Inbox and Environment News - Issue 200 

 February 1 - 7, 2015: Issue 200

Orders given to ban dumping of capital dredge material in Marine Park

The Hon. Greg Hunt MP - Minister for the Environment

Media release - 24 January 2015

I have issued orders for the creation of regulations for the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority to put an end to the dumping of capital dredge material in the Marine Park once and for all.

This fulfils the historic pledge I made in November 2014 at the World Parks Congress, and meets the important commitment we made to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.

We are ending a century-old practice of dumping in the Marine Park that was fully embraced by Labor Governments at Federal and State level. Labor had the chance to do this but did nothing.

We inherited five major proposals from Labor to dispose of dredge spoil in the Marine Park. We have reduced this to zero and are now taking the next step to enshrine a ban in law.

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Regulations 1983 will be amended to implement the ban.

This is a significant step towards improving and protecting the Marine Park for current and future generations.

Australians are proud of the reef and it remains one of the great natural wonders of the world.

The Government has finalised its response to the World Heritage Committee (WHC) with a strong defence of the management of the Great Barrier Reef and concluding that it should not be listed as in danger.

Next week I am travelling to Europe to consult on the Long-Term Sustainability Plan requested by WHC and State Party Report. I will be highlighting the significant progress made by the Federal Government in responding to challenges facing the Reef since the World Heritage Committee first put it on watch under the previous Labor Government in 2011.

We inherited this warning from the World Heritage Committee and we have responded with rigour and passion to protect this icon for which Australians should be rightly proud of. We have had to take strong decisions – including banning of capital dredge disposal in the Marine Park – in light of the inactivity by the previous Labor Government. Over the next decade the Federal and Queensland governments will invest around $2 billion to protect the reef, including a new $40 million Reef Trust to target the priority issues such as reducing nutrient and sediment runoff and targeting the destructive crown-of-thorns starfish.

Climate change, nutrient run-off from land and crown-of-thorns starfish are all challenges facing the reef and we are taking action to tackle them all.

Water quality is improving, the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish are being targeted and culled, and we have better and stricter management regimes for shipping and developments, including ports.

We're investing $2.55 billion to tackle climate change by cutting Australia's domestic emissions. It's a significant commitment and a sign of how seriously we take the issue.

We are investing more, taking stronger practical action and putting in place greater legal protections than any government before us to protect the Great Barrier Reef.

We are determined to protect and manage the Great Barrier Reef not just for the coming decades, but for coming centuries.

 Online survey for the Commonwealth Marine Reserves Review

This Review is focusing on the management of the Commonwealth Marine Reserves networks that were declared in 2012.  The Review has been established to build a strong evidence base to guide how these reserves should be managed in the future, and includes two components: an Expert Scientific Panel to review the science supporting zonation and marine reserve management; and five Bioregional Advisory Panels to consult stakeholders.

This survey consists of 20 questions and should take approximately 15-20 minutes to complete. You do not have to answer all the questions in the survey for your response to be considered.

The South-east Commonwealth Marine Reserves Network, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and marine reserves managed by the States and the Northern Territory (generally begins 3 nautical miles (5.5 kilometres) offshore) are not affected by this Review.

If you have, and wish to provide, more detailed information we encourage you to make a separate written submission to the Review.

Information about the terms of reference and guidance on how to make the most of your ideas when providing your feedback can be found on the Join the conversation page of our website or through the headings on page At:

The submission period will remain open until 28 February 2015.

NB: - took us 5 minutes

 EPA serves AGL with notice for records

Media release: 28 January 2015

The NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA) will not permit AGL to commence operations at its Gloucester coal seam gas site until it is satisfied that the operations can be conducted in a manner that does not pose a risk to the environment.

EPA Chief Environmental Regulator Mark Gifford said the EPA is undertaking a full investigation into AGL Gloucester’s operations and served AGL with a notice today demanding records prior to any further work commencing at the site.

“Officers from the EPA are at AGL’s Gloucester operations today undertaking inspections and water sampling, after AGL informed the authority yesterday that it had detected BTEX chemicals at its Waukivory operations,” Mr Gifford said.

“The EPA has concerns with the environmental practices of the operations at AGL Gloucester.

“The legal notice directs AGL to provide sampling results and quality assurance/quality control reports and all records relating to results of sampling that show a detection of BTEX.

“The EPA has also directed AGL to provide it with a report outlining the results of the analysis undertaken on samples collected on 16 and 29 December 2014, and 12 January 2015 and an analysis of the scientific rigour of the sampling and analysis processes.

“The EPA will undertake a detailed review of the data and the analysis method that has been used.”

“Fracking fluid additives used at the Waukivory operation were sampled and analysed by Government environmental officers in November 2014 before fracking activities were allowed to commence. These samples were analysed for BTEX chemicals, which were not detected.

“Identifying the source of the elevated levels of BTEX chemicals found in AGL’s samples will be part of the EPA’s investigation.”

Mr Gifford reiterated that AGL informed the EPA that it was aware of elevated levels of BTEX chemicals on 15 January, but it did not make these results known to the EPA or the public until yesterday.

“The EPA is concerned at AGL’s lack of timeliness and transparency in informing us of these results. The EPA is reviewing AGL’s Environment Protection Licence to include new conditions requiring immediate reporting of these types of results when they are detected.  All companies are required to immediately report any significant environmental harm or threat of harm to the EPA.”

BTEX is a group of chemicals known as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. These chemicals can occur naturally in coal seams. The Government banned the use of BTEX chemicals in hydraulic fracturing and are prohibited in Environment Protection Licences issued by the EPA.

The Division of Resources and Energy is also conducting an investigation and has issued AGL Gloucester with a direction to suspend operations.


Rob Stokes MP, Minister for the Environment, Minister for Heritage, Minister for the Central Coast, Assistant Minister for Planning

Environment Minister Rob Stokes today announced a series of new projects to protect NSW’s most threatened species.

Mr Stokes said the $4.8 million Saving our Species program has been established to secure the future of NSW’s 970 threatened species.

“These plants and animals face the real risk of disappearing from the wild forever. This is not something the NSW Government or the community are prepared to accept,” Mr Stokes said.

“We are taking action to safeguard the viability of these animals so future generations will be able to see them in the wild, and not just in the confinement of a zoo.

“A total of 28 new draft conservation projects have been developed for the program. The projects include protection of the green and golden bell frog, which will involve habitat conservation, monitoring and community engagement activities at sites across NSW.”

The Saving our Species program aims to protect threatened species by:

• Prioritising projects based on their benefit to the species, feasibility and cost to help make the most effective investments in threatened species conservation;

• Monitoring and managing the effectiveness of projects so they can be refined;

• Encouraging community, corporate and government participation in threatened species conservation by providing a website and a database with information on project sites and research opportunities;

• Allocating all threatened species to one of six management streams that provide the best outcomes for each species; and

• Providing targeted conservation projects that set out the actions required to save 370 specific plants and animals on locally or regionally managed sites

These conservation projects will be added to the 368 projects for other threatened species which are currently guiding conservation action across NSW.

The draft projects can be reviewed and comments provided online at www.threatenedspecies/PASAmendmentSpecies.htm

and comments are being sought until 13 February 2015.

 Warming seas decrease sea turtle basking

Green sea turtles may stop basking on beaches around the world within a century due to rising sea temperatures, a new study suggests. Basking on sun-warmed beaches helps the threatened turtles regulate their body temperatures and may aid their immune systems and digestion.

By analyzing six years of turtle surveys and 24 years of satellite data, researchers from Duke University, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center and the University of Ioannina in Greece have found the turtles bask more often each year when sea surface temperatures drop.

If global warming trends continue, this behavior may cease globally by 2102, the study projects. In Hawaii, where the study was primarily focused, green turtles might stop basking much earlier, by 2039.

The scientists published their peer-reviewed findings last week in the journal Biology Letters.

"By comparing turtle basking counts with sea surface temperatures, we found that green turtles tend not to bask when local winter sea surface temperatures stay above 23 degrees Celsius," said lead researcher Kyle Van Houtan, adjunct associate professor at Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment.

To conduct the study, Van Houtan and his colleagues used six years of turtle count data collected daily by the Hawaiian nonprofit Mālama na Honu on Laniakea Beach in Oahu. The counts showed regular, seasonal fluctuations in the number of turtles basking on the beach. These fluctuations correlated with sea temperatures at Laniakea, indicating that sea turtles bask more when waters are cooler.

The scientists then compared these fluctuations in temperature and basking to growth marks in the humerus bone of several green turtles. They found that the growth lines occurred at the same time of year when turtles bask more, between February and April.

The turtles' growth lines are similar to tree rings in that they indicate periods of stress for the organism, said Van Houtan, who is also a scientist in NOAA's Turtle Research Program. In trees, growth rings can indicate winter, dry seasons, or periods of drought. In green turtles, the lines seem to reflect periods when seas are colder and body temperatures are consequently lower, prompting the turtles to haul out on beaches to warm in the sun.

More research is needed to fully understand the importance of basking and the effect climate change will have on basking behaviors of green turtle populations around the world. said Van Houtan.

Not all green turtles bask on land, he noted. Though the turtles are found in tropical and subtropical oceans around the world, beachbasking has only been observed in Hawaii, the Galapagos Islands and Australia. Sea surface temperatures at these sites have been observed to be warming at three times the global average rate.

It is not yet clear whether populations that currently bask on land during cooler months will adapt to warming sea temperatures and begin to bask exclusively in the water, as do some other populations around the world.

"When looking at climate change, which is this vast geopolitical issue, you have to drill down to specific climate variables impacting specific aspects of an organism's life," said Van Houtan. "The next step for us is to look at how turtles are storing climate data in their bodies -- in their tissues, shells, and bones, and how we can tease that out."

1. K. S. Van Houtan, J. M. Halley, W. Marks. Terrestrial basking sea turtles are responding to spatio-temporal sea surface temperature patterns. Biology Letters, 2015; 11 (1): 20140744 DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2014.0744

Green sea turtle., Credit: Image courtesy of Duke University

 Public consultation on national parks establishment

Comment is sought on the proposed directions, socio-economic considerations and community involvement in creating new national parks and reserves in NSW.

The National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) acquires land for the establishment of new national parks through various means such as the transfer of other public land, the voluntary sale or transfer of private land, bequests and donations, or through biodiversity offsets, in order to achieve the objectives of the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974.

NPWS is considering whether opportunities exist to improve the national parks establishment process.

Two documents, a directions statement and a socio-economic report on land acquisition, have been prepared to form the basis of a consultation with the community.

This consultation is occurring in response to a Parliamentary Inquiry into Management of Public Land Management in NSW(External link). As a consequence of the inquiry, the NSW Government has committed to publicly consult on:

updating the NSW National Parks Establishment Plan

the social and economic implications of new park proposals

how to improve community involvement in the reserve establishment process.

Directions Statement for National Park Establishment

In response to Recommendation 3 of the Management of Public Land in NSW Inquiry, the NSW Government made a commitment to:

“Review and update the NSW National Parks Establishment Plan to take account of recent information and current and future conservation priorities.

This will reinforce the scientific basis for building the national parks system, consistent with international best practice and nationally agreed frameworks.”

A Directions Statement for National Park Establishment(External link) has been prepared to reframe the NSW National Parks Establishment Plan(External link) that has guided land acquisition since 2008. The purpose of the directions statement is to:

convey the types of conservation priorities that are important to the expansion and enhancement of the National Park Estate

present the NSW Government’s focus for effort and investment in reserve establishment over the next five years (2015-2020)

Consultation period 19 January 2015 to 12 April 2015

See relevant documents and Have Your Say

 A new agreement on environmental assessments for New South Wales

Joint media release -  The Hon. Greg Hunt MP, Minister for the Environment, The Hon. Pru Goward MP, Minister for Planning

The Australian and New South Wales Governments has released for public comment an updated bilateral agreement on environmental assessments under national environment law.

The Australian Government is working with state and territory governments to streamline environmental regulation and develop a 'One-Stop Shop' for environmental assessment and approvals.

Federal Environment Minister Greg Hunt said that this new enhanced agreement will replace the assessment bilateral agreement currently in place and would deliver a more efficient process and greater certainty for business while maintaining the highest standards of environmental protection.

"This revised agreement builds upon the streamlining benefits of the current agreement, and introduces additional efficiency measures for environmental regulation in New South Wales.

"It is concrete evidence that our governments are progressively delivering on our shared objective to provide efficient, thorough and transparent environmental regulation in NSW while minimising duplication.

"Under this agreement, NSW will be accredited to conduct a project assessment under national laws and provide the Australian Government with a recommendation on whether to approve a project and what conditions should be attached to that decision under federal environment law," said Minister Hunt.

NSW Minister for Planning, Pru Goward, said that New South Wales will provide the Australian Government with rigorous and robust advice under national environment law.

"This will include jointly seeking expert advice from the Independent Expert Scientific Committee on Coal Seam Gas and Large Coal Mining Development for projects that are likely to have a significant impact on a water resource.

"Importantly, opportunities and timelines for the community to have a say about major developments are not proposed to change. This is about reducing needless hold-ups caused by two governments passing projects back and forth between them while they are being assessed.

"It means that projects in NSW will go through a single, NSW process, to ensure that high environmental standards are maintained."

A strong assurance framework ensures the best possible environmental protections remain in place including routine reporting, evaluation and review provisions, transparency and information sharing commitments and oversight of the agreement through a senior officers' committee.

Minister Goward said, “This new agreement reflects New South Wale’s determination to maximise the efficiency of the environmental assessment and approval process, and include a broader scope to ensure that more projects benefit from streamlined assessment.

"This agreement also recognises New South Wales' rigorous and transparent approach to determining offset requirements under its newly finalised NSW Biodiversity Offsets Policy for Major Projects."

The Australian Government remains committed to entering into approval bilateral agreements with all State and Territory Governments.

Approval bilateral agreements will ensure that only one decision is required for environmental approvals, accounting for both State matters and matters of national environmental significance.

This will further reduce the duplication of Federal and State planning processes which adds complexity, costs and delays to environmental approvals across the country.

Further information can be found

Deadline for comment: 5pm Monday 2 February 2015

 New plant shocks scientists in NSW

Media release: 28 January 2015

A plant whose seeds can be distributed by a single rain drop, lives off fungus and sprouts tiny orange flowers that smell like dead fish has been discovered in the Blue Mountains.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage Senior Threatened Species Officer, Greg Steenbeeke, who was one of three scientists to identify the new species, said the plant comes from the ancient Thismia genus and has a tiny, extremely bright orange flower that looks like coral.

“This is a most unusual discovery as this plant, Thismia megalongensis, appears to lack roots and leaves, and lives off a fungus to survive,” Mr Steenbeeke said.

“While it has a beautiful appearance with tiny orange flowers, this is no rose; the orange flowers give off a fungal odour when fresh and start to smell like ‘rotting fish’ as they decay.

“The smell is probably related to the fact that the plant lives off a fungus, or possibly fungi, which transfers nutrients from decaying and dead organisms and leaves in the soil directly to other plants.

“It also looks like a fungus and may rely on insects that are attracted to fungi to be pollinated; we know it is connected to the forest in which it lives via fungus, we’re just not exactly sure how yet. 

“Strangely it seems that its seeds are distributed by rain drops which splash into the fruits bowl-shaped centre, knocking out the tiny seeds onto the nearby forest floor.

“It is amazing that we can find a plant that is an Australian strand from a very old lineage that has developed symbiotically with fungi over tens of millions of years, and has gone undetected right next to a large urban centre like Sydney,” Mr Steenbeeke said.

The flower was first noticed in a Blue Mountains forest in early 2011 by Colin Hunt, a horticulture teacher at NSW TAFE who originally thought it was a new location of Thismia rodwayi, a similar species of plant.

“Upon closer inspection we realised what we were dealing with and we were contacted by a biologist from the Netherlands, Dr Vincent Merckx, who was keen to review our discovery and include it in his ongoing research,” Mr Steenbeeke said.

“Once we had identified the flowers in the field and Dr Merckx analysed the genetics of the samples we determined it is a unique plant whose closest relative actually lives more than 4000 km away in New Zealand.

“The connection suggests it has evolved in isolation for a very long time, and genetic research on the plant’s ‘molecular clock’ – a means of determining the time since separation from a common ancestor – suggests that these species actually separated from each other in the last 400,000 years.

“While these plants could be very old, we still have a lot to learn about them,” Mr Steenbeeke said.

Thismia megalongensis. Photo: Greg Steenbeeke

 Summer fish stocks set to rise

28th January 2015  - Recreational fishers will see fish stocks rise as the Department of Primary Industries (DPI) releases more than 4 million fingerlings and fry into lakes, dams and rivers across NSW by the end of summer.

While visiting the Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Minister for Primary Industries Katrina Hodgkinson said that over 100 popular fishing spots across NSW would benefit from the DPI’s fish stocking program.

“Throughout the 2014-15 fishing season, DPI plan to stock NSW public waters with around 60,000 Australian bass, 240,000 Murray cod, 650,000 golden perch, 225,000 silver perch, 150,000 Atlantic salmon, 560,000 brown trout, 100,000 brook trout, 24,000 trout cod and 1.9 million rainbow trout,” Ms Hodgkinson said.

“Here at the Narrandera Fisheries Centre, around 1.2 million Murray cod, golden perch, silver perch and trout cod will be produced for dams and rivers from Albury all the way to Inverell."

The DPI hatcheries in Gaden and Dutton produce all trout that stocks NSW waterways, while the Narrandera and Port Stephens hatcheries produce native fish for stocking primarily into dams and lakes.

DPI’s fish stocking program benefits local communities by improving recreational fishing, ensuring conservation of certain species, and providing employment and tourism to regional areas.


27 January 2015 - CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology today released climate change projections for Australia that provide updated national and regional information on how the climate may change to the end of the 21st century.

The projections are the most comprehensive ever released for Australia and have been prepared with an emphasis on informing impact assessment and planning in the natural resource management sector. Information has been drawn from simulations based on up to 40 global climate models.

CSIRO and Bureau researchers have confirmed that most of the changes observed over recent decades will continue into the future.

"There is very high confidence* that hot days will become more frequent and hotter", CSIRO principal research scientist, Kevin Hennessy said.

"We also have very high confidence that sea levels will rise, oceans will become more acidic, and snow depths will decline".

"We expect that extreme rainfall events across the nation are likely to become more intense, even where annual-average rainfall is projected to decline."

In southern mainland Australia, winter and spring rainfall is projected to decrease, but increases are projected for Tasmania in winter.

For the rest of Australia, naturally occurring fluctuations in rainfall patterns will dominate over trends due to climate change until 2030, after which the trends associated with climate change will begin to emerge.

By 2090, winter rainfall is expected to decrease in eastern Australia.

Southern and eastern Australia are projected to experience harsher fire weather, while tropical cyclones may occur less often, but become more intense.

"This research has been strongly aligned with the needs of Australia's natural resources sector", Mr Hennessy said. "Other researchers are using this information to assess potential impacts and management options."

Projected changes will be superimposed on significant natural climate variability.

Observed climate information indicates that Australian average surface air temperature has increased by 0.9° C since 1910, and many heat-related records have been broken in recent years. Sea level has risen about 20 cm over the past century.

The Bureau of Meteorology has observed that since the 1970s, northern Australia has become wetter, southern Australia has become drier, the number of extreme fire weather days has increased in many places, and heavy rainfall has accounted for an increasing proportion of annual-total rainfall.

Snow depths have declined since the 1950s and cyclone frequency seems to have declined since the 1980s.

The reports can be downloaded

The new climate change projections for Australia are funded by the Department of the Environment through the NRM Planning for Climate Change Fund with co-funding from CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology.

Further information

* Further information on how confidence is defined can be found in Chapter 6 of the Projections for Australia's NRM Regions Technical Report (page 88).

State of the Climate 2014 - long term trends in Australian climate.

 Satellite study identifies water bodies important for biodiversity conservation

28 January 2015 - Using satellite images to study changing patterns of surface water is a powerful tool for identifying conservationally important “stepping stone” water bodies that could help aquatic species survive in a drying climate, a UNSW-led study shows.

The approach has been applied to the Swan Coastal Plain near Perth in Western Australia, which has more than 1500 water bodies and is one of 25 designated biodiversity hotspots on the globe.

The study is published in the journal Environmental Research Letters

Scientists led by UNSW’s Dr Mirela Tulbure analysed 13 years of Landsat images of the region, taken from 1999 to 2011, to gain a picture of the changing interconnectivity of the many water bodies on the plain over time.

“Aquatic systems are some of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, because they are affected by climate change and human factors such as urban expansion and use of ground water,” says Dr Tulbure.

“These factors not only increase stress on the habitat of many water species, they reduce the opportunities for water-dependent organisms to disperse to neighbouring water bodies to breed and maintain resilient populations.”

The Swan Coastal Plain was chosen as a study site because it has lost more than 70 per cent of its surface water bodies since European settlement, and the remaining ones are strongly affected by rapid urban development and climate change.

“Our results showed a highly variable pattern of connectivity between water bodies that changed with the seasons. Overall, there was a decline in connectivity during the 13-year period, with potentially negative consequences for the species that have a limited capacity to move between water bodies,” says Dr Tulbure.

“But we also identified stepping stone water bodies that are vital for connecting distant habitats because of their position in the landscape. This approach is a cost-effective way to prioritise which water bodies require better management and conservation to assist creatures with different travel capabilities, such as turtles and water birds.”

The researchers recommend that the stepping stones on the Swan Coastal Plain, which are near the Peel-Harvey Estuary and in some national parks, be targeted for conservation.

The team is now applying their approach to the Murray-Darling Basin, and Dr Tulbure says it could be applied to other habitat networks as well.

 Join the conversation about Commonwealth Marine Reserves

Written submissions to the independent review of Commonwealth Marine Reserves open today.

The co-Chairs of the Bioregional Advisory Panels, Professor Colin Buxton and Mr Peter Cochrane invite interested parties to provide them with ideas and suggestions on how marine reserves should be managed into the future.

“We are really keen to hear from a broad range of stakeholders and are hoping those with an interest will complete a simple online survey or provide a more detailed submission,” Professor Colin Buxton said.

The Review is focused on making sure that its work builds on the feedback and efforts that individuals and organisations have already made.

“We’re seeking new and additional information that address our terms of reference.  The government has reproclaimed the outer boundaries of the Commonwealth Marine Reserve networks and the Coral Sea, so our focus is on their zonation and internal management.”

The Review has established five Bioregional Advisory Panels (representing the South-west, North-west, North, Temperate East and Coral Sea marine regions) to facilitate consultation with interested parties.                                                               

Details about making a submission can be found on the Join the Conversation page at The online survey is expected to be available soon.

The submission period will remain open until 28 February 2015.

“We’d encourage everyone to get in early as this will help focus our efforts over the coming months,” Mr Peter Cochrane said.

“We’re looking for suggestions on how we can engage most effectively with affected parties and interests, to best explore options for zonation and management that will effectively and efficiently address concerns raised.”

The terms of reference can be found on the review .

For background:

The terms of reference for the Review task the Bioregional Advisory Panels with providing government with:

•Advice on areas of contention with the Commonwealth marine reserves

•Advice on options for zoning boundaries to address those areas of contention

•Recommendations for improving the inclusion of social and economic considerations into decision-making for marine reserves, with particular regard to their management

•Suggestions for ongoing engagement of regional stakeholders

•Advice on information received through consultations that the Panels may feel influence, contribute to or improve the drafting of future management plans

 50th Anniversary of the Freedom Ride

27 January 2015 - A re-enactment of the Freedom Ride - the bus tour of University of Sydney students which shone a spotlight on the parlous state of the nation's race relations - will bring original Riders and current University students and staff together to mark the 50th anniversary of this historic event.

It will also bring two major Australian musicians to Dubbo, Walgett, Moree and Kempsey to perform free public concerts.

In February 1965 the Freedom Ride saw 29 University of Sydney students visit regional NSW towns in an attempt to bring to the nation's attention discrimination against Aboriginal people, to shine a light on poor Aboriginal health, housing and education, and to try to stimulate local action.

The original Freedom Ride was instigated entirely by students. Now, in 2015, the University of Sydney is supporting the original Freedom Riders, alongside current students and staff, to recreate the Freedom Ride.

"It was the first time Indigenous issues were on the front page for a continuous period and in a manner that drew the public's attention to issues of discrimination and deprivation," said Jim Spigelman, one of the original Riders who went on to become Chief Justice of the NSW Supreme Court and currently chairs the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Next month some of those original Riders will band together with current students and University staff to retrace parts of that journey. They will travel by bus to Dubbo, Walgett, Moree and Kempsey. Events in each town will pay tribute to the momentous events of 1965, and include a community barbecue and a free public concert featuring musical legends Troy Cassar-Daley and Paul Kelly.

"The Freedom Ride was born out of the passion for justice of University of Sydney students and became a critical part of the awakening of the nation's conscience on Aboriginal affairs that was the 1960 and 70's. It was one of the key events that helped put us on a path to a more tolerant and responsive society" said the University's Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Indigenous Strategy and Services)Professor Shane Houston.

"Our first Aboriginal graduate, Charlie Perkins, led the Freedom Rides. This anniversary is an opportunity to pay respect to the compassion and bravery of the students who took part and to remind a new generation of students and Australians."

The NSW Aboriginal Land Council as the peak representative network of Aboriginal people in NSW is partnering with the University and the Charlie Perkins Trust on these events.

NSW Aboriginal Land Council Chairman Craig Cromelin said the Freedom Rides were a pivotal moment in Australia's history.

"These events changed people's lives. We honour the determination and courage of not just the Freedom Riders but also those community members who showed great courage themselves to fight for their rights."

Like the original Freedom Rides, this year's re-enactment will be student led. Kyol Blakeney, the President of the University Student Representative Council, is the first Aboriginal man to hold that leadership role.

"The Freedom Rides were the first stepping stone on the way to breaking many social barriers between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians," said Blakeney.

"The Australian Freedom Rides were a catalyst towards the overwhelming 'yes' vote in the 1967 referendum, and the breaking down of institutionalised segregation."

"This event has more significance to me and many people in Australia because it paved the way for important change, change of attitude and change of social acceptance for Indigenous people of this land leading into the 1967 referendum allowing Indigenous people to be counted in their own country," said Troy Cassar-Daley.

Details of the programs in each town will be finalised in coming weeks, but the Freedom Ride commemoration's itinerary is:

18 February - Dubbo

19 February - Walgett

20 February - Moree

21 February - Kempsey

The University of Sydney will host a concert on 20 March - also featuring Troy Cassar-Daley and Paul Kelly - to mark the anniversary.

 Nocturnal leg cramps more common in summer

January 26, 2015 - Painful nocturnal leg cramps are about twice as common during summer than in winter, found a new study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). Because quinine is commonly prescribed to treat leg cramps, researchers looked at the number of new quinine prescriptions for adults over 50 years of age in British Columbia, Canada, from Dec. 1, 2001 to Oct. 31, 2007. There were 31 339 people, of whom 61% were female, who began taking quinine during the 6-year study period. The researchers then looked at the frequency of Google searches from the United States and Australia for leg cramps.

They found that prescriptions for quinine peaked in British Columbia in July as did Google searches for leg cramps. In Australia, where mid-summer is in January, Google Trends data indicated a similar peak for leg cramp searches. There was no observed seasonality for search terms for back pain, kidney stones, migraines, acne or panic attacks.

"Although there are anecdotal reports of pregnancy-associated rest cramps being worse in summer, these findings establish the phenomenon of seasonality in rest cramps in the general population," writes Dr. Scott Garrison, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, and the Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, with coauthors.

These findings could have implications for clinical practice.

"In countries where quinine is still in widespread use as prophylaxis for nocturnal leg cramps despite safety warnings (e.g., Canada and the United Kingdom), physicians may choose to counsel patients to take a 'quinine holiday' during the 6 colder months of the year," suggest the authors.

In a related commentary, Dr. David Hogan, University of Calgary, writes that quinine sulfate, although widely used in Canada to treat nocturnal leg cramps, is not recommended for routine treatment because of safety concerns. Clinicians should first prescribe a 4-week course of quinine to determine if it works and encourage patients to try stopping the drug periodically to minimize use.

"The merit of a 'quinine holiday' during the colder months, as suggested by Garrison and colleagues, becomes moot if patients are not prescribed the agent in the first place or are periodically advised to try stopping it," he writes.

1. Scott R. Garrison, Colin R. Dormuth, Richard L. Morrow, Greg A. Carney, Karim M. Khan. Seasonal effects on the occurrence of nocturnal leg cramps: a prospective cohort study. CMAJ, January 2015 DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.140497

 How attached to our smart phones are we?

Are we emotionally attached to our smart phones? That was the question scientists in the UK and Iceland hoped to answer in a forthcoming issue of the International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation. Gísli Thorsteinsson of the University of Iceland in Reykjavik and Tom Page of Loughborough University explain how the emergence of devices such as the Apple iPhone in January 2007 gave users a computer in their pocket. The gadget not only allowed them to make phone calls and send text messages as previous phones had, but also gave users immediate access to social media and social network systems, such as Facebook and Twitter, allowed them to access their email quickly and seamlessly, provided access to the web, video clips, music files and a whole eco system of phone-based software, apps, all via a slick touch screen interface. Today, there are myriad brands and smart phone models all competing for market share.

As such, understanding how users become reliant on their smart phone for particular tasks, how they invest time and money in these gadgets and perhaps even how their relationship with these all-in-one pocket computer-communicators is important to the manufacturers hoping to beat rivals to sell more of their brand. Today, it is considered the norm for people to repeatedly and distractedly to check their phones, not for missed calls, but for the countless notifications that social sites, apps and other software spit out at them via that touch screen.

In some circles, teenagers, journalists, business users and other professionals, it is even considered something of a social faux pas, a sign of being inept not to have a constant connection with the outside world via one's smart phone regardless of the circumstances one finds oneself at any given time.

There has been much discussion in the popular media of the pros and cons of the smart phone, irrespective of whether a person uses an iPhone, an HTC model, a Samsung, a Blackberry, a Windows phone or any other of the countless devices on the market, and whether we as a society are becoming over-reliant, dependent even, on these always-on devices. Thorsteinsson and Page wanted to know whether this attachment to one's smart phone has a serious emotional element.

Through a questionnaire given to 205 smart phone users in the age range 16 to 64 years from the UK, Hong Kong, China, Canada, Australia, Peru and the USA and through a case study the team has drawn a preliminary conclusion. They found that people do indeed grow emotionally attached to their smart phone, or at least, the connectivity and the technology that the device facilitates (Obviously, a lost or stolen phone can be replaced with the same model and a data backup restored to the replacement; the same cannot be said of a lost pet dog, for instance).

It is the ease with which smart phone can be used, the need to keep them close, the ability to pour out one's life into the apps and networks to which it connects and the customisation and personalisation options of a smart phone that bring emotional baggage to ownership, the team suggests.

"Smart phones are creating a huge ripple in the pond of human behaviour and it is important that, as smart phones develop, we continue to study the way they affect behaviour, emotions and emotional attachments," the team concludes.

1. Gísli Thorsteinsson, Tom Page. User attachment to smartphones and design guidelines. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 2014; 8 (3/4): 201 DOI: 10.1504/IJMLO.2014.067020

 Summer triggers for male eating disorders

28 January 2015 - Sun, sand and swimming may sound relaxing but for an increasing number of men summer is a stressful time as they grapple with concerns about body image.

These concerns may seem benign but they can lead to 'eating-disordered behaviour' and, in some cases, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorhphia.

Psychologist, Deborah Mitchison, from the University of Western Sydney School of Medicine says the social demands of summer holidays can be particularly difficult for the 41 percent of men who have experienced one of the eating disorders or behaviours at some time in the lives.

"Medical referrals for men with eating disorders increase over summer," says Ms Mitchison, who has studied the survey responses of over 3000 adults randomly selected for a health behaviours survey.

"Summer is a time when many men may become preoccupied with their physical appearance. This can lead to the use of extreme weight-control behaviours and, in some cases, binge eating. Such behaviours can, in turn, lead to avoidance of social situations and isolation."

Research conducted by Ms Mitchison and colleagues has shown in the decade 1998 to 2008 eating-disordered behaviour increased across all demographics but faster for males.

She says extreme weight loss behaviours such as very strict dieting, fasting, self-induced vomiting, and taking laxatives are increasing at a significantly faster rate in males.

Compared to the 1998 survey, the number of men in 2008 who said they practiced at least weekly extremely strict dieting or went on fasts in order to alter their weight had more than doubled.

The proportion of men who went on at least weekly eating binges, where they felt that they had lost control and could not stop eating, also increased markedly during this period.

Ms Mitchison says males may be less likely than females to recognise that their eating behaviour is pathological and also less likely to consider seeking professional help for such behaviour or other mental health problems.

"Males may be reluctant to acknowledge that they have an eating disorder because they think it's something only females experience," says Ms Mitchison.

"Men with an eating disorder may feel ashamed, stigmatised and somehow 'less manly'. They don't know how people, including their doctor, may react."

The community has come a long way in recognising and providing support for females with eating disorders. However, Ms Mitchison says there is a considerable lag in providing tailored support for men.

"GPs often do not recognise eating disorders in their male patients which may further delay the patient from receiving the treatment they need."

Ms Mitchison encourages GPs to consider eating disorders when males with body image concerns present at their clinics.

She says research indicates education and treatment programs for eating disorders need to be broadened to better reflect the diversity of people with the disorders, including not only males, but older women.

"There are effective treatment options available, including cognitive behaviour therapy. However, males may not be aware of that they have a problem that requires specialist treatment or may feel uncomfortable accessing this sort of treatment."

[Look At Me] Introducing the Interactive Camera App for Children with Autism 

Millions of children struggles to make eye contact due to autism. There has been no scientifically-endorsed treatment. Till now. Introducing the world's first interactive camera app Look At Me, a program to improve eye contact and social skills. Jong-Hyun trained with Look At Me every day for eight weeks. And it's not only helped him to make eye contact more easily, but also brought him closer to his mum.

 Bungarees Farm Exhibition

- Mosman Art Gallery

Aboriginal art as you've never seen it in a place that will blow your mind. 31 January to 8 February at the T5 camouflage Fuel Tank, Mosman.

 New Zealand Service Files are now online - NZDF Personnel Files

Archives New Zealand holds the New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) Personnel Files for all known New Zealanders who served in the First World War. This is a unique collection of records that exists across 15 different archival series. The digitisation of these records has been the largest project of this kind Archives New Zealand has undertaken and one of the largest in New Zealand history. Over 140,000 individual records have been digitised comprising around 4 million individual images. Due to the unique nature of the records, they were scanned by hand one image at a time. During the project Archives New Zealand undertook research and development of the JPEG2000 image format and its compression technology, which has allowed for an average reduction of 80% in the data size of the more commonly and previously used TIFF images.

Perhaps most significantly, the majority of these files have never been available to the public until this digitisation project was undertaken. The records contain information of interest to personal and professional researchers alike and they are now available online for all to see.


 Ancient star system reveals earth-sized planets forming near start of Universe

27 January 2015 A Sun-like star with orbiting planets, dating back to the dawn of the Galaxy, has been discovered by an international team of astronomers.

At 11.2 billion years old it is the oldest star with earth-sized planets ever found and proves that such planets have formed throughout the history of the Universe.

The discovery, announced today in The Astrophysical Journal, used observations made by NASA's Kepler satellite. The scientific collaboration was led by the University of Birmingham and contributed to by the University of Sydney.

The star, named Kepler-444, hosts five planets smaller than Earth, with sizes varying between those of Mercury and Venus.

"We've never seen anything like this - it is such an old star and the large number of small planets make it very special," said Dr Daniel Huber from the University's School of Physics and an author on the paper.

"It is extraordinary that such an ancient system of terrestrial-sized planets formed when the universe was just starting out, at a fifth its current age. Kepler-444 is two and a half times older than our solar system, which is only a youthful 4.5 billion years old.

"This tells us that planets this size have formed for most of the history of the universe and we are much better placed to understand exactly when this began happening."

Dr Tiago Campante, the research leader from the University of Birmingham said, "We now know that Earth-sized planets have formed throughout most of the Universe's 13.8-billion-year history, which could provide scope for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy."

Together with their international colleagues the University's astronomy team used asteroseismology to determine the age of the star and planets. This technique measures oscillations - the natural resonances of the host star caused by sound waves trapped within it.

They lead to miniscule changes or pulses in the star's brightness and allow researchers to measure its diameter, mass, and age. The presence and size of the planets is detected by the dimming that occurs when the planets pass across the face of the star. This fading in the intensity of the light received from the star enables scientists to accurately measure the sizes of the planets relative to the size of the star.

"When asteroseismology emerged about two decades ago we could only use it on the Sun and a few bright stars, but thanks to Kepler we can now apply the technique to literally thousands of stars. Asteroseismology allows us to precisely measure the radius of Kepler-444 and hence the sizes of its planets. For the smallest planet in the Kepler-444 system, which is slightly larger than Mercury, we measured its size with an uncertainty of only 100km," Dr Huber said.

"It was clear early on that we had discovered something very unusual because we had five planets orbiting a very bright star - one of the brightest Kepler has observed. It is fantastic that we can use asteroseismology to date the star and determine just how old it is.

"In the case of Kepler-444 the planets orbit their parent star in less than 10 days, at less than one-tenth the Earth's distance from the Sun. Their closeness to their host star means they are uninhabitable because of the lack of liquid water and high levels of radiation. Nevertheless, discoveries like Kepler-444 provide important clues on whether a planet that is more truly comparable to Earth may exist. "We're another step closer towards finding the astronomers' holy grail - an Earth-sized planet with a one year orbit around a star similar to our Sun."

 Back to school anxiety for families with children affected by food allergy

For families who have children with food allergy, the transition to school after the summer holidays can be an extremely emotional experience. On the eve of the new school year, a University of Western Sydney pilot study into Starting School with Food has provided valuable insights into ways to address parental anxiety and improve the safety of children at school.

In the study, undertaken collaboratively with Allergy & Anaphylaxis Australia Campbelltown Hospital and Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, Dr Prathyusha Sanagavarapu from the UWS School of Education interviewed parents and young children affected by food allergy.

"Parents naturally tend to take responsibility for their young child's safety by watching what foods they eat, but when it's time to start school they simply can't be there all the time," says Dr Sanagavarapu.

"That's why it's imperative the schools, educators and even the children themselves assume some responsibility for safety at school in the absence of parental supervision."

Dr Sanagavarapu says while adolescents are generally capable of understanding the implications of food allergy, the study showed problems can arise when children accept their friends' assurances that certain foods are safe.

"Even though most children would never intentionally offer dangerous foods, children with food allergy have to be so careful every time they put food in their mouth," she says.

Dr Sanagavarapu says the recent pilot study showed children with food allergy readily accept the assurances of their young peers that shared food is safe to eat.

"It's crucial parents and teachers reinforce the simple message to not accept any food from their friends, and always stick to their own carefully prepared meals from home," she says.

Beyond the government-mandated strategies designed to keep children safe and provide emergency assistance when needed, Dr Sanagavarpu has some extra tips to ensure the school experience is as safe and as anxiety-free as possible:

• Children must know their food allergy and its symptoms, and always refuse food from others. If they start to feel unwell, children must have a rehearsed plan to quickly seek help from an adult or classmate

• Parents should proactively raise awareness of their child's food allergy with staff

• School staff should educate students and other parents, and share information on their food safety strategies

• Parents to leave medication including Epipen® or Anapen® with ASCIA Action for Anaphylaxis (completed by their doctor) with the child at school.

• Educators should seek to incorporate messages to not share or accept food, and raise awareness of allergy by reading stories and preparing other interactive activities, and encourage handwashing both before and after meals

• Educators to be trained in food allergy and discuss strategies on how to keep children safe with parents, especially during meal times, out of class activities and special events 

"Parents can only feel confident to leave their children at school if they know their children understand their allergy, and that teachers are knowledgeable about food allergy and are able to handle any emergencies," she says.

"If parents have this confidence, the transition to school will be a safer, pleasant and even more enjoyable experience for everyone."

 Concern over skin whitener marketing

A study led by a James Cook University marketing expert has raised concerns over the ethics of the marketing of skin-whitening products, widely available in Australia. Professor Lynne Eagle said demand for the product was growing, with more than 60 percent of Indian women reportedly using one of the more than 240 brands of skin lightener available in that country.

Professor Eagle said the product was also easy to find in Australia. "I brought it from two different shops in Townsville within ten minutes' drive of my office," she said.

She said social scientists and marketers had long-known that every culture seemed to value paler skin over darker, but the reasons why were not clear-cut.

"It's not just a hang-over from colonialism. In India and China lighter skin was always associated with a higher caste. Even in Europe, until Coco Chanel successfully promoted suntans, having a darker skin was associated with being a manual worker and low status."

But she said ads unequivocally linking social and professional success with lighter skin tone presented a moral problem. "In one example, the daughter is told by her father that she is too dark-skinned to ever get a good job and be able to support him. So she buys some skin-lightener and gets a dream job."

She said that while manufacturers did not create the prejudices that underpin the demand for the product, critics claim the product's marketing helps to sustain the prejudices. "That's the main issue, the ethics of perpetuating stereotypes of white skin as beautiful."

Professor Eagle said even health concerns didn't stop people using the products. She said some contained substances such as mercury that were so harmful their sale was banned in the country where they were manufactured. But they were able to be exported to developing countries, and then simply smuggled from their homelands by immigrant populations.

The above story is based on materials provided by James Cook University.

 The world's oldest known snake fossils: Rolling back the clock by nearly 70 million years

January 27, 2015 - Fossilized remains of four ancient snakes between 140 and 167 million years old are changing the way we think about the origin of snakes, and how and when it happened.

The discovery by an international team of researchers, including University of Alberta professor Michael Caldwell, rolls back the clock on snake evolution by nearly 70 million years.

"The study explores the idea that evolution within the group called 'snakes' is much more complex than previously thought," says Caldwell, professor in the Faculty of Science and lead author of the study published today in Nature Communications."Importantly, there is now a significant knowledge gap to be bridged by future research, as no fossils snakes are known from between 140 to 100 million years ago."

New knowledge from ancient serpents

The oldest known snake, from an area near Kirtlington in Southern England, Eophis underwoodi, is known only from very fragmentary remains and was a small individual, though it is hard to say how old it was at the time it died. The largest snake,Portugalophis lignites, from coal deposits near Guimarota in Portugal, was a much bigger individual at about a metre long. Several of these ancient snakes (Eophis, Portugalophis and Parviraptor) were living in swampy coastal areas on large island chains in western parts of ancient Europe. The North American species, Diablophis gilmorei, was found in river deposits from some distance inland in western Colorado.

This new study makes it clear that the sudden appearance of snakes some 100 million years ago reflects a gap in the fossil record, not an explosive radiation of early snakes. From 167 to 100 million years ago, snakes were radiating and evolving toward the elongated, limb-reduced body shape characterizing the now well known, ~100-90 million year old, marine snakes from the West Bank, Lebanon and Argentina, that still possess small but well-developed rear limbs.

Caldwell notes that the identification of definitive snake skull features reveals that the fossils -- previously associated with other non-snake lizard remains -- represent a much earlier time frame for the first appearance of snakes.

"Based on the new evidence and through comparison to living legless lizards that are not snakes, the paper explores the novel idea that the evolution of the characteristic snake skull and its parts appeared long before snakes lost their legs," he explains.

He adds that the distribution of these newly identified oldest snakes, and the anatomy of the skull and skeletal elements, makes it clear that even older snake fossils are waiting to be found.

1. Michael W. Caldwell, Randall L. Nydam, Alessandro Palci, Sebastián Apesteguía.The oldest known snakes from the Middle Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous provide insights on snake evolution. Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 5996 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6996 

Artist's conception of three of the four newly identified ancient snakes: (top left) Portugalophis lignites (Upper Jurassic) in a gingko tree, from coal swamp deposits at Guimarota, Portugal; (top right) Diablophis gilmorei (Upper Jurassic), hiding in a ceratosaur skull, from the Morrison Formation in Fruita, Colorado; (bottom) Parviraptor estesi (Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) swimming in freshwater lake with snails and algae, from the Purbeck Limestone in Swanage, England. Credit: Julius Csotonyi

 Get Healthy Service - Free from NSW Health

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 2015 Prime Minister’s Literary Awards open

Australian authors, poets and historians are invited to enter the 2015 Prime Minister’s Literary Awards.

The Prime Minister’s Literary Awards celebrate the contribution of Australian literature to our cultural and intellectual life.

These awards recognise the role Australian writers play in enlightening and entertaining us, reflecting on our history, and taking our stories to the world.

They acknowledge excellence in Australian fiction, poetry, non-fiction, young adult fiction and children’s fiction, and in Australian history.

A total prize pool of $600,000 is available to winners and shortlisted authors in these six categories.

The 2015 awards are now open for books first published in English and made available for general sale in Australia between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2014.

Entries close at 5.00pm (AEDT) on Saturday 28 February 2015.

Entry forms and eligibility guidelines are available on the Ministry for the Arts website.

 An early human embryo on the tip of a needle

 New Newspapers added to Trove

The National Library of Australia is pleased to announce that the newspapers listed below, have been recently added to Trove and further issues will become available shortly. Through Trove, there is now free online access to over 15 million pages from over 700 Australian newspapers. To find out the latest titles which have been added to Trove, subscribe to one of our Webfeeds at the link below.

For those libraries and organisations wishing to digitise a newspaper title, please see the Contributor Guidelines link below. If you would like any additional information please email: or visit: NLA -

Australian Newspaper Plan -

Trove Newspapers -

Newly added newspapers on Trove:


- Daily Commercial News and Shipping List (Sydney, NSW 1891-1954) - Sydney Mail (NSW 1912-1938)- Le Courrier Australien (Sydney 1892-1954)- The Ulladulla and Milton Times (NSW 1891-1917)- Sydney Mail and NSW Advertiser (NSW 1871-1912)- Man on the Land (Gosford, NSW 1936-1938)- The Gosford Times and Wyong District Advocate (NSW 1906-1954)- The Shipping Gazette and Sydney General Trade List (NSW 1844 - 1860)- Sydney Mail (NSW 1860-1871)- Sydney General Trade List, Mercantile Chronicle and Advertiser (NSW 1830)- St George Call (Kogarah, NSW 1914-1924)- Temora Star (NSW 1881-1883)- The Hillston News (NSW 1882-1883)- Sydney Sportsman (Surry Hills, NSW 1900-1954) - Guang yi hua bao - The Chinese Australian Herald (Sydney, NSW 1894-1923)


- Dayboro Times and Moreton Mail (Qld 1937-1940; 1945-1954) - Humpybong Weekly and Advertiser (Redcliffe, Qld 1927-1932)- Logan and Albert Advocate (Qld 1893-1900)- Logan Witness (Beenleigh, Qld 1878-1893)- Logan and Albert Bulletin (Southport, Qld 1896-1901; 1909; 1921; 1922; 1928)


- Adelaide Observer (SA 1843-1904)- The Victor Harbor Times and Encounter Bay and Lower Murray Pilot (SA 1912-1930) - Times Victor Harbour and Encounter Bay and Lower Murray Pilot (SA 1930-1932)- Victor Harbour Times (SA 1932-1954)- Observer (Adelaide, SA 1905-1931)- Leader (Angaston, SA 1918-1954)- Quiz (Adelaide, SA 1889-1890)- Quiz (Adelaide, SA 1900-1909)- Quiz and the Lantern (Adelaide, SA 1890-1900)- Southern Cross (Adelaide, SA 1889-1954)


- Guardian, or, True Friend of Tasmania (Hobart, Tas. 1847)  Circular Head Chronicle (Stanley, Tas. 1906-1954)- Tasmanian Morning Herald (Hobart, Tas. 1865-1866)- Tasmanian Morning Herald (Hobart, Tas. 1865-1866)- Critic (Hobart, Tas. 1907-1924)- Tasmanian News (Hobart, Tas. 1883-1911)- Daily Post (Hobart, Tas. 1908-1918)- Hobarton Guardian, or, True Friend of Tasmania (Hobart, Tas. 1847-1854)- Van Diemen's Land Chronicle (Hobart, Tas. 1841)


- Ouyen and North West Express (VIC 1918) - Birregurra Times (VIC 1918)- Seaside News (Melbourne, VIC 1915-1918)- Sporting Judge (Melbourne, VIC 1914-1918)- Norden (Melbourne, VIC 1914-1918)- Port Fairy Times and McArthur News (VIC 1917-1918) - Chronicle, South Yarra Gazette, Toorak Times and Malvern Standard (VIC 1892-1893)- Brighton Southern Cross (VIC 1896-1918)- Gippsland Chronicle and Crooked River and Stringer's Creek - Advertiser (VIC 1866)- The Chinese Advertiser (Ballarat, VIC 1856)- The English and Chinese Advertiser (VIC 1856-1858)


- Gnowangerup Star and Tambellup-Ongerup Gazette (WA 1915-1942)- Southern Times (Bunbury, WA 1888-1916)- The Norseman Pioneer (WA 1896-1897)- Camp Chronicle (Midland Junction, WA 1915-1918)- Norseman Esperance Guardian and Dundas Goldfields Advertiser (WA 1896)