dust on the parapet, and a periscope has been shattered in. They snipe us at times with their field-guns and mountain guns at certain fixed places, shooting at any small body of men behind the lines. Half a dozen are quite enough if they see them.

The German gives you the impression of being a keener observer than the Turk. The hill and trees behind his lines are really within view of you over miles of your own country though you scarcely realise it at first, and they are full of eyes- Also every fine day brings out his balloons like fat grubs-and our own. In Gallipoli  our ships had the only balloons-the Turks had all the hilltops.


The aeroplane here affords so big a part of the hourly spectacle of warfare, and makes so great a difference In the obvious conditions of the fight, that he deserves an article to himself. But of all the differences, by far the greater is that our troops here have a beautiful country and a civilized, enlightened population at the back of them, which they are defending against the Invading enemy whom they have always hoped to meet. They are amongst a people like their own, living in villages and cottages and paddocks not so different from those of their own childhood. Right up into the very zone of the trenches there are houses still inhabited by their owners.

In Gallipoli there were brigade headquarters in  the actual fire trenches. From the actual headquarters of the division of the corps you could reach the line in 10 minutes' hard walking at any time. It Is a Sabbath day's Journey here-the only possible way of covering the longer distances regularly Is by motor car or a motor cycle, and no one dreams of using any other means-Indeed, no other exists. Nearly the whole of the army, except the troops in the actual firing line, lives in a country which is populated by its normal inhabitants.

And wherein lies the greatest change of all-the troops in the trenches themselves-can be brought back every few days Into-more or less normal country, and have

always the prospect before them at the end of a few months of a rest in surroundings that are completely free from shell or rifle fire, and within reach of village shops and the normal comforts of civilisation. And throwing the weather and wet trenches, and the rest all In, makes up for all of them.

"You see a fellow must look after himself a bit," one of them said to me the other day." 

“A man didn’t take any care how he looked in Gallipoli; but here, with these young ladies about, you can't go around like we used to there."

Through one's mind there flashed well remembered figures, mostly old slouch hat and sunburnt muscle-the lightest I can recollect was an arrangement of a shirt secured by safety-pins. Here they go more carefully dressed than if they were on leave in Melbourne or Sydney.

Yesterday was Easter. The guns were bumping a few miles away-mostly at aero-planes. The country was on fete, the roads swarming with young and old, and the fields with children picking flowers. I went to the trenches with a friend. Our last sight as we came away from the region of them was of a group of French boys and girls and a few elders around a haystack; and half a dozen big Australians, with rolled shirt-sleeves, up on the farming machines, helping them to do the work. 

And that is the greatest difference. IN FRANCE. (1916, June 26). The Sydney Morning Herald(NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved from

Near Martinpuich, France. Captain C E W Bean, the Australian Official Correspondent, watching the Australian advance through a telescope. Photographer Baldwin, Herbert Frederick, taken on 26 February 1917, 


Dr. John Hunter has been giving a series of Sunday morning services at the Aeolian Hall, London. A recent sermon was on "Life and Service." Life was meant for service, he said, whether we were young or old, rich or poor. Every function and office in life was sacred, and might be regarded as religious. The acceptance of this conception of service would doubtless tend to modify some forms of activity, but it would mean the hallowing of all trade and toil and venture, and, give to all forms of activity an upward and Godward look. Life was not meant for the pursuit of happiness as an end in itself; that was a selfish theory which tended to the belittling and the narrowing of life-a theory, moreover, which was not borne out by the facts of life. The man who was faithful to duty would be happy or blessed, although happiness might not be what he was placing first in life. A man's first concern was to make the best of himself, to see that his personality was cultivated and trained so as to become a fair and full and well-developed whole. The feeling of co-operation with the Divine which the mother, the preacher, the public-spirited citizen, and the philanthropist had was a feeling which should be shared in some measure by anyone engaged in any kind of honourable work. Unless our daily occupations were recognised as agencies for carrying out the work of God In the world, business would secularise and vulgarise and narrow our lives. All useful toil, however menial or lowly, might be regarded as service rendered to God, and this was still more true with regard to those labours in which the powers of the mind and heart and soul were more fully exercised. We all needed the consciousness of servantship. LIFE AS SERVICE. (1916, April 22). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 8. Retrieved  from

And from days before:

A second time since the war began the nations of Europe, furthest advanced in power and in civilisation, will today begin the celebration of one of the great anniversaries of the Christian Church. In many respects the celebrations of Good Friday and of Easter Day are more solemn and appeal more directly to the religions sense even than those of Christmas. The events which they commemorate are the foundations of the belief which animates every branch and every offshoot of the Christian Church. From them spring the two doctrines of atonement and of the survival of the soul after bodily death which distinguish the teaching of Christianity from other creeds, equally universal in their aims and equally rigorous in their moral teaching. From them may be traced the example which has exercised more abiding influence over the hearts of simple men and women than all the dogmas ever framed and all the exhortations ever delivered. The teaching of Easter is, indeed, more personal than that of Christmas. Christmas brings a message of peace and goodwill to the world. It recalls the mind to a time in which after many generations of war the temple of Janus was shut and the Roman Empire was able to impose its will on all the nations hitherto opposed to it. Easter is in many countries, and most of all in Germany, a great family festival. But in its religious significance it means the Introduction of a new spirit and new motives to humanity. However steadfastly the ancient philosophers exhorted their hearers to live as if for eternity, however clearly they saw that no act or thing ever really perishes, there is a clear distinction between their teaching and the teaching which is founded on the example of Christianity. On Easter Day and Good Friday the events were enacted from which a new spirit set out to penetrate the world, a spirit which has been the inspiration or the excuse of many of the greatest actions and of the greatest historical conflicts ever since.

It is natural that as each of these anniversaries is celebrated in the midst of the greatest war in history men should ask themselves whether Christianity has not demonstrably failed. At no time was there so much preventable misery in the world. The people of one of the most peaceful and industrious countries in Europe have been reduced through a breach of faith by their enemies to the verge of starvation. Another historic country has been devastated by the two nations which together planned its extinction. Eastern Prussia, Alsace, North-eastern France, Galicia, Bukovina, are all swept by ebb and tide of furious war. All but one of the Great Powers are engaged in a struggle which demands the services of every inhabitant not incapacitated by age or ill health. The spectacle of Europe at the present day might well inspire a critic to repent the words of Clough, written as he passed through Naples in the days before its liberation:
Yea, of that Just One too.
This is the one sad Gospel that is true—
            Christ is not risen..
Whoever has to answer such a lamentation must answer it as Clough did by trusting to his own instincts, and by turning from collective action to individual conduct. The war itself is a warning against the sophists who argue that this or any war can he right, or that its effects can beneficial to anyone We know that the man who provokes a war commits the greatest crime imaginable against his fellow-men. Englishmen believe that their statesmen were right in doing their utmost to preserve peace, though by so doing they lost valuable time, and they know that all their efforts will have been wasted if they do not secure a lasting peace for the future.

If in order to hold that Christianity had not been proved a failure men had to find that a nation could derive tiny benefit from this war, or that the statesmen who provoked it did so for the sake of Immunity, there could be but one answer. The world would be well rid of such an Influence. But a text of this sort would rest on a double fallacy. Christianity is not to be judged by the conduct of rulers or statesmen, nor are their moral qualities to be judged by the policies they appear to direct. The test surely is the conduct of individuals in war time, their readiness for self sacrifice, their attitude of mind towards their enemies. Christianity is not a matter of intellect, but of feeling. No doubt if the new force had done its work it would have completely remodelled men's minds, and would have made this war impossible, whether it is the product of delusion or of a well-conceived plan. For such a change to be made by the growth of an idea there would be needed not two thousand, but many thousands of years. For this generation the fruits of Christianity must be judged by the conduct of men and women, not as nations, but as individuals. We must look at the devotion which has sent out the pick of the British youth from their homes to face death and hardship, at the hundreds of instances of self-sacrifice, at the good feeling between officers and men, and at their kindness for one another. England, where extremes of wealth and poverty are to be found so close together, has never been an example of the triumph of Christianity. At all times it has been necessary to look beyond a total impression to the numberless Instances of heroic self-sacrifice in the struggle with poverty and disease. In this war these instances have been multiplied a hundred-fold. "Many thousands of men have found the one inspiration which could relieve their minds from indolence and selfishness'. We do not suggest that the feeling of devotion to country is to be regarded as one of the manifestations of a Christian spirit. It is older than the Greeks, just as disinterested devotion to humanity is older than the Stoics. But if the fact of war is a proof of the failure of Christianity we may fairly count individual acts on the other side. With them we may place the general respect of the Allies towards non-combatants, and the horror which acts of barbarism have excited among neutral powers. 
Clough's words of national struggle aptly describe the progress of Christianity:
For while the tired waves, vainly breaking, 
   Seem here no painful inch to gain, 
Far back, through creeks and inlets making, 
   Comes silent, flooding in, the main. 

And not by eastern windows only, 
   When daylight comes, comes in the light; 
In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly! 
   But westward, look, the land is bright! 
The Sydney Morning Herald. (1915, April 2). The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from

VERDUN. The German View point.;  “A Butchery of Men”
The following, extracts from letters written by German soldiers before Verdun, and taken from their pockets when, the writers were captured by the French, provide an account of the battle from the German point of view:
From a letter written by Lieutenant Ellingen, of the 6th Reserve Infantry Regiment, and intended for dispatch to another lieutenant belonging to the 202nd Reserve Regiment:
 April 3.-You can form some idea of our position from the-fact that all our officers have been renewed. The losses of the regiment are high, for its position on "the plateau ' of Vaux is simply, "disgusting." " Our battalions relieve one another, but our positions when in, reserve br "resting receive,' "with few exceptions, as many 'shells as the first line;" ?,
… “We are absolutely in a hell-hole here. The artillery fire night and day. I never imagined it would be like this. '…. wounded nine others. If only this wretched war would come to an end. No reasonable man can justify such a butchery of men. ..... We are at present to the north-east of Verdun in a position that is distinctly critical. This morning they have been smoking us out with asphyxiating smell and other diabolical inventions.
It is alt i-'-'kultur." " Though we have not been long in the-firing-line we have all had enough of it,; and are longing for peace. We should like to send to the front all these gentlemen who caused the war and who profit from it. If we had done this we should have had peace long ago.
From a letter written by a soldier named Schmele, of the 208th Reserve Regiment, dated April 15th:
You can't imagine how tired we are of life sometimes. We are made to toil there in every possible way. There
is no rest until one falls on his nose in the mud. How absurd what they write in the newspapers seems. Our beloved soldiers, if you knew what they have to suffer, to say nothing of having their lives worried out of them, they would not serve us up such lies. Yesterday the weather was still abominable, and we were again wet to the bone. Then we were asked why we were not singing; so in all but misery we had to sing. - ',,
More Casualties, More Coffee.
A postcard  written, by a soldier named Keitsch, of -the 3rd Grenadier Regiment of - Landsturm, to his . sen, Fritz, dated April 30:- r ,' ~
Since Good Friday I have been before Verdun. It is terrible. We have already had many casualties.- We are in holes on the slopes of a mountain and we scarcely dare put our noses out The bombardment is incessant; sometimes it is too' awful for words. It seems as if the mountain was collapsing. If I escape alive I shall "remember this Easter. Our kitchens are two hours' walk in the rear. For Easter we had nothing ' to eat": or drink except a quarter of a pint of coffee. There is not a drop of water here, but now we get a little more coffee, as our number is rapidly, diminishing. From: time to time one of us runs to the kitchens with our
Following are extracts from letters found on prisoners which had been received  from friends in Germany:
Ittlingen, -March 2.-We suppose that  you are with the rest at Verdun! Over there it is death for everyone. There seems to be no way out of getting through. The French are not the Russians, and their artillery cannot be silenced. " Nobody believes any longer what is written in the news-papers. To begin with, a great fuss was made about magnificent successes,  but suddenly everything became quiet. A few noisy people believed that Verdun would fall in a few days. It would be all right to march on Paris if the French artillery did not exist and if there were no Frenchmen between us and the capital. -
Dated May 2.--I am convinced that the Germans will never leave here, for they are mistaken as to the French, and particularly as to their artillery. Every soldier who comes back says the French. Artillery are very superior to ours. Things are not going so easily as in Galicia. 
VERDUN. (1916, August 7). Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 - 1954), p. 6. Retrieved from